1.
NUMBER
THEORY
1.0
INTRODUCTION
Since vedic period Indians used numbers and fractions. They also used irrational numbers. Greeks did not regard irrational numbers as numbers at all. But Indians treated all numbers alike and this served them well in the invention of zero, creation of negative numbers and development of the concept of infinity. Empty space was created and was granted a symbol 0 and was given a name ‘Sunya’. The most significant achievement of Indians was the creation of decimal system. The numbers 1 to 9 had been used by Indians even before the time of the Emperor Asoka. Brahmagupta (598665 AD) was the first to introduce negative numbers. He applied negative numbers to represent debts. He gave the
, 9 were
rules for 4 basic operations of +, –, ×, ÷ .
carried by Arab mathematicians to Baghdad. Indian numerical system which was much superior to the complicated Roman numerical system was readily adopted by the European
traders ignoring the orders of the Roman Emperor.
In 766 AD Indian
numerals 0, 1, 2,
Srinivasa Ramanujan the most celebrated Indian Mathematical genius made a significant contribution to man’s knowledge of Mathematics, specially in the field of number theory which has been unique and unparalleled in the world. His famous note books contain mathematical results and theorems that can fascinate and stimulate not only research mathematicians but also school students. Ramanujan’s jottings in his note books cover Bernoulli numbers, continued fractions, infinite series including divergent series, analytical theory of numbers, expression for numbers and so on. These jottings began with magic squares, his first passion begun in his school days.
1.1
SEQUENCES
In earlier classes, you might have come across various patterns of numbers like 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 1, 8, 27, 64, 125,
These patterns are generally known as sequences. An arrangement of numbers of which
one number is designated as the first, another as second, another as third and so on is known
Here we find the numbers arranged
according to some specific rule and this helps us to find out other numbers that follow. Such an arrangement is called a sequence. Thus we may define a sequence formally as follows:
as a sequence. Consider the set of numbers 2,3,5,8,
If for every positive integer n there is associated only one number a _{n} , according to some rule, then the ordered set of numbers a _{1} , a _{2} , a _{3} , … a _{n} is said to define a sequence. The various numbers occurring in a sequence are called its terms. a _{n} the n ^{t}^{h} term is also called the general
1
term of the sequence. A sequence can be described either by listing its first few terms till the rule for writing down the other terms becomes clear or, by writing the algebraic formula for the n ^{t}^{h} term of the sequence.
For example, the sequence of odd natural numbers 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, a _{n} = 2n – 1 where n = 1, 2, 3, 4,
can be described as
The sequence 1, 8, 27, 64, 125,
can be described as a _{n} = n ^{3} where n = 1, 2, 3, 4,
Example 1: If 
a 
n 
= 
( 
− 1) 2 n 
n 
find the sequence 

Solution: 
( 
− 1) 
1 
1 
( 
− 1) 
2 
1 

a 
= 
=− 
a 
= 
= 
,a 

1 
2 
1 
2 
, 
2 
2 
2 
4 

∴ sequence is 
11 −− 
1 
1 
− 
1 

2 , 4 , 
8 
, 
16 
, 
32 
, 
3
=
(
−
1)
3
2
3
=−
1
8
Example 2: 
Let a sequence be defined by a _{1} = 1, a _{2} = 1, a _{n} = a _{n}_{–}_{1} + a _{n}_{–}_{2} 
for n > 2. 
Find the 
sequence. 
Solution:
a _{1}
a
_{n}
=
=
1, a _{2}
= 1
a _{n}_{–}_{1} + a _{n}_{–}_{2}
for n > 2
a
a
_{3}
_{4}
a _{5}
a _{2} + a _{1} = 1 + 1 = 2 a _{3} + a _{2} = 2 + 1 = 3
a _{4} + a _{3} = 3 + 2 = 5
∴ The sequence is : 1, 1, 2, 3, 5,
=
=
=
Do it yourself
I.
Write the first four terms of the sequences whose general terms are given below:
1)
n ^{3} – 1
2)
^{3}^{n}
−
^{1}
5
3)
1
(
+ −
1)
n
n
4) 2n ^{2} – 3n+1
5) (–1) ^{n}
2 ^{n}
II.
Find the indicated term in each of the following sequences.
1) a _{1}_{2} , a _{1}_{5}
if a _{n} = 5n – 4,
3)
a _{3} if a _{n} =
^{n}^{(}^{n}
+
^{1}^{)}
2
n 
+ 2 

2) 
a _{7} if a _{n} 
2n 
+ 3 

4) 
a _{1}_{0} if a _{n} = 5 + 2 (n – 1) 5) 
a _{5} if a _{n} = (–1) ^{n} n 
1.1.1 Arithmetic Progression (A.P)
In this section, we shall discuss a particular type of sequences in which each term, except
the first, progresses in a definite manner. For example in the sequence 2, 5, 8, 11, 14
term except the first is obtained by adding 3 to the preceding term. Such sequences are called
Arithmetic progression.
An Arithmetic progression is a sequence of numbers in which each term except the first is obtained by adding a fixed number to the immediately preceding term. This fixed number is called the common difference.
every
2
For example: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, 11,
is an A.P with is an A.P with
C.D. = 1 C.D. = 2
^{1}^{1}^{3} 
^{1} 

424 , , 
, 1 
, 
is an A.P with C.D.= 
4 
102, 97, 92, 87,
is an A.P with C.D = –5
General form of an A.P. is a, a + d, a + 2d,
with first term a, and C.D. = d The general term or the nth term of an A.P. is
Properties of an A.P.
t
n = a+(n 1)d
1. An A.P. remains an A.P if a constant quantity is added to or subtracted from each term of the A.P.
For example: 9, 13, 17, 21, 25,
Add 3 to each term of the given A.P. The resulting sequence 12, 16, 20, 24, 28,
Subtract 2 from each term of the given A.P.
The resulting sequence 7, 11, 15, 19, 23,
is an A.P with C.D = 4.
is
also an A.P with C.D = 4.
is also an A.P with C.D = 4.
2. An A.P remains an A.P. if each term of the A.P is multiplied or divided by a non zero constant quantity.
For example : 2, 4, 6, 8,
Multiply the given A.P by 5 The resulting sequence 10, 20, 30, 40,
Divide the given A.P by 2 The resulting sequence 1, 2, 3, 4,… is also an A.P with C.D = 1
is an A.P with C.D = 2
is also an A.P. with C.D. 10
Example 3: Is the sequence 10, 4, –2, –8, … an A.P.? Solution: In the given sequence we find 4 – 10 = –2 – 4 = –8 – (–2) = – 6 The common difference is –6. Hence the given sequence is an A.P.
Example 4: Is the sequence described by a _{n} = 2n ^{2} + 1 an A.P.?
Solution:
2n ^{2} + 1 2(1) ^{2} + 1 = 3, 2(3) ^{2} + 1 = 19,
a _{n}
a
a
=
=
=
2(2) ^{2} + 1 = 9 2(4) ^{2} + 1 = 33
_{1}
_{3}
a
a
_{2}
_{4}
=
=
The sequence is 3, 9, 19, 33,
Here,
9 –
3 = 6
19 
– 
9 = 10 
33 
– 19 = 14 
The difference is not the same.
∴The given sequence is not an A.P.
3
Example 5: Find the common difference and the next three terms of the A.P. 1, 4, 7,
Solution:
Example 6:
The common difference The next three terms are
4 – 1 = 3
= 7 + 3 = 10, 10 + 3 = 13 13 + 3 = 16
Find the 12 ^{t}^{h} term of an A.P. 6, 1, –4
Solution: Consider the A.P in the form a, a + d, a + 2d,
Here,
a
t
t
_{n}
_{1}_{2}
= 
6, d = 1 – 6 = –5, n = 12 
= 
a + (n–1) d 
= 
6 + (12 – 1) (–5) = 6 + 11 x (–5) = 6 – 55 = – 49 
∴ The 12 ^{t}^{h} term is –49
Example 7: The 7 ^{t}^{h} term of an A.P is –15 and the 16 ^{t}^{h}
Solution: Consider the A.P in the form a, a + d, a + 2d,
t t t _{1}_{6} –t _{7} ⇒
_{7}
_{1}_{6}
=
=
a + 6d = –15 a + 15d = 30
9d = 45,
d = 5
term is 30. Find the A.P.
Substituting d = 5 in t _{7} we get a + 30 = –15,
a = –45
∴ The A.P is –45, –40, –35
Example 8: Write down the A.P. and its general term if a = 3, d = 7.
Solution:
Consider the A.P in the form a, a + d, a + 2d. ∴ The A.P is 3, 3 + 7, 3 + 14, … or 3, 10, 17… General term t _{n} = a (n – 1)d = 3 + (n – 1) 7 = 7n – 4
Example 9: The nth term of a sequence is 7n – 3. Show that it is an A.P and find the first term and the common difference.
Solution: t _{n} = t t t t
=
=
=
=
7n – 3 7 – 3 = 4 14 – 3 = 11 21 – 3 = 18 28 – 3 = 25
_{1}
_{2}
_{3}
_{4}
∴ The sequence is 4, 11, 18, 25, First term is 4, Common difference = 11 – 4 = 18 – 11 = 25 – 18 = 7
∴ The given sequence is an A.P with C.D = 7
Example 10: If an office clerk is fixed in the pay scale 3200 – 85 – 4900, when will he reach his maximum?
Solution:
Pay Scale : 3200 – 85 – 4900
Starting salary
Maximum salary
t _{n} = a + (n – 1) d
= Rs.3200
=
⇒
=
a,
=
Annual increment =
Rs. 85
=
d
Rs.4900
t _{n}
4900 = 3200 + (n–1) 85
n
1
− =
1700
85
=
20,
n = 20 + 1= 21
The clerk will reach his maximum in his 21st year of service.
4
Example 11: Find 4 numbers between 3 and 38 which are in an A.P.
Solution:
Consider the A.P in the form a, a + d, a + 2d,
Here a = 
3, 
and 
a + 5d = 38 

⇒ 5d 
= 35, 
⇒ 
d 
= 7 
∴ The A.P. is 3, 10, 17, 24, 31, 38
∴ The 4 numbers between 3 and 38 are 10, 17, 24, 31
Example 12:
that its 13 ^{t}^{h}
If five times the fifth term of an A.P is equal to 8 times its eighth term, show term is zero.
Solution: Given: 
5t _{5} 
= 
8t _{8} 

5(a + 4d) = 
8 (a + 7d) 

3a + 36d 
= 
0 
⇒ 
a + 12d 
= 0 

∴ 
t _{1}_{3} = a + 12d = 0 
Example 13: Divide 20 into 4 parts which are in A.P such that the product of the first and fourth is to the product of the second and third in the ratio 2: 3 Solution: Let 20 be divided into 4 parts a – 3d, a – d, a + d, a + 3d which are in A.P.
⇒ (a – 3d) + (a – d) + (a + d) + (a + 3d) = 20
⇒ 4a = 20
⇒
a
= 5
Product of thefirst and fourth part 
= 
(a − 3d) 
(a 
+ 
3d) 
= 
_{2} 
Product of thesecond and third part 
(a − d) (a 
+ 
d) 
3 
⇒
a
2
−
9d
2
2
=
a
2
−
d
2
3
⇒ 3(25 – 9d ^{2} ) = 2(25 – d ^{2} )
⇒ 25d ^{2} = 25
⇒
When a = 5, d = 1, the 4 parts are 2, 4, 6, 8 When a = 5, d = –1, the 4 parts are 8, 6, 4, 2
d
=
+ 1
Example 14: The sum of 3 numbers in an A.P is 21 and their product is 280. Find the numbers. Solution: Assume that the 3 numbers in A.P are in the form a – d, a, a + d
Sum of the numbers 
= 
a – d + a + a + d = 21 
⇒ 3a = 21 
⇒ 
a 
= 7 

Product of the numbers 
= 
(a – d) a (a + d) = 280 ⇒ (a ^{2} – d ^{2} ) 
a 
= 
280 

(49 –d ^{2} ) 7 
= 280, 49 – d ^{2} = 40, d ^{2} = 
9 

∴ The numbers are = a – d = 7 – 3 ⇒ d 
+ 3 = 4, 
a = 7, a + d = 10 
∴ The required numbers are 4, 7, 10 Note : Taking d = –3, we get the same set of numbers.
Example 15 : The angles of a triangle are in A.P. If its greatest angle equals the sum of the other two, find the angles. Solution: Let the angles of a triangle be a – d, a, a + d
5
⇒
Again,
a – d + a + a + d
= 180 ^{o}
⇒ 3a = 180 ^{o}
⇒
a
= a – d + a ⇒ 2d 
= 
a, 
2d 
= 
60 
^{o} 

a + d = a – d d ∴ 
30 ^{o} 60 – 30 = 30 ^{o} , = 
a 
= 
60 
^{o} , 
a + d =
=
60 ^{o}
60 + 30 = 90 ^{o}
∴ The angles of the triangle are 30 ^{o} , 60 ^{o} , 90 ^{o}
Example 16: Find the number of integers between 60 and 600 which are divisible by 9.
Solution: The first number divisible by 9 between 60 and 600 is 63. The last number divisible
by 9 which is less than 600 is 594. The sequence 63, 72, 81,
594 is an A.P.
Here, 
a 
= 
63, d = 72 – 63 = 9 

t _{n} 
= 
594 ⇒ 
a + (n –1)d 
= 
594 

⇒ 63 + (n–1) 9 = 594 ⇒ (n–1) 
9 
= 
594 – 63 = 531 
= ∴ There are 60 integers between 60 and 600 which are divisible by 9.
⇒
n – 1 =
59 ⇒
n
60
Example 17: If a, b, c are in A.P then prove that (a–c) ^{2} = 4(b ^{2} – ac) Solution: a, b, c are in A.P
⇒ b – a
⇒
⇒ 4b ^{2} – 4ac = a ^{2} – 2ac + c ^{2} ⇒ 4(b ^{2} – ac) = (a – c) ^{2}
= c – b = common difference
=
a + c ⇒
4b ^{2}
= a ^{2} + 2ac + c ^{2}
2b
Example 18: If a ^{2} , b ^{2} , c ^{2} are in A.P show that
Solution:
a ^{2} , b ^{2} , c ^{2} are in A.P
^{1}
b+c
,
^{1}^{1}
,
caab+
+
are also in A.P.
⇒ b ^{2} – a ^{2} = c ^{2} – b ^{2} 
= 
common difference 
⇒ (b – a) (b + a) 
= 
(c – b) (c + b) 
⇒ (b + c – c – a) (b + a) 
= 
(c + a – a – b) (c + b) 
⇒ [(b + c) – (c + a)] (b + a) 
= 
[(c + a) – (a + b)] (c + b) 
dividing both sides by (b +c) (c + a) (a + b), we get
1
ca
+
−= 1
bc
+
1
ab
+
−⇒ 1
ca
+
111 , ,
bccaab
+++
are in A.P
Example 19: If a ^{x} = b ^{y} = c ^{z} and b ^{2} = ac show that
Solution:
Let a ^{x} = b ^{y} = c ^{z} = k (say)
1
1
y
⇒=a k ,b = k,c = k
x
Given b ^{2} = ac ⇒
⎛
⎜
⎜
⎝
k
1
y
⎞
⎟
⎟
⎠
2
=
k
1
x
.k
1
z
⇒
1
z
k
2
y
=
k
1
x
+
1
z
^{1}^{1}^{1}
,
,
xyz
are in A.P
211
⇒=+
yxz
111
⇒
,
,
xyz
6
are in A.P.
Exercise 1.1.1.
1. Which of the following sequences are A.P.?
a) 
11/3, 
13/3, 15/3, 17/3, 
b) 0, –3, –6, –9, 
c) 1 ^{2} , 3 ^{2} , 5 ^{2} , 7 ^{2} , … 
d) 
5, 5, 5, 5, 
e) a, a + 2, a + 4, a + 6, 
2. Find the common difference of the A.P. :
a) 
3, 1, –1, –3, 
b) 1.0, 1.7, 2.4, 3.1, 
c) 
0, 1/4, 1/2, 3/4, 

d) 
7, 4, 1, –2, 
e) 
t _{n} = 4n + 5 
3. Write the next three terms of the following sequences:
a) 
14, 11, 8, 
b) 6, 4.5, 3, 
c) 22, 29, 36, 
d) 
1, 1½, 2, 
e) –1, –5/6, –2/3, 
4. Write down the A.P if
a) 
a 
= –5, 
d = 6 
b) a 
= 3½, 
d = 1½ 
c) a = 
p, 
d = q 
d) 
a 
= 0.7, 
d = 0.02 
e) t _{n} = 3n – 2 
5. Find the required term in the following
a) 15 ^{t}^{h} term of 40, 43, 46, 
b) 10 ^{t}^{h} term of 10, 10.5, 11, 

c) 9 ^{t}^{h} term if 
a 
= 3/5, 
d = 2/5 
d) 20 ^{t}^{h} term if a = 18, d = –4 

e) 7 ^{t}^{h} term if t _{n} = 4n + 5 

6. In an A.P., t _{7} = 45, t _{9} = 57. Find the first three terms and the common difference. a) 

b) Find the 30 ^{t}^{h} term of an A.P whose third term is 14 and the 9 ^{t}^{h} term is –52. 

c) Find the middle term of an A.P with 21 terms if a = –3, d = 3 

d) In an A.P., 24 ^{t}^{h} term is twice the 10 ^{t}^{h} term and the sixth term is 10. Write the first three terms of the A.P. 

e) If 10 times the 10 ^{t}^{h} term of an A.P is equal to 15 times the 15 ^{t}^{h} term show that 25 ^{t}^{h} term of the A.P is zero. 

7. Which term of the sequence 21, 42, 63, a) 
is 420? 

b) If a = 5, d = 3 which term of the A.P is 320? 

c) How many terms are there in the A.P –1, –5/6, –2/3, 
10/3? 

d) Is 68 a term of the A.P. 7, 10, 13, 
? 

e) How many numbers of two digits are divisible by 6? 
8. The sum of three numbers in an A.P is 9 and their product is –48. Find the numbers.
9. Find four numbers in A.P whose sum is 50 and in which the greatest number is 4 times the least.
10. The angles of a quadrilateral are in A.P whose common difference is 10 ^{o} . angles. 
Find the 
11. The sum of three numbers in an A.P is 12 and the sum of their squares is 56. numbers. 
Find the 
_{1}_{2}_{.} _{I}_{f}
b
+−
cacabab
+−
+ −
c
abc
,
,
are in A.P show that
^{1}^{1}^{1} , ,
abc are in A.P.
13. If a, b, c are in A.P show that (ab) ^{–}^{1} , (bc) ^{–}^{1} , (ca) ^{–}^{1} are also in A.P
7
1.1.2
Geometric progression
Observe the following sequences
a) 2, 4, 8, 16,
b)
100, 20, 4, 4/5
c)
3, 3 ^{2} , 3 ^{3} , 3 ^{4} ,
d)
4, –2, 1, –1/2,
These are not A.P. But they have definite pattern.
In a) We find
t
2
t
3
t
4
=== 2
ttt 123
t
t
2
=
3
= 3 ,
, 
In 
b) We find 
In 
d ) We find 
In c) We find
t
1
t
2
t
2
=
t
3
=
t
4
=
1
ttt5 123
t
2
=
t
3
=
1
tt2
1
2
It means each term of the sequence except the first is obtained by multiplying the preceding term by a constant factor. Such a sequence is called Geometric progression. The constant factor is called common ratio (C.R)
The general form of a G.P is a, ar, ar ^{2} , ar ^{3} ,
The n ^{t}^{h} term of the G.P is
t _{n} = ar ^{n}^{–}^{1}
with
a ≠ 0
C.R = r ≠
0
Note:
If each term of a G.P be multiplied or divided by the same non zero number, the resulting series is also a G.P.
Example 20: Find the 5 ^{t}^{h} term of the G.P 64, 16, 4
Solution:
_{=} ^{1}^{6}
64
t _{5} = ar ^{5}^{–}^{1}
^{1}
a
=
64,
r
4
=
,
=
n = 5
ar ^{4}
t
_{n}
= ar ^{n}^{–}^{1} ,
t
_{5}
= 64
⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎟
⎜
4
=
64
1
=
256
4
∴
5 ^{t}^{h} term of the given G.P. is ^{1}
4
Example 21: The sixth and the tenth term of a G.P are 63 and 5103 respectively. Find the G.P. Solution: t _{6} = 63, t _{1}_{0} = 5103
t
10
ar
9
5103
=
=
t
6
ar
5
63
⇒
r
4
=
81
Substituting r = 3 in t _{6} , we get
_{∴}
a(3)
5
63 
7 

= 
63 
⇒= a 
= 

243 
27 
− 
7 

If r = –3, then we get a 
27 

_{T}_{h}_{e} _{G}_{.}_{P} _{i}_{s} 
7 27 
, 
21 27 
, 
63 27 
, 
(or) 
∴ =± r 
3 

− 7 
21 
− 
63 

27 
, 
27 
, 
27 
, 

8 
Example 22: Find three numbers in G.P whose sum is 14 and product is 64. Solution: Let the numbers be a/r, a, ar
Product of the numbers = a/r × a × ar = 64
⇒
Sum of the numbers = a/r + a + ar = 14,
a ^{3} =
64,
∴ a
=
4
a
4
⎛ 1rr
⎜
⎝
+ +
2
r
^{⎞} ⎟ =
⎠
14
⇒
2(1
++
r
r
2
)
=
7r
⎛
⎜ ⎝
1
r
+ 1 +
r
⎞
⎟ ⎠
=
14
⇒ 
2r ^{2} – 5r + 2 = 0, 
∴ r = ½ 
or 2 

If 
r = 2, the numbers are 2, 4, 8. If 
r = 1/2 the numbers are 8, 4, 2 
Example 23: Find three numbers in G.P such that their sum is 7 and the sum of the reciprocals is 7/4. Solution: Let the three numbers in G.P be a, ar, ar ^{2}
Sum of the numbers
=
a + ar + ar ^{2} = 7,
a (1 + r + r ^{2} ) = 7
1
++ 1
ar
=
Sum of the reciprocals
a Dividing (1) and (2) we get (ar) ^{2} Substituting a = 2/r in (1) we get
=
1
=
ar
4,
2
ar
2/r (1 + r + r ^{2} )
⇒
=
2r ^{2} – 5r + 2 =
7
0
⇒
⇒
2 (1 + r + r ^{2} )
r = 1/2
or 2
7
4
=
=
+ 2
=
7r
+ +
1rr
2
2
ar ⇒ a =
+ 2/r
(1)
(2)
If 
r = 1/2 
then 
a = 4. 
∴ The numbers are 4, 2, 1, 

If 
r 
= 2 
then 
a = 1 
∴ The numbers are 1, 2, 4 
Example 24: The n ^{t}^{h} term of a G.P is
terms and also the 10 ^{t}^{h} term.
2
2n
−
1
3
Solution:
t
n
=
2
2n
−
1
3
,t
t
2
2
41
−
==
8
33
,t
1
3
22
−
2(1)
1
==
2
33
32
61
−
==
3
3
2 8/3
,r
3
2/3
The first three terms are
∴
a =
== 4
^{2}
^{8}
^{3}^{2}
333
,
,
t
10
=
ar
9
=
2
3
(4)
9
=
2
3
(2)
18
=
2
19
3
for all values of n. Write down the first three
Example 25: The sum of the first two terms of a G.P is 2 and the sum of the first four terms is 20. Find the G.P. Solution: Consider the GP a, ar, ar ^{2}
Given : a 
+ 
ar 
= 
2, 
a(1 + r) 
= 
2 
(1) 
a + ar + ar ^{2} + ar ^{3} 
= 
20 ⇒ 
a (1 + r) (1 + r ^{2} ) = 20 
(2) 
9
By virtue of (1), (2) becomes
2(1 + r ^{2} )
=
20 ⇒
1 + r ^{2} =
⇒ r ^{2} =
Substituting
If
If
9 ⇒
r
3
then
=
+ 3
r = + 3 in (1)
a = 1/2 a = –1
r
= = – 3 then
r
10
∴ The G.P is
^{1}
^{3}
^{9}
^{2}^{7}
2222
,
,
,
,
(or)
–1, 3, –9, 27,
Exercise 1.1.2
1. Find which of the following are not a G.P.
a)
2, 4, 8, 16,
b) 1 ^{2} , 2 ^{2} , 3 ^{2} , 4 ^{2} ,
c) 1, –1, 1, –1,
2. Find the common ratio of the following G.P.
d) 5, 55, 555, 5555,
a) 25, –5, 1, –1/5, 
b) 1, –5/2, 25/4, –125/8, … 
c) 0.2, 0.06, 0.018, 0.0054 
d) 2/5, 6/25, 18/125, 54/625, … 
3. In a G.P 1, ½, ¼, … find t _{7} a) 
b) Find the 8 ^{t}^{h} term of the G.P. 3,6, 12,… 
c) Find the 7 ^{t}^{h} term of a G.P 9, 3, 1, … d) Find the 9 ^{t}^{h} term of a G.P. 2/5, 8/25, 32/125,… 

4. The third and fifth term of a G.P are 4/3 and 16/27 respectively. Find the G.P. a 

b) In a G.P t _{3} = 16, t _{7} = 1 find the G.P 

c) The 5 ^{t}^{h} term of a G.P is 4/9 and the seventh term is 16/81. Find the 10 ^{t}^{h} term. 

d) The fourth term is 27 and the 7 ^{t}^{h} term is 729. Find the first term and the common ratio. 
1 

5. Find the three terms in G.P whose sum is a) 
6 3 and the product is 8. 

b) 
The sum of three numbers of a G.P is 26. Their product is 216. Find the numbers. 

c) 
The product of 3 numbers in G.P is 216. 
The sum of their product taken in pairs is 
156. Find the numbers.
d) The sum of the first two terms of a G.P is –1 and the sum of the first four terms is –5.
Find the G.P.
6. Find three numbers in G.P such that their sum is 19/3 and the sum of their reciprocals is
19/12.
7. The sum of the first three terms of a G.P is 7 and the sum of their squares is 21. Find the first five terms of the G.P.
8. The first term of a G.P is 64 and the common ratio is r. Find the value of r if average of the first and the fourth term is 140.
9. The second term of G.P is b and the common ratio is r. Write down the value of b if the product of the first three terms is 64.
10. Find the number of terms of the G.P 1, 4, 16, … 4096.
11. Find three numbers a, b, c between 2 and 18 such that their sum is 25, the numbers 2, a,
b are in A.P and the numbers b, c, 18 are in G.P.
12. In a set of 4 numbers the first three are in G.P and the last three are in A.P with common difference 6. If the first number is the same as the fourth, find the four numbers.
13. a, b, c, d are in G.P., prove that a + b, b + c, c + d are in G.P.
If
14. a _{1} , a _{2} , a _{3} , … are in G.P (a _{i} > 0) then show that log a _{1} , log a _{2} , log a _{3} , …. are in A.P.
If
10
1.2 SERIES
When the terms of a sequence are connected by the sign +, it is called a series. Thus a _{1} + a _{2} + a _{3} + … a _{n} + … is an infinite series. The symbol Σ a _{n} is used to denote a series.
1.2.1 Sum to n terms of an A.P
Let S _{n} denote the sum of the terms of the A.P a, a + d, a + 2d, …, a+(n–1) d
S _{n} 
= 
a + (a + d) + (a + 2d) + … + [a + (n–1)d] 
(1) 
Writing this series in the reverse order 

S _{n} 
= 
[a + (n – 1)d] + [a + (n – 2)d] + …. + a 
(2) 
Adding (1) and (2)
2S _{n} 
= 
[2a + (n – 1)d] + 
[2a + (n – 1)d] 

= 
n [2a + (n – 1) d] 

n ∴ [2a + (n1)d] S n = 2 

n 
, S _{n} = ^{n} 2 

S 
n 
= 
2 [a +a+(n1)d] 
[a + l] 

where l = 
t _{n} = a + (n – 1) d = last term 
+
…. + [2a + (n – 1)d]
Example 26: Find the sum of the first 11 terms of the A.P 3, 8, 13…
Solution:
Given A.P is 3, 8, 13, ….
n 

Here a = 3, 
d = 8 – 3 = 5, n = 11, 
S 
= 
[2a 
(n +− 
1)d] 

n 
2 

11 
11 
11 

= 
[(2 
3) ×+ (11 
− 
1)5] 
= 
[6 
+ 
50] 
= 
× 56 
= 308 

2 
2 
2 

∴ The sum of the first 11 terms of the given A.P is 308. 

Example 27: Find the sum: 3 + 11 + 19 + … + 787. Solution: The given series is an A.P. 

Here 
a 
= 
3, 
d = 
8, 
t _{n} 
= 
787 
= 
l 

t _{n} 
= 
a + (n – 1) d 3 + (n – 1) 8 
= 787 

= 787 

∴ 
n 
= 
787 
− 
3 
+ 
1 
= 
99 

S n = ^{n} 2 8 [a + l] 
= 
^{9}^{9} [3 2 
+ 787] 
= ^{9}^{9} x 790 2 
= 
39105 
Hence the sum of the given series is 39105.
Example 28: Find the sum of all the numbers between 300 and 500 divisible by 11. Solution: The first number greater than 300 and divisible by 11 is 308. The last number less than 500 and divisible by 11 is 495.
∴ Series is 308 + 319 + … + 495
a
= 308,
d = 11,
l
= 495,
t _{n}
=
a + (n – 1)d
11
= 495
^{4}^{9}^{5} 
− 
^{3}^{0}^{8} 

308 + (n – 1) 11 
= 495 
∴ n 
= 
11 
+ 1 
= 18 
∴ S _{n}
S 18
=
= ^{n}
_{2}
18
2
[a + l]
[
308
+
495
]
= 7227
Example 29: Find the sum to n terms of an A.P whose n ^{t}^{h} term is a _{n} = 5 – 6 n Solution: General term of the given A.P is
a
a
_{n}
_{2}
=
=
5 – 6 n; 5 – 6(2) = –7;
a _{1}
a _{3}
=
= 5 – 6(3) = –13
5 – 6(1) = –1
∴ The A.P is –1, –7, – 13 … with C.D. = –6
a = –1,
l = 5 – 6 n ^{n}
2
S _{n} = ^{n} [a + l] =
2
[4
−
6n]
= n[2–3n] = 2n – 3n ^{2}
Example 30: In an A.P the sum of the first 7 terms is 10 and that of the next 7 terms is 17. Find the A.P.
Solution: Given: S _{7} S
= 
10, 

= 10 + 17 = 27 

= 
10 ⇒ 
^{7} 
[2a + 6d] 
= 
10 
⇒ 
a + 3d 
= 
^{1}^{0} 
(1) 

2 
7 

= 
27 ⇒ 
^{1}^{4} [2a + 13d] 
= 
27 
⇒ 
2a + 13d 
= 
^{2}^{7} 
(2) 

2 
7 
S
_{1}_{4}
_{7}
_{1}_{4}
S
Solving (1) and (2) we get a = 1, d = 1/7
∴The A.P is 1, 8/7, 9/7, 10/7, …. Example 31: How many terms of the A.P 3, 7, 11, … are needed to yield the sum 1275? ^{n} 

Solution: a = 3, d = 4, S _{n} 
= 1275, 
[2a (n +− 
1)d] 
= 
1275 

2 

n 

[6 (n +− 1)4] = 1275 
, n [3 + (n–1)2] 
= 1275 
⇒ 2n ^{2} + n – 1275
∴ 25 terms of the A.P will yield the sum 1275.
= 0 ⇒ (2n + 51) (n – 25) = 0
⇒
n = 25
Example 32: i) If a clock strikes appropriate number of times at each hour how many times will it strike in a day? (ii) If it strikes the half hour also, how many times does it strike in a day? Solution: i) Number of times the clock strikes at each hour form on A.P. The A.P is 1,2,3 … 12
S n = ^{n}
2
[a + l] =
^{1}^{2} [1
2
+
12]
=
78
If the clock strikes appropriate number of times at each hour, total number of times the clock strikes in a day = 2 × 78 = 156 ii) If it strikes half hour also then the total number of times it strikes in a day = 156 + 24 = 180.
12
Example 33: A machine costs Rs.5,00,000/–. If the value depreciates 15% the first year, 13½% the next year 12% the third year and so on. What will be its value at the end of 10 years, all percentages applying to the original cost. Solution: The percentage of depreciation in value in consecutive years form an A.P. ∴ Total depreciation (in %) = 15 + 13½ + 12 + … to 10 terms, Here a = 15, d = – 1.5
S
S
n
10
n 

= 
[2a (n +− 1)d] 

2 

= 
10 
[30 − 13.5] in % 
2 
= 82.5%
Value of the machine after 10 years
Original cost of the machine
= 100 – 82.5 = 17.5% = Rs.5,00,000
∴Value of the machine after 10 years = Rs.5,00,000 × ^{1}^{7}^{.}^{5} = Rs.87,500
100
Example 34: In a school sports day, picking balls kept in a line was one of the games. 20 balls were placed in a straight line on the ground at intervals of 3 meters. The starting point was at a distance 3 meters from the first ball in line with the balls. How far a boy would have to run to bring the balls one by one to a basket kept at his starting point? Solution: The distances run by the boy to pick each ball form an A.P. Each distance is run twice. The A.P is 3, 6, 9, …
Total distance run by the boy
= 2(3 + 6 + 9 … to 20 terms)
= 2. S _{n} = 
2 
× 
n 
[2a 
(n +− 
1)d] 
= 
2 
× 
20 
[2(3) 
(20 +− 
1)3] 
= 
20 × 63 = 1260 m. 
2 
2 
The boy has to run 1260 m to bring all balls to the starting point.
Example 35: Show that the sum of an A.P whose first term is a, second term is b and the last
term is c is equal to ^{(}^{a}
+
^{c}^{)} ^{(}^{b}
^{c}
+−
^{2}^{a}^{)}
2(b
−
a)
Solution: t _{1} = a, t _{2} = b ⇒ C.D = b – a, Last term l =
⇒ a + (n – 1)d = c ⇒
c
a + (n – 1) (b – a)
= c
⇒ n – 1 =
^{c} ^{−} ^{a} l − a
_{⇒} 
_{n} 
_{=} 
c 
− 
a 
1 + = 
b +− c 
2a 

b 
− 
a 
ba − 

n 
(b c + − 

∴ S _{n} = ^{n} 2 [a + l] = Exercise 1.2.1 
2 
[a 
+ 
c] 
_{=} 
2(b ^{2}^{a}^{)} (a − a) 
+ 
c) 

1. Find the sum of the following: 

113 

a) 
17 + 19 + 21 + … to 30 terms 
b) 
3 
+5 
+7 
+ 
+ 
to 23 terms 

424 

c) 
7 + 3 + (–1) + (–5) + … to 15 terms 
d) 4 + 9 + 14 + … + 199 

e) 
2 + 3.5 + 5 + 6.5 + … + 38 
13
2.
a)
Find the sum of all numbers between 200 and 400 divisible by 13.
b) Find the sum of all multiples of 9 between 400 and 600
c) Find the sum of all numbers between 100 and 300 not divisible by 5
d) Find the sum of all multiples of 6 between 500 and 700.
e) Find the sum of all odd numbers between 0 and 1000.
3. The sum of the first 25 terms of a series in A.P is 1175. The last term is 83. Find the first term and the common difference.
4. The first term of an A.P is 12. The sum of the first 15 terms is 390. Find the middle term.
5. The sum of the first 11 terms of an A.P is 44 and that of the next 11 terms is 55. Find the A.P.
6. The 24 ^{t}^{h} term of an A.P is 47 and the sum of 24 terms is 576. Find the common difference and the sum of the first 12 terms.
7. How many terms of the sequence 18, 16, 14, … should be taken so that their sum is zero.
8. If the sum of certain number of terms of an A.P 25, 22, 19, … is 116. Find the last term.
9. Find the sum of 15 terms of an A.P if the n ^{t}^{h} term is 6–n.
10. 30 consecutive terms of the A.P 100 + 99 + 88 … are taken to get a sum 1155. At which term will you begin to get the given total.
11. A man saved Rs.16,500/– in ten years. Each year, after the first, he saved Rs.100 more than in the preceding year. Find his savings in the first year.
12. In boring a well 50 m deep, the cost is Rs.4/– for the first meter. The cost of each successive meter increases by Rs.2/–. What is the cost of boring the entire well?
1.2.2 Sum to n terms of a G.P
Let S _{n} denote the sum of n terms of the G.P a, ar, ar ^{2} , ….
S _{n} 
= 
a + ar + ar ^{2} + …. + ar ^{n}^{–}^{1} 
(1) 
Multiplying both sides by r r. S _{n} = ar + ar ^{2} + ar ^{3} + … + ar ^{n} 
(2) 
(2) – (1) ⇒
r. S _{n} – S _{n}
=
S
n
=
a (r
n
−
1)
r
−
1
if r > 1
ar ^{n} – a, S _{n} (r – 1)
or
S
n
=
a(1
−
=
r
n
)
1
−
r
a(r ^{n} – 1)
if r < 1
or S _{n} = na
if
r = 1
If r < 1 say r = ½ then r ^{2} = ¼, r ^{3} = 1/8, …, r ^{n} = 1/2 ^{n} is very small and r ^{n} 0 when n is very large or , r < 1 ⇒ r ^{n} 0 as n ∞.
14
Example 37: Find the sum to 8 terms of the G.P 2, 4, 8, …
Solution:
a = 2, r = 4/2 = 2 > 1, n = 8
−
a(r
n
−
1)
2(2
8
1)
∴
S
n
=
r
−
1
,
S
8
=
2
−
1
=
2 (256 – 1) =
2 × 255
= 510
Example 38: Find the sum to infinity of the series 54, 18, 6, 2, ….
Solution: a = 54, r = 18/54 = 1/3 < 1
S
∞
=
a
1
−
r
54
1
−
1/3
∴
_{=}
3
=×=
54
2
81
Example 39: Find the sum to n terms of the series 3 + 33 + 333 + ….
Solution: S _{n}
3 + 33 + 333 + … n terms
=
=
3 (1 + 11 + 111 + … n terms) = 
^{3} 
(9 
99 ++ 
999 
+ 
9 
=
=
3
9
3
[
(10
⎡
⎢
⎣
1)
−+
−
(100
1)
− n
⎤
⎥
⎦
1)
−+
10(10
n
9
9
=
(1000
30
81
−
1)
(10
n
+
to n terms
1)
−−
3n
9
=
10
27
to n terms)
]
(10
n
1)
−−
n
3
Example 40: Prove that
Solution:
0.9 = 0.999
0.9 = 1.0
= 0.9 + 0.09 + 0.009 + …. = 9 (0.1 + 0.01 + 0.001 + …)
= 9[10 ^{–}^{1} + 10 ^{–}^{2} + ….] =
9 ×
10
−
1
1
−
10
−
1
=
9
×
1
9
=
1
Example 41: Express 0.241 as a fraction
Solution:
0.241
= 
0.2414141…. 

= 
0.2 + 0.041 + 0.00041 + … 

2 
⎡ 
41 
41 41 ⎤ 
2 
41/10 
3 

= 
10 
+ 
⎢ ⎣ 
10 + ++ 357 10 10 ⎥ ⎦ 
^{=} 
10 
+ 
1 
− 1/10 
2 

2 
+ 
41 
= 
198 + 41 
= 239/990 

_{=} 

10 
990 
990 
Example 42: The first term of an infinite G.P is 6 and its sum is 8. Find the G.P.
⇒ 1 – r = 6/8 = 3/4
3
⎛
⎜
⎝
111
++
248
15
+
⎞
⎟
⎠
⇒
r = 1/4
Now ^{1}^{1}^{1} ++
248
_{∴}
1
2
++ 1
4
1
8
+
+
=
is an infinite G.P.
1/2
1
−
1/2
=
1
⇒
3
⎛
⎜
⎝
S
∞ ^{=}
111 ⎞
⎟
^{⎠}
248
++
+
a
1
−
r
= 3 ^{1} = 3
∴ The value of
= 3
Example 44: The sum of an infinite G.P is 4 and the sum of the cubes of the terms is 192. Find the common ratio.
Solution: a + ar + ar ^{2} + … = 4 ⇒
^{a}
= 4
1
−
r
a ^{3} / (1–r) ^{3} = 64
⇒
a ^{3} + a ^{3} r ^{3} + a ^{3} r ^{6} + … = 192;
a
3
1
−
r
3
= 129
(2)
(1)
(1
−
r)
3
192
(1
−
r)
2
=
64
⇒ (2r + 1)(r + 2) = 0 ⇒ r =−1/ 2or − 2
∴ The common ratio of the G.P is –1/2 or –2.
⇒
_{1}_{r}
−
3
=
3
⇒
1rr
++
2
=
3
⇒
2r
2
+
(1) 

(2) 

5r 
2 += 
0 
Example 45: A rubber ball dropped from a height of 50 m rebounds at every impact from the
floor to a height half of that from which it has fallen. Find the total distance described by the time it comes to rest.
Solution: Distance described in the first impact Distance described in the 2 ^{n}^{d} impact Distance described in the 3 ^{r}^{d} impact
= 50 m = 2[1/2× 50] = 2 × 25 m = 2 × 25/2 m
=
50
+
2
⎛
⎜ ⎝
25
25
⎞
⎟ ⎠
∴ Distance described by the time it comes to rest
25
+++
2
4
=
50
+
2
⎛
⎜ ⎝
25
1
−
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