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Lect. univ. d. ANA TRANTESCU
Specializarea: Romana- engleza ID
Anul II Semestrul II
Titularul disciplinei: %ect& d.An'(M'i' T'nte)cu
Cursul i propune:
- S ofere studenilor cadrul teoretic necesar pentru o corect analiz a structurilor
sintactice specifice frazelor prin coordonare i suordonare!
- S dez"olte capacitatea studenilor de a folosi diferite structuri sintactice n
funcie de necesitile comunicrii!
- S mine #udicious cunotinele teoretice cu cele practice$ cadrul t%eoretic fiind
completat de e&emple pertinente i de un numr adec"at de e&erciii!
'! Classification of sentences
(! )ominal Clauses
*! Relati"e-Attriuti"e Clauses
+! Ad"erial Clauses
,! Direct and Indirect Speec%
'! -descu$ A!$ Gramatica limbii engleze, .d! Stiintifica$ -ucureti$ '/0*!
(! -anta$ A!$ Elements of Descriptive English Syntax$ T1-$ -ucureti$ '/22!
*! -udai$ 3!$ Gramatica engleza, Teorie si exercitii$ .ditura Teora$ -ucureti$ '//2!
+! 4leanu$ 4!$ Comiel$ .!$ Gramatica limbii engleze$ .d! Didactic i pedagogic$
-ucureti$ '/5(!
,! 3e"ic%i$ 3!$ 6reda$ A!$ Gramatica limbii engleze$ .d$ 7tiintific$ -ucureti$ '/02!
0! 8urar I$ 6isosc%i C!$ Trantescu A!8!$ Essentials of English Syntax. The Simple
Sentence. .ditura 1ni"ersitaria$ Craio"a$ (995!
2! 8urar I!$ Ana-8aria Trantescu$ 6isosc%i C!$ Descriptive English Syntax. Theory and
Practice! .ditura 1ni"ersitaria$ Craio"a$ (995!
5! 7eran D!$ English Syntax$ "olume one$ -ucureti$ '/5(!
/! 7tefnescu$ I!$ Lectres in English !orphology, T1-$ -ucureti$ '/25!
'9! :uir; R!$ 4reenaum S!$ 3eec% 4!$ S<art"ic; =!$ " Grammar of #ontemporary
English$ 3ondon$ 3ongman$ '/2(!
''! T%omas A!$ 8artinet A! " Practical English Grammar$ >&ford 1ni"ersit? 6ress$
3ondon$ '/0/!
'! Classification of sentences
(! )ominal Clauses
*! Relati"e-Attriuti"e Clauses
+! Ad"erial Clauses
,! Direct and Indirect Speec%
Introduction to Descripti"e .nglis% S?nta&
T%e purpose of a descripti"e s?nta& of t%e .nglis% language is to identif? and
present t%e main patterns and structures of e&pression in contemporar? .nglis%!
S?nta& is t%at ranc% of linguistics <%ic% descries t%e p%enomena of t%e
contemporar? language in point of relations et<een <ords and t%eir correct arrangement
in units of e&pression apt to reflect logical units and patterns!
T%erefore$ <%ile morp%olog? studies <ords and t%eir c%anges in "arious
situations and conte&ts$ s?nta& descries t%e situations and conte&ts t%emsel"es$ t%e
relations et<een <ords$ deri"ing t%e principles$ t%e rules and t%e patterns go"erning t%e
arrangement of morp%ological elements as part of independent or connected sense-units!
As t%ese units are meant not onl? for <riting ut also @or rat%er mainl?A for oral
e&pression$ it is ut natural for s?nta& to go %and in %and <it% some aspects of
suprasegmental p%onetics suc% as sentence stress r%?t%m$ emp%asis and intonation!
As a matter of fact$ gi"en t%e progress of t%e sciences connected <it%
communication and of t%e interdisciplinar? su#ects$ t%e term s?nta& %as come to e used
B toget%er <it% t%e term grammar B in order to indicate t%e rules for t%e specific
arrangement of elements in "arious arts: poetr?$ prose$ st?listics!
T%us$ s?nta& can e seen as a set of principles$ rules and indications go"erning t%e est
arrangement of elements in t%e structure of communication!
Among t%e "arious disciplines and ranc%es of linguistics$ s?nta& aims at offering
t%e most adeCuate structures for t%e communication of peopleDs t%oug%ts! T%at is <%?$
man? of t%e notions and terms emplo?ed in s?nta& @as part of t%e grammar of a language
or of all languagesA are so closel? connected <it% logic and p%ilosop%?E some of t%em are
not onl? t%e counterparts of notions and terms in t%ose sciences ut e"en identical <it%
Since linguistics and ps?c%olinguistics %a"e pro"ed t%at %uman t%oug%ts are not
articulate B t%at is$ t%e? do not ta;e a definite form B until t%e? are emodied in <ords
@e"en efore t%e? are uttered aloud or set do<n on paperA$ t%e concatenation et<een
t%in;ing and its materialized forms no longer reCuires demonstration! Fence t%e
interpenetration et<een logic @as t%e set of rules go"erning correct t%in;ing and
reasoningA and grammar @or rat%er s?nta&$ <%ic% recommends t%e est models for t%e
arrangements of <ords B <e ma? sa? ordinance B in suc% a <a? as to facilitate t%e est
e&pression of t%oug%tsA!
Since t%e asic s?ntactical units are called sentences$ t%e s?ntactical suunits are
necessaril? called parts of the simple sentence $or clases in t%e case of compound or
comple& sentencesA!
)aturall?$ classification attac%es muc% importance to criteria of form$ ut content
preser"es its importance in s?nta& too$ as it is t%e essence of t%e communication <%ic%
matters and t%at is <%at s?ntactical relations indicate @also <it% assistance from p%onetics
and punctuationA!
4rammarians <%o anal?se t%e deep structure of t%e communication %a"e pro"ed
t%at it ma? e e&pressed aloud or in <riting in different and sometimes dissimilar surface
structures! T%at is <%? t%e same trend of t%e communication ma? appear in t%e form of a
declarati"e$ of an apparentl? e&clamation$ t%e most o"ious e&ample eing t%at of
reCuests or in"itations <%ic% are most politel? formulated as Cuestions!
UNITATEA *. C%'))i+ic'ti&n &+ Sentence)
Criteria of Classification
Compound Sentences
Comple& Sentences
>iecti"e! Studenii "or fi capaili s :
'! S enumere criteriile de clasificare a propoziiilor!
(! S identifice tipurile de coordonare!
*! S recunoasc elementele ce introduc o propoziie suordonat!
+! S identifice criteriile de clasificare ale propoziiilor suordonate!
Timp de studiu : ( ore!
%.%. #riteria of #lassification
Since speec% and <riting are t%e e&pression of articulate t%in;ing$ utterances and
<ritten sentences <ill e t%e materialized forms of t%oug%ts!
Articulate t%oug%ts @in t%e field of logicA find t%eir e&pression in sentences or
propositions @terms <%ic% %a"e t%eir origin in t%e same field of logicA and ta;e t%e oral
form of utterances @in suprasegmental p%oneticsA! 3anguage and its component elements
@p%onemes$ morp%emes$ <ords$ p%rases$ grammatical rules$ structures$ patterns$ etc!A are
t%e materials and means emplo?ed ? %uman eings in order to emod? t%eir t%oug%ts!
T%e oral and <ritten e&pressions of %uman t%oug%ts are part and parcel of
communication and ma? e&press different trends or purposes of communication$ and on
t%e ot%er %and ma? assume a "ariet? of forms! T%at is <%? t%e traditional manner of
classif?ing notions B in point of content and in point of form B assumes t%e follo<ing
aspects <%en <e differentiate t%e linguistic e&pressions of t%oug%ts:
Classification in point of trend or prpose of commnication @t%erefore a matter
of contentAE
Classification in point of strctre $of commnication& or of composition
@t%erefore a matter of formAE
Classification in point of stats or grammatical dependence!
T%e first classification proceeds from t%e trend or essence or content of
commnication ecause it is more general t%an t%e ot%er classifications! T%e
discrimination of sentences according to t%e purposeG intentionG attitude of t%e spea;er or
<riter is essential and can appl? to all t%e sudi"isions separated under t%e incidence of
t%e ot%er classifications! 3ong$ e&tended$ elliptical etc! sentences or clauses are all
declarati"e or e&clamator?$ etc! Hrom t%e point of "ie< of trend or prpose of
commnication B <%ic% means semantic as <ell as logical and ps?c%ological content B
sentences are normall? di"ided into: Declarati"e$ Interrogati"e$ Imperati"e and
So$ it is a matter of t%e fundamental attitude <%ic% t%e spea;erG<riter adopts
to<ards %isG%er communication! R! :uir; et al @'/2(: *52A$ as <ell as ot%er linguists$
consider t%at an? communication B e"en statements @Declarati"e SentencesA does reflect
or re"eal an attitude or modalit?!
T%e second classification$ t%e formal one$ refers to t%e <a? t%oug%ts are
e&pressed$ <%et%er destined for utterance or for <riting! T%e classification in point of
strctre'composition'form distinguis%es t%ree main t?pes of sentences:
The Simple Sentence <%ic% e&presses #ust one t%oug%t at a time$ ? means of one
predicate et<een t<o punctuation mar;s t%at are destined for separating t%oug%ts B or
et<een t<o conclusi"e pauses in t%e speec% c%ain$ indicating t%e eginning of a ne<
utterance and its end!
The #ompond Sentence @t%e <ord IcompoundJ is emplo?ed in t%e sense of
%omogeneit?G similarit?G coordinationG eCualit?A t%at is a t%oug%t <%ic% includes more
units t%an one$ placed on an eCual footing! In s?ntactical terms$ t%e .nglis% compound
sentence corresponds to t%e notion of fraz( $comps(& prin coordonare t%at is a sentence
made up of t<o or more clauses @K propozi)ii coordonateA$ <%ic% disc%arge t%e same
function and are connected et<een t%em <it% or <it%out t%e %elp of coordinating
The #omplex Sentence in"ol"es t%e notion of Lcomple&L in t%e sense of
di"ersit?Gnon-%omogeneousnessGineCualit?G suordination of t%e "arious component
elements! In purel? s?ntactical terms$ it corresponds to t%e Romanian fraz( $comps(&
prin sbordonare t%at is a unit of t%in;ing made up of one ore more mainGprincipal
clauses @K propozi)ii principaleA and one or more suordinate clauses @K propozi)ii
Sentences can also e classified in accordance <it% t%eir stats @of dependence or
independenceA or in point of grammatical dependence$ t%at is in terms of t%eir position as
regards ot%er s?ntactical units! T%is classification is rat%er intricate$ ecause it rings into
pla? all t%ree t?pes of sentences classified in point of structure$ or rat%er simple sentences
as suc% @or independent clauses$ as part of a compound sentenceA and t%e non-
%omogeneous components of a comple& sentence: t%e suordinator@sA and t%e
It is in fact a matter of go"ernment$ of eCualit? or of #u&taposition and t%e
difficulties increase <%en it comes to eCuating t%e "arious classes in ot%er languages @cf!
in t%is respect t%e points on terminolog? in t%e tale elo<A!
In point of status or degree of grammatical dependence$ sentences are classified
*ndependent Sentences @isolatedAE
*ndependent #lases @as part of a compound sentenceAE
!ain'principal'head #lases @in comple& sentencesAE
Governing #lases @as part of a comple& sentence$ in case t%ere are t<o or
more le"els of suordinationAE
Sbordinate'Secondary #lases @as part of Comple& sentencesA!
*ndependent Sentences are in fact simple sentences$ t%eir name differing onl?
according to t%e angle from <%ic% t%e? are "ie<ed!
*t is ten o+cloc,.
* have to go to the airport.
If lin;ed ? con#unctions$ independent sentences ecome @more or lessA
independent clauses @in case of coordination$ as part of a compound sentence B e!g!: *t is
ten o+cloc, and * have to go to the airportA$ <%ile in t%e case <%ere t%e? are placed in a
%ierarc%?$ t%e? turn into main clauses$ suordinate clauses proper or go"erning clauses B
e!g!: *t is ten o+cloc, and so * have to go to the airport, nless * -ant to be late again.
*ndependent #lases are t%e complete elements or units <%ic% are roug%t
toget%er in a closer connection as part of t%e speec% c%ain$ <it%out$ %o<e"er$ eing
dependent upon eac% ot%er or upon an?t%ing else in point of meaning or of grammatical
statusE t%eir independence can at an? time e pro"ed$ t%roug% replacing commas or
coordinating con#unctions ? full stops$ <it%out t%eir full sense eing altered!
!ain #lases$ also called Principal or .ead #lases$ are elements t%at ran; first
in t%e %ierarc%? estalis%ed as part of a comple& sentence$ t%at is t%e? %a"e in t%eir
suordination ot% secondar?Gsuordinate clauses and go"erning clauses$ in case t%e
latter are present! M%ile suordinate clauses displa? great "ariet?$ main clauses are
limited in t%eir "ariailit?$ eing usuall? statements$ alt%oug% Cuestions$ imperati"es or$
less freCuentl? e&clamations occasionall? do appear as main clauses!
Governing #lases %a"e t%e intermediate position$ i!e! t%e? %a"e t%e
ami"alentG%?rid nature of go"erned and go"erning at t%e same time$ <%en t%e
stratification <it%in t%e comple& sentence is more di"ersified! T%e? e%a"e as
suordinates to t%e main clause@sA <%ile go"erning t%e suordinate clause@sA proper$ e!g!
.e said that he would return the book -hen he finished it.
Sbordinate or Secondary #lases are an indispensale element of comple&
sentences: t%e "er? notions of Lcomple& sentenceL @K %eterogeneous$ uneCualA and of
main clauses are impossile <it%out t%e e&istence of suordinate elements!
T%eir go"ernment ? main or go"erning clauses is t%e principal area <%ere t%e
rules of seCuence of tenses manifest t%emsel"es!
T%e comparison <it% Romanian$ ine"ital? reCuires a perfect understanding of t%e
eCui"alence of terms presented in t%e follo<ing tale! T%is summarizes in fact all t%e
R&,'ni'n En-%i).
propozi)ie independentGsimpl independentGsimple sentence
propozi)ie independent coordonat
@n cadrul unei fraze compuse prin
coordinated independent clase
@as part of a compound
propozi)ie principal
@n cadrul unei fraze compuse prin
mainGprincipalG%ead clase
@as part of a comple& sentenceA
propozi)ie secundarGsuordonat @idemA suordinateGsecondar? clase
Andrei -anta$ Descriptive English Syntax$ p! 5/!
propozi)ie regent @idemA go"erning clase @idemA
fraz( @compusA prin coordonare compound sentence
fraz( @compusA prin suordonare comple& sentence
loc)ine gramatical grammatical phrase
Expresie Idiom$ idiomatic phrase
%./. #ompond Sentences
=ust as a p%rase ma? e simple or comple&$ depending on <%et%er it is composed
of one <ord or more t%an one$ a sentence ma? e simple @i!e! consists of a simple clauseA
or comple&$ t%e comple& sentence consisting of more t%an one clause! T%e relations%ips
et<een t%e clauses of a sentence are of t<o ;inds: aA coordination$ A suordination!
Coordination @or con#oiningA is t%e process of forming compound sentences ?
#oining or uniting t<o or more sentences of eCual ran;! In most cases$ coordination is
ac%ie"ed ? means of coordinating con#unctions$ or coordinators @sometimes called
s?ndetic coordinationA$ ut in some cases t%e con#unctions ma? e asent altoget%er
@as?ndetic coordinationA!
Hrom t%e point of "ie< of t%e logical relations et<een t<o clauses forming a
compound sentence$ coordination can e sudi"ided into: copulati"e$ dis#uncti"e$
ad"ersati"e$ consecuti"e$ causati"e!
Copulative coordination is ac%ie"ed ? means of t%e follo<ing con#unctions:
and$ as -ell as$ nor$ neither$ not also, both...and$ neither...nor! M%en t<o or
more clauses are coordinated$ repeated elements$ <%ic% are t%erefore redundant$ are
ellipted @deletedA from all ut one of t%e clauses:
- if t<o ore more coordinated sentences %a"e identical su#ects$ t%e su#ect of t%e
second @t%ird$ etc!A sentence is usuall? deleted$ e!g!
.e% -ent into the shop $he%& boght a tie and $he%& paid for it at the cash des,!
- if t%e predicates in t%e coordinated sentence contain t%e same au&iliar?$ it is
deleted @ellipsis is usuall? anap%oric$ <it% realized items in t%e first of a series of
e!g! They -ere married in %012, $they -ere& divorced in %032, and $they -ere&
reconciled in %03/.
*+ve been -aiting and $*+ve been& -ondering -here yo are!
- an identical %ead "er of a N6 can e deleted
e!g! 4ohn has -ritten a poem and 5ob $has -ritten& a novel!
- t%e compound sentence ma? e reduced to onl? one sentence <it% a compound
e!g! 4ohn -ill come later and !ary -ill come later 6 4ohn and !ary -ill come
T%e con#unction and coordinates sentences as <ell as t%eir constituent parts! As
<ell as lin;ing t<o main clauses$ and can lin; suordinate clauses!
e!g! .e as,ed to be transferred becase he -as nhappy and
$becase& conditions -ere far better at the other office.
T%e con#unction and denotes merel? a relation et<een t%e clauses$ t%e second
clause eing a pure addition to t%e first!
e!g! 4ohn -as tired and hngry!
Fo<e"er$ t%e con#unction %as certain ot%er semantic implications:
- ad"ersati"e @and K btA$
e!g! * cold have helped him and * didn+t.
.e promised to come and he didn+t!
- t%e second clause is a conseCuence or result of t%e first! T%is entails t%at t%e order
of t%e clauses also reflects c%ronological seCuence @and K t%ereforeA$
e!g! .e heard an explosion and phoned the police.
She -as tal,ing too mch and -e left!
- t%e second clause is c%ronologicall? seCuent to t%e first ut <it%out an?
implication of a cause-result relations%ip @and K t%enA
e!g! She -ashed the dishes and $she& dried them.
* -rote the letter and he posted it.
- t%e first clause is a condition of t%e second @and K ifA
e!g! Give me some money and *+ll help yo escape.
7or, hard and yo+ll -in the contest! @K If ?ou <or; %ard$
?ouDll <in!A
T%e ot%er coordinating con#unctions gi"e "ariet? or t%e rig%t emp%asis to
copulati"e coordination:
5oth...and is used for t%e coordination of t<o sentences %a"ing t%e same su#ect
or for t%e coordination of t<o su#ects %a"ing t%e same predicate$
e!g! .e both spea,s and -rites three foreign langages.
5oth Peter and "nn have -on prizes.
8ot $also&: t%e correlati"e not only can e found eit%er in non-initial or
in initial position! M%en not only is placed in initial position t%e su#ect-au&iliar?
in"ersion is oligator?!
e!g! They not only bro,e into his office and stole his boo,s bt
$also& tore p his manscripts. 6 8ot only did they brea,
into his office and steal his boo,s bt also tore p his manscripts.
8ot only did he deny his responsibility, bt he also had
the chee, to lay the blame on s.
8either...nor raises a "er? interesting prolem since it formall? resemles t%e
dis#uncti"e either...or$ <%ile semanticall? it negates t%e con#unction$ meaning both $not9
x&...and $not9y&
e!g! She didn+t eat and she didn+t drin, 6 She neither ate nor
dran, anything!
T%e correlati"e con#unction neither...nor e%a"es in colloCuial speec% li;e and as
regards concord! T%us$ 8either he nor his -ife have arrived is more natural in colloCuial
speec% t%an 8either he nor his -ife has arrived$ t%e form recommended ? traditional
grammars! As R! :uir; and %is colleagues point out$ t%is preference reflects notional
concord in t%at logical Dneit%er & nor ?D can e interpreted as a union of negati"es: Dot%
@not-&A and @not-?AD @R! :uir; et al$ '/2(: *5+A!
T%e correlati"e nor is usuall? follo<ed ? su#ect-au&iliar? in"ersion <%en ot%
su#ect and au&iliar? are present!
e!g! !ary -as neither happy nor -as she sad.
8either Peter -anted the responsibility nor did his -ife. @t%oug% if t%e
predicates in t%e t<o clauses are identical$ t%e more usual form <ould e 8either Peter
nor his -ife -anted the responsibilityA!
8or and neither can e used <it%out eing a correlati"e pair! T%e? are used <%en
t%e first sentence is negati"e and reCuire su#ect-au&iliar? in"ersion!
e!g! .e did not come to the symposim, neither'nor did he
send in the paper.
.e did not ,no-, nor cold he gess the reason for her absence.
T%e role of copulati"e coordination can e ac%ie"ed ? some ot%er connectors
suc% as: in addition$ moreover$ frthermore$ li,e-ise$ besides$ again$ then! T%e? impl?
t%at t%e addition is somet%ing emp%atic or important! St?listicall?$ t%e? are c%aracteristic
of a more formal$ <ritten st?le!
e!g! * did not li,e the hose, moreover it -as too high9priced.
:irst * visited my friend, then * left the to-n.
The hose is almost ne-; again/ besides/ frthermore/
li,e-ise/ moreover, it is in excellent condition!
.e came late; in addition he hadn+t done his home-or,!
T%e parts of a compound sentence ma? also e #oined as?ndenticall? i!e! <it%out
an? con#unction! As?dentic coordination is al<a?s mar;ed ? a comma or a semicolon!
T%e copulati"e con#unction and ma? al<a?s e inserted!
e!g! The sn -as brea,ing ot; the sond of the mill seemed
cheery again; the granary doors -ere -ide open. @4!.!A
Disjunctive coordination presupposes a c%oice or an alternati"e et<een t<o
clauses! It is ac%ie"ed ? means of t%e con#unctions or$ else$ or else$ other-ise$
<r allo<s ellipsis of t%e su#ect if$ in t%e clause it introduces$ t%e su#ect is co-
referential <it% t%at of t%e preceding lin;ed clause:
* may see yo tomorro- or $*& may phone later in the day!
As <ell as lin;ing t<o main clauses$ or can lin; suordinate clauses$ e!g!
* -onder -hether yo shold go and see her or $-hether&
it is better to -rite to her!
T%ere are some situations <%en dis#uncti"e coordination lin;s t%ree or e"en more
clauses$ t%e dis#uncti"e relation eing less o"ious:
=o may either read a magazine, listen to the records, or -atch T>.
In addition to indicating an alternati"e$ as in
e!g! =o can boil yorself an egg or yo can ma,e some sand-iches$
or ma? impl? a negati"e condition:
e!g! =o mst be gentle -ith him $the pony& or yo+ll find him
troblesome! @C!D!A @t%e implication can e parap%rased ? t%e negati"e
conditional clause DIf ?ou are not gentle <it% %imDA!
T%e addition of either to t%e first clause is more e&plicit in e&cluding t%e comination
of ot% alternati"es
e!g! =o can either boil yorself an egg or yo can ma,e some
Either do it properly or $else& don+t do it at all.
Either he is a roge or he is a fool.
Adversative coordination comines t<o opposing or contrasting statements! It is
ac%ie"ed mainl? t%roug% t%e con#unctions bt, yet$ -hereas$ -hile$ nevertheless$ only$
still$ ho-ever$ all the same$ none the less or nonetheless, on the other hand!
e!g! The engine is very old; still it -or,s very -ell.
She spea,s highly abot him; all the same * don+t trst him.
?eading is easy; on the other hand -riting is difficlt.
*+ve ordered the beer bt it hasn+t come.
Tom -as good at arithmetic, yet he -as never given fll mar,s.
<ne of the states -as of marble, -hereas the other -as a -ood carving.
Some people -aste food, -hile others haven+t enogh.
*t may rain, nevertheless -e -ill start on the trip.
.e ma,es good resoltions only he never ,eeps them.
Consecutive coordination introduces an inference$ conclusion$ conseCuence$
result of t%e pre"ious part! It is ac%ie"ed mainl? <it% t%e %elp of t%e con#unctions so$
therefore$ hence$ ths!
There -as no one there, so * -ent a-ay.
* forgot to retrn the magazine, hence his displeasre.
5t this is not to be a reglar atobiography, therefore *
no- pass a space of eight years in silence. @C!-!A
>t%er connectors <it% consecuti"e meaning are: then$ conse@ently$ accordingly!
e!g! Singapore lies very near to the e@ator, conse@ently the -eather is very hot!
They bro,e the rles; so' therefore' accordingly' conse@ently they -ere
Causal / Explanatory coordination adds an independent clause e&plaining t%e
preceding statement! It is represented onl? ? t%e con#unction for. T%e causati"e meaning
is not felt as strong as t%at of its suordinating counterparts @becase$ etc!A!
e!g! The days -ere short for it -as September.
=o shold as, more of him for he can do more.
They left in a hrry, for it -as already late!
=o had better close the -indo-, for it is rather cold.
%.A. #omplex Sentences
>ne of t%e main de"ices for lin;ing clauses toget%er <it%in t%e same sentence is
t%at of coordination$ alread? discussed in C%apter II! T%e second ma#or de"ice$ t%at of
suordination <ill e t%e main concern of t%is c%apter!
M%ile coordination is t%e lin;ing toget%er of t<o or more elements of eCui"alent
status @ran;A and function$ suordination is a non-s?mmetrical relation$ %olding et<een
t<o clauses x and y$ in suc% a <a? t%at y is a constituent or part of x! Diagrammaticall?$
t%e difference is as in
x y
I li;e =o%n and =o%n li;es me I li;e =o%n y
ecause =o%n li;es me
coordination suordination
A second difference is t%at a coordinate relations%ip ma? %a"e more t%an t<o
memers$ <%ile onl? t<o memers enter into t%e relations%ip of suordination: <e ma?
call t%em t%e sperordinate' main clause$ e!g! x in t%e diagram$ and t%e
sbordinate'dependent' embedded clause$ e!g! y in t%e diagram! A main clause is one t%at
can stand alone$ i!e! is not dependent on anot%er clause! A clause can e suordinate ?
eing ale to replace an )6 or an ad"erial in t%e main clause$ ta;ing o"er its s?ntactic
functions: it can function as su#ect$ o#ect$ or ad"erial of t%e main clause! T%us$
comple& sentences are formed ? letting one sentence function as a part$ as a constituent
of anot%er!
T%e de"ice of suordination enales us to organize multiple clause structures!
.ac% suordinate clause ma? itself e superordinate to one or more ot%er clauses$ so t%at
a %ierarc%? of clauses$ one <it%in anot%er ma? e uilt up$ sometimes resulting in
sentences of great comple&it?!
Suordinate clauses ma? e recognized ? one or more of t%e follo<ing
aA t%e? are optional elements$ e!g! t%e? can e deleted:
e!g! 4ane -as preparing brea,fast while her husband slept!
A t%e? can precede or follo< t%e main clause or e inserted in it:
e!g! They trdged on$ although they were overcome by fatigue! When night fell$
they collapsed into an exhasted heap!
These men$ who had eaten nothing all day$ -ere angered by their leader+s
cA t%e? are mar;ed ? certain introductor? elements: con#unctions$ <%-elementsE
dA t%e? ma? contain non-finite "er forms!
Suordinate clauses ma? suffer important modifications of form: as a
conseCuence of emedding$ t%eir sentential status is destro?ed to a lesser or greater
e&tent$ so t%at a formerl? independent sentence tends to ecome more and more Onoun?O
in its structure and properties:
aA hat om gave the letter to Ann srprised s all!
A !or om to have given the letter to Ann srprised s all!
cA om giving the letter to Ann srprised s all!
dA om"s giving the letter to Ann srprised s all!
eA om"s giving/ gift of the letter to Ann srprised s all!
As <e mo"e do<n from that-clauses @e&ample aA to de"eral nominals proper @e&!
eA$ t%e constituents lose t%eir sentential features and acCuire nominal features instead:
suc% a scale is called a s@ish! C%oice of t%e dependent t?pe B <%et%er t%e suordinate
clause is a that-clause$ an infiniti"e or a gerund B largel? depends on t%e s?ntactic and
sometimes semantic features of t%e matri& predicate @t%e term predicate is %ere used as a
co"er term for "ers and predicati"e ad#ecti"esA!
Hormal indicators of suordination
>n t%e <%ole$ suordination is mar;ed ? some signal contained in t%e
suordinate clause! Suc% a signal ma? e of a numer of different ;inds:
aA suordinating con#unctions @suordinatorsA are per%aps t%e most important formal
de"ices of suordination:
- simple suordinators: after$ althogh$ as$ becase$ before$ if$ ho-ever$ li,e$ once$
since$ that$ till$ ntil$ -hen$ever&$ -here$ -herever$ -hereas$ -hileE
- compound suordinators: in that$ so that$ in order that$ sch that$ except that$ for all
In some cases of compound suordinators$ that is optional! Suordinators ending <it%
optional that are: no- @t%atA$ providing @t%atA$ provided @t%atA$ spposing @t%atA$
considering @t%atA$ granting @t%atA$ seeing @t%atAE
- as far as$ as long as$ as soon as$ insofar as$ so far as$ insomch as$ according as$
sooner than$ rather than$ as if$ as thogh$ in caseE
- correlati"e suordinators: if...then$ althogh...yet'nevertheless$$ more'9
er'less...than$$$$ sch...that$ no sooner...than$ -hether...orE
A -h-elements are mar;ers of suordination in interrogati"e -h-clauses$ in relati"e -h-
clauses and in concessi"e clauses:
* don+t ,no- who came / when he came!
The boo, which he bought seems interesting!
Wherever you may go yo -on+t find a better Bob.
cA t%e relati"e pronoun that is a suordination mar;er in relati"e clauses:
The boo, that # bought seems interesting!
dA in"ersion: su#ect-au&iliar? in"ersion is a mar;er of suordination in some
conditional clauses <%ere t%e operator is had$ -ere$ shold:
e!g! $ad # known more * shold have refsed the Bob!
%hould you see him tell him abot the meeting.
eA t%e asence of a finite "er form is effecti"el? an indication of suordinate status$
since non-finite and "erless clauses occur onl? in suordinate clauses:
&eing tired he -ent to bed early! K As he was tired -ent to bed early!
C%'))i+ic'ti&n &+ )u/&din'te c%'u)e)
Suordinate clauses ma? e classified according to t<o criteria:
Structural t?pe$ i!e! in terms of t%e elements t%e? t%emsel"es containE
Hunction$ i!e! t%e position t%e? %a"e <it%in t%e comple& sentence!
Stuctu'% c%'))i+ic'ti&n
Anal?zing clauses according to t%eir structural t?pe <e arri"e at t<o t?pes of
aA Hinite clauses i!e! clauses containing a finite "er
e!g! *+ll come when # am ready!
When # opened the door * sa- the postman!
A )on-finite clauses i!e! clauses containing a non-finite form
e!g! 'pening the door * sa- the postman!
T%e finite clause al<a?s contains a su#ect as <ell as a predicate! In contrast$ t%e
non-finite clause al<a?s %as t%e ailit? to do <it%out a su#ect$ alt%oug% in man? ;inds of
non-finite clauses a su#ect is optional! T%e t%ree classes of non-finite "eral construction
ser"e to distinguis% t%ree classes of non-finite clauses:
i. in+initive:
- <it%out su#ect:
e!g! The best thing -old be to tell everybodyE
- <it% su#ect:
e!g! The best thing -old be for you to tell everybody!
ii. (ing 0'tici0%e:
- <it%out su#ect:
e!g! )eaving the room he tripped over the matE
- <it% su#ect:
e!g! $is aunt having left the room$ Tom declared his love for #elia!
iii. (ed 0'tici0%e:
- <it%out su#ect:
e!g! Covered with confusion$ * left the roomE
- <it% su#ect$
e!g! he job finished$ -e left the room!
M%en t%e su#ect of participial clauses is e&pressed$ it is often introduced ? t%e
preposition -ith$
e!g! With the tree growing/grown tall$ -e get more shade!
T%e asence of t%e finite "er from non-finite clauses means t%at t%e? %a"e no
distinction of person$ numer or modal au&iliar?! T%at su#ect and finite "er form can e
omitted is a %int t%at t%eir meaning s%ould e reco"erale from t%e conte&t! It is possile
to postulate certain missing forms$ normall? a form of t%e "er -.$ and a pronoun su#ect
%a"ing t%e same reference as a noun or pronoun in t%e same sentence! Consider t%e
follo<ing non-finite clause:
'nce appointed commander$ he too, the measres
expected of him!
>ne mig%t insert a pronoun su#ect and a form of t%e "er e:
'nce *he had been+ appointed commander$ he too, the
measres expected of him!
M%en no referential lin; can e disco"ered <it% a nominal in t%e conte&t$ an
indefinite su#ect somebodyGsomething ma? e supplied:
o be an administrator is to have the -orst Bob in the
-orld! @LHor someone to e!!!LA
A non-finite clause in <%ic% t%e suordinating con#unction is retained is called an
are"iated clause!
cA Nerless clauses are clauses containing no "eral element at all ut ne"ert%eless
capale of eing anal?zed in terms of su#ect$ o#ect$ predicati"e or ad"erial! A "erless
clause$ apart from eing "erless$ is also @li;e t%e non-finite clauseA commonl?
su#ectlessE it t%erefore ta;es t%e ellipsis of clause elements one stage furt%er t%an t%e
non-finite clause! >nce again$ t%e omitted finite "er can generall? e assumed to e a
form of t%e "er -.$ and t%e su#ect$ <%en omitted$ can e treated as reco"erale from
t%e conte&t$
e!g! Whether right or wrong$ he al-ays comes off -orst in
argment @K <%et%er %e is rig%t!!!A!
Nerless clauses can also$ on occasion$ e treated as reductions of non-finite clauses$
e!g! oo nervous to reply$ he stared at the floor @K -eing too
ner"ous to repl?!!!A
"uncti&n'% c%'))i+ic'ti&n
Suordinate clauses ma? perform an? s?ntactic function <it%in t%e comple&
sentence: t%e? ma? function as su#ect$ o#ect$ predicati"e or ad"erial of t%e main
clause! >n t%e asis of t%ese functions$ t%ere emerges a classification similar in some
<a?s to t%e functional classification of smaller units @<ords and p%rasesA as noun p%rases$
ad"erials etc! T%us$ t%e functional organization of t%e comple& sentence parallels t%at of
t%e simple sentence: simple and comple& sentences are isomorp%ic! -ut$ alt%oug% t%e
functions of suordinate clauses are similar to t%ose of t%e parts of t%e sentence$
suordinate clauses cannot e identified <it% t%ese parts of t%e sentence! -? means of
suordinate clauses <e ma? e&press our t%oug%ts in a more complete$ detailed manner!
Compare t%e follo<ing:
.e -as exhasted for want to sleep!
.e -as exhasted because he had not slept the whole night!
.&ercise '! Insert t%e proper con#unctions$ con#uncti"e pronouns$ con#uncti"e
ad"ers$ relati"e pronouns or relati"e ad"ers:
'! It <as almost ten oOcloc; !!! <e %eard t%e sounds of <%eels! (! DonOt open t%e door !!!
t%e train stops! *! Fardl? %ad I reac%ed t%e station !!! t%e train started! +! !!! I %ad <al;ed
t%e <%ole <a? %ome$ I came %ome late! ,! T%e man raised t%e lantern a little %ig%er$ !!! %e
mig%t see t%e strangerOs face! 0! Close t%e <indo< !!! t%e c%ild s%ould catc% cold! 2! Pou
spea; so fast !!! it is difficult to follo< ?ou! 5! Me tal;ed !!! <e tal;ed in old da?s! /! A
od? <ill ne"er c%ange its place !!! mo"ed$ and !!! once started <ill mo"e !!! stopped!
'9! !!! ?ou see %im tell %im to ring me up! ''! Me %a"e ot% c%anged !!! <e left sc%ool! '(!
6lease$ <rite !!! I dictate! '*! !!! ?ou as; me$ I <ill tell ?ou! '+! T%is o? is taller !!! ?ou
',! !!! rea;fast <as completed$ t%ere <as a ;noc; at t%e door!
'0! !!! ?ou go past t%e post$ <ill ?ou drop t%ese letters in Q '2! M%at %a"e ?ou een
doing !!! I sa< ?ou lastQ '*! I s%all not forget t%at summer !!! I li"e! '/! T%ere is not a man
ali"e !!! could do it %alf so <ell as ?ou! (9! T%e parado& !!! made e"er?od? laug% elongs
to 4! -! S%a<! ('! Ta;e suc% measures !!! seem to ?ou necessar?! ((! T%e t%oug%t !!! %e
ma? %a"e fallen ill <orries me! (*! T%e? did not%ing !!! %e came! (+! Can ?ou tell me !!!
road leads to t%e stationQ (,! IO"e forgotten !!! s%e ga"e it to! (0! I <onder !!! s%e married!
(2! Tell %im !!! ?ou t%in; it is necessar? for %im to ;no<! (5! !!! ?ou canOt t?pe an? etter
t%an t%is$ ?ou %ad etter not t?pe at all!
(/! DonOt go a<a? !!! I come ac;! T%en ?ou can go !!! ?ou li;e!
*9! Me must go$ !!! it is late! *'! Fe acted !!! %e <ere displeased <it% our offer! *(! !!! t%e
supplies arri"e in time$ all <ill go <ell! **! !!! t%e ri"er <ere not so deep$ <e could cross
it! *+! T%e nig%t <as !!! dar; !!! <e lost our <a?! *,! !!! s%e is late$ s%all <e <ait for %erQ
*0! !!! t%e nig%t <as pitc% dar;$ <e continued our <a?! *5! I sa< ?ou ?esterda? !!! ?ou
<ere one loc; a<a?!
.&ercise (! =oin t%e sentences <%ic% ma;e up a pair! 1se ot% coordinating and
suordinating relati"e <ords:
'! I did not recognize t%e %otel <%ere I found accommodation! I as;ed a policeman!
(! I spo;e "er? clearl?! I didnDt spea; "er? carefull?!
*! T%e teac%er e&plained t%e t%eor? se"eral times! At last <e could understand!
+! A fief ro;e into t%e %ouse! Fe stole some mone?! T%e lad? of t%e %ouse caug%t %im!
Rdid %e gi"e ac; t%e mone?R paid for t%e <indo< R%e %ad ro;en!
,! S%e ad"ised %im to go a<a? for a <ee;! Fe fell ill efore t%e departure!
0! Me <ill as; =o%n to carr? out %is #o! =o%n couldnDt %a"e cared less!
2! T%e pupil <as idle aout %is e&am preparation! Fe seemed not to <ant to pass it!
5! Me %ad our car repaired last mont%! )o< it doesnDt <or;!
/! Fe <ants t%ings to remain li;e t%at for some time! Me s%ould ;eep e"er?t%ing secret!
'9! Fa"e t%em accept t%e <ages! Me can negotiate some onuses!
''! T%e prosecution intended to %a"e %im con"icted for murder! T%e #udge found %im not
.&ercise *! -uilt sentences of ?our o<n <it% -here and -hen introducing: Su#ect
Clauses$ 6redicati"e Clauses$ >#ect Clauses$ Attriuti"e Clauses$ Ad"erial Clauses of
6lace$ and Ad"erial Clauses of Time!
.&ercise +! Hinis% t%ese sentences <it% clauses of t%e ;ind as;ed for! 1se t%e
necessar? con#unctions:
'! Pou <onDt manage R! @conditionA
(! S%eDs late R @reasonA
*! T%e? are pleased RR@concessionA!
+! R@timeA ?ou can sta? in a %otel!
,! T%e an; granted %im a loan RR!@purposeA!
0! It <as suc% a ig surprise for e"er?od? RR! @resultA!
2! T%e? returned %ome RR!!@comparisonA!
'! -descu$ A!$ Gramatica limbii engleze, .d! Stiintifica$ -ucureti$ '/0*!
(! -anta$ A!$ Elements of Descriptive English Syntax$ T1-$ -ucureti$ '/22!
*! -udai$ 3!$ Gramatica engleza, Teorie si exercitii$ .ditura Teora$ -ucureti$ '//2!
+! 4leanu$ 4!$ Comiel$ .!$ Gramatica limbii engleze$ .d! Didactic i pedagogic$
-ucureti$ '/5(!
,! 3e"ic%i$ 3!$ 6reda$ A!$ Gramatica limbii engleze$ .d$ 7tiintific$ -ucureti$ '/02!
0! 8urar I$ 6isosc%i C!$ Trantescu A!8!$ Essentials of English Syntax. The Simple
Sentence. .ditura 1ni"ersitaria$ Craio"a$ (995!
2! 8urar I!$ Ana-8aria Trantescu$ 6isosc%i C!$ Descriptive English Syntax. Theory and
Practice! .ditura 1ni"ersitaria$ Craio"a$ (995!
5! 7eran D!$ English Syntax$ "olume one$ -ucureti$ '/5(!
/! 7tefnescu$ I!$ Lectres in English !orphology, T1-$ -ucureti$ '/25!
'9! :uir; R!$ 4reenaum S!$ 3eec% 4!$ S<art"ic; =!$ " Grammar of #ontemporary
English$ 3ondon$ 3ongman$ '/2(!
''! T%omas A!$ 8artinet A! " Practical English Grammar$ >&ford 1ni"ersit? 6ress$
3ondon$ '/0/!
UNITATEA 1. N&,in'% C%'u)e)
Su/2ect C%'u)e)
Pedic'tive C%'u)e)
O/2ect C%'u)e)
>iecti"e: Studenii "or fi capaili s:
'! S cunoasc regulile de folosire a modurilor i timpurilor n propoziia suiecti"!
(! S cunoasc regulile de coresponden a timpurilor n completi"a direct!
*! S identifice diferenele de folosire ntre indicati" i su#oncti" n propoziiile
suiecti" i completi" prepoziional!
Timp de studiu : , ore!
T%e principles of t%e functional classification are most clearl? e&%iited ? t%e
categor? of nominal clauses$ or clauses %a"ing a function appro&imating to t%at of a noun
p%rase! =ust as noun p%rases ma? occur as su#ect$ o#ect$ predicati"e$ appositi"e$ so
e"er? nominal clause ma? occur in some or all of t%ese functions:
Su#ect: Whether we need it is another matter!
>#ect: * don+t ,no- whether we need it!
6redicati"e: The problem is whether we need it!
Appositi"e: That @estion$ whether we need it$ has not yet been
/.%. SbBect #lases
T%e Su#ect Clause disc%arges t%e same role in t%e comple& sentence as t%at of a
su#ect in a simple sentence or in a clause$ i!e! t%e su#ect clause performs t%e function of
a su#ect of t%e main clause! Compare:
,our talk -as interesting!
What you said -as interesting!
/.%.%.*ntrodctory elements! T%e su#ect clause ma? e introduced s?ndeticall? @?
means of formal mar;ersA or as?ndeticall? @no mar;ersA
aA s?ndeticall?$ ? means of:
- con#unctions: if$ that$ -hether
e!g! #f # agree with you is another matter!
hat she is still alive is a consolation!
Whether he will come is dobtfl!
- pronominal -h-elements: -ho$ -hich$ -hat$ -hoever$ -hatever$ -hichever
e!g! Who will do the job is still a @estion! @-ho %as a definite meaning St%e person
What is worth doing is -orth doing -ell!
Whoever breaks the law deserves a fine @-hoever is used <it% a uni"ersal meaning
San?one <%oDA!
In present-da? .nglis% -hoever %as ta;en o"er$ in man? conte&ts$ ot% uni"ersal and
definite meanings:
Whoever told you that -as lying @<%oe"er K St%e person <%oD$ San?one <%oDA!
- ad"erial -h-elements: -hen$ -here$ -hy$ ho-
e!g! Where he is at present still obsesses me!
$ow the book will sell depends on the athor!
A as?ndeticall?
e!g! OCome to see meO is -hat he told me on his departre!
/.%./.The Position of SbBect #lases
T%e su#ect clause ma? %a"e initial position @especiall? in literar? st?leA or non-initial
e!g! Whether he will come is doutful!
Who her mother was and how she came to die in that
forlornness -ere @estions that often pressed on
Eppie+s mind! @4!.!A
hat he didn"t understand -as evident!
What she loved best in the world just then -as riding! @=!4!A
T%e su#ect clause ma? undergo extraposition, i.e. it is mo"ed to t%e end of t%e
sentence! T%e empt? )6 position left after e&traposition is filled ? t%e introductor?
pronoun it @<%ic% ecomes t%e normal su#ect of t%e sentenceA$
e!g! *t -as evident that he didn"t understand!
*t is dobtfl whether he will come.
T%e operation of e&traposition generates sets of s?ntactic s?non?ms! Sentences <it%
t%e su#ect clause in initial position are formal in st?le$ <%ile t%ose <it% t%e e&traposed
su#ect clause are informal in st?le and are$ ? far$ t%e more common and <idespread!
1nli;e su#ect clauses introduced ? that <%ic% are more freCuent <%en e&traposed$
t%ose introduced ? -hat are freCuent in initial position!
/.%.A.#lasses of -ords that trigger a SbBect #lase
T%e presence of certain ad#ecti"es$ nouns$ "ers in t%e main clause reCuires t%e use of
a su#ect clause:
aA ad#ecti"esE most of t%em are e"aluati"e ad#ecti"es e&pressing some comment of
t%e spea;er on t%e state of affairs gi"en in t%e clause: amazing, apparent,
astonishing, bad, certain, definite, dobtfl, essential, evident, fnny, good,
gratifying, helpfl, important, incredible, li,ely, marvellos, obvios, odd, plain,
possible, probable, strange, sre, srprising, ncertain, nli,ely!
T%e? occur in t%e pattern:
ITT-. G S..8 G A66.AR T Ad#! T That-Clause
e!g! *t is strange that he did so badly!
*t is nli,ely that he will come!
hat he did not have any chance -as clear to anyone!
A nouns$ mostl? from t%e same semantic field as t%e ad#ecti"es ao"e: amazement,
certainty, dobt, evidence, idea, miracle, mystery, pity, problem, shame, shoc,,
srprise, -onder$ etc! T%e? occur in t%e pattern:
ITT -. G S..8 T )oun TThat-clause
e!g! *t+s a pity that you can"t join us!
*t+s really a -onder that he didn"t cause a traffic accident!
*t+s really a mystery how he managed to raise all that money!
hat he could do such a thing -as a shoc, for his mother!
cA "ers:
- intransiti"e "ers: appear, come abot, happen, seem, trn ot
e!g! *t seems that he has changed his mind!
*t so happens that # am busy throughout the week-
9 transiti"e "ers of ps?c%ological state: alarm, amaze, anger, annoy, astonish,
astond, baffle, bother, charm, comfort, displease, disgst, embarrass, frighten,
intrige, irritate, madden, please, relieve, satisfy, srprise, tempt$ etc! T%e Direct
>#ect is UT animateV and t%e <%ole sentence e&presses t%e reaction of t%is animate
participant to t%e fact reported in t%e su#ect clause!
e!g! *t intriges me that nothing better came out of it!
.-/-0- Constraints upon the moods and tenses in %ubject ClausesC
aA t%e Indicati"e 8ood is used in t%e Su#ect Clause after t%e ad#ecti"es: apparent,
certain, clear, evident, li,ely, marvelos, obvios, plain, tre, and after t%e nouns:
a fact, secret, -onderE
- a 6resent Tense in t%e main clause is follo<ed ? an? tense in t%e Su#ect
e!g! *t is certain that he has been/ was/ will be here!
*t+s tre that some of us haven"t got enough training!
*t+s certain he"s working on an experiment!
*t is li,ely that they will build a new road!
- a 6ast Tense in t%e main clause is follo<ed ? a 6ast Tense or a 6ast 6erfect in
t%e Su#ect Clause:
e!g! *t -as clear that om had left earlier!
*t -as obvios that everything had been settled!
A T%e Su#uncti"e 8ood is used in t%e Su#ect Clause after:
- t%e ad#ecti"es: appropriate, advisable, complsory, desirable, essential, fitting,
imperative, important, inevitable, natral, necessary, normal, obligatory, right,
recommendable, rgent, vital$ etc!
T%e "er in t%e Su#ect Clause is in t%e Anal?tic Su#uncti"e @<it% t%e au&iliar?
e!g! *t is absoltely necessary that he should come1 too!
*t is important that they should be announced!
*s it necessary that # should answer that 2uestionD @T!F!A
In American .nglis% as <ell as in t%e official @#uridical$ politicalA and ele"ated
st?le t%e S?nt%etic Su#uncti"e I @t%e same form as t%e s%ort infiniti"eA is
e!g! *t is absoltely necessary that they come too!
*t is imperative that they send the goods immediately!
- after t%e ad#ecti"es li,ely$ possible$ probable t%e "er in t%e Su#ect Clause is
in t%e Anal?tic Su#uncti"e @mayGmight T Infiniti"eA <%en t%e sentence is in
t%e affirmati"e! In t%e interrogati"e and negati"e t%e au&iliar? shold is used:
e!g! *s it possible that he may/might arrive tomorrow!
*t is probable that more visitors may visit the exhibition on %unday!
*t is li,ely that it may rain tonight!
*s it possible that he should know so littleD
*t is not li,ely that we should get through our work today!
cA After <ords e&pressing ps?c%ological reactions suc% as t%e "ers alarm$ amaze$
irritate$ t%e ad#ecti"es amazing$ disgracefl$ gratifying$ odd$ strange$ srprising$
nthin,able$ t%e nouns pity$ shame$ srprise$ t%e "er in t%e Su#ect Clause is in
t%e Indicati"e 8ood or in t%e Anal?tic Su#uncti"e: t%e Indicati"e is used <%en
reference is made to an actuall? e&isting state of t%ingsE t%e Su#uncti"e stresses
t%e su#ecti"e reaction$ emotional attitude of t%e spea;er @t%e Su#uncti"e is used
<%en t%e idea or t%e feeling is emp%asizedA!
e!g! *t is srprising that he is resigning @t%e resignation itself
is an assumed factA!
*t is srprising that he should resign @t%e "er? idea of %is
resigning is surprisingA!
*t is odd that he denies the facts-
*t is odd that he should deny the facts!
/.%.E. ?edction of SbBect #lases to 8on9finite formsC
aA 'n in+initiv'% 0.')e: t%e Su#ect clause ma? e reduced to a construction <it% a
to-infiniti"e or a for-)6-to infiniti"e @it seems to e used in preference to t%e that-
clause in ot% -ritis% and American .nglis%A
e!g! *t is -ise of yo to go there @cf! *t is -ise of yo that you should go thereA!
*t is important for both drivers and pedestrians to obey
the traffic rules! @cf! *t is important that both drivers and
pedestrians should obey the traffic rulesA!
*t is so ,ind of yo to have come!
*t is the cstom for guests to be received with bread and salt in 3omania!
*t is important for you to read the book!
!or a bridge to collapse like that is nbelievable!
M%en t%e main clause contains an intransiti"e "er suc% as appear$ happen$ seem$
an ad#ecti"e suc% as certain$ sre$ nli,ely$ t%e deri"ed non-finite construction
usuall? assumes t%e follo<ing form:
e!g! *t seems that &ill has won the pri4e 6 5ill seems to have
won the pri4e!
*t is certain that om will carry out his intentions B Tom
is certain to carry out his intentions!
T%e deri"ed sentence is otained ? appl?ing t%e rule of Raising: t%is rule
mo"es t%e su#ect of t%e suordinate clause into t%e main clause <%ere it ecomes
t%e su#ect of t%e sentence @a )ominati"e T Infiniti"e constructionA!
/3 ' -eundi'% 0.')e
e!g! *t+s no se crying over spilt milk!
*t+s no good your bothering about things!
*t is certainly an a-fl nisance having to wait another hour for the train!
)iving near the office is an advantage for him!
/./. Predicative #lases
T%e predicati"e clause disc%arges t%e same function in t%e comple& sentence as t%at
of t%e predicati"e in a simple sentence! T%e lin; "er is in t%e main clause! T%e
predicati"e clause toget%er <it% t%e lin; "er forms a compound nominal predicate to t%e
su#ect of t%e main clause!
/./.%. *ntrodctory elements
Fa"ing t%e same formal c%aracteristics as su#ect clauses$ predicati"e clauses usuall?
s%are t%e elements t%at can introduce t%em! T%e predicati"e clause ma? e introduced:
aA s?ndeticall?$ ? means of
- con#unctions: that$ -hether$ if$ as if
e!g! The troble is that # forgot the address.
=o loo, as if you didn"t care. @=!4!A
- pronominal -h-elements: -ho$ -hat$ -hich
e!g! That -as exactly what # thought!
- ad"erial -h-elements: -here$ -hen$ -hy$ ho-
e!g! .ome is where your friends and family are.
That is why # never call on him!
A as?ndeticall?: t%e predicati"e clause is separated from t%e main clause ? a
e!g! The trth is, # have never heard the name before!
/././. #lasses of -ords that trigger a Predicative #lase
T%e predicati"e clause is used in sentences <%en t%e main clause consists of: a
su#ect e&pressed ? an astract noun @assmption, claim, fact, idea, problem, @estion,
reason, statement$ etc!A T a copulati"e "er: be$ seem$ loo,!
e!g! The assmption is that things will improve.
The problem is not who will go1 but who will stay.
She recognized that he had charm and her fear -as that
he had too much! @=!4!A
/./.A. Se@ence of tenses in Predicative #lases
" P?ESE8T TE8SE *8 T.E !"*8 #L"FSE *S :<LL<7ED 5= "8= TE8SE *8
T.E P?ED*#"T*>E #L"FSE,
e!g! The @estion is if they are/ were/ had been at home!
A 6ast Tense in t%e main clause is follo<ed ?: 6ast Tense @simultaneit?A! 6ast 6erfect
@anteriorit?A$ Huture in t%e 6ast @suseCuenceA$
e!g! That -as exactly what # thought.
The alternative -as that they would start at seven.
The real problem -as that they would show up at four!
In clauses introduced ? as if Su#uncti"e II @6astA or III @6erfectA is used:
e!g! .e ,ne- -hat sffering -as li,e and this man loo,ed as if
he were suffering! @=!4!A
The room loo,ed as if it had not been lived in for years! @>!M!A
/./.G. ?edction of Predicative #lases to 8on9finite formsC
A 6redicati"e clause can e reduced to:
aA an infiniti"al p%rase
e!g! .is intention -as to say nothing about it!
A a gerundial p%rase
e!g! <r main problem -as finding time to do the work!
(!*! <bBect #lases
T%e o#ect clause %as t%e function of an o#ect to t%e predicate of t%e main clause!
T%ere are t%ree t?pes of o#ect clauses: Direct >#ect Clauses$ Indirect >#ect Clauses$
6repositional >#ect Clauses!
(!*!'! Direct <bBect #lases
T%e direct o#ect clause disc%arges a role similar to t%at of a direct o#ect in t%e
simple sentence$ eing in fact an e&tension of t%e group of <ords <%ic% can normall?
e&press t%e direct o#ect!
e!g! They ,no- the facts.
They ,no- that the scheme is impracticable!
/.A.%.%. *ntrodctory elementsC 4i"en t%eir function and structure so closel?
connected <it% t%at of ot%er nominal clauses$ i!e! su#ect clauses$ Direct >#ect Clauses
ma? e introduced in practicall? t%e same <a? as su#ect clauses:
aA s?ndeticall?$ ? means of:
- con#unctions: that$ if$ -hether
e!g! * told him that he was wrong!
*f and -hether can introduce interrogati"e clauses$ t%e result eing an indirect
Cuestion or a dependent alternati"e Cuestion @<it% t%e correlati"e orA!
e!g! * don+t ,no- if/ whether what shops are open.
* don+t ,no- whether it will rain or be sunny.
* don+t care if your car breaks down or not-
>nl? -hether can e directl? follo<ed ? or not$ e!g!
* don+t care whether & n&t your car breaks down!
-ut not:H * don+t care if or not your car breaks down!
- pronominal -h-elements: -ho$ -hich$ -hat$ -hoever$ -hatever
e!g! The captain decides who shall form the team.
* can+t imagine what made him do it!
M%en t%e -h-element is go"erned ? a preposition$ t%ere is a c%oice et<een
constructions <it% t%e preposition in initial or final position!
e!g! .e coldn+t remember on which shelf he kept it @formalA!
.e coldn+t remember which shelf he kept it on
- ad"erial -h-elements: -here$ -hen$ -hy$ ho-
e!g! * shold li,e to see where you live, 4on. @=!4!A
:e- people ,no- how difficult the work has been!
A as?ndeticall?: t%e con#unction that is usuall? deleted lea"ing a Ozero t%at-clauseO after
"ers suc% as believe, hear, hope, imagine, ,no-, remember, say, see, sppose, tell,
thin,, nderstand$ t%at is after "ers freCuentl? used in constructions <it% o#ect
clauses! T%e deletion of that is normal in informal speec%$ <%en t%e clause is rief$
e!g! * ,no- he was wrong.
* hear he is leaving.
* hope you"re feeling better today!
In contrast$ t%e need for clarit? forids t%e omission of that in long or e&panded
sentences! An? parent%etic material et<een t%e "er of t%e main clause and t%e su#ect
of t%e that-clause is li;el? to loc; deletion$ as in t%e follo<ing sentence:
.e had hoped, in a moment of optimism, that the
committee would look favorably on our case!
T%e con#unction that is ne"er used after * -ish$ *+d sooner$ *+d rather$ e!g! * -ish he
were here.
She -ants to fly bt *+d rather she went by train!
/.A.%./. #lasses of verbs that trigger a Direct <bBect #lase
T%e Direct >#ect clause is reCuired ? t%e follo<ing transiti"e "ers: accept,
ac,no-ledge, affirm, annonce, ans-er, appreciate, confess, declare, dedce, demand,
deny, desire, discover, dobt, dream, estimate, expect, explain, fancy, feel, figre $ot&,
find, forget, gather, gess, hear, imagine, imply, infer, ,no-, learn, li,e, love, observe,
o-n, plan, postlate, predict, prefer, presme, profess, prononce, propose, prove,
provide, realize, recall, rec,on, recollect, recommend, remar,, state, sggest, sppose,
teach, testify, thin,, nderstand, -onder, -rite$ etc!
/.A.%.A. The position of Direct <bBect #lases
Direct >#ect Clauses are usuall? placed after t%e main clause
e!g! .e did not @ite ,no- what she meant! @A!=!C!A
Sometimes$ for st?listic reasons @to render more emp%aticA$ t%e >#ect clause can e
found in initial position
e!g! * thoght * sa- something. What it was * don+t ,no-!
After "ers suc% as consider$ find$ ma,e$ o-e$ pt$ ta,e$ thin,$ t%e Direct >#ect
clause is anticipated ? t%e introductor? pronoun IT! T%e construction occurs in t%ree
i! N T IT T T%atBclause$
e!g! * ta,e it that she gives her consent!
ii! N T IT T Ad#ecti"e T T%atBclause$
e!g! * thin, it -rong that he didn"t go there.
* made it clear that # was dissatisfied!
iii! N T IT T 6> T T%atBclause$
e!g! * o-e it to him that # am a teacher!
/.A.%.G. Tenses and !oods in Direct <bBect #lases
>#ect Clauses undergo certain c%anges in t%eir form to s%o< t%eir dependence on
t%e main clause$ to s%o< t%e temporal relation @simultaneit?$ anteriorit?$ suseCuenceA
%olding et<een t%e actions of t%e main and suordinate clause:
aA T%e 6resent$ t%e 6resent 6erfect in t%e main clause ma? e accompanied ? an?
logical tense in t%e >#ect Clause!
e!g! * -onder where you found it! @F!4!M!A
Don+t yo nderstand what has happened in the countryD @=!Al!A
* hope it will not inconvenience you! @C!D!A
* have often thoght that life is short! @C!D!A
!ary thin,s her brother came last night.
* ,no- she has posted the letter.
* sppose he is here.
She ,no-s 5ohn will come tomorrow!
T%e Huture in t%e main clause ma? e accompanied ? an? logical tense @e&cept
HutureA in t%e >#ect Clause!
e!g! *+ll only tell what # know.
* shall try to describe what # saw there.
* -ill tell him that # need his help tomorrow morning!
A T%e 6ast Tense in t%e main clause is accompanied in t%e >#ect Clause ?:
- anot%er 6ast Tense for simultaneous actions or states$
e!g! .e did not ,no- what tears were! @>!M!A
.e thoght he saw the curtain move! @C!D!A
* spposed he was there!
Fo<e"er$ t%e 6resent instead of t%e 6ast Tense is used in t%e >#ect Clause if it
e&presses assertions <%ose "alidit? e&ceeds t%e moment of spea;ing$ t%at is assertions
referring to general or uni"ersal trut%s$
e!g! The ppils -ere taght that the earth is round$
or assertions referring to lasting$ prolonged situations$
e!g! * -as told that he is near sighted.
* realized that he is a 6erman!
- t%e 6ast 6erfect for pre"ious @anteriorA actions or states$
e!g! * ,ne- she had posted the letter.
!ary thoght her brother had come the night before!
.e fle- bac, and told the prince what he had seen!
.arris as,ed me if #"d ever been there @=!W!=!A
- t%e Huture in t%e 6ast for suseCuent actions or states$
e!g! Everyone assmed that he would some day return! @=!Al!A
She ,ne- 5ohn would come the following day!
.e predicted correctly that there was going to be a stock
market crash.
.e called her p one day and said that he and his wife
were coming to 7ew ,ork-
-ut t%e Huture instead of t%e Huture in t%e 6ast is used in t%e >#ect Clause if it
e&presses assertions <%ose "alidit? e&ceeds t%e moment of spea;ing$ t%at is assertions
referring to general or uni"ersal trut%s$
e!g! 7e -ere told that the atomic energy used in science
shall change the face of the earth. @general trut%A
Type of action Tenses in the main
Tenses in the <bBect #lase
Anteriorit? 6resentG 6resent 6erfectG
6resent 6erfect
6ast TenseG 6ast 6erfect 6ast 6erfect
Simultaneit? 6resentG 6resent 6erfectG
6resent Tense
6ast TenseG 6ast 6erfect 6ast Tense
SuseCuence 6resentG 6resent 6erfect Huture
Huture 6resent Tense
6ast TenseG 6ast 6erfect Huture in t%e 6ast
T%ere are some ot%er constraints on t%e moods in t%e >#ect clauses:
aA M%en t%e "er in t%e main clause e&presses a reCuest$ recommendation or order$ suc%
as agree$ arrange$ as,$ demand$ desire$ insist$ mo"e @K suggest$ proposeA$ order$
propose$ recommend$ regret$ re@ire$ settle$ sggest$ t%e Su#uncti"e mood B t%e
Anal?tic form <it% shold in -ritis% .nglis%$ or t%e S?nt%etic form @in American
.nglis% or in formal st?leA B is emplo?ed in t%e >#ect Clause
e!g! .e demands that new solutions should be sought.
* insist that you should write more carefully.
!r. Dombey proposed that they should start! @C!D!A
The people all over the -orld demand that nuclear
weapons be banned.
* move that the meeting adjourn @3!C!A
*vory insisted that he be present! @A!=!C!A
.e recommended that the article be printed!
In colloCuial .nglis% t%e "ers propose$ recommend$ sggest ma? e follo<ed ? t%e
Indicati"e mood @present or past tenseA!
that 8r- %mith should go @normalA
e!g! .e proposes that 8r- %mith go @A. or formal st?leA
that 8r- %mith goes @colloCuialA!
A After t%e "er -ish in t%e main clause$ t%e "er in t%e >#ect clause is in t%e
Su#uncti"e 8ood:
- t%e S?nt%etic Su#uncti"e II @coinciding in form <it% t%e simple 6ast TenseA is
used to e&press regret or present unrealit?:
e!g! * -ish he were / was here @SIDm sorr? %e isnDt %ereDA!
* -ish # were ten years younger!
* -ish )ucy was my sister! @4!.!A
T%e "er -ish in t%e main clause can e put into t%e 6ast Tense <it%out c%anging
t%e form of t%e Su#uncti"e in t%e >#ect Clause$
e!g! .e -ished he knew @SFe <as sorr? %e didnDt ;no<DA!
- t%e Su#uncti"e II 6ast @coinciding in form <it% t%e 6ast 6erfect TenseA is used to
e&press regret for an action not performed in t%e past!
e!g! * -ish he hadn"t gone @SIDm sorr? %e <entDA!
.o- * -ish # had been aware! @T!F!A
* -ish you had not put yourself to so much trouble! @A!=!C!A
T%e "er -ish in t%e main clause can e put into t%e 6ast Tense <it%out c%anging t%e
form of t%e Su#uncti"e in t%e >#ect Clause:
.e -ished he had taken her advice @SFe <as sorr? %e
%adnDt ta;en itDA!
- t%e Anal?tic Su#uncti"e <it% t%e au&iliar? -old to e&press desire for a future
action or a polite reCuest:
e!g! * -ish you"d come and see us oftener! @=!4!A
* -ish you would not talk like this1 papa! @=!C!A
* -ish the rain would stop for a moment! @S!8!A
* -ish you would speak louder.
/.A.%.E. ?edction of <bBect #lases to 8on9finite forms
aA An infiniti"al p%rase: t%e finite "er in an >#ect Clause can e turned into an
infiniti"e <%en t%e su#ect of t%e main clause is co-referential <it% t%at of t%e >#ect
e!g! * don+t ,no- what # should do 6 * don+t ,no- what to do.
.e -as explaining how # / one should start the motor 6
.e -as explaining how to start the motor.
After "ers of mental perception suc% as believe$ consider$ feel$ find$ gess, Bdge$
,no-$ sspect$ thin, t%e Direct >#ect clause can e transformed into an Accusati"e T
Infiniti"e construction: t%e su#ect of t%e suordinate clause is mo"ed$ SraisedD into
t%e main sentence <%ere it ecomes t%e Direct >#ect of t%e sentence:
e!g! * consider that he is a very sensible man. 6 * consider
him to be a very sensible man!
* thoght that he was an excellent choice- ( * thoght
him to be an excellent choice-
T%e c%oice of t%e that- clause or t%e infiniti"e construction @Accusati"e T Infiniti"eA
B <it% or <it%out be-deletion B depends on semantic factors and to a certain e&tent on
st?listic ones$ that9 clauses eing preferred in informal st?le and Infiniti"e
constructions in more formal language!
e!g! * consider that he is clever 6 * consider him *to be+ clever.
Mit% "ers of p%?sical perception B feel, hear, notice, see, -atch B t%e infiniti"e
construction is acceptale onl? <%en t%e "ers refer to immediate p%?sical
perceptionE <%en t%e? refer to mental perception a that-clause s%ould e used!
* sa- that he hit the cat 6 * sa- him hit the cat. $sa-9
p%?sical perceptionA
* sa- ' felt that he disliked the cat 6 H* sa- him dislike
the cat. $sa- 9 mental perceptionA
Hor a numer of "ers B offer$ promise$ s-ear$ threaten$ vo- B t%e infiniti"e
constructions are possile onl? if t%ere is identit? of t%e t<o su#ects! Compare:
.e% promised me that he/ would get *me+ the money
to get the money-
.e promised me that # would get the money
4 to get the money
In t%e second pair of sentences X.e promised me to get the money t%e reduction to
an infiniti"e construction is not possile ecause t%e su#ect of t%e suordinate clause
s%ould e co-referential <it% t%e su#ect of t%e main clause and not <it% t%e o#ect of
t%e "er promise!
A a gerundial p%rase:
e!g! .e admitted that he had made the same mistake again
6 .e admitted having made the same mistake again.
Do yo mind my / me making a suggestionD
* don+t li,e his ringing us up so often.
(!*!(! *ndirect <bBect #lases
Indirect >#ect Clauses are an e&tension on t%e plane of t%e comple& sentence of
an indirect o#ect in a simple sentence!
Indirect o#ect clauses are introduced ? relati"e con#uncti"e pronouns: -ho$m&$
-hat$ -hoever$ -ho$m&ever$ -hatever$ -hichever go"erned ? t%e preposition toC
e!g! .e told the story to whoever would listen.
Give the tic,et to who*m+ever you like.
.e gave the -rong interpretation to what*ever+ # said!
/.A.A. Prepositional <bBect #lases
6repositional >#ect Clauses disc%arge t%e same function as prepositional o#ects
in simple sentences$ t%erefore occurring after a numer of prepositions <%ic% are reCuired
? certain "ers!
/.A.A.%. *ntrodctory elementsC
- con#unctions: that$ -hether
e!g! *t all depends on whether he will come or not!
- pronominal -h-elements: -ho'-hom$ -hat$ -hoever' -homever$ -hatever$
e!g! They coldn+t agree on who should tell him the bad news!
They -ere interested in what he was saying.
Thin, of what you are doing.
Don+t place too mch confidence in whoever flatters you.
They all laghed at what she said.
- ad"erial -h-elements: -hen$ -here$ -hy$ ho-
e!g! There are many theories as to why the partridge is disappearing.
*t all depends on how you are feeling!
T.e de%eti&n &+ t.e 0e0&)iti&n
T%e preposition is al<a?s omitted <%en t%e clause is introduced ? t%e
con#unction that:
- intransiti"e "ers suc% as admit of$ complain of$ decide on$ depend on$ hope for$
insist pon$ -orry abot, etc., ta;e a prepositional o#ect in free "ariation <it% a
e!g! .e complained of unfair treatment 6 .e complained that
he had been treated unfairly!
T%e preposition is not deleted if t%e >#ect that-clause is anticipated ? t%e
empt? pronoun it$
e!g! Depend pon it that there is some mistake! @=!A!A
.e insisted pon it that # was wrong!
- t%ere is a large group of transiti"e "ers t%at comine <it% a Direct >#ect
@usuall? e&pressed ? a UT animateV )6A and a 6repositional >#ectE t%e latter
alternates <it% a that-clause: advise 8P of$ assre 8P of$ convince 8P of$ inform
8P of$ notify 8P of$ persade 8P of$ -arn 8P of'against, etc.
e!g! .e informed her of our willingness to help.
.e informed the manager that he was willing to work overtime!
/.A.A./. Tenses and !oods in Prepositional <bBect #lases
In 6repositional >#ect Clauses t%e rules concerning t%e seCuence of tenses are applied
that he was right!
e!g!7e agreed pon it that there had been a misunderstanding!
that he would apologi4e!
M%en t%e "er in t%e main clause e&presses a ps?c%ological state @be
sorry'srprised'astonished'amazed'disappointedA t%e "er in t%e suordinate clause is
eit%er in t%e Indicati"e 8ood or in t%e Anal?tic Su#uncti"e @<it% sholdA! T%e Indicati"e
8ood suggests t%at t%e <%ole sentence is a statement of fact @a report of a reaction or
e"aluationA <%ile t%e Su#uncti"e 8ood stresses t%e su#ecti"e reaction of t%e spea;er!
e!g! * am srprised that your wife objects.
* am srprised that your wife should object.
T%us$ after t%ese constructions in t%e present tense$ <e can %a"e
aA 6resent Indicati"e or shold T Infiniti"e for simultaneous actions:
I5, ','6ed t%at %e comes %ere in =une.
that he should come
A 6resent 6erfectG6ast Tense or shold T 6erfect Infiniti"e to e&press an anterior
*+m amazed that he has come/came.
that he should have come!
If t%e "er in t%e main clause is in t%e 6ast <e %a"e in t%e 6repositional >#ect
aA 6ast Tense or shold T Infiniti"e for simultaneit?:
I 7') ','6ed t%at %e came in =une.
he should come
A 6ast 6erfect or shold T 6erfect Infiniti"e for anteriorit?:
* -as amazed that he had come in 5une.
he should have come
* -as sorry she had changed her job.
she should have changed
In all t%ese cases$ t%e difference et<een t%e sentences <it% t%e Su#uncti"e and t%ose
<it% t%e Indicati"e is t%e difference con"e?ed ? t%e t<o moods: Su#uncti"e and
Indicati"e! In t%e forms <it% t%e Su#uncti"e t%e "er? idea is stressed$ t%e e"aluation of a
possile e"ent$ <%ile in t%e forms <it% t%e Indicati"e t%e actual fact is e&pressed @t%e
description of a real$ actual e"entA!
/.A.A.A. ?edction of Prepositional <bBect #lases to 8on9finite forms
A 6repositional >#ect Clause ma? e reduced to a gerundial p%rase:
- a simple construction <%en t%e su#ect of t%e main clause is co-referential <it%
t%at of t%e 6repositional clause!
e!g! * am tired of being treated like a child.
.e insisted on seeing you!
- a comple& construction: t%e su#ect of t%e suordinate clause assumes t%e form of
t%e geniti"e or t%e o#ect case @in informal st?leA$
e!g! *+m srprised at his/ 5ohn"s making that mistake.
*+m srprised at him/ 5ohn making that mistake!
.&ercise '! Identif? t%e suordinate clauses and t%eir grammatical function:
'! S%e confesses %er lo"e stor? to <%oe"er is aout!
(! T%eir marriage depends on <%et%er t%eir parents are <illing to %elp t%em!
*! T%e?Dre not sure <%et%er s%eDll e successful <it% %er ne< part!
+! T%e team ;ne< t%at t%eir c%ances <ere scant? and 4od onl? could still <or; miracles!
,! )e"er %as s%e paid attention to <%ate"er %e sa?s!
0! T%e ;id al<a?s tells lies to <%oe"er %e meets on %is <a? ac; %ome!
2! S%e <as told t%at solitude <as %ard to stand for people li;e %er!
5! IDm afraid s%eDs un%app?!
/! T%at %e left to<n no one ;ne<!
'9! Fe could %ardl? ;no< <%at %e <as tal;ing aout!
''! FeDs glad s%eDs %ere!
'(! T%e? are suc% pious people t%at t%e? gi"e food and mone? to <%oe"er comes to t%eir
'*! T%e? <ere not certain t%at s%e <ould accept t%eir suggestion!
'+! Fis men told us t%at %e <as in t%e %ands of a sa"age trie!
',! T%e Cuestion is <%ere s%e made suc% a deep impression!
.&ercise (! Complete t%e follo<ing sentences suppl?ing su#ect$ o#ect or predicati"e
'! IDd li;e to ;no< RRRRRRRR! (! IDm not sure RRRRRRR! *! Tell me
<%ere RRRRRRRRRR! ! +! S%e didnDt tell me <%? RRRRRRR ! ,! I canDt
e&plain %o< RRRRRRRRRRR! ! 0! It all depends on %o< RRRRR!!!!!!!R!! !
2! Fe suggested t%at RRRRRRR!! ! 5! Fe is certain R!!!!!!!RRRRRRRR ! /! I
<ondered RRRRRRR ! '9! 8? friend insisted R!!!!!!!!!!RR! ! ''! I donDt care
RRRR! ! '(! T%e captain ordered RRRRR!!! '*! S%e <as uncertain RRRRR! !
'+! IDm glad RRRRRRRR ! ',! Fe dreamed RRRRR ! '0! It seems t%at
RRRRRR!RR! ! '2! M%at RRRRRRRRR surprised e"er?od?! '5! M%ere
RRRR is un;no<n! '/! Me did not realize t%at RRRRRRRR! ! (9! T%e Cuestion
is %o< RRRRRRRR ! ('! Fo< RRRRRR! is <%at puzzles me more!
.&ercise *! Re<rite eac% of t%e follo<ing sentences <it% t%at clauses starting <it% t%e
<ords gi"en:
'! 6eople %a"e completel? different opinions aout t%is p%enomenon! T%at is m?
(! Me ma? get t%ere in time! ItDs certainl? possile!
*! 8? %usand completel? forgot aout m? irt%da? <%ic% upset me!
+! )e< memers %a"e to u? t%e first round! ItDs an old tradition!
,! T%e ne< manager <ould ma;e radical c%anges! T%at is <%at people elie"ed!
0! S%e still elie"es in Santa Claus$ <%ic% I find ridiculous!
2! T%e? <ill finis% in time! T%at <as t%eir ans<er!
5! T%e compan? runs at a loss! T%at is t%e trut%!
.&ercise +! In eac% group elo<$ cross out an? sentences t%at are not correct:
'! a! 6aul ga"e t%e impression t%at %e %ates pop music!
! T%at %e %ates pop music is <ell ;no<n!
c! Fe <as tal;ing aout t%at %e %ates pop music!
d! T%e t%ing is t%at %e %ates pop music!
e! S%e <as certain t%at %e %ates pop music!
f! Fe e&plained t%at %e %ates pop music!
g! T%e t%ing t%at %e %ates is pop music!
(! a! Fe e&plained t%at %e %ad een %eld up!
! S%e e&cused t%at s%e <as late!
c! T%at %e <as late <as reall? ine&cusale!
d! Fis e&cuse t%at %e got lost in t%e cro<ded to<n <as not accepted!
e! It <asnDt t%at surprising t%at s%e <as late!
f! T%e fact of t%e matter <as t%e? <ere ot% late!
g! T%e fact t%at neit%er <as on time for t%e meeting <as e&tremel? anno?ing!
.&ercise ,! Translate into .nglis%:
'! )e-a spus c trenul "a ntYrzia cu o #umtate de or din cauza furtunii! (! 7tiam c nu
este n stare de nimic i nu se poate ntreine singur! *! )u cred c "a iei curYnd din
aceast ncurctur n care s-a gat singur! +! Zmi dau seama c am greit mult$ a"Ynd
ncredere n acei oameni! ,! Znc de pe atunci tia c apa fiere la o sut de grade! 0! 8i-a
rspuns c nu este n msur s ne dea nici o e&plicaie pentru ceea ce s-a ntYmplat i a
refuzat s fac orice alt comentariu! 2! Insistar ca "asul s fie ncrcat imediat! 5! 7tiu c
nu e un om pe care l poi nela uor! /! Zi sugerez s te mai gYndeti nainte de a lua o
%otrYre! '9! Au cerut creterea salariilor i o prim de Crciun! ''! Te sftuiesc s-i
pstrezi impresiile pentru tine! '(! 6rolema era c nu luase n considerare toate detaliile!
'*! I-am sugerat s-i gseasc alt slu# dar nu m-a luat n seam! '+! .ram surprins c
ei se comport astfel!
.&ercise 0! Complete t%e sentences <it% a noun clause and state t%e function of t%e clause
?ou %a"e added!
'! Fe said t%at %e RRRRR!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!RRR!! !
(! T%e fact RRRRRRRRRR is no< generall? ;no<n!
*! 8? rot%er rarel? succeeds in ac%ie"ing <%at RRRRRR!! !
+! M%at RRRRRRRRRR!! is of a direct concern to e"er?od?!
,! I <anted to disco"er %o< RRRR!!!!!!!RR!!!!!!RRRRRR !
0! T%e man told %is <ife <%ere RRRRRRRRR!!!!RRR !
2! M%at RRRRRRRR!! is less important t%en <%at ?ou do!
5! I as;ed t%e doctor if RRRRRRRR!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!RRRRR!!
/! T%e la<?er deplored t%e fact RRRR!!!!!!RRRRRR!!!!RR
'9! It is clear t%at RRRRRRRRRRRRRR!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!RRR!
''! It <as generall? agreed t%at RRRRRRRRRR!!!!!!!!!!RR!
'(! Fis argument is t%at RRRRRRRRRRR!!!!!!!!!RRRRR
'*! Pour idea t%at RRRRRRRRRR!! <ill proal? pro"e "er? unpopular!
'+! It seems t%at RRRR!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!RRRRRR!!
',! T%at RRRRRRRRRRRR! is almost unconcei"ale!
'0! Is it true t%at RRRRR!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!RRRRRRR!! Q
'2! .&actl? %o< RRRRRR!!!!!!!!!!!!!!RR! <ill ne"er e ;no<n!
'5! Fe t%en rememered <%? RRR!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!RRRRRRR !
'! -descu$ A!$ Gramatica limbii engleze, .d! Stiintifica$ -ucureti$ '/0*!
(! -anta$ A!$ Elements of Descriptive English Syntax$ T1-$ -ucureti$ '/22!
*! -udai$ 3!$ Gramatica engleza, Teorie si exercitii$ .ditura Teora$ -ucureti$ '//2!
+! 4leanu$ 4!$ Comiel$ .!$ Gramatica limbii engleze$ .d! Didactic i pedagogic$
-ucureti$ '/5(!
,! 3e"ic%i$ 3!$ 6reda$ A!$ Gramatica limbii engleze$ .d$ 7tiintific$ -ucureti$ '/02!
0! 8urar I$ 6isosc%i C!$ Trantescu A!8!$ Essentials of English Syntax. The Simple
Sentence. .ditura 1ni"ersitaria$ Craio"a$ (995!
2! 8urar I!$ Ana-8aria Trantescu$ 6isosc%i C!$ Descriptive English Syntax. Theory and
Practice! .ditura 1ni"ersitaria$ Craio"a$ (995!
5! 7eran D!$ English Syntax$ "olume one$ -ucureti$ '/5(!
/! 7tefnescu$ I!$ Lectres in English !orphology, T1-$ -ucureti$ '/25!
'9! :uir; R!$ 4reenaum S!$ 3eec% 4!$ S<art"ic; =!$ " Grammar of #ontemporary
English$ 3ondon$ 3ongman$ '/2(!
''! T%omas A!$ 8artinet A! " Practical English Grammar$ >&ford 1ni"ersit? 6ress$
3ondon$ '/0/!
UNITATEA 8. Re%'tive(Atti/utive C%'u)e)
Re)tictive$De+inin- Re%'tive C%'u)e)
N&n(Re)tictive$N&n(De+inin- Re%'tive C%'u)e)
A00&)itive Atti/utive C%'u)e)
Int&duct&9 E,0.'tic Sentence) :C%e+t Sentence)3

>iecti"e: Studenii "or fi capaili:
'! S recunoasc elementele introducti"e ale propoziiilor relati"e!
(! S recunoasc caracteristicile propoziiilor relati"e restricti"e i descripti"e!
*! S reduc o propoziie relati" la o construcie impersonal!
Timp de studiu: * ore!
Relati"e clauses act as modifiers of )6s! T%e? are t%erefore functionall? parallel
to attriuti"e ad#ecti"es or p%rases! Compare:
People who speak English. 6 English speaking people.
T%ere are t<o t?pes of relati"e clauses: t%ose <%ic% are essential to t%e meaning of
t%e sentence @Restricti"e Relati"e ClausesA and t%ose <%ic% merel? add some information
@)on-restricti"e Relati"e ClausesA!
A.%. Restricti"eG Defining Relati"e Clauses
A Restricti"e Relati"e Clause is essential to t%e meaning of t%e sentence ecause it
%elps to identif? t%e su#ect or anot%er nominal part of t%e sentence B t%e antecedent B
and$ t%erefore$ cannot e omitted <it%out losing t%e clarit? of t%e sentence!
A.%.%. *ntrodctory elementsC
- relati"e pronouns: -ho$ -hich$ that$ as
e!g! !y brother who lives at )eeds is yonger than my brother
who lives in )ondon.
This is the pictre which caused such a sensation.
The bs that goes to the station stops at this corner!
.e gave me the same ans-er as he had given the day before!
9 -h-ad"ers: -here$ -hen$ -hy can replace t%e relati"e pronouns$ as in t%e follo<ing
e!g! The store in which # buy groceries is across the street.
The store where # buy groceries is across the street.
Snday is the day on which we usually watch 9.
Snday is the day when we usually watch 9.
The selection of the relative pronon
Relati"e pronouns are not interc%angeale in generalE <%ic% specific relati"e pronoun
is used depends on se"eral factors:
- t%e selectional features of t%e antecedent and of t%e replaced nounE
- t%e s?ntactic function of t%e replaced nounE
- certain ot%er features suc% as particular s?ntactic cominations$ eup%on?!
The selectional featres of the antecedent
T%e c%oice of t%e introductor? element @-ho, -hich, or thatA depends on t%e follo<ing
features of t%e antecedent:
U%umanV: -ho is selected for UT%umanV nouns$ -hich stands for UB%umanV$ <%ile that
for U%umanV!
e!g! The man whom / that # knew no longer -or,s here.
The car which / that # hired bro,e do-n after five miles!
UdefiniteV: that is preferred <%en t%e antecedent is determined ? a superlati"e$ an
ordinal numeral or <%en t%e antecedent is e&pressed ? an indefinite pronoun @all,
everything, nothing$ anybody, anythingA!
e!g! *t -as the hottest place that # had ever been in. @=!W!=!A
7as there anybody that they thought would suitD @C!D!A
"ll that glitters is not gold.
7hich -as the first steamship that crossed the AtlanticD
The syntactic fnction
S?ntacticall?$ -ho and -hich can e used for t%e t%ree functions su#ect @-ho, -hichA$
o#ect @-hom, -hichA$ possessi"e @-hose, of -hichAE that can e&press t<o functions onl?:
su#ect and o#ectE it cannot e preceded ? a preposition!
e!g! This is the man who told us about it @su#ectA!
* don+t li,e the people whom you invited to the party @o#ectA!
The voice that spoke -as cold and crel! @>!M!A @su#ectA
7hen she sees the damage that you have done she -ill be frios!
.e is a man whose judgement you can trust @possessi"eA!
The hose whose windows are broken is noccpied.
T%e form -hose is e&tensi"el? used <it% a possessi"e "alue to refer to a U-%umanV
antecedent as <ell! )ot all <riters are %app? aout using -hose <%en t%e antecedent is UB
%umanV$ <%ile t%e form of -hich sounds rat%er formal: The hose the -indo-s of -hich
is bro,en is noccpied!
T%at is <%?$ some grammarians @see Forn?$ " Gide to patterns and Fsage in
English$ p! '29A$ suggest t%at in suc% cases it is preferale to a"oid t%e use of -hose and
of -hich and to resort to a prepositional p%rase t%at ta;es t%e place of t%e clause$
e!g! T%e %ouse <it% ro;en <indo<s is unoccupied!
.up%on? can pla? a role in t%e c%oice of t%e relati"e pronouns! T%us$ that is preferred
after interrogati"es and e&clamator? -ho$ t%oug% not necessaril? if t%e relati"e is
separated from t%e antecedent! Similarl?$ t%e demonstrati"e pronoun that tends to e
follo<ed ? -hich rat%er t%an that$
e!g! 7ho that ever came into personal contact with him cold help loving himD
7ho -as it no- that/ who had done thatD
* se the -ord not in the present state bt in that which it had in the /:
A.%./. "syndetic ?elative #lases
In spo;en .nglis% man? relati"e clauses are introduced as?ndeticall?$ <%ic% can e
interpreted as an ellipsis of t%e relati"e pronoun! Suc% clauses introduced as?ndeticall?
are sometimes called contact or unconnected relati"e clauses! T%e deletion of t%e relati"e
pronoun depends on its function in t%e sentence! T%e pronoun can e deleted <%en it
disc%arges t%e function of:
- direct o#ect$ e!g!
The la-yer *whom+ # consulted gave me some sefl advice.
The boo, *which+ # lent you belongs to my brother.
That+s all # know.
The room # shared with lieutenant 3inaldi loo,ed ot on the cortyard!
* devored the boo,s they lent me. @C!-!A
*f there is anything # can do for you *+m al-ays at yor service!@=!4!A
- indirect or prepositional o#ect: deletion is possile if t%e preposition is mo"ed to t%e
end of t%e sentence!
e!g! 7ho is the man to whom you are talkingD 6 7ho is the man you were talking
This is the boo, about which # was telling you 6 This is the boo, # was
telling you about.
This is the hotel in which # stayed last month. 9 This is the hotel # stayed in
last month!
T%ere are cases <%en it is not possile to mo"e t%e preposition to t%e end of t%e
sentence! T%is is particularl? true of t%e prepositions <%ic% are felt as eing deri"ed from
ot%er parts of speec% suc% as rond$ dring$ concerning$ regarding$ except!
e!g! This is the plan regarding which he called her B XThis is the plan *which+ he
called her regarding.
T%e preposition cannot e mo"ed to t%e end of t%e sentence <%en t%e antecedent is
e&pressed ? a "er? astract noun$ suc% as time$ place$ manner$
e!g! That is the day on which he left 6 XThat is the day *which+ he left on!
Alternati"el?$ if that is used B and t%is is ? far more common case B t%e preposition is
droppedE t%e relati"e pronoun that is also dropped more often t%an not!
e!g! This -as the day *that+ he left.
The sea -as very rogh the day we crossed the Channel.
That+s not the -ay # do it @cf! The -ay in which # doA!
The reason he comes here is n,no-n @cf! The reason for which he comes
here is n,no-nA!
Alternati"el?$ <ords denoting place$ time$ reason @not mannerA can e follo<ed ?
corresponding relati"e ad"ers @-here, -hen, -hyA!
e!g! This -as the place where he went.
This -as the time when he arrived.
This -as the reason why he did it.
After <ords denoting manner $-ay& that is used:
This -as the -ay that he did it.
- t%e relati"e pronoun cannot e omitted <%en it is su#ect
e!g! The man who told me this refsed to give his name!
)e"ert%eless$ t%e relati"e pronoun functioning as su#ect ma? e deleted in sentences
opening <it% it is$ there is! T%e ellipsis of t%e relati"e pronoun <as "er? freCuent in
8iddle and .arl? 8odern .nglis%! )o<ada?s it is a feature of colloCuial and careless
e!g! There+s t-o or three of s @A have seen strange sights!@M!S!A
There+s somebody wants to see you.
This is the only one there is @cf! This is the only one that existsA!
R!:uir; et al @'/2(: 502A gi"e a summar? of t%e introductor? elements @s?ndetic and
as?ndeticA of t%e Restricti"e Relati"e Clauses:
The man who ' that stayed in the ne- hotel.
The table that ' which stayed in the ne- hotel!
The man whom ' that ' ; ' * sa-!
The table that ' ; ' which * sa-!
The man at whom * glanced!
The table at which * glanced!
The place where ' at which ' that G ; * tried ot the ne- car!
The time at which ' that ' ; ' when * tried ot the ne- car!
The reason why ' that ' ; * tried ot the ne- car!
The -ay that ' ; ' in which * tried ot the ne- car!
*!'!*! Transformations involving ?estrictive ?elative #lases
Relati"e Clauses constitute an important source for ot%er modifiers @premodif?ing
and postmodif?ing constructionsA: <%at %appens is t%at finite relati"e clauses are turned
into non-finite clauses or prepositional p%rases$ going t%roug% a process of partial
nominalization <%ere? t%e? oligatoril? lose t%e tense constituent and optionall? t%e
aspect constituent!
aA Ad2ective): Restricti"e Relati"e Clauses ma? e condensed t%roug% ellipsis to t%e
form of an ad#ecti"e$
e!g! Plays which are controversies 6 Controversial plays.
Me appl? Relati"e Clause reduction @i!e! t%e reduction of t%e relati"e pronoun T
au&iliar?A$ e!g! Plays controversial and t%en a rule called 8odifier S%ift$ <%ic% mo"es t%e
ad#ecti"e in pre-nominal position$ e!g! #ontroversial plays!
A Pe0&)iti&n'% 0.')e): 6repositional p%rases are deri"ed from Relati"e Clauses and
represent a "er? common t?pe of )6 postmodification! T%e full range of prepositions is
e!g! Passengers who are on board this ship 6 Passengers on board this ship.
" man who has a tall hat on. 6 " man with a tall hat on.
The girl who is near !red. 6 The girl near !red.
* as,ed for the best boo, on the subject @cf! I as;ed for t%e est oo; t%at can
e found on t%e su#ectA
cA )on-finite forms:
(ing 0'tici0%e): <%en t%e "er of t%e finite Relati"e Clause is in t%e continuous
aspect$ ot% t%e relati"e pronoun and t%e au&iliar? be are omitted:
e!g! The man who is waiting in the hall is a friend of mine 6
The man waiting in the hall is a friend of mine!
-ut 6ing in postmodifiers is not al<a?s a reduction of a continuous form: t%ere are a
large numer of cases <%ere an 6ing postmodifier cannot correspond to a continuous
form in t%e Relati"e Clause! T%us$ stati"e "ers <%ic% cannot %a"e t%e progressi"e in t%e
finite "er p%rase$ can$ ne"ert%eless$ appear in 6ing postmodifiers!
e!g! "nyone who wishes to leave early may do so 6 "nyone wishing to leave early
may do so!
.e is tal,ing to a girl resembling 5ane @cf! !!!<%o resemles =aneE !!! X<%o is
resemling =aneA!
(ed 0'tici0%e): <%en t%e "er in t%e Relati"e Clause is in t%e passi"e "oice t%e relati"e
pronoun and t%e finite form of be are usuall? omitted
e!g! The goods that were ordered last month have not arrived yet. 9 The goods
ordered last month have not arrived yet.
"ll the coins *which were+ found on this site mst be handed to the police!
( in+initive): are also otained from t%e reduction of a Relati"e Clause especiall? <%en
t%e antecedent is determined ? superlati"es$ ordinal numerals$ or <%en t%e Relati"e
Clause contains modal "ers$
e!g! The last man who left the ship -as the s,ipper I
The last man to leave the ship -as the s,ipper.
The ?omans -ere the first who made coloured glass I
The ?omans -ere the first to make coloured glass.
The procedre which must / should be followed I
The procedre to be followed!
T%e antecedent need not e t%e su#ect of t%e Relati"e Clause$ it ma? e its direct or
e"en its prepositional o#ect$ so t%at t%e infiniti"e clause %as a distinct su#ect e&pressed
in t%e surface structure @introduced ? forA!
e!g! " place that we should visit 6 " place for us to visit 6 " place to visit!
If t%e relati"e pronoun is a prepositional o#ect and t%e preposition precedes t%e
pronoun$ it is possile to retain t%e relati"e in t%e infiniti"al modifier!
e!g! This is a convenient tool with which you can work 6
This is a convenient tool with which to work. 9
This is a convenient tool to work with.
*!'!+! Se@ence of tenses in ?estrictive ?elative #lasesC Restricti"e Relati"e Clauses
allo< freedom of general logic to go"ern t%e tenses$ <it%out an? influence of t%e tense
constraints$ e!g!
:or she sang of the Love that dies not in the tomb! @>!M!A
5t the bolts # had screwed up some days before
stopped him! @F!4!M!A
8ext spring * -ill bring yo bac, t-o beatifl Be-els in
place of those you have given away! @>!M!A

A./. 8on9restrictive'8on9defining ?elative #lases
)on-restricti"e @or )on-definingA Relati"e Clauses are not essential to t%e meaning
of t%e sentence: t%e clauses gi"e additional$ ut not essential information! 1nli;e
Restricti"e Relati"e Clauses$ t%e? can e omitted <it%out causing confusion! Also unli;e
Restricti"e Clauses t%e? are placed et<een commas or das%es! )on-restricti"e clauses
are far less common t%an restricti"e clauses! T%e? are found in formal <riting$ ut seldom
in speec%!
e!g! =or stdent, whose name # can never remember, has Bst come!
4i"en t%at a )on-restricti"e Relati"e Clause ma;es an additional assertion$ it is
plausile to assume t%at )on-restricti"e Relati"e Clauses are deri"ed from coordinated
sentences! T%e e"idence in support of t%is deri"ation of )on-restricti"e Relati"e Clauses
is t%eir s?non?m? <it% coordinated sentences
e!g! Even 4ohn, who is a friend of mine, left early 6 Even
4ohn left early and he is a friend of mine!

A./.%. *ntrodctory elements of 8on9?estrictive ?elative #lases
)on-restricti"e Relati"e Clauses are introduced ?:
- relati"e pronouns: -ho$ -hich! T%ese pronouns are distriuted according to t%e
features of t%e antecedent: -ho for UTanimateV antecedents$ -hich for UBanimateV
e!g! 4ohn, who is going /<, -ants to become an actor.
The Shannon, which is the largest river in the &ritish
#sles, rises in the 8orth of *reland and flo-s to the "tlantic!
S?ntacticall?$ t%e pronouns can e used to e&press t%e functions of su#ect @<ho,
-hichA$ o#ect @-hom, -hichA$ possessi"e @-hose, of -hichA$ e!g!
4ane "sten, whom the English regard as one of their greatest novelists,
seldom moved far from her native village.
This pen, which # bought two months ago, lea,s badly.
!r. Green, whose wife teaches English, is himself a teacher of English.
This encyclopedia, of which the second volume @or: the second volume of
whichA is missing, is ot of date!
- ad"ers: -here$ -hen,
e!g! 7aterloo, where Wellington defeated 7apoleon, is a small village near
*n those days, when steam engine was unknown, textile mills -ere -or,ed by
the -ater of the rivers.
1nli;e Restricti"e Relati"e Clauses$ )on-Restricti"e Relati"e Clauses cannot e
introduced as?ndeticall?$ i!e! t%e relati"e pronoun cannot e omitted!
A././. Sentential ?elative #lases
A )on-Restricti"e Relati"e Clause ma? refer not to a single noun as antecedent ut to
a <%ole clause or sentence! Sentential Relati"e Clauses are introduced ? -hich @in suc%
cases t%e relati"e pronoun ma? e eCui"alent to Oand t%isO$ Oand itOA!
e!g! .e has to -or, on Sndays, which $J and this& he does not like.
.e missed the train, which annoyed him very much.
"fter that things improved, which surprised me.
A.A. "ppositive "ttribtive #lases
T%e Appositi"e Attriuti"e Clause con"e?s more or less essential information eing
appended to a non-significant$ semanticall? irrele"ant noun suc% as assmption$ belief$
dobt$ fact$ feeling$ idea$ impression$ notion$ opinion$ problem$ @estion$ reason$ thoght!
A.A.%. *ntrodctory elementsC
- con#unctions: that$ -hether$ if,
e!g! There is no denying the fact that he has made great progress lately.
=or assmption that things will improve is nfonded.
.arry -as alarmed at the notion t.'t .i) +iend 7') '/&ut t& %e've .i,!

T%e similarit? to Restricti"e Relati"e Clauses can sometimes cause amiguit?$ since
that can function as eit%er a relati"e pronoun or a con#unction! Consider t%e follo<ing
" report that he stole -as ltimately sent to the police!
In t%is sentence t<o readings are possile depending on t%e possiilit? of interpreting
t%e antecedent report as a concrete o#ect or as an astract one: in one interpretation that
he stole is a Restricti"e Relati"e Clause @Sa reportGoo; <%ic% %e stoleDA$ in anot%er that
he stole is appositi"e @St%e reportG rumour <asDA!
- ad"ers: -here$ -hen$ -hy$ ho-,
e!g! * have no idea where you can find her.
!y original @estion why he did it at all has not been ans-ered.
* have not the faintest notion when he"ll come!
Appositi"e attriuti"e clauses are ne"er #oined as?ndeticall?!
A.A./. !ood constraints in "ppositive #lases
After t%e nouns recommendation$ demand$ re@est$ sggestion$ -ish$ t%e Anal?tic
Su#uncti"e @e&pressed ? sholdA is used in t%e Appositi"e clause:
e!g! .is sggestion that we should go to the cinema -as accepted.
The thoght that his adored daughter should learn of that old scandal hrt his
pride too mch! @=!4!A
The demand that pupils should be grounded in the reading and writing of
English led Edinbrgh to the establishment of preparatory schools.
.is recommendation that the patients should take this medicine -as strictly
A.A.A. 8on9finite formsC an infiniti"al p%rase$
e!g! !y ambition to be an actor has never been flfilled.

A.G. *ntrodctory Emphatic Sentences $#left Sentences&
An Introductor? .mp%atic Sentence @or Cleft SentenceA is a special construction <%ic%
gi"es emp%asis @focal and t%ematic prominenceA to a particular element of t%e sentence! It
is made up of t<o parts:
- a main clause introduced ? t%e empt? pronoun IT @Sintroductor? emp%atic ITDA T
t%e "er -. @usuall? in t%e 6resent or 6ast singularA T t%e element on <%ic% t%e
focusGemp%asis fallsE
- a Restricti"e Relati"e Clause introduced ? t%e pronoun -ho$ -hich$ sometimes
that or introduced as?ndeticall?! T%e pattern is:
T%is construction ma? emp%asize an? part of t%e sentence e&cept t%e predicate @<%ic%
is emp%asized ? means of t%e "er to doA:
- Su#ect as focus:
*t -as she -ho stopped the car!@=!4!A
<ld 4olyon spo,eC it -as he -ho had started the discssion. @=!4!A
5t it is not * altogether that am to blame! @T!F!A
*t is not improvements -hich are necessary bt a complete revoltion!
- >#ect as focus:
*t is not only the famos men -hom -e honor!
=o are -rong; it+s not Sarah * hate.
- Ad"erial as focus: M%en t%e prepositional o#ect or t%e ad"erial modifier @e&pressed
? a noun or pronoun <it% a preposition$ ad"er$ etc!A is gi"en emp%asis$ t%e suordinate
clause is introduced ? that!
e!g! *t -as in his dealings -ith children that the best side of his personality
manifested! @=!4!A @prepositional o#ectA
*t -as on the beach, close do-n by the sea, that * fond them! @C!D!A @ad"erial
modifier of placeA
*t -as only the follo-ing morning that she noticed the disappearance of that
photograph! @=!4!A @ad"erial modifier of timeA
.&ercise '! =oin t%e follo<ing pairs of sentences and state <%et%er ?ou %a"e
<ritten defining or non-defining clauses! @-ot% are possile in se"eral casesA:
'! I %a"e read all %is oo;s! T%e? are aout t%e sea!
(! Fe %as <ritten some oo;s aout t%e sea! I %a"e read t%em all!
*! Pou <ill marr? a certain man! Fe <ill e tall$ dar; and %andsome!
+! Is t%at oo; interestingQ I mean t%e one =oanna ga"e ?ou!
,! To;?o %as a lo< crime rate! It is$ incidentall?$ one of t%e largest cities in t%e <orld!
0! S%e trusted onl? one man! Fe <as called Fector!
2! Some people can li"e %appil? alone! Fe en"ied t%em!
5! 3et us raise our glasses to a man! Hrom %is earl? efforts t%is large usiness %as gro<n!
/! T%at man <ill return to .g?pt! Fe %as drun; t%e <aters of t%e )ile!
'9! 8? uncle <as called a co<ard! Fe %ad ser"ed ra"el? in t%e <ar!
.&ercise (! Identif? and anal?se t%e attriuti"e clauses:
'! T%e man I spo;e to ?esterda? continued to complain aout ur?ing %is life in t%is part
of t%e countr?!
(! Fis <ife$ to <%om %e %as een married for aout t%ree mont%s$ refused to come <it%
*! T%e reason <%? %e crept et<een t%e t<o us%es so as to reac% t%e %ollo< linden-tree
remained un;no<n to %er!
+! Fe %ad no idea of <%at %is elder rot%er %ad decided to do <it% %is old i;e <%en %e
came ac; from %is %olida?!
,! I lost m? purse on t%e same street as ?ou did!
0! Fe <as t%e last person to follo< t%em on t%eir <a? to t%at dangerous region!
2! ID"e got a prett? good idea of <%at to do ne&t!
5! T%e? ;ne< not%ing aout t%e source <%ence t%e mone? <as coming!
/! A "er? important aspect$ t%at t%e? <ould ne"er accept %er proposition$ s%ould %a"e
een considered!
'9! ."er?od? sa?s t%at %e is "er? stuorn$ a fact <%ic% surprised nood?!
''! T%e Cuestion <%et%er t%e suggestion <as to e accepted or not interests all t%e
memers of t%e staff!
'(! Fe ga"e a stupid ans<er$ <%ic% fact anno?ed %is parents!
.&ercise *! Translate into .nglis%:
'! Rspunse dYnd din cap$ ceea ce era nostim pentru el!
(! .a este femeia pentru care el a acceptat oferta!
*! Terasa pe care se ngrmdea lumea s "ad spectacolul ddea spre parcul de
+! Scorpia de femeie pe care a"ea s-o suporte ani la rYnd era sora "ecinei lui!
,! Aceea a fost ziua n care s-a %otrYt totul!
0! Zntrearea de ce unii "in la serare prea de"reme sau prea tYrziu e inutil!
A > luam atunci napoi spre cas i$ ducYnd n rae minunata po"ar$ a"eam sentimentul
c n realitate sunt un om fericit i c suferina mea e o iluzie$ o %imer pe care ar treui
s-o alungeE puteam tri astfel o mie de ani i muri linitit! Altce"a$ o ucurie mai mare nu
e&ist pe pmYnt$ restul e nerozie! Acas$ ns$ ne ntYmpina mama ei$ care mi-o smulgea
literalmente din rae i punea stpYnire pe ea: c n-am "zut c fetia a oositQ Ce$ am de
gYnd s-o omor$ aa cum i-am spus cYnd am auzit c e nsrcinat cu eaQ Cred eu c a uitat
sau c o s uite "reodat aceste cu"inteQ > s i le spun fetiei cYnd s-o face mare$ s tie
i ea ce tat a a"ut i cYt de mult a dorit el s "ie pe lume! A"eam atunci sentimental net
c ea g%icea c sunt fericit i "roia s nu fiu i a"ea i puterea s-o fac! De ceQ m
ntream! Ce ru i fcusemQ Totul se ntuneca$ nimic nu mai a"ea neles i "alul de
singurtate urca iari n mine cu o putere parc mai mare!
@8arin 6reda$ #el mai ibit dintre p(mKnteniA
'! -descu$ A!$ Gramatica limbii engleze, .d! Stiintifica$ -ucureti$ '/0*!
(! -anta$ A!$ Elements of Descriptive English Syntax$ T1-$ -ucureti$ '/22!
*! -udai$ 3!$ Gramatica engleza, Teorie si exercitii$ .ditura Teora$ -ucureti$ '//2!
+! 4leanu$ 4!$ Comiel$ .!$ Gramatica limbii engleze$ .d! Didactic i pedagogic$
-ucureti$ '/5(!
,! 3e"ic%i$ 3!$ 6reda$ A!$ Gramatica limbii engleze$ .d$ 7tiintific$ -ucureti$ '/02!
0! 8urar I$ 6isosc%i C!$ Trantescu A!8!$ Essentials of English Syntax. The Simple
Sentence. .ditura 1ni"ersitaria$ Craio"a$ (995!
2! 8urar I!$ Ana-8aria Trantescu$ 6isosc%i C!$ Descriptive English Syntax. Theory and
Practice! .ditura 1ni"ersitaria$ Craio"a$ (995!
5! 7eran D!$ English Syntax$ "olume one$ -ucureti$ '/5(!
/! 7tefnescu$ I!$ Lectres in English !orphology, T1-$ -ucureti$ '/25!
'9! :uir; R!$ 4reenaum S!$ 3eec% 4!$ S<art"ic; =!$ " Grammar of #ontemporary
English$ 3ondon$ 3ongman$ '/2(!
''! T%omas A!$ 8artinet A! " Practical English Grammar$ >&ford 1ni"ersit? 6ress$
3ondon$ '/0/!
UNITATEA <. Adve/i'% C%'u)e)
Adve/i'% C%'u)e) &+ Ti,e
Adve/i'% C%'u)e) &+ Pu0&)e
Adve/i'% C%'u)e) &+ C&nditi&n
>iecti"e: Studenii "or fi capaili:
'! S cunoasc folosirea corect a timpurilor n suordonata temporal!
(! S cunoasc regulile de folosire a timpurilor i modurilor n circumstaniala de
*! S identifice tipurile de propoziie condiional i s cunoasc folosirea modurilor
i timpurilor n acestea!
Timp de studiu : + ore!
Ad"erial clauses ma? e placed in "arious semantic categories suc% as place$
time$ manner$ etc! T%ese categories ma? e related to t%ose for ad"erial p%rases in
general and for prepositional p%rases at t%e le"el of t%e simple sentence! Ad"erial
clauses are often commutale <it% prepositional p%rases! Compare:
&ecause the soloist was ill they cancelled the concert.
&ecause of the soloist"s illness they cancelled the concert.
Ad"erial clauses$ li;e ad"erials in general$ are capale of occurring in a final$ initial
or medial position <it%in t%e main clause @generall? in t%at order of freCuenc?A!
"dverbial #lases of Time
T%e ad"erial clause of time disc%arges t%e same function as t%e ad"erial
modifier of time at t%e le"el of t%e simple sentence!
*ntrodctory elements
Ad"erial clauses of time ma? e introduced ? a numer of connecti"e ad"ers
and con#unctions: after, as, before, once, since, till, ntil, -hen, -henever, -hereas,
-hile; as soon as, as'so long as, directly $that&, hardly...-hen, scarcely...-hen, no
e!g! When the cat is away the mice -ill play. @6ro"erA
After she had finished her shopping she -ent to a snac,9bar.
5y yor tic,ets as soon as you can.
.e sang as he worked-
They as, for help whenever they need.
* -as reading while my brother was watching 9.
%o long as you are happy, * don+t mind.
.e recognized me directly he saw me.
=o can go no- *that+ you"ve finished-
* -ill have done my home-or, by the time you come!
Mit% till'ntil a d?namic "er in t%e main clause often %as to e accompanied ? a
negati"e <ord:
e!g! .e didn+t start to read until he was /= years old. @in t%e negati"e sentence
not...ntil means t%e same as not...beforeA!
Se@ence of Tenses in "dverbial #lases of Time
Ad"erial clauses of time are su#ect to man? constraints as part of t%e set of rules
called t%e seCuence of tenses$ <%ic% can e summarized as follo<s:
aA parallel @simultaneousA actions: t%e action of t%e "er in t%e temporal clause occurs at
t%e same time or during t%e action of t%e "er in t%e main clause! T%e parallel actions
are indicated ?:
- t%e 6resent Tense or t%e 6ast Tense in t%e main clause follo<ed ? t%e same tense
B 6resent or 6ast B in t%e temporal clause$
e!g! .e comes here when *ever+ he likes.
When # have some days off * go to the montains.
.e came here when*ever+ he felt like it.
"nd the Giant+s heart melted as he looked out of the window! @>!M!A
When # left for school this morning it -as raining hard.
.e -as -riting a letter when his friend rang him up-
- t%e Huture Tense in t%e main clause is follo<ed ? t%e 6resent Tense in t%e
temporal clause:
e!g! * shall -ait till the spring comes and then * shall pay him a visit! @>!M!A
=o -ill change yor tone when you hear -hat has happened! @4!-!S!A
.e -ill come here -hen$ever& he thinks fit to do so.
- t%e Huture in t%e 6ast is follo<ed ? t%e 6ast Tense in t%e temporal clause$ e!g!
.e said he -old come when he could.
* told yo * -old call on yo when # had some spare time.
A Anterior @6riorA actions: t%e action of t%e "er of t%e temporal clause ta;es place
efore t%at of t%e main clause! Anterior actions are indicated ?:
- t%e 6resent or t%e Huture Tense in t%e main clause is follo<ed ? t%e 6resent
6erfect in t%e temporal clause$
e!g! =o cannot stay here after what you have just said about my future husband!
=o -ill spea, when # have done.
7e+ll go to the pictres when we have finished our work.
- t%e 6ast Tense in t%e main clause is follo<ed ? t%e 6ast 6erfect in t%e temporal
e!g! The children -ere sent to bed when they had finished
their meal. @=!Al!A
When he had sealed and stamped the envelope he -ent bac, to the -indo-.
After they had bought their tickets they entered the opera9hall and loo,ed
for their seats.
T%e 6ast Tense ma? e used instead of t%e 6ast 6erfect in temporal clauses introduced
? after, till, ntil if anteriorit? results from t%e conte&t:
e!g! .e didn+t leave until he *had+ received a definite answer.
.e rang p all his friends after he *had+ returned from his trip.
After the 3omans had gone/went away from &ritain, the "nglo9Saxons
crossed the 8orth Sea and landed there.
- t%e Huture in t%e 6ast is follo<ed ? t%e 6ast 6erfect in temporal clauses$ e!g!
.e promised he -old come as soon as he had finished his work-
* told him that # would leave as soon as # had got my diploma-
- t%e 6resent 6erfect in t%e main clause is follo<ed ? t%e 6ast Tense in temporal
clauses introduced ? sinceC
e!g! They have moved hose three times since they got married.
* have been -al,ing to -or, since my car broke down.
* haven+t seen him since he left school.
M%en t%e t<o actions are parallel$ t%e 6resent 6erfect is emplo?ed in temporal clauses$
e!g! *+ve lost a hndred and forty at cards since #"ve been down here! @M!8!T!A
7e have made many friends since we have lived here.
cA SuseCuent actions: t%e action of t%e "er of t%e temporal clause ta;es place after t%at
of t%e main clause! SuseCuent actions are indicated ?:
- t%e 6ast Tense or t%e 6ast 6erfect in t%e main clause is follo<ed ? t%e 6ast Tense
in t%e temporal clause! T%e time relation is indicated ? t%e con#unctions till,
ntil, before, -henC
e!g! The film began'had begn before # reached the cinema(hall!
.e left ' had left before # came.
When # got to the conference, the lectrer had already been spea,ing for an
- t%e 6ast 6erfect in t%e main clause is follo<ed ? t%e 6ast Tense in t%e temporal
clause! T%e rule is applied in sentences containing t%e correlati"es hardly...-hen,
scarcely...-hen, no sooner...than @t%e ad"ers hardly, scarcely, no sooner ma? e
placed in front position <it% su#ect-au&iliar? in"ersionA:
!"*8 #L"FSE TE!P<?"L #L"FSE
Fardl? T 6ast 6erfect!!! <%en T 6ast Tense
Scarcel? T 6ast 6erfect!!! <%en T 6ast Tense
)o sooner T 6ast 6erfect!!! t%an T 6ast Tense
e!g! They+d hardly got on the train when it started.
4im had no sooner posted the letter than he remembered he hadn+t stamped
* had scarcely replaced the receiver when the telephone rang again.
.ardly had they started the engine when it began to rain!
They had no sooner got there, than the phone rang-
8o sooner had they got there than the phone rang-
?edction of "dverbial #lases of Time to 8on9:inite :orms
aA ' 0'tici0i'% 0.')e: t%e Ad"erial Clause of Time ma? e reduced to a participial
p%rase <%en t%e su#ect of t%e main clause is co-referential <it% t%at of t%e suordinate
e!g! urning the corner, the lorry hit the tree!
$aving done my homework1 * -ent to the cinema.
Are"iated 6ing forms ma? follo< t%e con#unctions -hen$ever&, -hile, e!g!
.e does a lot of reading when travelling by train.
While waiting at the dentist"s * read a -hole short story.
A a -eundi'% 0.')e introduced ? t%e prepositions after, before, on, in, e!g!
When we opened the door -e sa- him. 6 *'n+ opening the door -e sa- him.
While # was trying to open the door * brst the ,ey. 6 #n trying to open the
door * brst the ,ey.
* s-itched off the lights before going to bed.
After 5ohn"s/his passing all his exams, his friends came to celebrate.
cA ' 0')t 0'tici0%e preceded ? after, before, once, since, -henC
e!g! 'nce published1 the boo, cased a remar,able stir.
Some dogs become vicios when chained up-
dA 'n in+initiv'% 0.')e:
e!g! She gre- p to be a successful actress.
* a-o,e one morning to find the house in an uproar.
T%e sentences could e parap%rased ? s<itc%ing t%e relations%ip of suordination and
using a -hen-clause: When # awoke one morning * fond the hose in an proar. T%e
restriction of infiniti"al p%rases to final position suggests an analog? et<een t%ese
clauses B called clauses of IoutcomeJ B and Clauses of Result <%ic% t%e? resemle in
e3 !e/%e)) c%'u)e): In a clause of t%e t?pe Su#ect T -e T Ad"erialG 6redicati"e$ t%e
Su#ect T e can e deleted to form a "erless clause:
e!g! While still at school he -rote his first novel.
When in doubt, leave ot.
"dverbial #lases of Prpose
Ad"erial Clauses of 6urpose disc%arge t%e same function as Ad"erial 8odifiers of
6urpose in simple sentences! Ad"erial Clauses of 6urpose can e&press affirmati"e or
negati"e purpose!
#lases of "ffirmative Prpose
*ntrodctory elements
Clauses of Affirmati"e 6urpose are introduced ? t%e con#unctions so that, in order
that, that @rarel? used e&cept in formal st?leA!
Send the postcard immediately so that he can get it in due time.
.is brother lent him some money in order that he could buy that dictionary.
Tense and mood constraints
T%e Ad"erial Clause of Affirmati"e 6urpose usuall? contains an Anal?tic Su#uncti"e
formed ? means of t%e modal au&iliaries -ill'-old, can'cold, may'might, shall'shold!
T%e c%oice of t%e au&iliar? depends on t<o factors:
- t%e tense of t%e "er in t%e main clause: -ill, can, may, shall are used <%en t%e
main "er is in t%e present$ present perfect or future tenseE -old, cold, might,
shold are used <%en t%e main "er is in t%e past tense!
- t%e introductor? con#unction: so that ma? e follo<ed ? an? au&iliar?$ in order
that is follo<ed ? may, shallE <%ile that is normall? follo<ed ? may!
e!g! *+ll send the letter airmail so that he will / can /may get it right away.
.e -rote the notice in several langages so that the foreign tourists could
understand them.
* lent him the dictionary so that he might do the translation-
Thirty copies of the boo, -ere boght so that each boy in the class should have
* did it in order that everyone should be satisfied.
The door of Scrooge+s hose -as open that he might keep an eye upon his clerk.
#lases of 8egative Prpose
*ntrodctory elements
Clauses of negati"e purpose are introduced ? t%e con#unctions so that, lest @formalA$
for fear that, in case @colloCuialA! So that is t%e onl? con#unction t%at
admits a negati"e "er in t%e clauseE t%e "er is affirmati"e after t%e
ot%er con#unctions!
* mst give him a ring so that he won"t forget -hat to bring for the party.
Tense and mood constraints
T%e Ad"erial Clause of negati"e purpose usuall? contains an Anal?tic Su#uncti"e
formed ? means of t%e au&iliaries -ill ' -old, shall ' shold, may ' might or t%e
Indicati"e 8ood! As <it% clauses of affirmati"e purpose$ t%e c%oice of t%e au&iliar?
depends on t%e tense of t%e "er in t%e main clause and on t%e introductor? con#unction:
for fear that ma? e follo<ed ? an? of t%e t%ree au&iliaries$ so that, lest and in case are
normall? follo<ed ? shallG shold.
e!g! .e hid behind some bshes for fear that passers(by should see him.
.e didn+t trn on the light for fear that she might wake up-
* didn+t tell him for fear that he would put the blame on me.
Pt ot the candles, so that they shan"t see the light -hen * open the shtters.
* mst give him a list so that he won"t forget what to buy-
She dared not approach a -indo- lest he should see her from the street. @C!D!A
She -as going on tiptoes lest she should disturb him.
T%e Indicati"e 8ood @simple 6resent or 6ast TenseA is used onl? in clauses
introduced ? in case
e!g! *+ll give him a list in case he should forget what to buy-
*+ll give him a list in case he forgets what to buy!
?edction of "dverbial #lases of Prpose to 8on9finite formsC
T%e Ad"erial Clause of 6urpose ma? e reduced to an infiniti"al or gerundial
construction$ <%en t%e su#ect of t%e main clause is co-referential <it% t%at of t%e
suordinate clause:
aA 'n in+initiv'% c&n)tucti&n <%en t%e su#ect is identical <it% t%at of t%e main
.e -ent to the theatre so that he could see the new performance. 6 .e -ent to
the theatre to see the new performance.
T%e H>R-T> Infiniti"e construction is used <%en t%e su#ects are different:
.e too, his children to the theatre for them to see the new performance-
T%e infiniti"e can e preceded ? so as, in order, to emp%asize t%e idea of purpose:
.e -ent to the theatre so as / in order to see the new performance.
T%e infiniti"al construction can e reduced to a prepositional construction:
They strove to get a new job 9 ' They strove for a new job-
A ' -eundi'% c&n)tucti&n preceded ? t%e preposition for:
T%e gerund is used to e&press t%e general purpose of t%ings$ <%ile t%e infiniti"e is used
<%en <e are considering a particular purpose:
" cor,scre- is a tool for opening bottles-
*+m loo,ing for a cor,scre- to open this bottle with-
"dverbial #lases of #ondition
T%e Ad"erial Clause of Condition %as no correspondent on t%e plane of t%e s?nta& of
t%e simple sentence$ condition eing e&pressed <it% t%e %elp of a "er inside t%e clause!
Conditional clauses state t%e dependence of one circumstance upon anot%er! A
comple& sentence containing a clause of condition is made up of t<o parts:
- t%e suordinate clause of conditionG -if clause <%ic% refers to t%e condition <%ic%
<ould %a"e to e fulfilled in order to ma;e possile t%e action of t%e main clauseE
- t%e main clause <%ic% e&presses t%e result or t%e effect of t%e condition!
*ntrodctory elementsC
Suordinate Clauses of Condition ma? e introduced ? means of t%e follo<ing
con#unctions: if, nless, on condition $that&, provided $that&, providing $that&, sppose,
spposing $that&, so long as, in case. *f is t%e most freCuent con#unctionE it can introduce
all t?pes of conditional clauses!
Types of #onditional #lases
Conditional clauses can e interpreted from t<o points of "ie<:
aA from t%e point of "ie< of t%eir relation to present realit?$ conditional clauses ma?
appear as:
- real$ i!e! not contradicting present realit?
- unreal$ i!e! in contradiction <it% present realit?
A from t%e point of "ie< of t%e relation in time to t%e moment of spea;ing or
<riting$ conditional clauses ma? refer to t%ree periods: future$ present$ past!
T%e o"erlapping et<een t%ese t<o points of "ie< leads to t%ree t?pes of conditional
sentences: T90e I: HutureBpossile sentencesE T90e II: 6resentBunreal sentencesE T90e
III: 6astBunreal sentences!
T90e I# "utue=0&))i/%e )entence) @C%'u)e) &+ e'% & 0&/'/%e c&nditi&n3
Conditional clauses elonging to t%is t?pe e&press a possile situation not
contradicting present realit? and t%e? usuall? refer to a future or present period:
aA t%ose referring to t%e future e&press a condition possile or real in a future
moment! T%e? include t%e 6resent Tense of t%e Indicati"e 8ood in t%e
Conditional Clause and Huture Tense in t%e 8ain Clause!
e!g! 7e+ll leave tomorro- if the weather is good-
=o -on+t be able to borro- boo,s unless you get a reader"s card-
.er father -ill beat her if she does not bring home some money! @>!M!A
The Present Perfect Tense is also sed in the #onditional #lase
e!g! 8obody -ill blame yo if you have forgotten the author"s name.
>nless he has done the work to my satisfaction * shall
not pay him for it.
L7ell, 4onM, said >al, Lif you"ve finished, -e+ll go and
have coffeeM.@=!4!A
A T%ose referring to t%e present e&press general facts$ statements of uni"ersal trut%s
and %aitual reactions! T%e? reCuire t%e 6resent Tense of t%e Indicati"e 8ood
ot% in t%e 8ain and t%e Conditional Clause @T90e >: cause and effectA!
#f you heat btter, it melts!
#f you put salt in water it dissolves.
M#f you are going my way1M he said, L* can give yo a liftM.@=!4!A
#f # make a mistake the teacher al-ays finds it.
#f # make a promise1 * ,eep it.
In t%is t?pe of sentence t%e con#unction if$ corresponds closel? in meaning to
Statements in t%is form commonl? appear in factual discussions or e&planator?
@particularl? scientific and tec%nicalA material!
T%e tenses in ot% t%e Conditional and t%e 8ain clause are t%e same @6resent or 6astA!
T%us t%e last sentence ma? e <ritten in t%e past tense <it% a similar correspondence
et<een t%e "er forms in t%e t<o clauses:
#f # made a promise, * ,ept it.
T.E *!PE?"T*>E !<<D *S "LS< FSED *8 T.E !"*8 #L"FSEC
e!g! #f you meet him tell him to come bac, at once.
Don+t come unless # tell you to come-
cA T%ose referring to t%e past use t%e same tense B t%e 6ast Tense of t%e Indicati"e
8ood B ot% in t%e 8ain and t%e Conditional Clause!
e!g! #f she betrayed any agitation, he did not observe it. @C!D!A
.e made a mista,e if he acted like that.
Some conditional clauses are in fact disguised temporal clauses referring to a past
%aitual action @t%e con#unction if is replaceale ? -hen, since, -heneverA!
e!g! #f he felt tired1 he -ent for a -al,.
#entries ago, if a man had fever, he sally died.
-esides t%e con#unction if$ T?pe I B Conditional Clauses are introduced ? provided
$that&, providing $that&, on condition that, so long as, in case, nless.
Provided $that&, providing $that&, on condition that, so long as can replace if <%en
t%ere is a rat%er stronger idea of limitation or restriction @K if and onl? ifA
e!g! * shall accept the offer provided *that+ the terms are favourable-
*+ll forgive yo provided you tell the truth-
* shall go on condition that you go too.
%o long as you return the book by %aturday, * -ill lend it
to yo -ith pleasre.
*n case refers to possile future condition:
e!g! #n case # can"t come, *+ll send yo a -ire.
Fnless follo<ed ? a "er in t%e affirmati"e introduces negati"e condition! T%e
con#unction %as t%e same meaning as if not ut it is more emp%atic! Compare:
* -on+t say anything if he does not bring up the matter
himself. 6 * -on+t say anything unless he brings up the
matter himself-
=o need not meet him unless you like! @4!-!S!A
*f-clauses are li;e Cuestions in t%at t%e? impl? uncertaint? aout t%e actual e&istence
of t%e circumstances referred to! T%erefore t%e? tend to contain non-asserti"e forms suc%
as ever, any!
e!g! #f you ever have any trouble let me ,no-.
Clauses introduced ? nless$ on t%e ot%er %and$ la? stress on t%e e&cluded positi"e
option$ and so$ t%e? usuall? contain asserti"e forms:
e!g! * -on+t phone yo unless something unforeseen happens-
T90e II# Pe)ent(une'% )entence) @C%'u)e) &+ une'%? i,0&/'/%e c&nditi&n
e+ein- t& t.e 0e)ent & +utue3
T%e? e&press an action <%ic% refers to an unreal$ improale situation in t%e present
or future! T%e "er in t%e 8ain Clause is in t%e 6resent Conditional @shold or -old T
t%e s%ort infiniti"e or cold'might T t%e s%ort infiniti"e <%en a corresponding modal
meaning is impliedA! T%e "er in t%e Conditional Clause is in t%e S?nt%etic Su#uncti"e
II$ i!e! in t%e 6ast Su#uncti"e @eCui"alent to t%e 6ast Tense e&cept for t%e "er to be
<%ic% %as t%e form -ere in all personsA!
e!g! * -oldn+t do this if # were you-
* shold be sorry if you thought ill of me! @S!8!A
?erhaps if you explained a little more fully, * shold
comprehend better! @C!-!A
#f she went down again to om now1 -old he forgive herD @4!.!A
#f little $ans came up here and saw our warm fire and
our good supper he might get envios. @>!M!A
* shold not dream of doing so if # were not your friend!
*+d by the coat if it were/was cheaper- @T%ere is a gro<ing tendenc? to use
-as instead of t%e su#uncti"e form -ere if t%e su#ect is in t%e '
or *
person singularA!
T%e Conditional Clause contains t%e modal "ers might, cold!
e!g! L* -old not alarm yo if # could avoid itM, reBoined ?ose. @C!D!A
#f # could only have one flower * shold have lilies of the
valleyM. @=!4!A
-esides if$ T90e II- Conditional Clauses are freCuentl? introduced ? sppose,
spposing $that& to underline a %?pot%etical$ improale condition:
e!g! %uppose you were a teacher, -hat -old yo doD
%uppose / supposing your friends knew how you are
behaving here, -hat -old they thin,D
T90e III: P')t(une'% )entence) :C%'u)e) &+ une'% $ i,0&))i/%e c&nditi&n
e+ein- t& t.e 0')t3
T%e? e&press a %?pot%etical condition <%ic% %as failed to e fulfilled! T%e "er in t%e
8ain Clause is in t%e 6erfect G 6ast Conditional @shold'-old T perfect infiniti"e or
cold'might T perfect infiniti"eA! T%e "er in t%e Conditional Clause is in t%e 6erfect
Su#uncti"e or 6ast Su#uncti"e II @eCui"alent to t%e 6ast 6erfect TenseA!
e!g! #f 8r- 3eed had been alive he -old have treated me ,indly.@C!-!A
*t -old have been terrible if any cloud had come across
a friendship like ours.@>!M!A
#f # had been his brother1 he cold not have seemed more
pleased to see me.@=!4!A
She imagined so often -hat her life -old have been li,e if
her father could have loved her! @C!D!A
-esides t%e <ell ;no<n t?pes of conditional sentences t%ere are t<o mi&ed t?pes of
sentences of unreal condition:
i! t%e condition refers to t%e past and t%e conseCuences refer to t%e present or future:
e!g! #f you had taken your medicine yesterday1 yo -old
feel better no-.
#f she had taken my advice1 today she -old be on good
terms -ith her parents.
ii! t%e condition refers to no particular time and t%e conseCuences refer to t%e past:
e!g! #f he were not so absent(minded1 he -old not have
mista,en yo for yor sister.
#f she were not so beautiful1 he -old never have married her.
T%e tenses and moods used in Conditional sentences:
T?pe of clauses TenseG8ood in t%e
main clause
TenseG8ood in t%e
conditional clause
Type * 3eal Condition
aA referring to t%e future
A referring to t%e
Huture Indicati"e
6resent Indicati"e
6resent Indicati"e
cA referring to t%e past
6ast TenseG6resent
6erfect Indicati"e
6ast TenseG6resent
6erfect Indicati"e
Type ** @ ?resent >nreal
6resent Conditional 6ast Su#uncti"e
K 6ast Tense
Type *** @ ?ast >nreal
6ast Conditional 6erfect Su#uncti"e
@K 6ast 6erfectA
Special constrctions in #onditional Sentences
'3 In t%e literar? st?le t%e con#unction if can e omitted$ <it% su#ect-au&iliar? in"ersion!
In"ersion is ne"er made in clauses of real condition @T90e IA$ ut is fairl? often operated
in clauses of unreal condition referring to t%e present @T90e IIA and in t%ose referring to
t%e past @T90e IIIA!
- In suordinate clauses <%ose predicate contains an au&iliar? @be, haveA or a modal "er
@cold, mightA in t%e past tense or past perfect if ma? e omitted <it% su#ect-au&iliar?
in"ersion! In suc% cases t%e Conditional clause is placed at t%e eginning:
e!g! #f # were in your position * shold apologize 6 Were # in
your position * shold apologize.
Were # in her place, it seems to me * shold -ish the earth
to open and s-allo- me p.@C!-!A
$ad it ever occurred to me that sch a sspicion -old
have entered yor mind, * -old have died rather than
have crossed yor life.@>!M!A
$ad she found 5ane in any apparent danger, !rs. 5ennet -old have been
very miserable.@=!A!A
- M%en t%e "er in t%e suordinate clause is e&pressed ? a notional "er$ if ma? e
omitted and t%e Anal?tic Su#uncti"e <it% shold ma? e used:
e!g! #f he came earlier -e cold go to the theatre 6 %hould he
come earlier -e cold go to the theatre.
%hould the container explode1 there -old almost
certainly be -idespread danger.
A Apart from t%e t?pes of conditional clauses outlined ao"e$ t%ere are some t?pes
in"ol"ing special "er forms:
- In T90e I clauses t%e S?nt%etic Su#uncti"e I @eCui"alent to t%e s%ort infiniti"eA is
sometimes used instead of t%e 6resent Tense Indicati"e! T%is usage is mainl? confined to
"er? formal st?le @in ele"ated literar? st?le$ in legal or scientific conte&tsA:
e!g! #f your answer be -hat * almost dare to hope it is, it -ill
shed a gleam of happiness pon my lonely -ay.@C!D!A
#f any person be found guilty, he shall have the right of appeal.
#f the production and stockpiling of atomic weapons be
stopped, considerable sms of money -ill be released.
- In T90e II and T90e I clauses special constructions can e used to emp%asize t%e
.90&t.etic'%$ )u00&)iti&n'% nature of t%e condition @i!e! <%en t%e <riter or spea;er
considers t%e condition %ig%l? improale or <is%es to impl? t%at t%e action in t%e
Conditional Clause$ t%oug% possile$ is unli;el? to e fulfilledA:
- were T to-infiniti"e occurs in T?pe II clauses
e!g! #f # were to meet him * -oldn+t recognize him.
#f it were / was to rain -e shold get -et.
.e felt that if he were to live a hundred years he never
cold forget. @C!D!A
- should T infiniti"e occurs in T?pe I and T?pe II clauses @ot% <it% or <it%out
e!g! #f he should come1 let me ,no- $J if ? an? c%ance %e comesA!
#f you should be offered the money -old yo accept itD
#f this machine should fail to give satisfaction, -e
garantee to refnd $the& prchase money.
=o -ill nderstand, sir, that if we should have the
misfortune to hang you, -e shall do it as a mere matter
of political necessity.@4!-!S!A
- In conditional clauses 7i%%in-ne)) ma? e e&pressed ? -ill or -old <%ic% s%ould not
e considered as au&iliaries for t%e future tense$ ut as modal "ers$ retaining t%eir modal
meaning$ t%at of "olition: -ill occurs in T?pe I clauses$ -old in T?pe I @K politenessA and
T?pe II @K <illingnessA clauses!
e!g! #f you will help me @K if ?ou are so ;ind as to %elp meA -e
can finish in time!
!y mother -old be very glad indeed if you would come
too- @4!-!S!A
!y friend here and myself -old be mch obliged if you
would tell us ho- yo caght the trot p there.@=!W!=!A
#f any lady or gentleman would lend me a fiver * shold
be very mch obliged indeed. @=!W!=!A
cA *f only is an intensified eCui"alent of if$ t?picall? used in %?pot%etical clauses to
e&press <%at t%e spea;er <is%es %ad %appened or <ould %appen
e!g! #f only somebody had told us, -e cold have -arned yo.
#f only you had helped them1 so many things cold have
been prevented.
T%e suordinate clause introduced ? if only nearl? al<a?s precedes t%e main clause!
Sometimes$ %o<e"er$ t%e main clause ma? e asent and t%e Conditional Clause stands
on its o<n as a %?pot%etical <is%!
e!g! #f only it could always be springA @=!4!A
#f only she were more carefulA
#f only # hadn"t lost itA
#f only she would come back-
Instead of a sentence <it% a Conditional Clause$ <e sometimes %a"e t<o
coordinate clauses:
e!g! %pare the rod and spoil the child. @6ro"!A @K If a c%ild is
spared punis%ment$ it <ill e spoiltA!
6ive him an inch and he+ll ta,e a yard.
?edction of #onditional #lases to 8on9finite forms
aA an 6en 0'tici0%e$ <%en t%e su#ect of t%e Conditional Clause is co-referential <it%
t%at of t%e main clause$
e!g! 6iven time1 he+ll ma,e a first9class tennis player.
aken in small amounts, it can do no harm.
T%e participle ma? e introduced ? t%e con#unctions if, nless
e!g! #f pressed1 the btton -ill start the alarm cloc,.
She never -rites letters unless compelled by circumstances-
A an 6ing 0'tici0%e:
e!g! 5udging by appearences1 she mst be telling the trth.
aking all things into consideration, his life has been a happy one.
cA an in+initiv'% 0.')e:
e!g! o hear him speak @K if ?ou %ear %im spea;A yo -old
thin, him a specialist.
*t -old hrt her to talk like that-
.&ercise '! 6oint out t%e ad"erial clauses in t%e follo<ing sentences and state <%at ;ind
t%e? are!
'! Tell me t%eir address$ so t%at I ma? go and see t%em!
(! T%e car <as still <%ere I %ad left it t%e da? efore!
*! M%en <e a<o;e$ our parents %ad alread? left!
+! )ood? lamed me as I lamed m?self!
,! As it <as alread? late$ <e stopped <or; for t%e da?!
0! M%ate"er it <as it did not reall? matter!
2! It <as Cuiet all around$ so Cuiet t%at ?ou could trace t%e flig%t of a mosCuito ? its
5! Do not distur %im unless somet%ing "er? important %appens!
/! Alt%oug% <e could see not%ing$ <e distinctl? %eard t%e sound of falling <ater!
'9! T%e Cuestion is easier t%an I t%oug%t!
''! If I <ere ?ou I <ouldnDt sell t%e collection!
'(! Fe tal;ed as if %e <ere a specialist!
'*! T%e sooner ?ou finis% ?our <or;$ t%e sooner ?ou <ill go %ome!
'+! T%e c%ange <as so sudden t%at I <as s%oc;ed and a little scared!
',! Pou oug%t to <rite .nglis% as 8arie does!
'0! M%ere"er ?ou ma? go$ %e <ill not forget ?ou!
'2! 4i"e %im an inc% and %eDll ta;e a ?ard!
.&ercise (! Complete t%e follo<ing sentences suppl?ing ad"erial clauses of:
aA place
'! Me met <%ere RRRRR!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!RRRR ! (! -egin to read
<%ere RRR!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!RR! ! *! S%e s%all %a"e music <%ere"er
A time
'! Mrite to me as soon as RRR!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!RRRR ! (! T%e moment
R!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!RR t%e? all rus%ed do<nstairs! *! IDll do it <%ile
RRRR!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!RRRRR! +! Pou can sta? as long as
R!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!RRR!! ! ,! PouDll find t%e trut% once
RRR!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 0! I met %im as
RR!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! 2! S%e %asnDt <ritten since
RRR!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!RR! !
cA cause
'! Since RRR!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!RR IDll do m? est to please %er! (! I canDt agree to
it ecause RR!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!RRRRRR ! *! As
RRRRRR!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! I t%in; I <ill return later! +! Me must finis% no<$
for R!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!RRRRRR! ! ,! As
RRRRR!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!RR$ ?ouDd etter lea"e!
dA purpose
'! Ta;e ?our t%ic; clot%es lest RRRR!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!RR ! (! Me didnDt mo"e
in case RR!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!R ! *! Me climed %ig%er so t%at
RR!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!RRRRRRR !
eA result
'! I <as so curious t%at RRRR!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!RRRRRRR ! (! It is so cold
t%at RRRR!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!RRR!! ! *! T%e <ind <as of suc% strengt%
t%at R!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!R
fA comparison or manner
'! Fe did it as <ell as RRRR!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!R!! (! It is not so eas?
as R!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!RRRRRR ! *! S%e loo;ed "er? e&cited as if
RR!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!RRR ! +! Pou loo; taller t%an RRR!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!RR!! !
,! T%e longer <e <al;ed t%e more R!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!RR!! ! 0! T%e? ;ne< t%e place as
t%oug% RR!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !
gA concession
'! ."en t%oug% RRRRRR!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!R!! I s%ould not refused %im!
(! )o matter %o< RRR!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!RR! <e s%all tr? our %and at it!
*! Tired as RRRR!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!RR %e <ent on <or;ing!
%A condition
'! T%e? <ill certainl? e t%ere in time pro"ided R!!!!!!!RRRRRR!! ! (! S%ould ?ou
RRRRR!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!RR!! ?ou are al<a?s <elcome! *! If RRRR!!!!!!!!!!!!RRR I
<ould e pleased! +! .llen <ould %a"e come if RRR!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!RRR
,! )ood? <ould accept t%at #o unless RRRRR!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!R! 0! Fad I ;no<n t%e
trut% RRRRR!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!RRRRR!! !
.&ercise *! Reduce t%e follo<ing ad"erial clauses:
'! M%en %e loo;ed outside$ %e sa< t%e police car!
(! -ecause s%e didnDt feel "er? <ell$ s%e sat do<n!
*! After %e %ad retired$ Cecil decided to tra"el!
+! I <as reall? Cuite flattered at first$ ecause I <as as;ed to <or; <it% one of t%e
,! -ecause it <as ar;ing loudl?$ t%e dog scared us!
0! -efore ?ou lea"e$ s<itc% off t%e lig%ts!
2! Fe stood t%ere$ as if %e <as <aiting for someone!
5! Alt%oug% t%e? are small$ terriers are toug%!
/! M%en it is seen from space$ t%e .art% is lue!
'9! T%oug% it %ad een ro;en$ it still <or;ed!
''! M%ile t%e? <aited in line for uses during a recent one-da? train stri;e$ 3ondonDs
commuters displa?ed remar;ale patience <it% t%eir struggling 1nderground!
.&ercise +! Translate into .nglis%:
'! 1nul dintre iei s-a desprins din grup i s-a ntors de unde a "enit!
(! Doreau s a#ung la locul unde cetatea era susinut de piloni de piatr$ i la lacul
limpede de unde a"eau imaginea panoramic a ntregii "i!
*! Se opreau s se odi%neasc oriunde se putea!
+! Cu atYt mai de"reme$ cu atYt mai ine!
,! )u "or fi fericii pYn nu "or a"ea un copil!
0! Hemeia rmase mult n ntuneric pYn a "enit nepotul ei s aprind lampa!
2! A fost mult mai politicos decYt m-am ateptat!
5! )u putea s fie la fel de docil ca i ea!
/! 8ergeau ncotro li se spusese!
'9! De ndat ce termin facultatea treuie s-i gseasc o slu#!
''! Dup cum era de ateptat$ s-a suprat!
'(! Imediat ce a#unse acas$ se nfrico cumplit din cauza zgomotului care "enea din
'*! )u puteau s treac i s mai zo"easc acolo cYte"a minute de team s nu ntYrzie
la recepie!
'+! >ricYt de cinic este$ pstreaz-i cumptul!
',! Tatl ei i-a dat mai muli ani decYt i-ai dat tu sptmYna trecut!
'0! Hiindc turna cu gleata$ aia puteam s "edem drumul!
'2! De cYte ori se aduce discuia despre filme "ec%i$ este foarte entuziasmat!
'5! Copila era atYt de dezamgit ncYt se arunc n fotoliu i ncepu s plYng!
'/! Dac ceaa s-ar ridica$ am putea pleca mai departe!
(9! Zn timp ce mergeau spre cas$ ei nu tiau c ce"a se "a ntYmpla la cderea nopii i
"iaa li se "a sc%ima pentru totdeauna!
('! Dac a fi nuit ce"a$ l-a fi ntreat i l-a fi a#utat!
((! I-am lsat cartea desc%is ca s gseasc mai uor pasa#ul!
(*! Norea de parc era un om cinstit$ cu o un reputaie!
(+! AtYt de ciudat se comporta ncYt toi l pri"eau cu uimire!
'! -descu$ A!$ Gramatica limbii engleze, .d! Stiintifica$ -ucureti$ '/0*!
(! -anta$ A!$ Elements of Descriptive English Syntax$ T1-$ -ucureti$ '/22!
*! -udai$ 3!$ Gramatica engleza, Teorie si exercitii$ .ditura Teora$ -ucureti$ '//2!
+! 4leanu$ 4!$ Comiel$ .!$ Gramatica limbii engleze$ .d! Didactic i pedagogic$
-ucureti$ '/5(!
,! 3e"ic%i$ 3!$ 6reda$ A!$ Gramatica limbii engleze$ .d$ 7tiintific$ -ucureti$ '/02!
0! 8urar I$ 6isosc%i C!$ Trantescu A!8!$ Essentials of English Syntax. The Simple
Sentence. .ditura 1ni"ersitaria$ Craio"a$ (995!
2! 8urar I!$ Ana-8aria Trantescu$ 6isosc%i C!$ Descriptive English Syntax. Theory and
Practice! .ditura 1ni"ersitaria$ Craio"a$ (995!
5! 7eran D!$ English Syntax$ "olume one$ -ucureti$ '/5(!
/! 7tefnescu$ I!$ Lectres in English !orphology, T1-$ -ucureti$ '/25!
'9! :uir; R!$ 4reenaum S!$ 3eec% 4!$ S<art"ic; =!$ " Grammar of #ontemporary
English$ 3ondon$ 3ongman$ '/2(!
''! T%omas A!$ 8artinet A! " Practical English Grammar$ >&ford 1ni"ersit? 6ress$
3ondon$ '/0/!
UNITATEA @. Diect 'nd Indiect S0eec.
C.'n-e) in t.e deictic c'te-&ie)
S9nt'ctic c.'n-e)
"ee Indiect S0eec.

'! S identifice sc%imrile categoriilor deictice ce au loc n procesul trecerii de la
"orirea direct la "orirea indirect!
(! S identifice transformrile sintactice n acelai proces!
*! S transforme di"erse tipuri de propoziii de la "orirea direct la cea indirect!
Timp de studiu : * ore!
M%en reproducing speec%es and t%oug%ts of ot%er people or e"en oneDs o<n
pre"ious statements$ one ma? do it in t<o <a?s:
- ? direct Cuotation: ? repeating t%e original spea;erDs e&act <ords$ called in grammars
Diect S0eec.! Remar;s t%us repeated are placed et<een in"erted commas$ and a
comma is placed immediatel? efore t%e remar;$ e!g!
.e said, L*+ve lost my boo,.M
She said, L*+ll see yo tomorro-NM
- ? using special constructions$ mainl? suordinate clauses$ i!e! direct o#ect clauses$
<%ic% reproduce t%e Cuoted <ords$ <it%out necessaril? using t%e spea;erDs e&act <ords!
T%is is called Indiect S0eec. or Re0&ted S0eec.$ e!g!
.e said he had lost his boo,.
She said $that& she -old see me the next day.

E.%. #hanges in the deictic categories
T%e most important structural modifications occurring in t%e con"ersion of direct speec%
into indirect speec% concern t%e deictic categories @i!e! t%e orientational features of
languageA <%ic% relate an utterance to t%e gi"en participants$ to t%e time and t%e place of
t%e utterance!
Deictic categories include personal$ refle&i"e$ possessi"e$ demonstrati"e pronouns$
tenses$ place and time ad"erials! >ne or more of t%ese deictic categories ma? e
different in Indirect Speec% sentences$ as t%e latter ma? e produced ? different
participants at a different time and in a different place! T%ere are also constraints
regarding t%e tenses of t%e "er <%ic% are suordinated to t%e rules of t%e seCuence of
tenses in different >#ect Clauses! ConseCuentl?$ t%e follo<ing t?pes of c%anges are apt
to occur:
E.%.%. T%e personal$ possessi"e$ refle&i"e and emp%atic pronouns are s%ifted
according to sense$ e!g! first and second person personal pronouns ma? s%ift to t%e t%ird
person @e&cept <%en t%e spea;er is reporting %is o<n <ordsA!
e!g! Tom said to !ary, L=o shold have as,ed me first.M 6
Tom told !ary she shold have as,ed him first.
T%e demonstrati"e pronouns denoting pro&imit? @this, theseA are replaced ? t%e
demonstrati"es denoting remoteness @that, thoseA
e!g! .e said, LShe is coming this -ee,M 6
.e said that she -as coming that -ee,.
This and that used as ad#ecti"es usuall? c%ange to theC
e!g! .e said, L* boght this boo,'these boo,s for my sister.M9
.e said that he had boght the boo,$s& for his sister.
C%anges affecting t%e ad"ers refer mainl? to t%ose of definite time and to t%ose of
place! T%e ad"ers and ad"erial p%rases denoting pro&imit? are replaced ? ad"ers and
ad"erial p%rases denoting a distancing effect: no- 6 then, today 6 that day, yesterday 6
the day before'the previos day, the day before yesterday 6 t-o days before, last night 6
the previos night, last -ee, 6 the previos -ee,'the -ee, before, a year ago 6 a year
before, tomorro- 6 the next day'the follo-ing day, the day after tomorro- 6 in t-o days+
time, next -ee,'year 6 the next'the follo-ing -ee,, here 6 there!
e!g! .e said, L* sa- !ary yesterday.M 6 .e said he had seen
!ary the day before.
.e said, LSmith -ill be bac, tomorrow.M 6 .e said Smith
-old be bac, the following day.
The teacher said, LTom, bring yor paintings the day after
tomorro-.M 6 The teacher told Tom to bring his paintings in
two days" time.
-ut if t%e speec% is made and reported on t%e same da? t%ese time c%anges are not
e!g! "t brea,fast this morning he said, L*+ll be very bsy today.M
6 "t brea,fast this morning he said that he -old be very
bsy today.
3C22 a.m. ?adio9ne-s reportC Steel -or,ers are planning a
trade meeting tomorrow. 6 They said on the radio this
morning that steel -or,ers are planning a trade9nion
meeting tomorrow- @If t%e sentence is reported on t%e
same da?A! -ut 6eter t%e ne&t da?: They said on the radio
yesterday that steel -or,ers are planning a trade9nion
meeting today.
E.%./. T%e most important c%anges ta;e place in t%e "er p%rase! C%anges affecting
t%e "er refer to t%e tense of t%e "er and occasionall? t%e mood!
M%en t%e "er in t%e main or reporting clause is in t%e 6resent Tense$ 6resent 6erfect
or Huture Tense$ statements ma? e reported <it%out an? c%ange of tense
e!g! .e says, LThe train will be late.M 6 .e says that the train will be late.
"lice has said to Tom, L*+ll help yo if * canM 6 "lice has told
Tom that she will help him if she can.
M%en t%e "er in t%e reporting clause is in t%e 6resentG6resent 6erfectGHuture$
demonstrati"e ad#ecti"es$ pronouns$ ad"ers remain unc%anged in t%e reported clause
e!g! "lice has said, L*+ll come here tomorrow.M 6 "lice has promised to come here
M%en t%e "er in t%e reporting clause is in t%e 6ast Tense$ it is usual for t%e "er in
t%e reported clause to e ac; s%ifted! In semantic terms$ ac;s%ift ma? e e&plained as
follo<s: t%e time of t%e original speec% <%ic% is no- for direct speec% ecomes then for
indirect speec% and all times referred to in t%e speec%$ accordingl?$ ecome s%ifted <it%
respect to t%at point of orientation!
Direct 5ac, Shifted
Present becomes Past Tense
Past Tense
Present Perfect
Past Perfect
becomes Past Perfect
:tre Tense becomes :tre in the Past
aA 6resent Tense ecomes 6ast Tense
e!g! .e said, L!y father does not agree.M 6 .e said that his
father did not agree.
Tom said, L* have many friends.M 6 Tom said that he had
many friends.
.e said to them L*+ve been very bsy today.M9 .e said to
them that he had been very bsy that day.
.e said to them L.o- tired * amNM 6 .e exclaimed that he
was very tired.
.e said to them LWill yo help me to solve this matterDM 6
.e as,ed them if they would help him to solve that matter.
.&ceptions to ac;s%ift: earing in mind t%at ac;s%ift is part of t%e natural temporal
distancing t%at ta;es place <%en <e report <%at <as said in t%e past$ <e s%ould not e
surprised t%at t%e rule of ac;- s%ift can e ignored in cases <%ere t%e "alidit? of t%e
statement reported %olds for t%e present as muc% as for t%e time of utterance$ i!e! t%e past:
- <%en t%e reported clause e&presses a repeated action
e!g! George said, L* go to the seaside every smmer.M 6 George said that he
went' goes to the seaside every smmer.
- <%en t%ere is a statement of uni"ersal trut%
e!g! The teacher said, L7ater boils at %22
#.M 6 The teacher
said that -ater boils at %22
L8othing can harm a good manM, said Socrates! B Socrates
said that nothing can'could harm a good man! @T%e statement is a uni"ersal
assertion <%ic%$ if it <as true for SocratesD time$ s%ould also e true toda?! Me can
t%erefore report it eit%er ? appl?ing or ignoring t%e ac; s%ift ruleA!
A 6ast TenseG6resent 6erfectG6ast 6erfect ecome 6ast 6erfect
e!g! !other said, LTom hurt himself.M 6 !other said that Tom
had hurt himself.
L*+ve already seen himM, he said. 6 .e said that he had
already seen him.
.e said, L7e were thinking of moving hose bt -e have changed or minds.M 6
.e said that they had been thinking of moving hose bt they had changed their
.&ceptions to ac;s%ift:
- in t%eor?$ t%e past tense c%anges to t%e past perfect ut in spo;en .nglis% it is
often left unc%anged$ pro"ided t%is can e done <it%out causing confusion aout t%e
relati"e times of t%e action$
e!g! .e said, L"nn arrived on !ondayM, s%ould e reported: .e
said that "nn arrived'had arrived on !onday.
- <%en a definite moment is indicated
e!g! .e said, L* was born in %0/O.M 9 .e said that he was born
in %0/O.
- <%en a statement is retold in Indirect Speec% immediatel? after it %as een made
@on t%e same da?A
e!g! * talked to him this morning. 6 She said she talked to him
this morning.
- repeated actions in t%e past
e!g! Tom said, L* invited all my friends to my birthday parties
-hen * -as yong.M 6 Tom said that he invited all his friends
to his birthday parties -hen he -as yong.
- in suordinate clauses of time @t%e main "er of suc% clauses can eit%er remain
unc%anged or ecome t%e past perfectA
e!g! .e said, L7hen -e were living ' lived in London -e often saw Pal.M 6 .e said
that -hen they were living ' lived in London they often saw Pal ' had often seen
- in Conditional Clauses @T?pe IIA
e!g! .arry said, L* -old go to the msem if it was'were open.M
6 .arry said he -old go to the msem if it was open.
- in clauses after -ish, -old rather, it+s time
e!g! .e said, L* -ish * knew.M 6 .e said that he -ished he knew.
L*t+s time yo finished yor papersM, the teacher said. 6 The
teacher said it -as time they finished their papers.
cA Huture Tense ecomes Huture in t%e 6ast
e!g! .e said, L"nn will be in London on !onday.M 6 .e said that
"nn would be in London on !onday.
Peter said, L*+m going to by a ne- car next year.M 6 Peter
said he was going to by a ne- car next year.
T%e ac;s%ift is not applied <%en t%e action is future not onl? for t%e original
statement ut also for t%e time of t%e report
e!g! Peter said, L*+ll take up engineering after gradation.M 6
Peter said he+ll take up engineering after gradation.
dA T%e ac;s%ift of modal au&iliar? "ers:
If t%ere is a c%ange in time reference$ a modal au&iliar? "er is ac; s%ifted from
present tense forms to past tense forms e"en if t%ese do not normall? indicate past time in
direct speec%: can 6 cold, may 6 might, -ill 6 -old$
e!g! .e said, L=o can come -ith me if yo li,e.M 9 .e said *
could come -ith him if * li,ed.
She thoght, L.e may be right.M 6 She thoght he might
be right.
Tom said, LThe mechanic can fix the bra,es on my car,
bt he won"t.M 6 Tom complained that the mechanic could
fix the bra,es on his car, bt he wouldn"t.
>n t%e ot%er %and$ -old, shold, cold, might, oght to, need, mst $logical
necessity&, sed to do not normall? c%ange
e!g! * said, L.e ought to know-M 6 * said he ought to know.
.e said, L* would help her if * could.M 6 .e said he would
help her if he could.
She said, L*+m al-ays rnning into him; he must live @ite
near.M 6 She said that she -as al-ays rnning into him and
that he must live @ite near.
M%en mst e&presses oligation$ it can ecome -old have to1 or had to,
e!g! !ary said, L* must go to school no-.M 6 !ary said she had
to go to school immediately.
Peter said, L* must go to a conference tomorro-.M 6 Peter
said he would have to go to a conference the next day.
8eed remains unc%anged$ alternati"el? it can c%ange to didn+t have to$ -oldn+t have
e!g! .e said, L* needn"t be in the office till ten tomorro-
morning.M 6 .e said that he needn"t/didn"t have to be in
the office till ten the next morning.
#old remains unc%anged in indirect speec% or is c%anged according to meaning$
e!g! She said, L* could read -hen * -as five.M 6 She said that she
could / had been able to read -hen she -as five.
.e said, L7hen * -as a child * couldn"t interrupt my
parents.M 6 .e said that -hen he -as a child he
couldn"t / wasn"t allowed to interrupt his parents.
C%anges in t%e mood of t%e "er occur mainl? <%en t%e imperati"e in an independent
sentence is reproduced into an infiniti"e or a su#uncti"e in indirect speec%!
,!(. Syntactic changes refer to t<o le"els: on t%e one %and$ it is a matter of c%anging
independent sentences into suordinate clauses$ and on t%e ot%er %and$ t%e c%anges are
reflected inside t%is ne< clause in t%e arrangement of <ords in ;eeping <it% t%e rules for
declarati"e sentences! Independent sentences @<%ic% ma? e declarati"e$ interrogati"e$
imperati"e$ e&clamationsA ecome suordinate direct o#ect clauses!
,!(!'! Declarative sentences $statements& ecome suordinate o#ect clauses! 3argel?$
one mig%t sa? t%at "ers t%at ser"e to introduce direct speec%$ can also introduce indirect
speec%! T%is is true for a large numer of ScommunicationD "ers: advise, as,, claim,
confess, declare, explain, insist, promise, protest, remar,, say, state, sggest, tell. If t%e
"er say is not follo<ed ? an Indirect >#ect it normall? remains <it% reported speec%!
e!g! She said, LThe roof is lea,ing.M 6 She said that the roof
was leaking.
-ut$ if t%e "er say is follo<ed ? an Indirect >#ect$ it is usuall? c%anged into some
suc% "ers as tell[ etc!
.e told me that the roof was leaking.
T%ere are "ers t%at can introduce onl? direct speec% sentences: gasp, snap, sneer.
e!g! L=o+re some ,idM, he sneered. 6 H.e sneered that # was
some kid.
In reported speec% suc% "ers %a"e to e e&pressed <it% say T an ad"erial of manner$
e!g! to sneer K to sa? derisi"el?$ to snap K to sa? suddenl?$ etc!
And t%ere are "ers t%at can onl? introduce indirect speec% sentences: deny, forget,
e!g! .e denied that he -as sic,. 6 H.e denied L*+m sic,.M
=es and no are e&pressed in indirect speec% ? means of:
- t%e su#ect T au&iliar? "er
e!g! L*s this device safeDM L=es.M 6 The man as,ed if the device
was safe and the mechanic replied that it was.
L#an yo s-imDM L8o.M 6 .e as,ed $me& if * cold s-im and
* said that * coldn+t.
- "ers of assertion @accept, agree, assent, ans-er in the affirmativeA and "ers of
negation respecti"el? @deny, refse, reBect, ans-er in the negativeA!
e!g! They said, L=es, -e are coming.M 6 They agreed to come.
.e said, L8o, * haven+t been there.M 6 .e denied having
been there.
,!(!(! *nterrogative sentences $@estions& ecome o#ect clauses! M%en interrogati"e
sentences are used in indirect speec% t%e? ecome declarati"e sentences: t%e interrogati"e
form of t%e "er ecomes declarati"e @affirmati"e or negati"eA$ t%e su#ect precedes t%e
predicate$ t%e au&iliar? "er do is omitted!
e!g! .e as,ed, L7here does he liveDM 6 .e as,ed -here he lived.
.e said, L7here is the stationDM 6 .e as,ed -here the station -as.
T%e o#ect clause is introduced ? a "er of inCuir?: as,, in@ire, -onder, -ant to
- t%e special Cuestions preser"e t%e introductor? element$ i!e! -ho, -hich, -hat, -hy,
-here, -hen, ho-,
e!g! .e said, L-hen -ill they retrnDM 6 .e as,ed -hen they
-old retrn.
L7hy is Tom angryDM, .elen as,ed me. .elen as,ed me ' -ondered -hy Tom
-as angry.
L.o- do yo spell the -ordDM the teacher has as,ed. 6 The
teacher has as,ed ho- they spell the -ord.
- t%e general Cuestions are introduced ? if or -hether,
e!g! Peter is saying, L*sn+t Tom comingDM 6 Peter -ants to
,no- if Tom is not coming.
.e as,ed, L*s that treDM 6 .e as,ed if ' -hether it -as tre.
- alternati"e Cuestions are introduced ? -hether,
e!g! L"re yo going to the theatre or to the cinemaM Tom said
to his sister. 6 Tom as,ed his sister -hether she -as
going to the theatre or to the cinema.
L"re yo accompanied by Peter or by yor sisterDM, !r.
"dams said to me. 6 !r. "dams as,ed me -hether * -as
accompanied by Peter or by my sister.
4eneral Cuestions introduced ? -ill, -old, shall, cold are c%anged into indirect
speec% according to t%e general meaning!
a& Shall * ' -e
- a Cuestion aout a future e"ent$ action$
e!g! LShall * see yo tomorro-DM 5ob said. 6 5ob -anted to
,no- if he -old see me the next day.
- reCuest for instruction or ad"ice$
e!g! LShall * by the red dress, motherDM "nn said. 6 "nn as,ed
her mother if she shold by the red dress.
- offer
e!g! LShall * bring yo yor coatDM !ary said. 6 !ary offered to
bring me my coat.
- suggestion
e!g! LShall -e have a snac,DM Tom said. 6 Tom sggested
having ' that they shold have a snac,.
b& 7ill ' -old ' cold yoC
- a Cuestion aout a future action$
e!g! L7ill yo be there tomorro-DM he said. 6 .e as,ed if she
-old be there the next day.
- reCuest$
e!g! L#old yo help meDM Tom said. 6 Tom as,ed if she cold
help him; Tom as,ed her to help him.
- In"itation$
e!g! L7old yo attend the meetingDM the children said to their
teacher. 6 The children as,ed ' invited their teacher to
their meeting.
.e said, L7ill yo have a drin,DM 6 .e as,ed me if * -old li,e a drin,; .e
offered me a drin,.
,!(!*! *mperative sentences turn into infiniti"al constructions!
- affirmati"e:
e!g! LLet me aloneNM the child cried. 6 The child as,ed to be left
She said, LSit do-n, PeterNM 6 She told Peter to sit do-n.
- negati"e:
e!g! Don+t interrpt the spea,er, please. 6 .e as,ed them not to
interrpt the spea,er.
T%e infiniti"al construction is go"erned ? "ers e&pressing order @command, forbid,
order, tell$ etc!A$ reCuest @as,, beg, entreat, implore$ re@est, rge$ etc!A$ ad"ice @advise,
recommend, -arn$ etc!A according to circumstances!
e!g! .e said, LPlease, give me another chance.M 6 .e begged
them to give him another chance.
L=o+d better stay in bed for a fe- days, PeterNM the doctor
said. 6 The doctor advised Peter to stay in bed for a fe- days.
*mperatives expressing a general order may be transformed into a t%at9clase $-ith
s%ould& -hen the command is introdced by ad"ise, command, order, recommend,
urge, suggest$
e!g! <fficer to soldiers, L#lean the barrac,sNM 6 The officer
ordered the soldiers to clean the barrac,s; The officer
ordered that the soldiers shold clean the barrac,s.
8ic, said, LLet+s -atch T>NM 6 8ic, sggested -atching T>;
8ic, sggested that they shold -atch T>.
4ane said sddenlyC LLet+s have a partyNM 6 4ane sggested
having a party; 4ane sggested that they shold have a
A possile alternati"e to t%e infiniti"e construction is a that-clause <it% t%e "er be
to. T%e be to construction is particularl? useful in t%e follo<ing cases:
- <%en t%e command is introduced ? a "er in t%e present tense
e!g! The teacher says, LDo the next exercise.M 6 The teacher
says that -e are to do the next exercise.
.e says, L!eet me at the station.M 6 .e says that -e are to
meet him at the station.
- t%e command is preceded ? a clause @usuall? of time or conditionA
e!g! She said, L*f he comes, ring me p.M 6 She said that if he
came -e -ere to ring her p.
,!(!+! Exclamatory sentences $Exclamations& ecome declarati"e sentences in indirect
speec%! T%e? turn into clauses go"erned ? t%e "ers complain, cry, exclaim, observe,
shot, say T an ad"er of manner$ e!g! say admiringly, say scornflly$ etc! T%e follo<ing
transformations are possile depending on t%e nature of t%e e&clamation:
- e&clamations introduced ? -hat, ho- are transformed into direct o#ect clauses
introduced ? that,
e!g! L7hat a fnny Bo,eNM he said. 6 .e exclaimed that the Bo,e
-as fnny.
L.o- tired * amNM the -oman said. 6 The -oman
complained that she -as tired.
L7hat a delicios ca,eNM the gest said. 6 The gest said
admiringly that the ca,e -as delicios.
- e&clamations suc% as ohN ghN alasN ahN are rendered ? perip%rastic constructions
suc% as .e exclaimed -ith disgst' srprise; .e gave an exclamation of disgst'
srprise, etc!
e!g! She said, L"lasN *+ll never be happy again.M 6 She exclaimed
in despair that she -old never be happy again.
- greetings and <is%es are rendered ? semanticall? related "ers$
e!g! They said, LGood morningNM 6 They greeted me' They
-ished me good morning.
.e said, L7ell doneNM 6 .e congratlated me.
.e said, LThan, yoNM 6 .e than,ed me.
She said, L.appy to see yo at my placeNM 6 She -elcomed me.
,!*! HR.. I)DIR.CT S6..CF
Hree Indirect Speec% is a %alf-<a? stage et<een direct and indirect speec% and is
used e&tensi"el? in modern narrati"e <riting! It consists in reporting an utterance
indirectl? ? ac; s%ifting t%e "er$ <%ile omitting t%e reporting "er @.e said; .e as,ed$
Direct Speec%: "nn said, L7hy do yo al-ays have to pic, on meDM
Indirect Speec%: "nn as,ed -hy they al-ays had to pic, on her.
Hree Indirect Speec%: 7hy did they al-ays have to pic, on herD
Hree Indirect Speec% is a more fle&ile medium for reporting t%an normal indirect
speec%E it also aids concision ? allo<ing a <riter to retell someoneDs <ords <it%out
%a"ing to ;eep inserting e&pressions li;e .e said or .e exclaimed!
David moved slo-ly and thoghtflly. $e would not be
deterred- @implied: .e said'thoght, P* -on+t be deterred.+&
1nli;e ordinar? indirect speec%$ free indirect speec% retains t%e potentialities of direct
speec% structure @direct Cuestion form$ tag Cuestions$ e&clamations$ etc!A!
e!g! .ere -as Tom at lastN $thoght 4ohn&.
#old he be imagining thingsD $-ondered !ary&.
She had ,no-n. <nly -hy, as he sat there, had he still this
strange dominance over herD...7hy, even no-, if he loo,ed
at her and commanded her, -old she have to obeyD...5t
once he -as obeyed, then she had him in her po-er, she
,ne-, to lead him -here she -old. She -as sre of
herselfQ"h, he -as not a manN
@D!F!3a<rence: Sons and LoversA
It is t%erefore onl? t%e ac;s%ift of t%e "er$ toget%er <it% eCui"alent s%ifts in
pronouns$ determiners and ad"ers t%at signals t%e fact t%at t%e <ords are eing reported$
rat%er t%an eing in direct speec%! T%e use of free indirect speec% for descriing Iinterior
monologueJ %as ecome a "er? <idespread practice in t%e fiction of t%e t<entiet%
.&ercise '! Mrite t%e appropriate form of t%e "ers in rac;ets:
'! =o%n as;ed me if I @eA going to t%e part?!
(! Milliam sa?s %e @<antA to e a teac%er <%en %e gro<s up!
*! At lunc% time m? <ife called to as; me <%ere I @eA all morning!
+! Fe as;ed if I @e"er "isitA 3ondon efore!
,! Fe <anted to ;no< if I @can lendA %im t%e CD pla?er!
0! =ane called me on m? moile and as;ed me <%ere I @eA!
.&ercise (! C%ange t%e follo<ing into indirect speec%:
'! SI suggest ?ou spent a fe< da?s t%ereD$ I said!
(! Fe as;ed$ SM%at are ?ou going to doQD
*! SM%at a stupid t%ingD$ I said!
+! S=oin us if ?ou li;eD$ 6ete said!
,! S-ring t%e oo; %ere immediatel?D$ s%e ordered!
0! SMe met in Nenice last 8arc%D$ %e replied!
2! SDonDt lieD$ s%e said!
5! SI intended to ma;e t%ese c%anges ?esterda?D$ Ann said!
.&ercise *! Turn t%e follo<ing sentences from t%e indirect speec% into t%e direct speec%:
'! T%at <oman <anted to ;no< <%at m? name <as and <%ere I li"ed!
(! 8i;e decided t%at %e <ould go to 3ondon t%e ne&t da?!
*! Tom said t%at %is parents <ere coming t%at afternoon!
+! T%e teac%er told us to open our noteoo;s and to do t%at e&ercise!
,! 8rs! Smit% <ondered <%et%er %er %usand managed to catc% t%e plain!
0! S%e ga"e an e&clamation of surprise and ;issed me!
2! 8ot%er ad"ised me not to lea"e so late!
5! Fe promised %e <ould call on us in a da? or t<o!
/! .mma told 6ete t%at s%e <as "er? grateful to %im for e"er?t%ing %e %ad done for
'9! I as;ed t%e o? if %e <as not %omesic; sometimes!
.&ercise +! C%ange t%e follo<ing from direct to indirect speec%:
'! Me sa?$ SMe are learning .nglis%D!
(! T%e o? is sa?ing$ SI canDt spea; Spanis%D!
*! I as;ed %im$ SFad ?ou een t%ere eforeQD
+! Tom said to me$ SI oug%t t%e oo; ?esterda?D!
,! Te pupils al<a?s sa?$ SMe are ne"er lateD!
0! T%e? said$ SMe %a"e ne"er seen t%at film eforeD!
2! I %eard ?our ans<er$ ST%at monaster? <asnDt uilt ? %imE %is fat%er uilt itD!
5! Pou seldom sa? to %im$ SPou are a diligent o?D!
/! I repeated$ SI li"e in -uc%arestD!
'9! Fe said$ S)ood? came to see me at t%e %ospitalD!
''! T%e teac%er as;ed t%em$ SM%? didnDt ?ou ta;e ?our dictionariesD!
'(! 8ot%er as;ed me$ SM%ere did ?ou put m? glo"esQD
'*! T%e old man s%outed angril? SI %a"e een <aiting too longD!
'+! 8ar; ans<ered SI %a"e ne"er "isited t%emD!
.&ercise ,! Complete eac% sentence using indirect speec% in suc% a <a? t%at it is as
similar as possile in meaning to t%e sentence ao"e it:
'! SI <ill u? t%e flo<ers m?selfD!
(! An announcement <as made t%at t%e stri;e <as o"er!
*! SDid ?ou %a"e ?our Identit? Card on t%e taleQD
S%e as;ed RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR!!!!!!!!!!!!!RRR!!
+! SI s%all return tomorro<D!
Fis onl? comment RRRRRRRRRRRR!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!RRRR!!
,! T%e? said$ SPou can sta? <it% usD!
T%e? in"ited RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR!!!!!!!!!!!RRR
0! I rememer one time <%en m? aunt said to me$ SDonDt tal; <it% ?our mout% fullD!
I rememer one time <%en m? aunt told RRRRRRRRRRR
2! It amazed me t%at %e said$ SI <onDt do itD!
.&ercise 0! Turn t%e follo<ing sentences into t%e indirect speec%:
'! SRead t%e instructions firstD$ t%e cler; ad"ised me!
(! SM%at <ill ?ou sa? to %er no<D$ 8ar? as;ed me!
*! SDonDt ma;e so muc% noiseD$ t%e old <oman told t%e c%ildren!
+! S3etDs tr? againD$ said t%e girls!
,! SFo< old is ?our friendQD$ =o%n as;ed me!
0! I t%oug%t$ S8? rot%er <ill reac% %ome efore meD!
2! I <as ans<ered$ ST%e ne< t%eatre <ill %a"e een completel? finis%ed ? ne&t
5! Me %eard t%e o? sa?ing to %is friend$ SI s%all ring ?ou t%e oo; tomorro<D!
/! T%e doctor said$ SI <ould ta;e t%e medicine if I <ere ?ouD!
'9! 8? colleague said to me$ ST%at ?oung man <as <al;ing ner"ousl? up and do<n
as if %e <ere <aiting for someod?D!
''! T%e patient said$ SI <is% I <ere ?ounger and I %ad etter %ealt%D!
'(! SM%at terrile <eat%er\D$ s%e e&claimed!
'*! T%e doctor said S."er?t%ing s%ould e perfectl? clean ? tomorro<D!
'+! T%e little o? said to me$ SI crouc%ed e%ind t%e armc%air so t%at I s%ould not e
',! S1g%\ Fo< I %ate going t%ere\D
'0! Fe said$ SIf 3iz %ad studied more$ s%e mig%t %a"e passed t%e e&amD!
'! -descu$ A!$ Gramatica limbii engleze, .d! Stiintifica$ -ucureti$ '/0*!
(! -anta$ A!$ Elements of Descriptive English Syntax$ T1-$ -ucureti$ '/22!
*! -udai$ 3!$ Gramatica engleza, Teorie si exercitii$ .ditura Teora$ -ucureti$ '//2!
+! 4leanu$ 4!$ Comiel$ .!$ Gramatica limbii engleze$ .d! Didactic i pedagogic$
-ucureti$ '/5(!
,! 3e"ic%i$ 3!$ 6reda$ A!$ Gramatica limbii engleze$ .d$ 7tiintific$ -ucureti$ '/02!
0! 8urar I$ 6isosc%i C!$ Trantescu A!8!$ Essentials of English Syntax. The Simple
Sentence. .ditura 1ni"ersitaria$ Craio"a$ (995!
2! 8urar I!$ Ana-8aria Trantescu$ 6isosc%i C!$ Descriptive English Syntax. Theory and
Practice! .ditura 1ni"ersitaria$ Craio"a$ (995!
5! 7eran D!$ English Syntax$ "olume one$ -ucureti$ '/5(!
/! 7tefnescu$ I!$ Lectres in English !orphology, T1-$ -ucureti$ '/25!
'9! :uir; R!$ 4reenaum S!$ 3eec% 4!$ S<art"ic; =!$ " Grammar of #ontemporary
English$ 3ondon$ 3ongman$ '/2(!
''! T%omas A!$ 8artinet A! " Practical English Grammar$ >&ford 1ni"ersit? 6ress$
3ondon$ '/0/!
.&ercise '! Tre or :alseD
'! Anot%er name for suordinate clauses is dependent clauses!
(! Me al<a?s start a suordinate clause <it% a suordinating con#unction!
*! Comment clauses are suordinate clauses!
+! Suordinate clauses ma? e ad"erial$ nominal or relati"e clauses!
,! All suordinate clauses are Gmite clauses!
0! Relati"e clauses ma? e suordinated ? a zero pronoun!
2! )ominal clauses are often suordinated ? a -h9-ord.
5! In"ersion can mar; a suordinate conditional clause!
/! Suordinate clauses cannot %a"e pronouns as su#ect!
'9! )oun p%rases$ li;e the day can function as suordinating time ad"erials!
.numerate t%e Classes of Mords t%at trigger a Su#ect Clause!
.nlarge upon t%e use of 8oods and Tenses in Su#ect Clauses!
.numerate t%e <a?s of reducing a Su#ect Clause to a non-finite Horm!
.numerate some "ers t%at trigger a Direct >#ect Clause!
State t%e rules of seCuence of tenses in Direct >#ect Clauses!
Tenses and 8oods in 6repositional >#ect Clauses!
Discuss t%e transformations in"ol"ing Restricti"e Relati"e Clauses!
)on-defining Relati"e Clauses!
.&ercise (! TR1. or HA3S.
'! )ominal clauses are non-finite clauses!
(! T%e? start <it% a <%-<ord$ if or t%at as a con#unction!
*! T%e initial t%at can e omitted in all cases!
+! )ominal clauses are often t%e su#ects of sentences!
,! Me also use t%em as direct and indirect o#ects!
0! )ominal clauses can stand in apposition!
2! T%e? can stand as complements of prepositions!
5! T%e? are also used as ad#ecti"e complements!
/! T%e? can stand in front position in rat%er formal <riting!
'9! T%e? can e deleted from t%eir sentence <it%out loss of meaning!
''! T%at clauses can e one ;ind of nominal clauses!
'(! T%at clauses include relati"e clauses!
.&ercise *! DefiningGnon-defining clauses! Decide <%et%er t%e follo<ing statements are
true or false and e&plain ?our ans<er:
'! Defining and non-defining clauses are all postmodifiers!
(! -ot% ;inds of clause ma? %a"e t%e same actual <ords!
*! )on-defining clauses are signalled in <riting ? a comma!
+! T%ere is no difference et<een defining and non-defining use in spo;en .nglis%!
,! Defining clauses are essential to t%eir sentence meaning$ non-defining are not!
0! T%e concept applies most freCuentl? to relati"e clauses!
2! It also applies to appositi"e clauses$ ut ne"er one-<ord elements!
5! 8ost ad#ecti"es are defining!
/! Intensif?ing ad#ecti"es are usuall? defining ? nature!
'9! 6oetic descripti"e ad#ecti"es are often non-defining!
.&ercise +! Are t%e follo<ing statements true or falseQ
'! Relati"e pronouns$ introducing relati"e clauses$ all start <it% -h-!
(! Relati"e pronouns stand first in a clause e&cept <%en preceded ? a preposition!
*! All relati"e pronouns can refer to ot% singular and plural antecedents!
+! 7ho, -hom and -hose normall? refer to people!
,! 7hose can ne"er refer to inanimates!
0! 7hich al<a?s refers to t%ings or e"ents!
2! 7hich ne"er refers to indefinite pronouns or superlati"es!
5! Me do not use -hom if <e can a"oid it!
/! That and zero are alternati"e o#ect pronouns for personal reference onl?!
'9! All relati"e pronouns %a"e different forms as su#ect and o#ect!
.&ercise ,! Decide <%et%er t%e ne&t statements are true or false:
'! Relati"e clauses are ad#ecti"al in nature!
(! Relati"e clauses start <it% relati"e pronouns!
*! Sometimes$ <e omit t%e relati"e pronoun$ ma;ing a contact clause!
+! All relati"e clauses are ot% defining and non-defining!
,! Reduced clauses$ <it%out relati"e pronoun and operator$ are a feature of spo;en
0! Relati"e ad"ers can ne"er replace relati"e pronouns!
2! )on-defining clauses stand et<een commas in print!
5! Defining clauses are less common t%an non-defining!
/! Sentence relati"e clauses can onl? e introduced ? I<%ic%J!
'9! )ominal relati"e clauses are introduced ? -hat, meaning Sthat -hichD!
.nlarge upon t%e seCuence of tenses in Ad"erial Clauses of Time!
Discuss t%e <a?s of reducing an Ad"erial Clause of Time to non-finite forms!
Tense and 8oods constraints in Clauses of Affirmati"e 6urpose!
Tense and 8oods constraints in Clauses of )egati"e 6urpose!
Tenses and 8oods used in Conditional Sentences!
.&ercise 0! Translate into .nglis%:
'! Na mai trece mult timp pYn cYnd se "or con"inge c merit s ncerce!
(! 8i-a promis c m "a suna imediat ce "a a#unge acolo!
*! AtYta timp cYt nu "ei risca$ nu "ei cYtiga!
+! Te "oi anuna de ndat ce "oi termina proiectul!
,! CYnd i "a da seama ce a fcut$ "a fi prea tYrziu!
0! > cunosc de cYnd eram copil!
2! )u "om pleca nainte de a "eni el!
5! Zi "oi comunica un rspuns clar de ndat ce "oi discuta cu familia!
/! A ieit din camer numai dup ce a "erificat totul!
'9! Atept aici cYt timp mnYnci!
''! Zi "oi "ori desc%is cYnd l "oi cunoate mai ine!
'(! CYnd toate acestea se "or lmuri$ totul i se "a prea un "is urYt!
.&ercise 2! 6ut t%e "ers in rac;ets into t%eir correct form:
'! Fe %urried lest %e @missA t%e class!
(! I s%all remind ?ou lest ?ou @forgetA!
*! T%e doctor told %im to ;eep to a diet so t%at %e @reco"erA soon!
+! Fe <or;ed %ard so t%at %e @<inA t%e prize!
,! -ring it %ere so t%at <e @loo;A at it etter!
0! Some people eat so t%at t%e? @li"eAE ot%ers seem to lea"e in order t%at t%e? @eatA!
2! T%e? sent all t%e documents ? air mail so t%at t%e? @to e recei"edA efore t%e arri"al
of t%e s%ipping!
5! Fe too; %is s%oes off so t%at %is mot%er @not %earA %im enter!
/! T%e coac%man <%ipped t%e %orses so t%at t%e? @eA Cuic;er!
'9! S%e <as sCueezing %er sonDs %and tig%t lest %e @crossA t%e street alone!
''! Fe gre< frig%tened for fear t%at %is friends @tellA t%e <%ole trut%!
'(! T%e ees s<armed round t%e s<eet-smelling flo<ers so t%at t%e? @collectA t%e nectar
from t%em!
.&ercise 5! 6ut eac% "er in rac;ets into a suitale tense:
.&ample: M%? didnDt ?ou p%oneQ If I @;no<A ?ou <ere coming$ I @meetA ?ou at t%e
M%? didnDt ?ou p%oneQ If I %ad ;no<n ?ou <ere coming$ I <ould %a"e met ?ou at
t%e airport!
'! If %e @tellA me t%at last <ee; I @eA sa"ed a lot of troule!
(! ItDs a pit? ?ou missed t%e part?! If ?ou @comeA ?ou @metA m? friends from 4erman?!
*! If <e @%a"eA some tools$ <e @e aleA to repair t%e car$ ut <e %a"enDt got an? <it% us!
+! T%an; ?ou for ?our %elp! If ?ou @not %elpA me$ I @not passA t%e e&amination!
,! ItDs a eautiful %ouse$ and I @u?A it if I @%a"eA t%e mone?$ ut I canDt afford it!
0! I canDt imagine <%at I @doA <it% t%e mone? if I @<inA t%e footall pools or a lotter?!
2! 8ar; isnDt a serious at%lete! If %e @trainA %arder$ %e @eA Cuite a good runner!
5! If Ann @listenA to %er mot%er$ s%e @not marr?A Tom in t%e first place!
/! It rained e"er da? on our %olida?! If <e @not ta;eA t%e tele"ision <it% us$ <e @not %a"eA
an?t%ing to do!
'9! )o< <eDre lost\ If ?ou @<rite do<nA 8ar?Ds directions$ t%is @not %appenA!
''! IDm sorr? I canDt lend ?ou an? mone?! Pou ;no< t%at if I @%a"eA it$ I @lendA it to ?ou!
'(! M%at a terrile t%ing to %appen\ =ust t%in;$ if <e @not missA t%e plane$ <e @;illA in t%e
.&ercise /! Complete t%e follo<ing sentences <it% clauses t%at e&press appropriate
.&ample: If I %ad a lot of mone?R!
*f * had a lot of money, *+d travel arond the -orld!
'! If I <ere 6rime 8inisterR
(! 6eople <ould complain itterl? ifR!
*! Students <ould unite in opposition ifR
+! If m? parents sa< t%at at%ing suitR!
,! Morld<ide %unger mig%t result ifR
0! If t%e ozone la?er <ere to e e"en more se"erel? damagedR
2! If ?ou <ere in m? placeR
5! Mould ?ou %a"e told %im t%e trut% ifR
/! Surel? if ?ouR!%e <ould understand!
'9! I s%ould %a"e %ad m? p%otograp% ta;en ifR
.&ercise '9! True or HalseQ
'! Ad"erial Clauses operate in sentences in t%e same <a? as simple ad"ers!
(! Ad"erial Clauses ma? e finite or reduced clauses!
*! Reduced Clauses are usuall? "erless!
+! Ad"erial Clauses can %a"e meanings not e&pressed ? simple ad"ers!
,! Ad"erial Clauses ma? ta;e front-and end-positions!
0! All Ad"erial Clauses are introduced ? suordinating con#unctions!
2! Reduced Clauses ta;e t%e same sentence positions as full clauses!
5! Asolute Clauses are reduced ad"erial clauses!
/! Reduced Clauses can e&press meanings <%ic% finite clauses cannot!
'9! Me ne"er use t%e are infiniti"e in reduced clauses!
Direct and Indirect Speec% enlarge upon t%e c%anges in t%e deictic categories!
.&ercise ''! True or HalseQ
*. Direct Speec% reports someone elseDs <ords!
1. Indirect Speec% reports direct speec%$ ma;ing certain c%anges!
8. Me can al<a?s note from Indirect Speec% t%e e&act <ords used in t%e direct form!
<. Hree indirect speec% includes direct Cuestions and e&clamations!
@. In Indirect Speec% t%e "er forms are often ac;-s%ifted!
A. Mit% present and future time reference$ no tense c%anges are necessar? in t%e
indirect form!
B. 6ronouns ne"er need c%anging in an indirect form!
C. Time and place ad"ers often need to e c%anged in indirect speec%!
D. All sentence t?pes can e reported in indirect speec%!
*>. Me can omit that in indirect speec% after all reporting "ers!
.&ercise '(! Complete eac% sentence in suc% a <a? t%at it is as similar as possile in
meaning to t%e sentence ao"e it!
'! SI left m? oo; %ere ?esterda?D!
(! SMe <onDt eat it no<$ ut <e ma? %a"e it for dinnerD!
*! SCarlinDs ne< oo; is t%e funniest t%ing ID"e e"er readD!
T%e re"ie<er <rote t%at RRRRRRRRR!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!RRRR !
+! SPou s%ould ta;e as muc% <ater as ?ou can carr?D!
Fe ad"ised us t%at RRRRRRRR!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!RRRR!RR! !
,! SI must get somet%ing to eat or IDll faintD!
Pou told me t%at RRRR!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!RRRRRRRRRR!RR!! !
0! SS%all I go t%ereQD
S%e as;ed if RRRRRRR!!!!!!!!!!!!RRRRRRRRRR!!RR! !
2! SDemand for ne< computers in t%e 1W is decliningD!
CompCo is reporting t%at RRRRR!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!RR!RRRR
.&ercise '*! 6ut a cross @&A ? an? of t%e options elo< t%at cannot complete t%e
sentence! 6ut a Cuestion mar; eside an? t%at are possile ut "er? unli;el?:
'! Tom #ust told me %e isG-as going %ome ecause %e doesn+t feel <ell!
(! According to S%a;espeare$ life is'-as not%ing ut a <al;ing s%ado<!
*! ItDs reported t%at t%ere has been'had been a massi"e eart%Cua;e in Indonesia!
+! S%a;espeare <rote t%at all t%e <orld is'-as a stage!
,! Can ?ou elie"e it$ %eDs told t%e ot%ers %e has'had passed 6roficienc?Q
0! 8ar; sa?s he+d'he+ll see ?ou later!
2! Fe told me #ust no< %e is'-as going to lea"e t%e to<n!
5! 8? mot%er <as al<a?s sa?ing t%at ?ou can'cold ta;e a %orse to <ater ut ?ou
can+t'coldn+t ma;e it drin;!
.&ercise '+! Complete eac% sentence in suc% a <a? t%at it is as similar as possile in
meaning to t%e sentence ao"e it!
'! S8r! -rod?$ t%ereDs somet%ing <rong <it% t%e lig%tsD!
(! S=ane$ ?ou and ?our sister %a"e to tid? up after t%e part?D!
*! SDonDt touc% an? of t%e <iresD!
+! SIDll go to t%e seaside ne&t mont%D!
,! SI didnDt do an?t%ing <rongD!
0! SIDm not guilt?D$ called out one of t%e defendants!
2! It reall? surprised us <%en s%e said s%eDd een adopted!
5! T%e studentsD agreement is t%at t%e cost of tuition %as increased too muc% and I agree!
/! Fe claimed$ SIDm not a t%iefD$ ut no one elie"ed %im!
)o one elie"ed %is RRRRRRRRR!!!!RRRRRRRR!!
'9! SI %a"e alread? called %erD!
''! 4uard to t%e prisoner: SStand up <%en t%e #udge comes inD!
'(! Mor;er to %is oss: SCan I lea"e earl? on Hrida?QD
.&ercise ',! Translate into .nglis%:
'! 3-am ntreat dac se atepta s ne "ad sosind atYt de curYnd$ dar mi-a rspuns
c din moment ce ne rugase s ne ntoarcem cYt putem de repede$ era con"ins c
nu "om ntYrzia prea mult!
(! CYnd am rugat-o s intre n cas mi-a rspuns c este gritE se duce la spital s-
i "ad sora i deci nu "a putea sta mai mult de zece minute!
*! CYnd am intrat mi-a spus c dup cYt se pare proiectul su fusese respins!
+! Am ntreat-o dac 6eter nu lsase "or nainte s plece$ dar mi-a rspuns c nu
i-a spus nimic altce"a decYt c o "a anuna din timp cYnd are de gYnd s se
,! 4eorge l-a ntreat pe prietenul su dac-i place noul ser"iciu!
0! 8-a ntreat unde plecaser toi i cum era posiil s lase copilul singur!
2! 3e-am spus c este foarte tYrziu i c dac mai "or s prind trenul de opt este
momentul s se greasc!
5! 3-am ntreat de unde are atYia ani$ dar a pstrat tcerea!
/! 3uc? ne-a po"estit c s-au certat toat dup-amiaza pentru c =o%n refuza s
mearg la doctor$ dei era e"ident c de cYte"a sptmYni nu se simea ine!
'9! 8-a ntreat ce s spun n cazul n care este ntreat dac a "zut cu cine am stat
de "or!
'! -descu$ A!$ Gramatica limbii engleze, .d! Stiintifica$ -ucureti$ '/0*!
(! -anta$ A!$ Elements of Descriptive English Syntax$ T1-$ -ucureti$ '/22!
*! -udai$ 3!$ Gramatica engleza, Teorie si exercitii$ .ditura Teora$ -ucureti$ '//2!
+! 4leanu$ 4!$ Comiel$ .!$ Gramatica limbii engleze$ .d! Didactic i pedagogic$
-ucureti$ '/5(!
,! 3e"ic%i$ 3!$ 6reda$ A!$ Gramatica limbii engleze$ .d$ 7tiintific$ -ucureti$ '/02!
0! 8urar I$ 6isosc%i C!$ Trantescu A!8!$ Essentials of English Syntax. The Simple
Sentence. .ditura 1ni"ersitaria$ Craio"a$ (995!
2! 8urar I!$ Ana-8aria Trantescu$ 6isosc%i C!$ Descriptive English Syntax. Theory and
Practice! .ditura 1ni"ersitaria$ Craio"a$ (995!
5! 7eran D!$ English Syntax$ "olume one$ -ucureti$ '/5(!
/! 7tefnescu$ I!$ Lectres in English !orphology, T1-$ -ucureti$ '/25!
'9! :uir; R!$ 4reenaum S!$ 3eec% 4!$ S<art"ic; =!$ " Grammar of #ontemporary
English$ 3ondon$ 3ongman$ '/2(!
''! T%omas A!$ 8artinet A! " Practical English Grammar$ >&ford 1ni"ersit? 6ress$
3ondon$ '/0/!