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# Numbers

Types of Numbers
Integers are whole numbers (both positive and negative, including zero). So they are ..., -2,
-1, 0, 1, 2, .... So a negative integer is a negative whole number, such as -, -10 or -2. !atural
numbers are positive integers.
" rational number is a number which can be written as a #raction where numerator and
denominator are integers (where the top and bottom o# the #raction are whole numbers). \$or
e%ample 1&2, ', 1.() (*(&').
Irrational numbers are numbers which cannot be written as #ractions, such as pi and +2. ,n
decimal #orm these numbers go on #orever and the same pattern o# digits are not repeated.
Square numbers are numbers which can be obtained by multiplying another number by
itsel#. -.g. . is a s/uare number because it is . % . .
Surds are numbers le#t written as +n , where n is positive but not a s/uare number. -.g. +2
(see 0surds0).
Prime numbers are numbers above 1 which cannot be divided by anything (other than 1 and
itsel#) to give an integer. 1he #irst 2 prime numbers are3 2, , ), (, 11, 1, 1(, 14.
Real numbers are all the numbers which you will have come across (i.e. all the rational and
irrational numbers). "ll real numbers can be written in decimal form (such as .1.)).
" factor (or divisor) o# a number is a number which will divide into your number e%actly. So
you can divide a number by one o# its #actors and you won0t be le#t with a remainder. \$or
e%ample, is a #actor o# . because you can divide . by and you won0t be le#t with a
remainder (you get 2).
Prime Factor Decomposition
"n important #act is that any number can be written as the product (multiplication) o# prime
numbers in one way. \$or e%ample, 20 * ) % 2 % 2 . 1his is the only way o# writing 20 as the
product o# prime numbers. 5riting a number in this way is called prime factor decomposition.
-%ample
\$ind the prime #actor decomposition o# ..
5e loo6 at . and try to #ind numbers which we can divide it by. 5e can see that it divides by
2.
. * 12 7 2
2 is a prime number, but 12 isn0t. So we need to split 12 up into prime numbers. 5e can also
divide 12 by 2.
12 * 4 7 2
and so . * 12 7 2 * 4 7 2 7 2
8ut we haven0t #inished, because 4 is not a prime number. 5e 6now that 4 divides by .
4 * % .
9ence . * 4 7 2 7 2 * 7 7 2 7 2.
1his is the answer, because both 2 and are prime numbers.
-%ample
a and b are prime numbers, ab

So ab

## is the prime #actor decomposition o# )'.

)' * 2 7 2( * 2 7 7 4 * 2 7 7 7 * 2 7

So a * 2 and b * .
!" and #!F
1he least (or lowest) common multiple (:;<) o# two or more numbers is the smallest number
into which they evenly divide. \$or e%ample, the :;< o# 2, , ', . and 4 is ..
1he highest common #actor (9;\$) o# two or more numbers is the highest number which will
divide into them both. 1here#ore the 9;\$ o# . and 4 is .
\$ppro%imations
,# the side o# a s/uare #ield is given as 40m, correct to the nearest 10m3
1he smallest value the actual length could be is 2)m (since this is the lowest value which, to
the nearest 10m, would be rounded up to 40m). 1he largest value is 4)m.
=sing ine/ualities, 2)> length ?4).
Sometimes you will be as6ed the upper and lower bounds o# the area. 1he area will be
smallest when the side o# the s/uare is 2)m. ,n this case, the area will be ((2)m@. 1he largest
possible area is 402)m@ (when the length o# the sides are 4)m).
&'D"\$S ((&ID"\$S)
5hen simpli#ying an e%pression such as A ' 7 ) - '( A 2), remember to wor6 it out in the
#ollowing order3 brac6ets, o# (&indices), division, multiplication, addition, subtraction.
So do the thing in the brac6ets #irst, then any division, #ollowed by multiplication and so on.
1he above is3 A 20 - ' 7 ) * A 20 - 20 * .
Bou mustn0t Cust wor6 out the sum in the order that it is written down.
- See more at3 http3&&www.mathsrevision.net&gcse-maths-
revision&number&numbersDsthash.1E28F\$/.dpu#