Sunteți pe pagina 1din 23

Psychology

U P D AT E D S E V E N T H E D I T I O N
John W. Santrock
University of Texas at Dallas
Boston Burr Ridge, IL Dubuque, IA Madison, WI New York San Francisco St. Louis
Bangkok Bogot Caracas Kuala Lumpur Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City
Milan Montreal New Delhi Santiago Seoul Singapore Sydney Taipei Toronto
spy7fmpgi_xxv.qxd 3/26/04 11:29 AM Page i impos03 303:mhspy7u:spy7fm:layouts:
PSYCHOLOGY, UPDATED SEVENTH EDITION
Published by McGraw-Hill, a business unit of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1221 Avenue of the
Americas, New York, NY 10020. Copyright 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights re-
served. Previous edition(s) 2003, 2000, 1997. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be
reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system,
without the prior written consent of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., including, but not limited to,
in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning.
Some ancillaries, including electronic and print components, may not be available to customers
outside the United States.
This book is printed on recycled, acid-free paper containing 10% postconsumer waste.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 VNH/VNH 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3
ISBN 0-07-293776-9
Vice president and editor-in-chief: Thalia Dorwick
Publisher: Stephen D. Rutter
Senior developmental editor: Judith Kromm
Developmental editor: Sienne Patch
Marketing manager: Melissa Caughlin
Project manager: Richard H. Hecker
Production supervisor: Carol Bielski
Senior media technology producer: Sean Crowley
Designer: Preston Thomas
Illustrators: John & Judy Waller and EPS, Inc.
Cover image: Moonrunner Design
Manager, Art: Robin Mouat
Photo research coordinator: Alexandra Ambrose
Lead supplement producer: Marc Mattson
Compositor: The GTS Companies
Typeface: 9.5/12 Meridian Roman
Printer: Von Hoffman Press
The credits section for this book begins on page C-1 and is considered an extension of the copyright
page.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Santrock, John W.
Psychology / John W. Santrock.Updated 7th ed.
p. cm.
Includes bibliogical references and indexes.
ISBN 0-07-293776-9 (alk. paper)
1. PsychologyTextbooks. I. Title.
BF121.S265 2005
150dc22
2003070611
The Internet addresses listed in the text were accurate at the time of publication. The inclusion of a
website does not indicate an endorsement by the authors or McGraw-Hill, and McGraw-Hill does not
guarantee the accuracy of the information presented at these sites.
www.mhhe.com
spy7fmpgi_xxv 3/30/04 01:09 AM Page ii
Dendrites
Nucleus
Cell body
Axon
Axon
Axon
Myelin sheath
surrounding the axon
Direction of
nerve impulse
Sending Neuron Receiving Neuron
example, a psychologist interviewed by Ted Koppel on Nightline
may have certain values concerning governments responsibility
in caring for the homeless, parents responsibility in an adoles-
cents use of cocaine, and the responsibility of an individual with
a psychological disorder who has committed mass murder.
Psychotherapists whom people consult about problems
may have certain personal values concerning self-esteem, mar-
riage, sexual conduct, and other topics that inuence the advice
they give. For example, one psychotherapist might perceive a
clients sexual behavior as sick, whereas another might think
of it as an adaptive sexual variation.
Psychology professors have certain values about gender,
moral behavior, religion, child rearing, and how to get ahead in
life that might inuence what they communicate in their lec-
tures and how they respond to students questions. For exam-
ple, one professor might perceive that a females assertive
behavior is too aggressive, whereas another might think of the
behavior as competent.
But wait a minute. Isnt psychology supposed to be an ob-
jective science? As a science, psychology is dedicated to discov-
ering facts about behavior and creating theories to explain
those facts. In this description, there is no mention of values.
The scientic approach requires only that psychology discover
the most dependable facts and generate the best theories possi-
ble (Kimble, 1989). In the pure world of science, there is no
place for values. Some critics, though, question whether a view
of science as value-free is realistic (Seligman, Olson, & Zanna,
1996). They argue thatalthough psychologists often strive to
reduce the role of values as they seek to discover facts about
behaviorin the court of life, which is psychologys setting,
values and psychology are sometimes difcult to disentangle.
What do you think?
Is psychology value-free? Explain.
How might the culture in which psychologists grow
up inuence their values, and how might those val-
ues in turn affect their choice of research topics and
the advice they give to clients in psychotherapy?
Are religious values appropriate study material for
psychologists? How might psychologists study reli-
gious values?
Do you agree or disagree with the following statements?
AGREE DISAGREE
1. Human beings are basically good.
2. By changing the environment,
you can change peoples behavior.
3. Intelligence is the most important
human trait.
4. People are too concerned about
themselves.
5. Physical attraction is important
in choosing a mate.
6. Women are becoming too
assertive.
7. Divorce is wrong.
8. Religion is not an appropriate
area of study for psychologists.
9. Money can bring happiness.
10. It is okay to cheat if you dont
get caught.
The way you responded to these items provides insight into
your values. If you decide to become a psychologist, might your
views on these topics, as well as others, inuence the area you
choose to research? Might psychologists values inuence how
they respond in a media interview? Might clinical psycholo-
gists values affect the advice they give to clients? Might psy-
chology professors values inuence the topics they choose to
discuss in class and how they respond to students questions?
In some cases, researchers values might inuence their
choice of research questions. A divorced woman might decide
to study the inadequate involvement and support of noncusto-
dial fathers in their childrens lives rather than the increased
role of fathers in caring for children because of her soured rela-
tionship with her ex-husband. An Asian American might
choose to study the importance of conformity to a groups goals
rather than an individuals unique contributions to a project
because he or she believes that getting along with others in a
group is more important than an individuals achievement.
When psychologists are called on as experts, they may make
statements and recommendations that are laden with values. For
C
r
i
t
i
c
a
l

C
o
n
t
r
o
v
e
r
s
y
Is Psychology Value-Free?
Think about the following situations one at a time. Check which response is most
typical of the way you would behave in that situation.
You are being kept on the phone by a salesperson trying to sell you something
you dont want.
You want to break off a relationship that is no longer working for you.
You are sitting in a movie and the people behind you are talking.
Your doctor keeps you waiting more than 20 minutes.
You are standing in line and someone moves in front of you.
Your friend has owed you money for a long time and it is money you could use.
You receive food at a restaurant that is over- or undercooked.
You want to ask a major favor of your friend, romantic partner, or roommate.
Your friends ask you to do something that you dont feel like doing.
You are in a large lecture hall. The instructor is speaking too softly and you know
other students are having trouble hearing what is being said.
You want to start a conversation at a gathering, but you dont know anyone there.
You are sitting next to someone who is smoking, and the smoke bothers you.
You are talking to someone about something that is important to you, but he or she
doesnt seem to be listening.
You are speaking and someone interrupts you.
You receive an unjust criticism from someone.
In most circumstances, being assertive is the best strategy. However, there may
be some situations in which a different style of interaction is needed. Look at each sit-
uation again and determine if the assertive style is always the best strategy and
whether there is any circumstance in which one of the other styles might work best.
P
s
y
c
h
o
l
o
g
y

a
n
d

L
i
f
e
Dealing with Conict
A
ssertive
A
ggressive
M
an
ip
u
lative
P
assive
0
20 30 40 50 60 70 80
Age (years)
A
v
e
r
a
g
e

r
e
a
c
t
i
o
n

t
i
m
e

(
s
e
c
o
n
d
s
)
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
Psychologys Careers and Areas of Specialization 23
monitoring what they have read for meaning and periodically summarizing what they
have read (Pressley, 2000, 2003).
Industrial and Organizational Psychology Industrial and organizational psy-
chology (I/O psychology) centers on the workplace, both on the workers and on
the organizations that employ them. I/O psychology is often partitioned into indus-
trial psychology and organizational psychology. Industrial psychology involves per-
sonnel and human resource management. Industrial psychology is increasingly
referred to as personnel psychology. Organizational psychology examines the social
and group influences of the organization (Goldstein & Ford, 2002; Muchinsky,
2003).
Patrick McCarthy is an I/O psychologist at Middle Tennessee State University. In
addition to teaching undergraduate and graduate courses, he is a consultant to a
number of companies, such as Procter & Gamble and the U.S. Department of Defense.
l d h i i l i ( h f )
Patrick McCarthy is an I/O psychologist who
studies many aspects of organizations, including
organizational change, motivation and work at-
titudes, and work/family balance.
Environmental psychologist Roberta Feldman in
one of the positive environments she designed.
What are some of the interests of environmental
psychologists?
Research
Critical Controversy boxes in each chapter highlight cur-
rent debates in psychology and pose thought-provoking
questions to encourage students to examine the
evidence on both sides of an issue.
Clearly labeled graphs and explanatory captions help
students become familiar with visual data presentation.
Expanded and updated coverage of neuroscience and
evolutionary psychology reects psychology's increasing
emphasis on the biological bases of behavior.
New coverage of gender and cross-cultural research,
as well as positive psychology and evolutionary
psychology, is indexed inside the back cover of the
book.
Find Balance!
Balance scientic research with real-world applications.
Applications
In each chapter of the text, a Psychology and Life feature invites
students to apply what they've learned to daily life.
Descriptions and photos of
psychologists at work illustrate
applications of psychology in
various settings plus different
career options for psychology
majors.
spy7fmpgi_xxv.qxd 3/26/04 3:35 PM Page iii impos03 303:mhspy7u:spy7fm:layouts:
Chapter Outline and Learning Goals
Learning Goals are linked directly to the primary section headings
in the text and supplementary resources to underscore key ideas.
Section Maps and Chapter
Summary Map
Primary and secondary headings presented graphically provide
a quick visual overview of the important topics covered in the
chapter.
Learning Goal
At the beginning of each primary section, that section's learning
goal reappears in the form of a question.
Stay Focused and Learn!
Students need help nding the key ideas in introductory psychology. Santrock's
unique learning system keeps students focused on these ideas so they learn
and remember fundamental psychological concepts.
Reach Your Learning Goals
The chapter summary restates the Learning Goals and provides
a bulleted review that matches up in a one-to-one fashion with
the bulleted review statements in the section reviews.
Connections
References to review quizzes, crossword puzzles, and addi-
tional resources remind students of the text-specic materi-
als available for content review and enrichment.
Review and Sharpen Your Thinking
Learning Goals frame the section reviews, which end with
an exercise designed to hone critical thinking skills.
Learning Goals
Explain what learning is.
Describe classical conditioning.
Discuss operant conditioning.
Understand observational
learning.
Know about the role of cognition
in learning.
Identify biological and cultural
factors in learning.
Chapter Outline
TYPES OF LEARNING 1
CLASSICAL CONDITIONING 2
Pavlovs Studies

Classical Conditioning in Humans


OPERANT CONDITIONING 3
Denition of Operant Conditioning

Thorndikes Law of Effect

Skinners Approach to Operant Conditioning

Shaping

Principles of Reinforcement

Applications of Operant Conditioning


OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING 4
COGNITIVE FACTORS IN LEARNING 5
Purposive Behavior

Insight Learning
BIOLOGICAL AND CULTURAL FACTORS IN LEARNING 6
Biological Constraints

Cultural Constraints
Reach Your Learning Goals
300
Learning
1 TYPES OF LEARNING
Biological Constraints Cultural Constraints
6 BIOLOGICAL AND CULTURAL FACTORS IN LEARNING
Pavlovs Studies Classical Conditioning in
Humans
2 CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
Purposive Behavior Insight Learning
5 COGNITIVE FACTORS IN LEARNING
Denition of Operant
Conditioning
Skinners Approach To
Operant Conditioning
Principles of
Reinforcement
Thorndikes Law
of Effect
Shaping Applications of Operant
Conditioning
3 OPERANT CONDITIONING
4 OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING
2 CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
Pavlovs Studies Classical Conditioning
in Humans
270 Chapter 7 Learning
Review and Sharpen Your Thinking
1 Explain what learning is.
Dene learning and distinguish between observational and associative
learning.
How do you learn? Think of a behavior you engage in and describe how you
learned it.
What is classical conditioning?
It is a nice spring day. A father takes his baby out for a walk. The baby reaches over
to touch a pink ower and is stung by the bumblebee sitting on the petals. The next
day, the babys mother brings home some pink owers. She removes a ower from
the arrangement and takes it over for her baby to smell. The baby cries loudly as
soon as she sees the pink ower. The babys panic at the sight of the pink ower
illustrates the learning process of classical conditioning, in which a neutral stimu-
lus (the ower) becomes associated with a meaningful stimulus (the pain of a bee
sting) and acquires the capacity to elicit a similar response (fear).
Pavlovs Studies
In the early 1900s, the Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov was interested in the way the
body digests food. In his experiments, he routinely placed meat powder in a dogs mouth,
causing the dog to salivate. Pavlov noticed that the meat powder was not the only stim-
ulus that caused the dog to salivate. The dog salivated in response to a number of stim-
uli associated with the food, such as the sight of the food dish, the sight of the individual
who brought the food into the room, and the sound of the door closing when the food
arrived. Pavlov recognized that the dogs association of these sights and sounds with the
food was an important type of learning, which came to be called classical conditioning.
classical conditioning Learning by
which a neutral stimulus becomes asso-
ciated with a meaningful stimulus and
acquires the capacity to elicit a similar
response.
Pavlov (the white-bearded gentleman in
the center) is shown demonstrating the
nature of classical conditioning to stu-
dents at the Military Medical Academy in
Russia.
276 Chapter 7 Learning
In-Psych Plus
Classical conditioning also can be involved in immune system functioning, which
is important for producing antibodies to ward off disease and illness, such as AIDS
and the u. Robert Ader and Nicholas Cohen (Ader, 2000; Ader & Cohen, 1975,
2000) have conducted a number of studies that reveal that classical conditioning can
produce immunosuppression (a decrease in the production of antibodies). The initial
discovery of this link between classical conditioning and immunosuppression came
as a surprise. In the course of studying Pavlovian conditioning, Ader (1974) was
examining how long a conditioned response would last in some laboratory rats. A
conditioned stimulus (saccharin solution) was paired with an unconditioned stimu-
lus, a drug called Cytoxan, which induces nausea. Afterward, while giving the rats
saccharin-laced water without the accompanying Cytoxan, Ader watched to see how
long it would take the rats to forget the association between the two.
Unexpectedly, in the second month of the study, the rats developed a disease and
began to die off. In analyzing the unforeseen result, Ader checked out the properties
of the nausea-inducing drug he had used. He discovered that one of its side effects
was immunosuppression. Thus it turned out that the rats had been classically condi-
tioned to associate sweet water not only with nausea but also with the shutdown of
the immune system. The sweet water apparently had become a CS for immunosup-
pression. Researchers have found that conditioned immune responses also may occur
in humans (Ader, 2000; Voudouris, Peck, & Coleman, 1985).
Applying Classical Conditioning: Consumer Psychology Consumer psychology is
the study of how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between different alter-
natives, such as brands and products. Many contemporary advertisers use classical
conditioning in some way (Perner, 2001). Consider this sequence:
Beautiful woman (UCS) emotional arousal (UCR) in males
Beautiful woman (UCS) paired with an automobile (not yet a CS) many times
Automobile (CS) emotional arousal (CR)
Recent research has shown that, if the conditioned stimulus is encountered out-
side of ads, it doesnt predict the UCS (Bettman, 2001). Thus classical conditioning
may work best for infrequently encountered products and cases in which the UCS is
associated with only one brand. Also, classical conditioning usually works best when
the CS precedes the UCS in ads.
Not all commercials involve classical conditioning. Some just give information
about the product. The next time you watch TV, observe which ads rely on classical
conditioning. To review the elements of classical conditioning and its applications to
human learning, go to the interactivity Classical Conditioning 2.
Review and Sharpen Your Thinking
2 Describe classical conditioning.
Summarize the classical conditioning process. Include in your description the
following terms: unconditioned stimulus (UCS), conditioned stimulus (CS),
unconditioned response (UCR), and conditioned response (CR), as well
as acquisition, generalization, discrimination, and extinction/spontaneous
recovery.
Discuss the role of classical conditioning in human phobias and specify other
types of behavior that involve classical conditioning.
Think about an attachment that you or someone you know has for a certain object
or environment. Explain how classical conditioning might account for the pleasant
association.
301
Explain what learning is.
Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior
that occurs through experience. Observational learning
is learning by watching what other people do. In associa-
tive learning, a connection is made between two events.
Conditioning is the process by which associative learning
occurs. In classical conditioning, organisms learn the as-
sociation between two stimuli and, in operant condition-
ing, they learn the association between behavior and a
consequence.
Describe classical conditioning.
Classical conditioning occurs when a neutral stimulus
becomes associated with a meaningful stimulus and
comes to elicit a similar response. Pavlov discovered that
an organism learns the association between an uncondi-
tioned stimulus (UCS) and a conditioned stimulus (CS).
The UCS automatically produces the unconditioned re-
sponse (UCR). After conditioning (CS-UCS pairing), the
CS elicits the conditioned response (CR) by itself. Acqui-
sition in classical conditioning is the initial linking of
stimuli and responses, which involves a neutral stimulus
being associated with the UCS so that the CS comes to
elicit the CR. Two important aspects of acquisition are
contiguity and contingency/predictability. Generaliza-
tion in classical conditioning is the tendency of a new
stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stim-
ulus to elicit a response that is similar to the conditioned
response. Discrimination in classical conditioning is the
process of learning to respond to certain stimuli and not
to others. Extinction in classical conditioning is the
weakening of the CR in the absence of the UCS. Sponta-
neous recovery is the recurrence of a CR after a time de-
lay without further conditioning.
In humans, classical conditioning has been applied to ex-
plaining and eliminating fears. Counterconditioning, a
classical conditioning procedure for weakening the CR
by associating the fear-provoking stimulus with a new
response that is incompatible with the fear, has been suc-
cessful in eliminating fears. Classical conditioning also
can explain pleasant emotions. Some of the behaviors
we associate with health problems and mental disorders,
including certain aspects of drug use and immune sys-
temfunctioning, can involve classical conditioning. Clas-
sical conditioning also has been applied to consumer
behavior.
Discuss operant conditioning.
Operant conditioning is a form of learning in which the
consequences of behavior produce changes in the proba-
bility of the behaviors occurrence. B. F. Skinner described
3
2
1 the behavior of the organism as operant: The behavior
operates on the environment, and the environment in
turn operates on the organism. Whereas classical condi-
tioning involves respondent behavior, operant condi-
tioning involves operant behavior. In most instances,
operant conditioning is better at explaining voluntary
behavior than classical conditioning is.
Thorndikes law of effect states that behaviors followed
by positive outcomes are strengthened, whereas behav-
iors followed by negative outcomes are weakened.
Thorndikes view that the organisms behavior is due to
a connection between a stimulus and a response is called
S-R theory.
Skinner believed that the mechanisms of learning are
the same for all species. This led him to study lower ani-
mals extensively in the hope that the basic mechanisms
of learning could be more easily understood in organ-
isms simpler than humans. Like Skinner, contemporary
behaviorists study organisms under precisely controlled
conditions so that the connection between the operant
behavior and the specic consequences can be examined
in minute detail.
Shaping is the process of rewarding approximations of
desired behavior in order to shorten the learning process.
Principles of reinforcement include the distinction be-
tween positive reinforcement (the frequency of a behavior
increases because it is followed by a rewarding stimulus)
and negative reinforcement (the frequency of behavior
increases because it is followed by the removal of an
aversive, or unpleasant, stimulus). Positive reinforcement
can be classied as primary reinforcement (using rein-
forcers that are innately satisfying) and secondary rein-
forcement (using reinforcers that acquire positive value
through experience). Reinforcement can also be contin-
uous (a behavior is reinforced every time) or partial (a
behavior is reinforced only a portion of the time). Sched-
ules of reinforcementxed-ratio, variable-ratio, xed-
interval, and variable-intervalare timetables that
determine when a behavior will be reinforced. Operant
conditioning involves generalization (giving the same re-
sponse to similar stimuli), discrimination (responding to
stimuli that signal that a behavior will or will not be re-
inforced), and extinction (a decreasing tendency to
perform a previously reinforced behavior when rein-
forcement is stopped). Punishment is a consequence that
decreases the likelihood a behavior will occur. Punish-
ment, through which a behavior is weakened, is differ-
ent from negative reinforcement, through which a
behavior is strengthened. In positive punishment, a
behavior decreases when it is followed by an unpleasant
stimulus. In negative punishment, a behavior decreases
when a positive stimulus is removed fromit. Time-out is
303
Apply Your Knowledge
1. One common association that people have is called a condi-
tioned taste aversion, which occurs when you eat or drink
something and then get sick. A conditioned taste aversion is
most likely to occur when the food or drink is something
that is relatively unfamiliar. Suppose that you have acquired
a conditioned taste aversion to tequila. Identify what the un-
conditioned stimulus, unconditioned response, conditioned
stimulus, and conditioned response are in this example.
2. Positive and negative reinforcement are often difcult con-
cepts to understand. On the following website, examples
and a practice exercise may help you gure out the distinc-
tion more easily:
http://psych.athabascau.ca/html/prtut/reinpair.htm
3. Think of all of the things you have learned in the past several
days. Write down an example involving each of the follow-
ing types of learning: classical conditioning, operant condi-
tioning, observational learning, latent learning, and insight
learning. Which kind of learning do you use most fre-
quently? Which seems to be the least common for you? Are
there types of learning youve done that dont seem to t
any category? If so, what aspects of those types exclude
them from these categories?
Connections
For extra help in mastering the material in this chapter, see the
review sections and practice quizzes in the Student Study
Guide, the In-Psych Plus CD-ROM, and the Online Learning
Center.
mhhe com/
santrockp7u In-Psych Plus
spy7fmpgi_xxv.qxd 3/26/04 3:35 PM Page iv impos03 303:mhspy7u:spy7fm:layouts:
Make Connections and Succeed!
Supplementary print and media resources include a variety of review and
assessment tools that carry through the text's emphasis on key ideas,
reinforcing learning and enhancing student success.
Student Study Guide
A guided review of the chapter is organized by text section and
Learning Goals, as are the three practice tests provided for each
chapter. As in the text, Connections direct students to other
text-correlated resources for additional help in mastering key
ideas and concepts.
Instructors Course Planner
The same Learning Goals that reinforce the key ideas in the
text and Study Guide frame the teaching suggestions in this
valuable manual. Chapter overviews, lecture/discussion sugges-
tions, and goal reinforcement activities are a few of the
resources provided in the Instructor's Course Planner.
New! In-Psych Plus CD-ROM
In-Psych Plus features video clips and interactivities that are ref-
erenced within the main text. The video clips, chosen for inter-
est and relevance, expand on signicant concepts and theories
discussed in the text and are accompanied by summaries and
quizzes. The CD-ROMs also include practice self-tests with feed-
back and a learning styles assessment, as well as other valuable
features.
Online Learning Center
www.mhhe.com/Santrockp7u
Student Resources Chapter outlines and practice quizzes are keyed
to the text Learning Goals. The student section of the website also
contains ashcards, interactive review exercises, and access, via Pow-
erWeb, to current news about psychology, research tools, and many
other valuable study tools.
Instructor Resources Teaching resources on this password-
protected site include the Instructor's Course Planner, Image Bank,
PowerPoint les, and Web links to additional resources.
spy7fmpgi_xxv.qxd 3/26/04 3:35 PM Page v impos03 303:mhspy7u:spy7fm:layouts:
spy7fmpgi_xxv.qxd 3/26/04 11:29 AM Page vi impos03 303:mhspy7u:spy7fm:layouts:
With special appreciation to my wife, Mary Jo
spy7fmpgi_xxv.qxd 3/26/04 11:29 AM Page vii impos03 303:mhspy7u:spy7fm:layouts:
About the Author
J OHN W. SANTROCK received his Ph.D. from the
University of Minnesota in 1973. He taught at the Univer-
sity of Charleston and the University of Georgia before
joining the psychology department at the University of
Texas at Dallas. He has been a member of the editorial
board of Developmental Psychology. His research on father
custody is widely cited and used in expert witness
testimony to promote exibility and alternative considera-
tions in custody disputes. John has also authored these
exceptional McGraw-Hill texts: Child Development, tenth
edition, Life-Span Development, ninth edition, Children,
eighth edition, Adolescence, tenth edition, and Educational
Psychology, second edition.
spy7fmpgi_xxv.qxd 3/26/04 11:29 AM Page viii impos03 303:mhspy7u:spy7fm:layouts:
ix
Brief Contents
C H A P T E R 1 What Is Psychology? 2
C H A P T E R 2 Psychologys Scientic Methods 38
C H A P T E R 3 Biological Foundations of Behavior 76
C H A P T E R 4 Human Development 116
C H A P T E R 5 Sensation and Perception 174
C H A P T E R 6 States of Consciousness 226
C H A P T E R 7 Learning 266
C H A P T E R 8 Memory 304
C H A P T E R 9 Thinking and Language 348
C H A P T E R 1 0 Intelligence 386
C H A P T E R 1 1 Motivation and Emotion 422
C H A P T E R 1 2 Personality 474
C H A P T E R 1 3 Psychological Disorders 516
C H A P T E R 1 4 Therapies 560
C H A P T E R 1 5 Stress, Coping, and Health 600
C H A P T E R 1 6 Social Psychology 644
spy7fmpgi_xxv.qxd 3/26/04 11:29 AM Page ix impos03 303:mhspy7u:spy7fm:layouts:
spy7fmpgi_xxv.qxd 3/26/04 11:29 AM Page x impos03 303:mhspy7u:spy7fm:layouts:
xi
Contents
C H A P T E R 1 What Is Psychology? 2
Exploring Psychology 4
Studying the Mind and Behavior 5
A Quest for Answers to Ancient Questions 6
Early Scientic Approaches to Psychology 8
Contemporary Approaches to Psychology 9
The Behavioral Approach 10
The Psychodynamic Approach 11
The Cognitive Approach 12
The Behavioral Neuroscience Approach 12
The Evolutionary Psychology Approach 13
The Sociocultural Approach 15
CRITICAL CONTROVERSY: Can Humans Really Be Altruistic? 16
A Positive Approach to Psychology 17
The Humanistic Movement 17
The Positive Psychology Movement 17
Psychologys Careers and Areas of Specialization 18
Careers in Psychology 19
Areas of Specialization in Psychology 20
PSYCHOLOGY AND LIFE: Is Psychology in Your Future? 25
How to Get the Most Out of Psychology 26
Good Study Habits 26
Thinking Critically 29
The Books Learning Tools 32
Reach Your Learning Goals 34
Key Terms 36
Apply Your Knowledge 36
Connections 36
Facing Up to Research Challenges 62
Conducting Ethical Research 63
Minimizing Bias 65
CRITICAL CONTROVERSY: Is Psychology Value-Free? 66
Being a Wise Consumer of Information About Psychology 68
Reach Your Learning Goals 72
Key Terms 74
Apply Your Knowledge 74
Connections 74
C H A P T E R 2 Psychologys Scientic Methods 38
Exploring Psychology as a Science 40
A Scientic Approach 40
Collaboration 42
The Scientic Method 42
Types of Research 47
Descriptive Research 47
PSYCHOLOGY AND LIFE: Writing Might Improve Your Health 48
Correlational Research 53
Experimental Research 56
Analyzing and Interpreting Data 59
Descriptive Statistics 59
Inferential Statistics 61
Preface xvii
spy7fmpgi_xxv.qxd 3/26/04 11:29 AM Page xi impos03 303:mhspy7u:spy7fm:layouts:
C H A P T E R 5 Sensation and Perception 174
How We Sense and Perceive the World 176
Detecting, Processing, and Interpreting Experiences 176
Sensory Receptors and the Brain 178
Thresholds 180
Signal Detection Theory 183
Perceiving Sensory Stimuli 184
Sensory Adaptation 186
The Visual System 187
The Visual Stimulus and the Eye 187
Visual Processing in the Brain 191
Color Vision 194
Perceiving Shape, Depth, Motion, and Constancy 196
Illusions 202
The Auditory System 204
The Nature of Sound and How We Experience It 204
Structures and Functions of the Ear 205
Theories of Hearing 207
Auditory Processing in the Brain 208
Localizing Sound 208
Noise Pollution 209
PSYCHOLOGY AND LIFE: Love Your Ears 210
Other Senses 211
The Skin Senses 212
CRITICAL CONTROVERSY: Should We Believe the Claims
of Psychics? 213
The Chemical Senses 216
The Kinesthetic and Vestibular Senses 219
Perception and Human Factors Psychology 220
Reach Your Learning Goals 222
Key Terms 225
Apply Your Knowledge 225
Connections 225
xii
C H A P T E R 4 Human Development 116
Exploring Human Development 119
What Is Development? 119
Do Early Experiences Rule Us for Life? 120
How Do Nature and Nurture Inuence Development? 121
Child Development 123
Prenatal Development 123
Physical Development in Childhood 125
Cognitive Development in Childhood 128
Socioemotional Development in Childhood 134
CRITICAL CONTROVERSY: Parents Bring Up Their Children,
Dont They? 141
Positive Psychology and Childrens Development 148
Adolescence 149
Positive Psychology and Adolescents 150
Physical Development in Adolescence 151
Cognitive Development in Adolescence 152
Socioemotional Development in Adolescence 153
PSYCHOLOGY AND LIFE: Developing a Positive Identity 155
At-Risk Youth 155
Adult Development and Aging 156
Physical Development in Adulthood 156
Cognitive Development in Adulthood 161
Socioemotional Development in Adulthood 164
Positive Psychology and Aging 169
Reach Your Learning Goals 170
Key Terms 172
Apply Your Knowledge 173
Connections 173
Contents
C H A P T E R 3 Biological Foundations of Behavior 76
The Nervous System 78
Characteristics 79
Pathways in the Nervous System 80
Divisions of the Nervous System 80
Neurons 82
Specialized Cell Structure 82
The Neural Impulse 83
Synapses and Neurotransmitters 85
Neural Networks 88
Structures of the Brain and Their Functions 89
How the Brain and Nervous System Are Studied 89
Levels of Organization in the Brain 91
The Cerebral Cortex 95
The Cerebral Hemispheres and Split-Brain Research 98
Integration of Function in the Brain 100
CRITICAL CONTROVERSY: Are There His and Her Brains? 101
The Endocrine System 102
Brain Damage, Plasticity, and Repair 104
The Brains Plasticity and Capacity for Repair 104
Brain Tissue Implants 104
Genetic and Evolutionary Blueprints of Behavior 105
Chromosomes, Genes, and DNA 106
The Study of Genetics 106
PSYCHOLOGY AND LIFE: The Human Genome Project and Your
Genetic Future 107
Genetics and Evolution 110
Reach Your Learning Goals 112
Key Terms 114
Apply Your Knowledge 115
Connections 115
spy7fmpgi_xxv.qxd 3/26/04 11:29 AM Page xii impos03 303:mhspy7u:spy7fm:layouts:
C H A P T E R 6 States of Consciousness 226
The Nature of Consciousness 228
Levels of Awareness 229
Consciousness and the Brain 232
Sleep and Dreams 232
Biological Rhythms and Sleep 232
Why Do We Need Sleep? 235
Sleep Stages 238
Sleep and Disease 241
Sleep Disorders 241
PSYCHOLOGY AND LIFE: Do You Get Enough Sleep? 242
Dreams 243
Hypnosis 246
The Nature of Hypnosis 247
Explaining Hypnosis 248
Applications of Hypnosis 248
Psychoactive Drugs 249
CRITICAL CONTROVERSY: Is Hypnosis a Window to Forgotten
Events? 250
Uses of Psychoactive Drugs 251
Types of Psychoactive Drugs 252
Addiction 261
Reach Your Learning Goals 262
Key Terms 264
Apply Your Knowledge 264
Connections 265
C H A P T E R 7 Learning 266
Types of Learning 268
Classical Conditioning 270
Pavlovs Studies 270
Classical Conditioning in Humans 274
Operant Conditioning 277
Denition of Operant Conditioning 277
Thorndikes Law of Effect 277
Skinners Approach to Operant Conditioning 278
Shaping 279
Principles of Reinforcement 280
CRITICAL CONTROVERSY: Will Sparing the Rod Spoil
the Child? 287
Applications of Operant Conditioning 288
Observational Learning 291
Cognitive Factors in Learning 292
PSYCHOLOGY AND LIFE: Models and Mentors in My Life 293
Purposive Behavior 293
Insight Learning 295
Biological and Cultural Factors in Learning 296
Biological Constraints 296
Cultural Constraints 298
Reach Your Learning Goals 300
Key Terms 302
Apply Your Knowledge 303
Connections 303
C H A P T E R 8 Memory 304
The Nature of Memory 306
Memory Encoding 308
Attention 308
Levels of Processing 308
Elaboration 309
Imagery 310
Memory Storage 311
Sensory Memory 312
Short-Term Memory 313
Long-Term Memory 315
Memory Retrieval 326
Serial Position Effect 327
Retrieval Cues and the Retrieval Task 327
Retrieval of Autobiographical Memories 330
Retrieval of Emotional Memories 330
CRITICAL CONTROVERSY: Recovered Memories or False
Memories? 332
Eyewitness Testimony 333
Forgetting 336
Encoding Failure 336
Retrieval Failure 337
Memory and Study Strategies 339
Encoding Strategies 340
Storage Strategies 342
Retrieval Strategies 342
PSYCHOLOGY AND LIFE: Memory and Study Strategies 343
Reach Your Learning Goals 344
Key Terms 346
Apply Your Knowledge 347
Connections 347
Contents xiii
spy7fmpgi_xxv.qxd 3/26/04 11:29 AM Page xiii impos03 303:mhspy7u:spy7fm:layouts:
C H A P T E R 1 1 Motivation and Emotion 422
Approaches to Motivation 425
The Evolutionary Approach 425
Drive Reduction Theory 425
Optimum Arousal Theory 426
The Cognitive Approach 427
CRITICAL CONTROVERSY: Does Extrinsic Motivation Undermine
Intrinsic Motivation? 429
Maslows Hierarchy of Human Needs 430
Issues in Motivation 431
Hunger 431
The Biology of Hunger 431
Obesity and Eating Behavior 434
Dieting 436
Eating Disorders 437
Sexuality 438
The Biology of Sex 439
Cognitive and Sensory/Perceptual Factors 440
Cultural Factors 441
Psychosexual Dysfunctions 442
Sexual Behavior and Orientation 443
Social Cognitive Motives 447
Achievement 447
PSYCHOLOGY AND LIFE: How Goal-Directed Are You? 449
C H A P T E R 1 0 Intelligence 386
The Nature of Intelligence 388
Intelligence Testing 389
Approaches to Testing 389
Criteria of a Good Test of Intelligence 393
Cultural Bias in Testing 395
The Use and Misuse of Intelligence Tests 396
Neuroscience and Intelligence 397
Head and Brain Size 398
Information Processing Speed 398
Electrical Activity in the Brain 398
Energy Consumption in the Brain 399
Theories of Multiple Intelligences 399
Factor Analysis, Two-Factor Theory, and Multiple-Factor
Theory 400
Gardners Theory of Eight Intelligences 400
Sternbergs Triarchic Theory 402
Emotional Intelligence 403
Evaluating the Multiple-Intelligences Approach 403
CRITICAL CONTROVERSY: Do People Have a General
Intelligence? 404
The Extremes of Intelligence and Creativity 405
Mental Retardation 405
Giftedness 406
Creativity 408
PSYCHOLOGY AND LIFE: How Creative Is Your Thinking? 411
The Inuence of Heredity and Environment 412
Genetic Inuences 412
Environmental Inuences 413
Group Inuences 415
Reach Your Learning Goals 418
Key Terms 421
Apply Your Knowledge 421
Connections 421
Contents xiv
C H A P T E R 9 Thinking and Language 348
The Cognitive Revolution in Psychology 351
Concept Formation 353
Functions of Concepts 353
Structure of Concepts 355
Problem Solving 356
Steps in Problem Solving 356
Obstacles to Solving Problems 358
Expertise 360
Critical Thinking, Reasoning, and Decision Making 361
Critical Thinking 362
Reasoning 363
PSYCHOLOGY AND LIFE: Sharpening the Saw 364
Decision Making 365
Language and Thought 368
The Structure of Language 368
The Link Between Language and Cognition 369
Animal Language 371
Language Acquisition and Development 373
Biological Inuences 373
Environmental Inuences 374
Early Development of Language 375
Language and Education 378
CRITICAL CONTROVERSY: Is Bilingual Education a Good Thing? 379
Reach Your Learning Goals 382
Key Terms 384
Apply Your Knowledge 385
Connections 385
spy7fmpgi_xxv.qxd 3/26/04 11:29 AM Page xiv impos03 303:mhspy7u:spy7fm:layouts:
C H A P T E R 1 2 Personality 474
Theories of Personality 477
Psychodynamic Perspectives 478
Freuds Psychoanalytic Theory 478
Psychodynamic Dissenters and Revisionists 482
Evaluating the Psychodynamic Perspectives 484
Behavioral and Social Cognitive Perspectives 485
Skinners Behaviorism 486
Banduras Social Cognitive Theory 486
Evaluating Behavioral and Social Cognitive Perspectives 490
Humanistic Perspectives 490
Rogers Approach 491
Maslows Approach 492
Self-Esteem 493
Evaluating Humanistic Perspectives 495
Trait Perspectives 496
Trait Theories 496
The Big Five Personality Factors 498
PSYCHOLOGY AND LIFE: Are You Extraverted or Introverted? 498
Trait-Situation Interaction 499
Evaluating Trait Perspectives 500
Personality Assessment 501
Projective Tests 501
Self-Report Tests 504
CRITICAL CONTROVERSY: Who Is Projecting What? 505
Behavioral and Cognitive Assessment 508
Assessment in the Selection of Employees 510
Reach Your Learning Goals 512
Key Terms 515
Apply Your Knowledge 515
Connections 515
C H A P T E R 1 3 Psychological Disorders 516
Understanding Psychological Disorders 518
Dening Abnormal Behavior 518
Theoretical Approaches to Psychological Disorders 520
Classifying Abnormal Behavior 522
CRITICAL CONTROVERSY: Are Psychological Disorders a Myth? 526
Anxiety Disorders 527
Generalized Anxiety Disorder 527
Panic Disorder 528
Phobic Disorders 529
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder 530
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder 532
Dissociative Disorders 535
Dissociative Amnesia and Fugue 535
Dissociative Identity Disorder 535
Mood Disorders 537
Depressive Disorders 537
PSYCHOLOGY AND LIFE: Are You Depressed? 539
Bipolar Disorder 539
Causes of Mood Disorders 540
Suicide 546
Schizophrenia 548
Types of Schizophrenia 549
Causes of Schizophrenia 550
Personality Disorders 553
Odd/Eccentric Cluster 553
Dramatic/Emotionally Problematic Cluster 554
Chronic-Fearfulness/Avoidant Cluster 555
Reach Your Learning Goals 556
Key Terms 558
Apply Your Knowledge 559
Connections 559
Contents xv
C H A P T E R 1 4 Therapies 560
Biological Therapies 562
Drug Therapy 563
CRITICAL CONTROVERSY: Should Depression Be Treated
with Drugs? 565
Electroconvulsive Therapy 566
Psychosurgery 568
Psychotherapies 568
Psychodynamic Therapies 569
Afliation 453
Well-Being 454
Emotion 455
The Biology of Emotion 456
Cognitive Factors 460
Behavioral Factors 462
Sociocultural Factors 462
Classifying Emotions 465
Reach Your Learning Goals 470
Key Terms 473
Apply Your Knowledge 473
Connections 473
spy7fmpgi_xxv.qxd 3/26/04 11:29 AM Page xv impos03 303:mhspy7u:spy7fm:layouts:
C H A P T E R 1 5 Stress, Coping, and Health 600
Health Psychology and Behavioral Medicine 603
Stress and Its Sources 604
Personality Factors 604
Environmental Factors 606
Sociocultural Factors 610
Stress Responses 612
General Adaptation Syndrome 612
Fight or Flight, Tend and Befriend 614
Cognitive Appraisal 615
Stress and Illness 616
Stress and the Immune System 616
Stress and Cardiovascular Disease 618
Stress and Cancer 618
Positive Emotions, Illness, and Health 619
Coping Strategies 620
CRITICAL CONTROVERSY: Can Positive Thinking Make You
Healthy? 621
Problem-Focused and Emotion-Focused Coping 622
Optimism and Positive Thinking 622
Social Support 625
Assertive Behavior 626
PSYCHOLOGY AND LIFE: Dealing with Conict 627
Religion 627
Stress Management Programs 629
Healthful Living 631
Exercising Regularly 631
Eating Healthily 634
Quitting Smoking 635
Making Sound Sexual Decisions 636
Reach Your Learning Goals 640
Key Terms 643
Apply Your Knowledge 643
Connections 643
C H A P T E R 1 6 Social Psychology 644
Social Thinking 646
Attribution 647
Social Perception 649
Attitudes 653
Social Inuence 658
Conformity and Obedience 658
Group Inuence 662
Leadership 666
Intergroup Relations 668
Group Identity: Us Versus Them 668
Prejudice 670
Ways to Improve Interethnic Relations 672
Social Interaction 675
Aggression 675
CRITICAL CONTROVERSY: Does Pornography Lead to Violence
Against Women? 681
Altruism 682
Relationships 686
Attraction 686
Love 688
Relationships and Gender 689
PSYCHOLOGY AND LIFE: What Is Your Love Like? 690
Loneliness 691
Reach Your Learning Goals 694
Key Terms 697
Apply Your Knowledge 697
Connections 697
Glossary G-1
References R-1
Credits C-1
Name Index I-1
Subject Index I-13
Contents xvi
Humanistic Therapies 572
Behavior Therapies 574
Cognitive Therapies 578
Sociocultural Approaches and Issues in Treatment 584
Group Therapy 584
Family and Couples Therapy 585
Self-Help Support Groups 586
Community Mental Health 587
Cultural Perspectives 588
The Effectiveness of Psychotherapy 589
Research on the Effectiveness of Psychotherapy 589
Common Themes in Psychotherapy 591
Therapy Integrations 591
Funding and Finding Therapy 592
Mental Health Professionals 593
Guidelines for Seeking Professional Help 594
PSYCHOLOGY AND LIFE: Evaluating Whether You Need
a Therapist 595
Reach Your Learning Goals 596
Key Terms 599
Apply Your Knowledge 599
Connections 599
spy7fmpgi_xxv 4/16/04 9:23 PM Page xvi
xvii
Preface
Since I started teaching psychology in 1967, my motivation
and love for introducing students to this relevant science have
not wavered. This commitment to relevance and to science
not only has been a foundation of my teaching, but it is also
the heart of this book. In this edition, Ive kept the theme of
psychology as a relevant science and, in line with current
trends in the discipline, increased the emphasis on the biolog-
ical aspects of psychology and on the positive changes psy-
chology can help us achieve in our lives. These themes,
together with a stronger focus on the key ideas in psychology,
are the main features of this update of Psychology.
New! Media Integration
References to video clips and interactivities, all drawn from
various McGraw-Hill media resources and chosen for their
interest and relevancy to the main content, appear within
the main text. The In-Psych Plus CD-ROM marginal icon pro-
vides an additional, visual reference to the media. Each
video and interactivity that is mentioned in the text appears
on the In-Psych Plus CD-ROM, which is packaged free with
the text. In addition, pedagogy, activities, test questions, and
other features have been created to complement these
video clips and reinforce students grasp of the key concepts
they illustrate. These materials are found on the In-Psych
Plus CD-ROM, in the Study Guide, in the Instructors
Course Planner, and in the Test Item Files.
Psychology: The Relevant Science
Many students come into the introductory psychology
class asking why they should study psychology when their
major is physics or computer science or French. To a psy-
chologist, the answer is obvious: It will help you to under-
stand yourself and others better. Psychology is relevant to
almost every aspect of daily life. What psychologists have
learned from memory research, for example, can be used
to study more effectively, no matter what the subject is.
Principles of learning can be applied to change undesirable
behavior in children. Knowledge of sensation and percep-
tion can be used to more effectively design computers. Re-
search on stress, coping, and health can help people to live
fuller, happier lives.
Writing the preface for Psychology, I am convinced that
the science of psychology is more relevant today than
ever. After September 11, 2001, psychologists and psychi-
atrists were called on to counsel not only people whose
lives were directly affected by the attacks on the World
Trade Center and the Pentagon but also students, teachers,
parents, and others who were struggling to understand, as
we were, what could trigger such hostility and violence
toward Americans. Psychology teaches us about the roots
of aggression and the inuence of groups on individual
behavior. It also suggests strategies for handling stress,
whatever the source. Nothing is more relevant to contem-
porary life.
In addition to relevance, this edition continues to
stress the scientic nature of the discipline. A hallmark of
the book has always been its focus on research, the foun-
dation of all sciences. Here the latest research ndings are
discussed, along with the classic studies that established
psychology as an objective science. There are more than
900 citations from the twenty-first century, including
many from 2002 through 2004. Also, numerous new
graphs show students how scientic data can be presented
visually.
Neuroscience and Biological
Inuences on Behavior
The growing emphasis on neuroscience and genetics as the
means to understand the effects of biology on behavior is
also reected in this edition. Evolutionary psychology, an-
other area of increasing interest, receives increased atten-
tion as well. Knowing that students often have difculty
understanding why it is important to learn biology in a
course on psychology, Ive taken particular care to present
these topics in a psychological context and to under-
score the complex relationship between biology, environ-
ment, and behavior wherever appropriate. Neuroscientist
Lawrence Cauller provided outstanding guidance for in-
corporating stronger biological neuroscience content in
this edition.
Positive Psychology
Currently, there is a movement in psychology to focus at-
tention on the positive contributions psychology can make
to everyday life. Proponents of positive psychology, notably
Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, share the belief that for much of
spy7fmpgi_xxv.qxd 3/26/04 11:29 AM Page xvii impos03 303:mhspy7u:spy7fm:layouts:
the twentieth century the discipline concentrated on the
negative aspects of life and that its time to emphasize the
positive side of psychology. Positive psychology offers all of
us the opportunity to take control of our lives and nd bal-
ance. For this edition, I have revised many of the chapter-
opening vignettes and examples in the text to highlight
positive outcomes and, with Csikszentmihalyis expert guid-
ance, have incorporated material on positive psychology
throughout the book.
Focus on Key Ideas
The most signicant instructional challenge facing introduc-
tory psychology teachers today is ensuring that students
master the core content of the course. For students over-
whelmed by information from lectures, textbooks, the In-
ternet, and other media, it is more difcult than ever to nd
the main ideas in their courses. To address these challenges
and help students achieve the best possible outcome, I have
developed a learning system for this edition that emphasizes
basic concepts and ideas, encourages review, and promotes
critical thinking. This system frames the presentation in the
text and the supplements, providing a truly integrated pack-
age that reinforces learning and gives instructors the tools
they need to assess students grasp of core concepts and
ideas.
The learning system has several components, all cen-
tered on three to six key ideas per chapter. These ideas are
encapsulated in learning goals, which correspond with the
chapters main headings, as shown at the opening of each
chapter. The learning goals reappear at several places in the
chapter: as a question at the beginning of a new topic, in a
guided review at the end of the section, and again in a sum-
mary at the end of the chapter. Content maps of the section
and subsection headings accompany the learning goal ques-
tion at the beginning of each major section. Together with a
complete chapter map at the end of the chapter, the section
maps provide a visual guide to the core concepts that sup-
port the learning goals.
To encourage students to apply what theyve learned,
and increase the likelihood that they will remember the ma-
terial, the learning system includes critical thinking ques-
tions keyed to the learning goals in the Review and
Sharpen Your Thinking sections. Additionally, What do
you think? exercises accompany each of the new Critical
Controversy boxes and at least three critical thinking exer-
cises follow the review section at the end of each chapter in
a section titledApply Your Knowledge. For students who
have access to the Web, the end-of-chapter exercises include
at least one Web-based activity.
Incorporating the learning goals and maps in the stu-
dent supplements reinforces the lessons from the text and
eliminates the confusion many students have about how to
use the supplements to boost their performance in the
course.
Changes in Coverage
Instructors who have used previous editions of this text will
nd much in the seventh edition thats different and much
that hasnt changed. In addition to increased emphasis on
neuroscience, genetics, evolutionary psychology, and posi-
tive psychology, the seventh edition contains increased cov-
erage of diversity, controversies, and careers in psychology.
This material is presented where appropriate throughout
the book.
The table of contents and chapter sequence remain the
same as in the sixth edition, except that human development
now falls closer to the beginning of the book (chapter 4). With
this change, instructors can cover a topic of high student
interest early in the course, while the principles of genetics
(chapter 3) are still fresh in students minds, and later
incorporate the material in their discussions of learning,
cognition, and language.
Although the number of chapters and their topics are
unchanged, the substance and presentation in each chapter
have been revised thoroughly. Some of the detail that is less
relevant today than it once was has been pruned to make
room for cutting-edge research and some of the presenta-
tion was reconceptualized to focus on the key ideas reected
in the learning goals. Although there isnt enough space
here to list all of the changes in this edition, here are the
highlights:
CHAPTER 1 What Is Psychology?
Expanded, updated coverage of the evolutionary psy-
chology approach and a new section on positive
approaches to psychology, including the humanistic
movement and the positive psychology movement
Expanded treatment of psychologys careers, including
descriptions of the work that different types of psy-
chologists do
New section added on how to get the most out of psy-
chology, focusing on study habits and skills
CHAPTER 2 Psychologys Scientic Methods
New opening discussion of attitudes central to the
scientic approach and on collaboration in science
Introduction of James Pennebakers research as an
extended example of the scientic method and positive
psychology
Reorganized section on research methods focusing on
descriptive, correlational, and experimental research
and including new coverage of positive and negative
correlations and their interpretation, as well as recent
research on bias and the placebo effect
New introduction to data analysis and interpretation,
with explanation of descriptive statistics and inferential
statistics
Preface xviii
spy7fmpgi_xxv.qxd 3/26/04 11:29 AM Page xviii impos03 303:mhspy7u:spy7fm:layouts:
CHAPTER 3 Biological Foundations of Behavior
Reorganized chapter now starts with a discussion of
the characteristics of the nervous system, focusing on
complexity, integration, adaptability, and electrochemi-
cal transmission
Revised presentation of neuron structure and function,
including new material on drugs, neurotransmitters,
and neural networks
Updated coverage of functioning in the left and right
hemispheres of the brain and many new drawings of
the brain
Separate section on the endocrine system
Expanded and updated discussion of neurogenesis
New section on genetics and evolution
CHAPTER 4 Human Development
Nature and nurture section now includes a discussion
of genotype and phenotype, as well as a subsection on
optimal experiences
Added coverage on the brain and how it changes from
infancy to adulthood
Revised discussion of socioemotional development in
childhood includes the effects of divorce, positive par-
enting, ethnic and cultural differences, and gender
development
New sections on positive psychology and development
in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood
Expanded discussion of biological aspects of aging,
including new gures on telomeres and aging and
updated information on Alzheimers disease
Updated coverage of cognitive changes and aging,
including new gures on longitudinal changes in six
intellectual abilities and on the relation of age to
reaction time
Discussion of John Gottmans work on what makes a
successful marriage and of Laura Carstensens research
on emotion, social networks, and aging, including new
gures on aging and remembering emotional material
CHAPTER 5 Sensation and Perception
Completely revised discussion of how we sense and
perceive the world now includes transduction, bottom-
up and top-down processing, new examples of signal
detection theory, and selective attention
New coverage on parallel processing in the visual cor-
tex and on the process of binding in neural pathways
and how it functions in visual perception
Cochlear implants and sound localization added to dis-
cussion of the auditory system
Discussion of parallel processing in touch
Expanded coverage of pain, including new discussion
of the fast and slow pain pathways, plus pain con-
trol and treatment
New section on human factors and perception, includ-
ing recent research of Susan Lederman and Roberta
Klatsky and of Robert McCann at NASA
CHAPTER 6 States of Consciousness
Neuroscience coverage incorporated in sections on
consciousness, stages of sleep, and psychoactive drugs
Greater coverage of circadian rhythms, including the
suprachiasmatic nucleus
New coverage of the role of sleep in the storage and
maintenance of long-term memory
Addition of recent research on sleep deprivation in
adolescents and older adults
New section on sleep and disease
Inclusion of new research on dream content across
cultures
Expanded and updated material on the activation-
synthesis theory of dreaming
Most recent data on trends in adolescent drug use
(Johnston, OMalley, & Bachman, 2001)
CHAPTER 7 Learning
Expanded and claried discussion of classical condi-
tioning, including new examples, such as fear of the
dentist and how it varies across cultures; a new section
on the role of classical conditioning in health problems;
and applications to consumer psychology
Expanded, improved, easier-to-understand examples
of positive and negative reinforcement
Expanded and easier-to-understand examples in com-
paring punishment and negative reinforcement
Expanded applications of operant conditioning, includ-
ing the use of shaping and behavior modication in
the classroom
CHAPTER 8 Memory
Revised coverage of memory encoding includes the
effects of divided attention
New discussion of recent research on how verbal
working memory can be impaired by negative emo-
tion, and on how writing about negative emotional
events can improve working memory
Revised coverage of memory storage includes new
sections on prospective memory and on connectionist
networks and memory, plus a discussion of long-term
potentiation
Revised discussion of forgetting includes Ebbinghaus
Forgetting Curve, decay and transience, and a new
section on motivated forgetting
Complete reorganization of memory and study strategy
section to correspond to organization of the section on
memory
Preface xix
spy7fmpgi_xxv.qxd 3/26/04 11:29 AM Page xix impos03 303:mhspy7u:spy7fm:layouts:
CHAPTER 9 Thinking and Language
Expanded coverage of concepts, including new sections
on the functions and structures of concepts
New section on expertise, including four ways that ex-
perts solve problems differently than novices do
Earlier discussion of the link between cognition and
language
Revised section on language acquisition and develop-
ment includes material on the level of maternal
speech to infants and its effects on vocabulary devel-
opment in infants, a new gure on language mile-
stones, a discussion of how young children nd the
boundaries between words, and recent research on
how long it takes to become competent at a second
language
CHAPTER 10 Intelligence
Intelligence testing now cohesively discussed in open-
ing section
New section on neuroscience and intelligence with
subsections on head and brain size, information
processing speed, electrical activity in the brain, and
energy consumption in the brain
Added sections on theories of multiple and emotional
intelligence, including a comparison of Gardners,
Sternbergs, and Mayer/Salovy theories of intelligence
New section on the inuence of heredity and environ-
ment includes the research of Craig Ramey and col-
leagues, as well as gender and cultural comparisons
CHAPTER 11 Motivation and Emotion
Section on motivation theory now includes the evolu-
tionary approach to motivation, arousal and sensation
seeking, expanded coverage of intrinsic and extrinsic
motivation, and a discussion of the importance of self-
generated goals
Hunger section includes expanded and updated discus-
sion of blood chemistry and the role of leptin in obe-
sity, new material on neurotransmitters in the section
on brain processes and hunger, new data on obesity in
the United States, and more coverage of anorexia ner-
vosa and bulimia nervosa
Social cognitive motivation section now includes a
cross-cultural comparison of math achievement in the
United States, Japan, and Taiwan; achievement appli-
cations in the workplace and in sports; and discussions
of the motivation for afliation and well-being
Section on emotion includes a new discussion of the
roles of neural circuits and neurotransmitters, includ-
ing Joseph LeDouxs concept of direct and indirect
pathways for fear in the brain, and of the links be-
tween emotion and the brains hemispheres
New focus on positive emotions, including Barbara
Fredericksons research on how they might enhance
peoples well-being and David Buss ideas on the
evolved mechanisms that can produce a deep sense of
happiness
CHAPTER 12 Personality
Issues in the study of personality now at beginning of
chapter
Social cognitive theory section revised to include dis-
cussions of personal control, locus of control, and
optimism
New gure showing the link between self-efcacy and
smoking cessation
New discussion of changes in self-esteem across the life
span, including new gure based on 2002 research
study
Section on personality assessment expanded to include
discussion of the big ve factors, locus of control, and
the selection of employees
CHAPTER 13 Psychological Disorders
The multiaxial system in the DSM-IV covered in greater
depth, including a new gure on the major categories
of psychological disorders, organized according to
Axis I and Axis II
Introduction of concept of etiology, new discussion of
the etiology of anxiety disorders, and expanded discus-
sion of post-traumatic stress disorder
Added material on the hidden observer concept ap-
plied to dissociative disorders
Updated discussion of mood disorders, including new
coverage on neurobiological abnormalities, new mate-
rial on the depressive realism view of depression, and
several new gures
New section on suicide, including coverage of suicide
rates across cultures
Expanded discussion of schizophrenia, including recent
information about heredity and schizophrenia, as well
as neurobiological factors and case studies
CHAPTER 14 Therapies
Substantially reorganized chapter with biological ther-
apies now covered in the rst section
Updated discussion and gures on the effects of drug
therapies, including Prozac and Risperdal
New sections on cognitive behavior therapy and using
cognitive therapy to treat psychological disorders
New section on sociocultural approaches and issues,
including new coverage of the community mental
health movement
Preface xx
spy7fmpgi_xxv.qxd 3/26/04 11:29 AM Page xx impos03 303:mhspy7u:spy7fm:layouts:
CHAPTER 15 Stress, Coping, and Health
Reorganization of stress discussion to focus on sources
and responses
New section on coping strategies with new coverage of
problem-focused and emotion-focused coping, opti-
mism, and positive thinking and the role of religion in
helping people cope with stress
Section on healthful living updated with new coverage
of the role of the antidepressant Zyban in helping peo-
ple quit smoking, as well as the effective rates of other
approaches, such as nicotine patches
CHAPTER 16 Social Psychology
Revised social inuence section with expanded discus-
sion of symptoms of groupthink and strategies for
avoiding groupthink, as well as a discussion of leader-
ship styles in women and men
Expanded, updated discussion of prejudice focusing on
the reasons people develop prejudice
Updated section on social interaction, including discus-
sion of neurotransmitters and aggression, recent infor-
mation on childrens TV viewing habits and possible
links to aggression, and updated coverage of trends in
altruism among U.S. college students
In relationships section, addition of recent research on
gender and relationships; new research on loneliness,
stress, and health; and new discussion of loneliness
and technology
Print and Media Supplements
For the Student
PowerWeb This unique online tool provides students
with current articles, curriculum-based materials, weekly
updates with assessment, informative and timely world
news, Web links, research tools, study tools, and interactive
exercises. A PowerWeb access card is packaged FREE with
each new copy of the text.
New! In-Psych Plus Student CD-ROM In-Psych Plus sets
a new standard for introductory psychology multimedia.
In-Psych Plus is organized according to the text chapter out-
lines and features video clips, audio clips, and interactive ex-
ercises chosen to illustrate especially difcult core concepts in
introductory psychology. In-Psych Plus also includes a pre-test,
follow-up assignments, Web resources, chapter quizzes, a stu-
dent research guide, and an interactive timeline that puts
events, key gures, and research in historical perspective.
Study Guide
Ruth Hallongren, Triton College
Designed to reinforce the key ideas in the text, the study
guide contains the following features for each chapter of
the text: chapter overview, learning objectives, guided re-
view (for each section), three practice tests, essay ques-
tions, crossword puzzle, learning goal checklist, and
diagram labeling exercises.
Psych Online This supplement is designed to help stu-
dents get the most out of the Internet for psychology re-
search and provides general resource locations. Psychology
sites are grouped by topic with a brief explanation of each
site. Included in this booklet are a number of general re-
source sites for students seeking help.
Online Learning Center for Students The official
website for the text contains chapter outlines, practice
quizzes that can be e-mailed to the professor, key term
flashcards, interactive exercises, Internet activities, Web
links to relevant psychology sites, drag-and-drop labeling
exercises, Internet primer, career appendix, and a statistics
primer. www.mhhe.com/Santrockp7u.
For the Instructor
Instructors Course Planner
Susan Weldon, Eastern Michigan University
This manual provides many useful tools to enhance your
teaching. In each chapter, you will nd teaching objectives,
chapter overviews, key terms, Teaching the Chapter,
lecture/discussion suggestions, goal reinforcement classroom
activities, Experiencing Psychology boxed feature, critical
thinking questions, video/media suggestions, and references
and sources of bibliographical information.
Test Item Files
Test Item File I: Ron Mulson, Hudson Valley
Community College
Test Item File II: Susan E. Swithers, Purdue
University
Test Item File III: Susan Weldon, Eastern
Michigan University
Three Test Item Files provide you with the widest variety of
questions to last the life of this edition. The questions in the
Test Item Files are also available on Brownstone, a powerful
but accessible test-generating program that McGraw-Hill
offers on a hybrid CD-ROM. With Brownstone, you can eas-
ily select questions and print tests and answer keys. You can
also customize questions, headings, and instructions; add or
import your own questions; and print tests in a choice of
printer-supported fonts.
PowerPoint Lectures Available on the Internet, these
presentations cover the key points of each chapter and
include charts and graphs from the text. Helpful lecture
Preface xxi
spy7fmpgi_xxv.qxd 3/26/04 11:29 AM Page xxi impos03 303:mhspy7u:spy7fm:layouts:
guidelines are provided in the Notes section for each slide.
These presentations can be used as they are or can be modi-
ed to meet your needs.
Overhead Transparencies More than 70 key images
from the text are available upon adoption. A separate pack-
age, Introductory Psychology Transparency Set, provides more
than 100 additional images illustrating key concepts in gen-
eral psychology.
Online Learning Center for Instructors The password-
protected instructor side of the text website contains the In-
structors Manual, a sample chapter from the text,
PowerPoint Presentations, Web links, and other teaching re-
sources. www.mhhe.com/Santrockp74u
PageOut
TM
Build your own course website in less than an
hour. You dont have to be a computer whiz to create a web-
site, especially with an exclusive McGraw-Hill product called
PageOut. It requires no prior knowledge of HTML, no long
hours of coding, and no design skills on your part. With Page-
Out, even the most inexperienced computer user can quickly
and easily create a professional-looking course website. Sim-
ply ll in templates with your information and with content
provided by McGraw-Hill, choose a design, and youve got a
website specically designed for your course. Best of all, its
FREE! Visit us at www.pageout.net to nd out more.
Instructors Resource CD-ROM This comprehensive
CD-ROM includes the contents of the Instructors Course
Planner; Test Item Files in computerized, Word, and Rich
Text versions; an image gallery; and PowerPoint slides.
The Presentation Manager provides an easy-to-use inter-
face for the design and delivery of multimedia classroom
presentations.
Acknowledgments
Many people guided this update of Psychology. The McGraw-
Hill team of Steve DeBow, president; Thalia Dorwick, editor
in chief; Stephen Rutter, publisher; Melissa Caughlin, mar-
keting manager; Judith Kromm, director of development;
and Sienne Patch, developmental editor, all played key roles
and spent long hours in the planning, revision, and publica-
tion process for this update.
Reviewers of the Updated Seventh Edition
The following psychologists and instructors provided com-
ments and suggestions, which helped me to improve and
update this text:
Tamara L. Brown, University of Kentucky
Peter B. Crabb, Pennsylvania State UniversityAbington
William Fabricius, Arizona State University
Linda E. Flickinger, St. Clair County Community
College
Edwin E. Gantt, Brigham Young University
Debra L. Hollister, Valencia Community College
Richard Kandus, Mt. San Jacinto College
Maria LeBaron, Randolph Community College
Brennis Lucero-Wagoner, California State University
Northridge
Wendy Mills, San Jacinto College North
Doug Peterson, University of South Dakota
James S. Previte, Victor Valley College
Steven V. Rouse, Pepperdine University
John Ruys, University of CaliforniaDavis
H.R. Schiffman, Rutgers University
Susan Spencer, Eastern Oklahoma State College
Katharine Webb, Maria College
Fred Whitford, Montana State University
Expert Reviewers of the Updated
Seventh Edition
In addition, I would like to thank the following expert
reviewers, who provided in-depth comments in the areas of
neuroscience and cognitive psychology:
James C. Bartlett, University of Texas at Dallas
Mike Kilgard, University of Texas at Dallas
In-Depth Reviewers of the Seventh Edition
I beneted considerably from the advice and analysis provided
by a number of in-depth reviewers of the books seventh edi-
tion. The following individuals provided this input:
Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, Claremont Graduate
University (positive psychology)
Larry Cauller, University of Texas at Dallas
(neuroscience)
Susan Swithers, Purdue University (chapters 3 and 5
and author of end-of-chapter exercises)
John Mitterer, Brock University (author of many of the
Critical Controversy boxes)
Meredith Stanford-Pollack, University of
Massachusetts at Lowell (diversity)
Saera Khan, Western Washington University
(illustrations)
Reviewers of the Seventh Edition
The following psychologists also helped to make the seventh
edition a much better text through their thoughtful reviews:
Richard Anderson, Bowling Green State University
Jim Backlund, Kirtland Community College
Stella B. Baldwin, Wake Technical Community College
Pearl Berman, Indiana University of Pennsylvania
Joy L. Berrenberg, University of Colorado at Denver
Preface xxii
spy7fmpgi_xxv.qxd 3/26/04 11:29 AM Page xxii impos03 303:mhspy7u:spy7fm:layouts:
Frederick M. Brown, Penn State University
Richard Cavasina, California University of Pennsylvania
George A. Cicala, University of Delaware
Pamela Costa, Tacoma Commmunity College
Donna Dahlgren, Indiana University Southeast
Leta Fenell, Chesapeake College
Roseanne L. Flores, Hunter College
Bety Jane Fratzke, Indiana Wesleyan University
Robert Gallen, Indiana University of Pennsylvania
J. P. Garofalo, University of Pittsburgh
Michael Kaye Garza, Brookhaven College
Roderick C. Gillis, University of Miami
Leslie Grout, Hudson Valley Community College
Arthur Gutman, Florida Institute of Technology
Christine Harness, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee
James R. Heard, Antelope Valley College
Paul Hernandez, South Texas Community College
Karen Jordan, University of Illinois at Chicago
Kevin Keating, Broward Community College
Saera Khan, Western Washington University
Brian Kim, University of Maryland, College Park
Michele K. Lewis, Northern Virginia Community
College, Annandale
Wanda McCarthy, Northern Kentucky University
Diane Martichuski, University of Colorado at Boulder
Glenn E. Meyer, Trinity University
Fred Miller, Oregon Health Sciences University,
Portland Community College
Richard Miller, Western Kentucky University
Ann Miner, Indiana University of Pennsylvania
Arthur G. Olguin, Santa Barbara City College
Barbara Radigan, Community College of Allegheny
County, Allegheny Campus
Pamela Regan, California State University, Los Angeles
Bob Riesenberg, Whatcom Community College
Susan J. Shapiro, Indiana University East
John E. Sparrow, University of New Hampshire,
Manchester
Meredith Stanford-Pollock, University of
Massachusetts at Lowell
Susan Swithers, Purdue University
Jeremy Turner, The University of Tennessee at Martin
David Wasieleski, Valdosta State University
Marek Wosinski, Arizona State University
Reviewers of Previous Editions
The following psychologists shared their comments and ideas
or contributed content for previous editions of Psychology:
Valerie Ahl, University of WisconsinMadison; Susan
Amato, Boise State University; Jim Backlund, Kirtland Com-
munity College; James Bartlett, University of TexasDallas;
Jackson Beatty, UCLA; Ludy Benjamin, Texas A&M; John
Best, Eastern Illinois University; Michelle Boyer-Pennington,
Middle Tennessee State University; Charles Brewer, Clemson
University; Richard Brislin, University of Hawaii; David Buss,
University of Texas, Austin; James Calhoun, University of
Georgia; Lillian Comas-Diaz, Transcultural Mental Health
Institute; Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, Claremont Graduate
University; Florence Denmark, Pace University; Ellen
Dennehy, University of Texas, Dallas; Kim Dielmann, Uni-
versity of Central Arkansas; G. William Domhoff, University
of CaliforniaSanta Cruz; James Francis, San Jacinto Col-
lege; Stanley Gaines, Pomona College; Robert Gifford, Uni-
versity of Victoria; James Greer, Louisiana State University;
Jean Berko Gleason, Boston University; Richard Halgin, Uni-
versity of Massachusetts, Amherst; John Harvey; University
of Iowa; N.C. Higgins, University of North British Columbia;
James J. Johnson, Illinois State University; James Jones,
University of Delaware; Seth Kalichman, Georgia State Uni-
versity; Laura King, Southern Methodist University; Paul R.
Kleinginna, Georgia Southern University; Linda Kline, Cali-
fornia State University, Chico; Karen Kopera-Frye, The Uni-
versity of Akron; Phil Kraemer, University of Kentucky; Eric
Landrum, Boise State University; Gary D. Laver, California
Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo; Marta Losonczy,
Salisbury State University; Karen E. Luh, University of
Wisconsin, Madison; Jerry Marshall, University of Central
Florida; Vicki Mays, University of CaliforniaLos Angeles;
David Mostofsky, Boston University; Carol Nemeroff, Arizona
State University; David Neufeldt, Hutchinson Community
College; Illene Noppe, University of WisconsinGreen Bay;
Cindy Nordstrom, Illinois State University; Alice OToole,
University of TexasDallas; Raymond Paloutzian, Westmont
College; David Penn, Louisiana State University; James
Pennebaker, University of TexasAustin; Jeffrey Pedroza,
Lansing Community College; Lawrence A. Pervin, Rutgers
University; Michelle Perry, University of Illinois at Urbana,
Champaign; Vincent Punzo, Earlham College; Ed Raymaker,
Eastern Main Technical College; Daniel Schacter, Harvard
University; Judith A. Sheiman, Kutztown University; Paula
Shear, University of Cincinnati; Cynthia Sifonis, University
of Illinois; Charles M. Slem, California Polytechnic State Uni-
versity, San Luis Obispo; Steven Smith, Texas A&M; Keith E.
Stanovich, University of Toronto; Barry Stein, Tennessee
Technological University; Jutta M. Street, Wake Technical
Community College; Roger M. Tarpy, Jr., Bucknell Univer-
sity; Christopher Taylor, University of Arizona; Leonard
Williams, Rowan University; Michael Zickar, Bowling Green
State University.
Preface xxiii
spy7fmpgi_xxv.qxd 3/26/04 11:29 AM Page xxiii impos03 303:mhspy7u:spy7fm:layouts: