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PEUGEOT

Notiuni generale despre masini


SISTEME DE FRANARE
Peugeot 107 are unul dintre cele mai bune sisteme de franare din clasa sa. Astfel,
in dotarea standard gasim:
-ABS: previne blocarea rotilor la franare astfel incat soferul pastreze controlul asupra
directiei.
-EBD: asigura stabilitatea vehiculului prin optimizarea fortei de distributie intre puntea
fata si puntea spate.
-CSC Cornering Stabilit! Control" Controlul Stabilitati la #ranare$: este un nou sistem
de siguranta, ce asigura stabilitatea in timpul franarii in curbe prin controlul fortei de
franare pe fiecare roata%
ESP+ABS+EBD+AFU+S
ESP! Ele"troni" sta#ilit$ "ontrol % DS ! D$nami" Sta#ilit$ ontrol !
Programul ele"troni" de asigurare a sta#ilit&'ii
-detecteaza si reduce gradul de derapare, intarind stabilitatea masinii
- in caz de derapaj, activeaza franele (facilitand dirijarea vehiculului) drijand vehiculul
in directia setata de conducatorul auto
-unele sisteme ESP reduc, de asemenea, din puterea motorului pana cand este restabilit
controlul autovehiculului sau chiar opresc alimentarea motorului cu carburant, reducand
acceleratia masinii
- conform Insurance Institute for igh!a" Safet" si #$S$ %ational igh!a" &raffic
Safet" 'dministration, o treime din accidentele fatale ar putea fi evitate utilizand aceasta
tehnologie
ontrolul ele"troni" al sta#ilit&ii (en Electronic Stabilit! Control - ES() Electronic
Stabilit! &rogramme - ESP) este unul din sistemele de siguran* activ*pentru automobile$
ES( este o tehnic* computerizat* de control i reglare a stabilit*ii dinamice (+n mers) a
vehiculelor, care asigur& (m#un&t&irea ei prin dete"tarea i minimi)area
derapa*elor i patina*elor+ ES(-ul inter,ine atun"i "-nd dete"tea)& o pierdere a
"ontrolului asupra auto,e.i"ulului acion,nd sistemul de fr,nare astfel +nc,t oferul
recap*t* controlul asupra autovehiculului$ -r,narea survenit* este o a"iune automat&/
(ntreprins& sele"ti, i independent pe ori"are dintre roi (de e.$, pe roata e.terioar*
din fa* pentru contracararea supravir*rii sau pe roata interioar* din spate pentru
contracararea subvir*rii)$ #nele sisteme ES( redu" i puterea motorului p,n* c,nd
oferul rec*p*t* controlul asupra autovehiculului$ Poate 0i redus& a""eleraia mainii
prin oprirea aliment&rii "u "ar#urant a motorului, oferul sesiz,nd c* pedala de
acceleraie nu mai funcioneaz*$ ES(-ul nu +mbun*t*ete performana +n virare, ci
previne pierderea controlului$ Sistemul ES( se bazeaz* pe mai muli senzori care
detecteaz* diferenele de vitez* de rotaie +ntre roile fa* i spate precum i deplasarea
asiului +n lateral fa* de traiectoria impus* de sistemul de direcie$ /eacia ESP este
foarte prompt*, de ordinul milisecundelor$ 0rganizaia american* non-profit IIS
(Insurance Institute for igh!a" Safet") estimeaz* c* prin folosirea acestei tehnologii pe
toate autoturismele o treime din num*rul accidentelor fatale ar fi prevenite$
(u ajutorul ESP-ului se poate cre1te capacitatea de control asupra autovehiculului +n
situa2iile limit* ale dinamicii de deplasare$ 3e e.emplu, +n cazul curbelor luate prea rapid$
ESP-ul e1tinde 0un"'ia ABS si redu"e peri"olul de derapare, +n orice condi2ii ale
carosabilului$ Prin inter,en'ia pun"tual& asupra managementului motorului 2i
asupra 0r-nelor/ ESP-ul +mpiedic* o posibil* derapare a autovehiculului$ ESP-ul
actioneaza +n +ntreg domeniul de viteze 1i se cupleaz* automat la fiecare pornire a
motorului$ 'cest sistem poate fi cuplat 1i decuplat +n caz de necesitate, prin ap*sarea
tastei ESP$ Da"& ESP3ul este de"uplat/ lampa de "ontrol este aprins& (n permanen'&+
'cest lucru este +ns* recomandat numai (n "a)ul rularii "u lan'uri de )&pad& 1i +n cazul
suprafe2elor de rulare afanate, necompacte de e.emplu z*pad* , nisip, pietris$
Electronic stability control ESC$, also referred to as electronic stability
program ESP$ or dynamic stability control DSC$, is a computerized technolog!
'()
'*)
that improves the safet! of a vehicle+s stabilit! b! detecting and reducing loss of
traction s,idding$derapare, alunecare$.
'-)

.hen ESC detects loss of steering control, it automaticall! applies the bra,es to help
/steer/diri0eaza$ the vehicle 1here the driver intends to go. Bra,ing is automaticall!
applied to 1heels individuall!, such as the outer front 1heel to counter oversteer or the
inner rear 1heel to counter understeer. Some ESC s!stems also reduce engine po1er
until control is regained. ESC does not improve a vehicle+s cornering performance2
instead, it helps to minimize the loss of control. According to 3nsurance 3nstitute for
4igh1a! Safet! and the 5.S. 6ational 4igh1a! 7raffic Safet! Administration, one-third
of fatal accidents could be prevented b! the use of the technolog!.'8)%
ABS4 Anti3lo"4 #ra4ing s$stem
-previne blocarea rotilor la franare astfel incat soferul sa pastreze controlul asupra
directiei)
-functioneaza in baza a doua prin"ipii4 t.res.old #ra4ing 5limit bra5ing4 0ranarea de
limita) care incetineste autovehiculul la parametri optimi si "aden"e #ra4ing (stutter
bra5ing40ranarea sa"adata) care permite conducatorului auto sa realizeze manevre de
ocolire a obstacolului in timp ce are loc incetinirea autovehiculului prin franare$ 'ceste
doua tipuri de principii sunt de fapt abilitati de franare alternata (de gestionare a
situatiilor din trafic ce pot conduce la pierderea controlului masinii prin dozarea nivelului
de franare) ale soferilor profesionisti care au fost asimilate unor mecanisme mecanice
intr-o forma avansata, bineinteles (functionand mult mai rapid si cu un grad de control
mult mai ridicat)$
-cu ajutorul senzorilor inductivi, +nregistreaz* viteza de rota2ie al ro2ilor, iar dac* o roat*
tinde s* se blocheze, forta de fr,nare va fi scazuta p,n* c,nd alunecarea este anihilat*$
Anti-lock braking system AS$ is an automobile safet! s!stem that allo1s
the 1heels on a motor vehicle to maintain tractive contact 1ith the road surface
according to driver inputs 1hile bra,ing, preventing the 1heels from loc,ing up ceasing
rotation$ and avoiding uncontrolled s,idding. 3t is an automated s!stem that uses the
principles of threshold bra,ing
(
and cadence bra,ing
*
1hich 1ere practiced b! s,illful
drivers 1ith previous generation bra,ing s!stems. 3t does this at a much faster rate and
1ith better control than a driver could manage.
ABS generall! offers improved vehicle control and decreases stopping distances on dry
and slippery surfaces for man! drivers2 ho1ever, on loose surfaces like gra!el pietris$
or sno"-co!ered pa!ement# AS can significantly increase braking distance, although
still improving vehicle control.
'()'*)'-)
Since initial 1idespread use in production cars, anti-loc, bra,ing s!stems have evolved
considerabl!. 9ecent versions not onl! prevent 1heel loc, under bra,ing, but also
electronically control t$e front-to-rear brake bias. 7his function, depending on its
specific capabilities and implementation, is ,no1n as electronic bra,eforce
distribution EBD$, traction control s!stem, emergenc!bra,e assist, or electronic stabilit!
control ESC$.%
6
Threshold braking or limit braking is a driving technique most commonly used in motor
racing, but also practiced in road vehicles to slow a vehicle at the optimum rate using the
brakes.
[1]
The technique involves the driver controlling the brake pedal (or lever) pressure to
maximize the braking orce developed by the tires! The optimal amount o braking orce is
developed at the point "hen the "heel #ust begins to slip!
7
Cadence braking or stutter braking is an advanced driving technique that involves pumping
the brake pedal and is used to allow a car to both steer and brake on a slippery surface! $t is
used to effect an emergency stop where traction is limited, to reduce the effect of skidding
from road wheels locking up under braking! This can be a particular problem "hen dierent
tyres have dierent traction, such as on patchy ice or example! $ts use in an emergency requires
a presence o mind that the situation itsel might preclude (a ace imposibil)! %adence braking is
supposed to maximise the time for the driver to steer around the obstacle ahead, as it
allows him to steer while slowing! $t needs to be learned and practiced! &or most drivers o
modern cars, it has been entirely superseded by '(), ho"ever it is still a valuable skill or drivers
o non*'() equipped vehicles such as classic cars or economy cars!
EBD! Ele"troni" #ra4e0or"e distri#ution (EBD or EBFD) or ele"troni"
#ra4e0or"e limitation (EB6)4 Distri#u'ia ele"troni"& a 0or'ei de 0ranare
- asigura stabilitatea vehiculului prin optimizarea fortei de distributie intre puntea
fata si puntea spate$
- 8a autovehiculele cu tractiune fa2*, partea din fa2a este mai grea dec,t partea din
spate, astfel +nc,t +n cazul ac2ion*rii fr,nelor, centrul de greutate al
autovehiculului se deplaseaz* spre fa2*$ Prin aceasta aderenta la rotile spate scade
simtitor si rotile tind sa se blocheze$ Prin distributia for2ei de fr,nare, franarea
automobilului se realizeaza mai eficient, iar fenomenul de blocare al rotilor este
inlaturat$
Electronic brakeforce distribution ED or E%D$ or electronic brakeforce
limitation E&$ is an automobile bra,e technolog! that automaticall! varies the
amount of force applied to each of a vehicle+s bra,es, based on road conditions, speed,
loading, etc. Al1a!s coupled 1ith anti-loc, bra,ing s!stems, EBD can appl! more or less
bra,ing pressure to each 1heel in order to ma:imize stopping po1er 1hilst maintaining
vehicular control.
'()'*)
7!picall!, t$e front end carries t$e most "eig$t and EBD
distributes less bra,ing pressure to the rear bra,es so the rear bra,es do not loc, up and
cause a s,id.
'-)
'n some systems# ED distributes more braking pressure at t$e rear
brakes during initial brake application before t$e effects of "eig$t transfer become
apparent()
AFU! Asistenta la 0ranarea de urgenta 5Aide au Freinage d7Urgen"e8/
EBA (Emergen"$ Bra4e Assist8/ BAS (Bra4ing Assistan"e S$stem8/
Bra4e Assist 5BA8
- este o componenta a noii generatii ESP (programul electronic de stabilitate)
'tunci cand conducatorul auto nu e.ercita o presiune suficienta asupra pedalei de
frana in cazul unei opriri de urgenta,cu ajutorul unor senzori,'-#
recunoaste9anticipeaza (cresterea si nivelul franarii in timp) incercarea unei
franari de urgenta si mareste "orespun)ator presiune de apli"ata asupra
pedalei de 0rana+
- sen)orii dete"tea)a o 0ranare e1trem de rapida/ o apasare #rus"a pe pedala
de 0rana/ apasare "are/ insa/ nu este su0i"ient de puterni"a pentru a e0e"tua o
mane,ra de urgenta/ moment in "are "reierul ele"troni" di"tea)a o
suplimentare temporara a presiunii in "ir"uitul de 0ranare/ ast0el in"at sa
"ompense)e lipsa de putere a apasarii
Emergency brake assist EBA$ or rake Assist BA or BAS$ is a generic term for
an automobile bra,ing technolog! that increases bra,ing pressure in an emergenc!
situation. 7he first application 1as developed 0ointl! b! Daimler-Benz and
79.";ucas<arit!. 9esearch conducted in (==* at the >ercedes-Benz driving simulator
in Berlin revealed that more than =?@ of drivers fail to bra,e 1ith enough force in
emergenc! situations.
y interpreting t$e speed and force "it$ "$ic$ t$e brake pedal is pus$ed# t$e system
detects if t$e dri!er is trying to e*ecute an emergency stop, and if the bra,e pedal is not
full! applied, the s!stem overrides and full! applies the bra,es until the Anti-loc,
Bra,ing S!stem ABS$ ta,es over to stop the 1heels loc,ing up.%
S 5ornering Sta#ilit$ ontrol9 ontrolul Sta#ilitati la Franare8!
-este un nou sistem de siguranta, ce asigura stabilitatea in timpul franarii in curbe prin
controlul fortei de franare pe fiecare roata
Termeni 0re",ent utili)ati in domeniul auto
:Stru"tura ran0orsata "u )one de de0ormare "ontrolata+;
RANFORS</ ranforsez, vb$ I$ &ranz$ =+ (&ehn$) ' +nt*ri o pies* sau o construcie
metalic* cu ajutorul unor bare, nervuri sau grinzi, pentru m*rirea rigidit*ii lor$ >+ '
suplimenta num*rul vehiculelor din reeaua transportului +n comun +n perioada orelor de
v,rf$ : 3in fr$ren0or"er+
RANFORS<T/ 3?/ ranforsai, -te, adj$ (are este +nt*rit cu ranforturi$ ; Suspensie
ranforsatA < suspensie mai rezistent* la caroseriile de automobil$ : =$ ran0orsa+
RANF@RT =+ Element de construcie alc*tuit din una sau din mai multe bare de oel
profilat, destinat s* asigure rigiditatea transversal* a unui pod metalic$ >+ -iecare dintre
nervurile unei pile +nalte de beton armat, care asigur* rigiditatea acesteia$
:enturi de siguranta "u pretensionare pirote.ni"a;
PRETENSION<RE/ pretensionAri, s$ f$ 0peraie prin care se realizeaz* o stare iniial*
de +ntindere sau de comprimare +n materialul unei piese, +nainte de aplicarea sarcinilor
funcionale$ >Pr$4 -si-o-? : 3up* engl$ pretension+
PIROTEANBE/ 5>8 pirotehnii, s$ f$ =+ &ehnica fabric*rii i a utiliz*rii unor dispozitive, a
unor materiale care servesc la aprinderea muniiilor, a armelor de foc, a unor substane
e.plozibile, a artificiilor etc$ >+ -abric* de muniii$ : 3in fr$ p$rote".nie+
BActi!e Seatbelts# t$e latest step in seatbelt tec$nology.
An e:ample of our capabilit! to integrate airbags and seatbelts 1ith ne1 active safet!
technologies is active seatbelts. 7hese seatbelts make use of t$e information a!ailable
in acti!e safety systems suc$ as radar# cameras and+or t$e electronic stability control
,ESC- system to restrain t$e occupant# e!en before an imminent cras$.
An active seatbelt has an electrically dri!en pretensioner t$at tig$tens t$e belt as a
precaution in $a.ardous situations( 7he belt s!stem then releases some 1ebbing banda$
if the driver manages to avoid the traffic hazard. 7his function could also be used to
1arn the driver b! letting the pretensioner vibrate the seatbelt 1ebbing.
7he active seatbelts are controlled by t$e pre-cras$ EC/
-
that can either be installed in
the vehicle or connected directl! 1ith the pretensioner. 7he pretensioning characteristics
are tuned 1ith the specific movements and driving d!namics of the vehicle for optimal
control for the intended use of the car for e:ample, sports vs. leisure driving$.% de pe
111.autoliv.ro$
Seatbelt Pretensioners
7he idea of a pretensioner is to tig$ten up any slack in t$e belt "ebbing in t$e e!ent of
a cras$(
7o ma,e sure a seatbelt restrains an occupant as earl! as possible in a crash, thereb!
reduce t$e load on t$e occupant in a !iolent cras$# Autoliv has developed pretensioners.
7hese tighten the belt during the ver! first fractions of a second in a crash. &retensioners
also reduce t$e risk of 0submarining0 the car occupant sliding under a loosel!
tightened seatbelt$. AutolivCs pretensioners use pyrotec$nic de!ices t$at are typically
controlled by t$e same sensor system as t$e airbags. &retensioners normall! 1or,
together 1ith conventional seatbelt loc,ing mechanisms, not in place of them.



&retensioner devices can be added to an! of the belt anchorage points and there
are t!picall! tree different t!pes of seatbelt pretensioners:
@
A'n engine "ontrol unit 5EU8, no! called the po!ertrain control module (P(B), is a t"pe of electronic control
unit that controls a series of actuators on an internal combustion engine to ensure optimal engine performance$ It does
this b" reading values from a multitude of sensors !ithin the engine ba", interpreting the data using multidimensional
performance maps (called loo5up tables), and adjusting the engine actuators accordingl"$
Cefore E(#s, air9fuel mi.ture, ignition timing, and idle speed !ere mechanicall" set and d"namicall" controlled
b" mechanicaland pneumatic means$ 0ne of the earliest attempts to use such a unitized and automated device to
manage multiple engine control functions simultaneousl" !as the DEommandogerFtD created b" CBG in 6H@H, for
their IJ6 6K-c"linder aviation radial engine$
>6?
&his device replaced the L controls used to initiate hard acceleration !ith
one control in the IJ6 series-eMuipped aircraft$ o!ever, it had some problems4 it !ould surge the engine, ma5ing
close formation fl"ing of the -! 6HJ some!hat difficult, and at first it s!itched supercharger gears harshl" and at
random, !hich could thro! the aircraft into an e.tremel" dangerous stall or spin$N

(. 9etractor pretensioner
*. Buc,le pretensioner
-. ;ap pretensioner normall! used in combination 1ith retractor or buc,le
pretensioners$.

Buc,le and retractors pretensions
7he most common retractor pretensioner is the ball-in-tube version as seen in the image
belo1. An electrical pulse from t$e Cras$ electronics ,EC/- ignites a pyrotec$nical
s1uib( 7he burning generant generates a great deal of out1ard pressure. 7he
pressure pushes the ball in the tube for1ard over a cog1heel. 7he cog1heel is connected
to the spindle in the retractor and 1hen turning it 1ill e:tract 1ebbing, up to (*?mm.%
autoliv.com$
ASR! Anti Slip Regulator
Anti Slip Regulator ('S/) este un sistem de "ontrol al tra" iunii (&(S) este de obicei
(dar nu neap*rat) o 0un"ie se"undar& a sistemului anti3#lo"are la 0r-nare pe vehicule
de producie ('CS), i este proiectat pentru a pre,eni pierderea tra"iunii la roile
motoare/ i s* menin*, prin urmare,controlul vehiculului atun"i "-nd se apli"a e1"esi,
a""eleratia de "&tre "ondu"&torul auto i starea supra0eei drumului (din cauza unor
factori variabili) nu este (n m&sur& s& 0a"& 0a& "uplului apli"at+
Sistemul de reglarea a fortei de tractiune : reduce momentul de rota2ie al motorului +n
cazul in care, la demaraj, ro2ile tind sa patineze, astfel asigurand o aderen2* mai bun* pe
drumurile cu aderenta scazuta, nisip-zapada-gheata$ 3ac* o roata +ncepe s* patineze,
calculatorul motorului reduce sistematic cantitatea de combustibil injectat, lucru prin care
puterea motorului, si cu aceasta for2a de tractiune care trebuie transmis*, se reduce$
Pentru motoarele cu cuplu motor ridicat, sistemul de control al traciunii ofer* un confort
i o siguran* suplimentar*, +n special pe un carosabil cu aderen* scazuta la roi$
Sistemul de control al traciunii permite pornirea i a""elerarea armonioas& 0&r&
r&su"irea (n gol a roilor sau apariia unui de"ala*ul lateral, indi0erent de ,ite)&+
Sistemul de control al traciunii funcioneaz* numai +mpreun* cu acceleraia controlat*
electronic i valorific* senzorii de turaie a roilor corespunz*tori sistemelor anti-blocare
('CS)$ Cn "a)ul (n "are se "onstat& o "retere #rus"& a turaiei la ni,elul unei roi
motoare 5alune"are8/ sistemul a"ionea)& asupra motorului/ redu"e puterea
propulsorului i e,it& apariia a"estui e0e"t+ Sistemul de control al traciunii asigur*
tra"iunea i sta#ilitatea de rulare pe par"ursul etapei de a""elerare la ori"e ,ite)&
i susine (n a"est mod sigurana a"ti,&$ On mod suplimentar permite redu"erea
gradului de u)ur& a an,elopelor+ 'ctivarea sistemului de control al traciunii este
indicat* prin intermediul unui led care lumineaz* intermitent la nivelul instrumentului de
bord, include sistemul de #lo"are ele"troni"& a di0erenialului 5EDS8 i face parte din
sistemul electronic de control al traiectoriei (ESP)$ 3ezactivarea sistemului de control al
traciunii este posibil* prin intermediul comutatorului ESP 0--$
EDS3 Blo"area ele"troni"a a di0erentialului
3ac* o roat* motoare pierde aderenta, in conditii grele de deplasare, impiedicand
deplasarea autovehiculului, printr-o forta de fr,nare definit*, roata fara aderenta este
fr,nat*, astfel forta de tractiune asupra ro2ii se deviaz* catre roata cu aderen2* mai bun*,
permitand deplasarea $
MSR! Reglarea momentului de rotatie al motorului
'ceasta func2ie este integrata +n sistemul &raction (ontrol (&(S)$ Da"& pe o supra0a'&
"arosa#il& "u polei sau g.ea'& se de"elerea)a #rus" sau se tre"e (ntr3o treapta de
,ite)& in0erioar&/ are loc o alunecare a ro2ilor motoare$ BS/-ul +nregistreaz* acest lucru
prin senzorii sistemului antiblocare 1i sta#ili)ea)a/ printr3o ridi"are diri*at& a turatiei
motorului/ starea auto,e.i"ulului+
B7he so-called engine bra,ing control >S9$. 3t controls the 1heel slippage 1hen the
foot it ta,en off the accelerator. 'f t$e dri!e "$eels lose ad$esion during se!ere load
c$anges# t$e !e$icle becomes unstable. 3t can no longer be steered and ma! s,id. 7he
>S9 detects this tendenc! b! comparing the speed of the drive 1heels 1ith that of the
free-moving 1heels and then accelerates slightl! if necessar!.%
Engine Drag 2or1ue Control ,3S4-

Engine drag torDue control >S9$ pre!ents t$e dri!en "$eels from locking on slippery
surfaces under t$e influence of engine braking. 7his can happen if the driver releases
the accelerator abruptl! or shifts do1n a gear Duic,l!. 7he bra,ing effect of the engine
ma! cause the driven 1heels to s,id. 7he! temporaril! lose traction and the vehicle
becomes unstable. 3n such situations, >S9 maintains directional stabilit! and boosts
safet!.
7he >S9 control unit receives the necessar! information from the 1heel speed
sensors and the engine or transmission control unit via the data bus. 3f the control unit
identifies slipping of the driven 1heels, >S9 sends a signal via the data bus to the engine
management. 7he engine speed is increased slightl! until the driven 1heels are once
more rotating as fast as the road speed. 7his ,eeps the vehicle steerable and ensures that
directional stabilit! is maintained. Engine drag torDue control is operational across the
entire speed range.%
Grip ontrol! A"ti,e Dumping/ A"ti,e Return 5Ser,odire"tie ele"tri"a8
DD! D$nami" Damping ontrol 5DD8
3"namic 3amping (ontrol (33(), a semi3a"ti,e suspension s$stem 0or motor"$"les$ It
is the ne.t logical step for!ard from its e.isting Ele"troni" Suspension Ad*ustment
5ESA8+ CBG has been using similar technolog" to 33( successfull" for "ears in its top
of the range performance cars such as the CBG B@ and BP$
&o summarize, 33( automaticall" ".anges damping to mat". .oD $ou are riding and
D.at t.e road sur0a"e is li4e+ It does this "onstantl$/ multiple times a se"ond+ &he
benefit of this is impro,ed suspension per0orman"e$ -or the rider this means #etter
grip 5apu"are/ in"lestare8/ .andling and "om0ort+
E.at DD Does
Ghen stationar", 33( ma5es no change to damping (amortizare, atenuare)$
E.ile a""elerating/ Deig.t is trans0erred to t.e rear+ To "ompensate/ DD
in"reases damping at t.e rear and redu"es damping at t.e 0ront+
5e".ili#rarea greutatii intre spate si 0ata8
During #ra4ing, Deig.t is trans0erred to t.e 0ront$ To "ompensate/ DD
redu"es damping at t.e rear and in"reases damping at t.e 0ront$ &he change
in damping is proportional to the bra5ing force$
Ghen 'CS is activated it momentaril" reduces bra5ing force, 33( compensates
b" increasing damping front and rear to match$
At stead$ speeds in a straig.t line, less force acts on the bi5e$ &o improve ride
Mualit", DD redu"es damping 0ront and rear+
On #ump$ road sur0a"es, the suspension is constantl" compressing and
rebounding$ &o compensate, 33( ad*usts damping 0ront and rear in
proportion to t.e se,erit$ o0 t.e #umps+
During "ornering/ g30or"e in"reases on t.e #i4e$ &o improve handling, 33(
in"reases damping 0ront and rear+ 3amping is increased graduall", according to
the lean angle$
E.ene,er tra"tion "ontrol inter,enes, 33( adjusts damping to ma.imise grip$
&he adjustments to damping depend on D.et.er t.e springs5ar"uri8 are "ompressing
or re#ounding+ Each process is controlled separatel"$
AoD DD Eor4s
&he 33( control unit is "onne"ted to t.e AN #us ele"tri"al
s$stem and receives inputs from4
sensors measuring spring lengt. and mo,ement
EU unit
ABS s$stem and
tra"tion "ontrol s$stem+

DD "omponents
(clic5 to see a bigger
image)
&he 33( control unit constantl" monitors its inputs and performs the follo!ing c"cle
man" multiple times per second4
reads t.e data 0rom its inputs and determines at t.at pre"ise moment D.at
t.e #i4e is doing 5e+g+ a""elerating or standing still8 and D.at t.e road
sur0a"e is li4e
uses this information to determine t.e #est damping to appl$
sends the corresponding data to the damping adjusters on the front and rear
suspension units$
%o sooner is the c"cle completed then 33( reads its inputs again to see !hat is
happening no! and !hat (if an") damping changes are needed to match$
&he damping adjusters that 33( uses are electricall" activated proportional damping
,al,es$ &he" can change damping in milliseconds, much faster than conventional valves$
It is their speed of reaction that ma5es it possible to create a s"stem that !or5s in real-
time$


A rear suspension unit s.oDn Dit. tDo
di00erent "ross3se"tions o0 a proportional
"ontrol ,al,e t.at ena#les DD (clic5 to see a
bigger image)

&he proportional damping valve features a variable ring gap and therefore variable flo!
cross section for the damper oil$ It is the inversel" proportional adjustment to flo! rate
and pressure that gives rise to a change in damping force !ithin milliseconds$
&he proportional damping valves are po!ered electricall"$
'ctivating the ignition first initiates a s"stem chec5$ Information flo!s from the
engine control, 'CS control unit, sensor bo. (3&() and the spring travel sensors
to the 33( control unit$ &he resulting 33( status is sho!n on the displa" in the
instrument panel$
Ghen stationar", po!er to the valves and therefore their actuation are deactivated$
Ghen setting off, the valves in the front and rear dampers are actuated (po!ered)
onl" slightl"$
Ghen accelerating, the valve in the rear strut is actuated more than the front$
't stead" speed, valve actuation drops bac5 to its original level (less po!er than
setting off)$ Information flo!s from the throttle grip via engine control to the
33( control unit and from there to the damping valves$
&o ta5e a series of corners, initiall" both damping valves are actuated more
strongl" !ith increasing inclination : starting from the lo! po!er suppl" : until
the verte. is reached$
Ghenever the bi5e returns upright bet!een corners, the actuation of the t!o
damping valves drops to the original po!er level$
Ghen the motorc"cle turns into the second corner, valve actuation again rises
proportionall" to the angle of inclination and again drops from the verte. value$
Information flo!s from the sensor bo. (3&() to the 33( control unit and from
there to the damping valves$
0n uneven road surfaces, the valves in the front and rear dampers are actuated
(po!ered) proportionall" to the respective compression travel$ Information flo!s
from the front and rear spring travel sensors via the 33( control unit to the
valves$
3uring bra5ing, the actuation of the front damping valve increases proportionall"
to the deceleration so that the damping forces and therefore riding stabilit"
increase as a result$ In this case, 33( anal"ses both the d"namic phase of
bra5ing, until constant deceleration and !heel load distribution, and the
subseMuent static phase$
Information flo!s from the hand bra5e pump on the handlebar to the 'CS and
from there via the 33( control unit to the valves$
Se"tion o0 a 0ront suspension unit Dit.
DD
Se"tion o0 a rear suspension unit Dit.
DD
(clic5 to see a bigger images)
A"ti,e suspension
Semi-active suspension automaticall" changes in real-time onl$ damping$
-ull" active suspension automaticall" changes in real-time #ot. preload
and damping$
-ull" active suspension means "ou have the ideal suspension settings in all
conditions$ &his gives "ou supreme handling, immense grip and great
comfort$
(urrentl" full" active suspension is not available for mass-produced road
vehicles but it remains a future goal$
-ull" active suspension !as raced ver" successfull" b" the top teams in -ormula 6
during the 6HIJs especiall" 8otus$ &heir s"stem activel" moved the !heels up and
do!n b" h"draulic rams to follo! the road surface, there !ere no springs at allQ It
demanded ver" precise anal"sis of the tarmac in front of the !heels and e.tremel"
fast h"draulic rams$
It !as so e.pensive that onl" the top teams could develop it but it gave them such a
performance advantage over the less !ell financed teams that each -6 race !as
effectivel" t!o races in one4 those !ith active suspension and those !ithout$
Eventuall" it !as banned as it comes under the categor" of driver aids such as 'CS
that simplif" driving the car$ &he polic" in -6 is to re!ard the most s5illful drivers
so driver aids are banned$
-or those reasons there are no plans to re-introduce full" active suspension
although no!ada"s the technolog" !ould be affordable b" all teams in -6$
Furt.er In0o
-or further info about 33( chec5 out the follo!ing4
CBG Semi-'ctive Suspension 33( b" Eevin 'sh
CBG 33(4 Semiactive suspension technolog" (motorc"clerider$de)
AN #us
AN #us (for "ontroller area netDor4) is a ,e.i"le #us standard designed to
alloD mi"ro"ontrollers and de,i"es to "ommuni"ate Dit. ea". ot.er Dit.in a ,e.i"le
Dit.out a .ost "omputer+
('% bus is a message3#ased proto"ol/ designed spe"i0i"all$ 0or automoti,e
appli"ations but no! also used in other areas such as aerospace, maritime, industrial
automation and medical eMuipment$
3evelopment of the ('% bus started originall" in 6HI@ at /obert Cosch Rmb$
>6?
&he
protocol !as officiall" released in 6HIL at the Societ" of 'utomotive Engineers(S'E)
congress in 3etroit, Bichigan$ &he first ('% controller chips, produced b" Intel and
Philips, came on the mar5et in 6HIS$
Cosch published several versions of the ('% specification and the latest is ('% 7$J
published in 6HH6$ &his specification has t!o parts) part A is for the standard format !ith
an ==3#it identi0ier, and part B is for the e.tended format !ith a >F3#it identi0ier+ '
('% device that uses ==3#it identifiers is commonl" called AN >+GA and a ('% device
that uses >F3#it identifiers is commonl" called AN >+GB$ &hese standards are freel"
available from Cosch along !ith other specifications and !hite papers$
>7?
In 6HH@ the International 0rganization for Standardization released the ('% standard
IS0 66IHI !hich !as later restructured into t!o parts) IS0 66IHI-6 !hich covers the
data lin5 la"er, and IS0 66IHI-7 !hich covers the ('% ph"sical la"er for high-speed
('%$ IS0 66IHI-@ !as released later and covers the ('% ph"sical la"er for lo!-speed,
fault-tolerant ('% !hich is not part of the original Cosch specification$ &hese standards
ma" be purchased from t.e International Organi)ation 0or Standardi)ation 5ISO8$
>@?
('% in 'utomation ((i') also published ('% standards) ('% Specification 7$J part '
and part C, but their status in no! obsolete (substituted b" IS0 66IHI-6)$
>K?
Cosch is still active in e.tending the ('% standards$ In 7J67 Cosch released ('% -3
6$J or ('% !ith -le.ible 3ata-/ate$ &his specification uses a different frame format that
allo!s a different data length as !ell as optionall" s!itching to a faster bit rate after the
arbitration is decided, but ('% -3 is compatible !ith e.isting ('% 7$J net!or5s so ne!
('% -3 devices can coe.ist on the same net!or5 !ith e.isting ('% devices$
('% bus is one of five protocols used in the on3#oard diagnosti"s 5OBD8-II vehicle
diagnostics standard$ &he 0C3-II standard has been mandator" for all cars and light
truc5s sold in the #nited States since 6HHL, and t.e EOBD standard .as #een
mandator$ 0or all petrol ,e.i"les sold in t.e European Union sin"e >GG= and all
diesel ,e.i"les sin"e >GGH$
>P?
Ele"troni" Suspension Ad*ustment 5ESA8
In the CBG E 67JJ S the first electronic chassis adjustment function in motorc"cle
construction celebrated its premiere4 ES'$ &his optional feature ena#les t.e rider to
adapt t.e ".assis o0 t.e motor"$"le ideall$ to .is riding st$le/ t.e load o0 t.e
motor"$"le and t.e road "onditions in Iuestion+
Using a #utton on t.e le0t .andle#ar panel/ t.e rider "an ,ar$ t.e suspension and
damping ".ara"teristi"s o0 t.e 0ront and rear suspension strut 5#ara "omprimata/
stalp8$ 'djustment is effected in t!o steps b" means of a control unit in the central
electronics s"stem$
In the first step, the rider sets the pre-load of the spring mount according to the
motorc"cle load (solo) solo !ith luggage or passenger, !ith luggage and passenger)$
'n electrical motor performs the adjustment function !hich is onl" possible !hen
stationar" for reasons of functional efficienc" and safet"$
In the second step, the rider selects the damper setting appropriate to his riding st"le4
here, Sport, %ormal and (omfort modes are available$ &he setting of damping
characteristics can also be underta5en !hile riding$ In the front ES' strut, the rebound
damping is adjusted, in the rear strut both the rebound and compression stages are
adjusted$ &he actual adjustment is performed b" step motors directl" at the damper$ &he
electronic s"stems selects the damping rate !hich is appropriate for the spring rest
selection4 thus suspension and damping characteristics are al!a"s perfectl" matched$
Since the rider can combine all three modes for load and riding st"le, a total of nine
different adjustment programs are in fact available to him$ ' displa" on the info flatscreen
in the coc5pit indicates the currentl" selected program$
&he advantage of electronic chassis adjustment !ith ES' as compared to conventional
mechanical adjustment of spring pre-load and damping characteristics lies in the
constantl" harmonious co-ordination bet!een all chassis components$ &he rider also
sa,es aD4Dard and time3"onsuming 0iddling Dit. tools! instead .e "an ma4e
ad*ustments "on,enientl$ #$ a press o0 t.e #utton Dit.in ten se"onds+ &his ma5es it
possible to adjust the chassis !ithin a ver" short time, for e.ample !hen ta5ing a pillion
along at short notice or in the event of a sudden change in road surface characteristics$
Gith the ES' s"stem, CBG Botorrad gives the riders of the E 67JJ S, E 67JJ /, /
67JJ / and / 67JJ /& a convenient, fast and simple-to-operate instrument for optimum
chassis adjustment allo!ing them to e.ploit the full potential offered b" a modern
chassis$ In this !a" ES' s"stem, !hich is uniMue in motorc"cle construction, represents
an efficient contribution to achieving more safet" and comfort on the road$
Ser,odire"tie ele"tri"a! A"ti,e Return si A"ti,e Damping
Sistem a"ti,e Return5AR8! 3aca avem un vehicul ce abordeaza un viraj, avand o viteza
cuprinsa intre 6J si @J de 5m9h, fara '/, atunci cand soferul elibereaza volanul, acesta nu
revine complet pe pozitia a.ei centrale, iar cu '/, servodirectia aplica un usor cuplu
pentru ca volanul sa revina pe pozitia a.ei centrale$
Sistem A"ti,e Dumping5AD8! 3aca avavem un vehicul care abordeaza un viraj, avand o
viteza de HJ 5m9h, fara '3, datorita fortei de inertie a vehiculului, atunci cand soferul
elibereaza volanul, acesta oscileaza in jurul a.ei centrale, iar cu '3, servodirectia aplica
un usor cuplu volanului pentru a reveni pe a.a centrala, fara sa mai oscileze$
PSA EMP> plat0orm
B7he E3P5 Efficient >odular &latform$ is a car platform that has been developed
b! &SA &eugeot CitroEn for compact and mid-size cars 1ith front 1heel drive or four
1heel drive and transverse engine. 3t replaces the &#*and &#- platforms in one
combined modular platform, and cost &SA FG-? million to develop.
'()
7he ne1 platform is highl! modular, 1ith a choice of short and long 1heelbase, lo1 or
high riding height, and a choice of independent multi-lin, or t1isted-beam rear
suspension. Comparing to the predecessor &#*, the platform reduces the 1eight b! H? ,g
using ver! high strength steel, aluminum and magnesium allo!s, and composite
materials.
'*)
7he first vehicles to use the platform are the *?(- &eugeot -?I second generation$ and
the CitroEn CJ &icasso second generation$.
&SA &eugeot Citroen and Keneral >otors planned to use E>&* platform for several
vehicles developed under &SA-K> alliance.%