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Present Simple Tense :Forme


Afirmativ :
Subiect + Verbul la infinitiv
Exceptie : La pers a III sg verbul se termina mereu in s sau es :
The boy wants a toy car for Christmas. Baiatul vrea o masina de jucarie
pentru Craciun.

Atentie: 1. Verbele care se termina in -y la pers a III sg, y se transforma in -ies:
I cry She cries.
I play He plays.

2. Verbele care se termina in o, -ss, -x, -sh, -ch primesc la pers a III sg - es
My mother usually goes to the market in the morning. Mama se duce
de obicei in piata dimineata.

Negativ :
Subiect+ do not/ does not + verb
She does not sing in the school chorus. Ea nu canta in corul scolii.

Interogativ :
do not/ does not + Subiect + verb
Does she want to participate in the competition? - Vrea ea sa participle in
competitie?

Present Simple Tense se foloseste pentru a exprima :
- Adevaruri general valabile :
The earth has 2 emispheres - Pamantul are 2 emisfere.

- Actiuni repetitive:
She takes piano lessons each day at 5 oclock. Ea ia lectii de pian in fiecare zi
la ora 5.

- Actiuni de moment, terminate in momentul in care sunt savarsite :
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Mark gets out of bed, goes to the bathroom and washes his teeth. Mark se da
jos din pat, se duce la baie si se spala pe dinti.

- Actiuni obisnuite :
My grandfather and Iusually look at the starts when the sky is clear. Bunicul
meu si cu mine, noi ne uitam de obicei la stele cand e senin.

- Actiuni planificate in viitor, obligatorii (cu verbe de miscare) :
The year ends with the 31st of December. Anul se termina cu 31 decembrie.


Present Continuous Tense: Forme
Afirmativ :
Subiect + Prezentul verbului a fi + ing :
She is cutting the cake in slices. (Ea taie prajitura felii.)

Negativ :
Subiect + Prezentul verbului a fi + not + verb + ing :
She is not talking at the moment, she is eating. (In acest moment ea nu
vorbeste, mananca.)

Interogativ :
Prezentul verbului a fi + Subiect + verb + ing :
Is she smiling ? (Ea zambeste ?)
Prezentul continuu se foloseste pentru a exprima :
- actiune care se intampla in momentul vorbirii
Ex. The wind is blowing.- Vantul sufla.
It is raining outside. - Ploua afara.

- actiune care se extinde pe o perioada putin mai lunga de timp
Ex. Julia is reading a novel by Dickens. - Iulia citeste un roman de Dickens.


- actiune temporara, limitata
Ex. I live in Cluj but this year I am living in Bucuresti. Traiesc in Cluj dar in acest
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an locuiesc in Bucuresti.

- planuri imediate pentru viitorul apropiat
Ex. The children are going camping today. Copiii merg cu cortul astazi.

- actiune frecvent repetata, suparatoare se foloseste deseori cu adverbele
always, forever, constantly
Ex. Ann is always making plans without taking into consideration all the
facts. Ann isi face mereu planuri fara sa ia in considerare toate aspectele.

- in propozitii subordonate
Ex They will go jogging while the babies are sleeping. Ei vor face jogging
cat timp copii dorm.

Exista o serie de verbe care nu se folosesc la Prezent Continuu. Ele se impart
in urmatoarele categorii :
Verbe de perceptie : feel, hear, see, smell, taste
Verbe de opinie : assume, believe, consider, doubt, feel (= a crede), find (= a
considera), suppose, think
Verbe care se refera la perceptie mentala: forget, imagine, know, mean, notice,
recognize, remember, understand
Verbe care exprima emotii sau chiar dorinte : envy, fear, dislike, hate, hope, like,
love, mind, prefer, regret, want, wish
Verbe folosite pentru masurat : contain, cost, hold, measure, weigh
Alte verbe : look (= a se asemana), seem, be (in majoritatea cazurilor), have = a
poseda)

Unele verbe pot fi folosite la forma continua dar isi schimba sensul :
Exemple:
Verbul to see (a imagina) :
I think you are seeing things, there is no one in the house. Cred ca iti
imaginezi lucruri, nu e nimeni in casa.
Verbul to smell (a adulmeca, a mirosi) :
She is smelling the roses.- Ea miroase trandafirii.
Verbul to look (a se uita) :
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Tom is looking at Maria.
Verbul to be (a se comporta) :
She is being rude. Ea se comporta nepoliticos.

Expresii de timp folosite cu prezentul continuu : now, at the moment, at
present, these days, still, nowadays, today, tonight.


Present Perfect FORM:
[has/have + past participle]
Examples:
You have seen that movie many times.
Have you seen that movie many times?
You have not seen that movie many times.
Complete List of Present Perfect Forms
USE 1 Unspecified Time Before Now

We use the Present Perfect to say that an action happened at an unspecified time
before now. The exact time is not important. You CANNOT use the Present Perfect with
specific time expressions such as: yesterday, one year ago, last week, when I was a
child, when I lived in Japan, at that moment, that day, one day, etc. We CAN use the
Present Perfect with unspecific expressions such as: ever, never, once, many times,
several times, before, so far, already, yet, etc.
Examples:
I have seen that movie twenty times.
I think I have met him once before.
There have been many earthquakes in California.
People have traveled to the Moon.
People have not traveled to Mars.
Have you read the book yet?
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Nobody has ever climbed that mountain.
A: Has there ever been a war in the United States?
B: Yes, there has been a war in the United States.
How Do You Actually Use the Present Perfect?
The concept of "unspecified time" can be very confusing to English learners. It is best to
associate Present Perfect with the following topics:
TOPIC 1 Experience
You can use the Present Perfect to describe your experience. It is like saying, "I have
the experience of..." You can also use this tense to say that you have never had a
certain experience. The Present Perfect is NOT used to describe a specific event.
Examples:
I have been to France.
THIS SENTENCE MEANS THAT YOU HAVE HAD THE EXPERIENCE OF BEING IN FRANCE. MAYBE YOU
HAVE BEEN THERE ONCE, OR SEVERAL TIMES.
I have been to France three times.
YOU CAN ADD THE NUMBER OF TIMES AT THE END OF THE SENTENCE.
I have never been to France.
THIS SENTENCE MEANS THAT YOU HAVE NOT HAD THE EXPERIENCE OF GOING TO FRANCE.
I think I have seen that movie before.
He has never traveled by train.
Joan has studied two foreign languages.
A: Have you ever met him?
B: No, I have not met him.
TOPIC 2 Change Over Time
We often use the Present Perfect to talk about change that has happened over a period
of time.
Examples:
You have grown since the last time I saw you.
The government has become more interested in arts education.
Japanese has become one of the most popular courses at the university since
the Asian studies program was established.
My English has really improved since I moved to Australia.
TOPIC 3 Accomplishments
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We often use the Present Perfect to list the accomplishments of individuals and
humanity. You cannot mention a specific time.
Examples:
Man has walked on the Moon.
Our son has learned how to read.
Doctors have cured many deadly diseases.
Scientists have split the atom.
TOPIC 4 An Uncompleted Action You Are Expecting
We often use the Present Perfect to say that an action which we expected has not
happened. Using the Present Perfect suggests that we are still waiting for the action to
happen.
Examples:
James has not finished his homework yet.
Susan hasn't mastered Japanese, but she can communicate.
Bill has still not arrived.
The rain hasn't stopped.
TOPIC 5 Multiple Actions at Different Times
We also use the Present Perfect to talk about several different actions which have
occurred in the past at different times. Present Perfect suggests the process is not
complete and more actions are possible.
Examples:
The army has attacked that city five times.
I have had four quizzes and five tests so far this semester.
We have had many major problems while working on this project.
She has talked to several specialists about her problem, but nobody knows why
she is sick.
Time Expressions with Present Perfect
When we use the Present Perfect it means that something has happened at some point
in our lives before now. Remember, the exact time the action happened is not
important.
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Sometimes, we want to limit the time we are looking in for an experience. We can do
this with expressions such as: in the last week, in the last year, this week, this month, so
far, up to now, etc.

Examples:
Have you been to Mexico in the last year?
I have seen that movie six times in the last month.
They have had three tests in the last week.
She graduated from university less than three years ago. She has worked for
three different companies so far.
My car has broken down three times this week.
NOTICE
"Last year" and "in the last year" are very different in meaning. "Last year" means the
year before now, and it is considered a specific time which requires Simple Past. "In the
last year" means from 365 days ago until now. It is not considered a specific time, so it
requires Present Perfect.
Examples:
I went to Mexico last year.
I WENT TO MEXICO IN THE CALENDAR YEAR BEFORE THIS ONE.
I have been to Mexico in the last year.
I HAVE BEEN TO MEXICO AT LEAST ONCE AT SOME POINT BETWEEN 365 DAYS AGO AND NOW.
USE 2 Duration From the Past Until Now (Non-Continuous Verbs)

With Non-Continuous Verbs and non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, we use the
Present Perfect to show that something started in the past and has continued up until
now. "For five minutes," "for two weeks," and "since Tuesday" are all durations which
can be used with the Present Perfect.
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Examples:
I have had a cold for two weeks.
She has been in England for six months.
Mary has loved chocolate since she was a little girl.
Although the above use of Present Perfect is normally limited to Non-Continuous Verbs
and non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, the words "live," "work," "teach," and "study"
are sometimes used in this way even though they are NOT Non-Continuous Verbs.
ADVERB PLACEMENT
The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only,
never, ever, still, just, etc.
Examples:
You have only seen that movie one time.
Have you only seen that movie one time?
ACTIVE / PASSIVE
Examples:
Many tourists have visited that castle. ACTIVE
That castle has been visited by many tourists. PASSIVE

The Simple Past Tense

Acest timp desemneaza o actiune care a avut loc in trecut, dar care este amintita in momentul
prezent.

a) VERB+ed --> pentru verbele regulate.

b) forma a 2-a a verbelor neregulate --> pentru verbele neregulate.

Link catre Lista/ tabelul verbelor neregulate


Observatii:
1) consoana finala a formei de infinitive se dubleaza cand vocala care o precede
este scurta si accentuate:
stop -> stopped
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prefer -> preferred
2) verbele terminate in y precedat de consoana il schimba in i:
study -> studied
3) verbele terminate in e adauga doar d:
move -> moved


Cand se foloseste & Exemple

1. actiunea e in trecut; timpul e definit cu exactitate (last week, last month, last
year, that day, that week, that year, in 1990, on Thursday, 10 years ago)

I visited London 10 years ago.
(Am vizitat Londra acum 10 ani.)

2. pentru o actiune care era o obistuinta in trecut (acum nu mai e)

We went to the Black See every year.
(acum nu mai mergem in fiecare an la Marea Neagra)
(Am mers la Marea Neagra in fiecare an. /Obisnuiam sa mergem la Marea Neagra in fiecare
an)


3. in fraze ce implica utilizarea lui "Present Conditional (Unreal)"

Where would you stay if you went to Bucharest?
(Unde ai sta daca ai merge la Bucuresti?)
Tom would help me with my homework if he had time.
(Tom m-ar ajuta cu temele daca ar avea timp.)

4. in fraze ce implica utilizarea lui "Future-in-the-Past" (cand actiunile viitoare fata de
actiunea trecuta sunt simultane)

He promised me that we would go to Italy when he had time. (when arata
simultaneitatea)
(Mi-a promis ca vom merge in Italia cand va avea timp.)


Past Continuous Tense : Forme
Afirmativ :
S + verbul To BE la past tense + verbul de conjugat + ING
I was reading the lesson when the teacher came in. Citeam lectia cand a
intrat profesoara.

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Negativ :
S + verbul To BE la past tense la forma negativa + verbul de conjugat +
ING
They werent looking for Susan; they were looking for her sister. Ei nu o
cautau pe Susan, ei o cautau pe sora ei.

Interogativ :
Verbul To BE la past tense + S + verbul de conjugat + ING
Was he driving too fast when he had the accident? Conducea el prea
repede cand a avut accidentul?

Trecutul simplu (Past Continuous Tense) se foloseste pentru a exprima :
actiune care se afla in desfasurare la un moment dat in trecut.
While wou were having a bath, the phone rang. In timp ce faceai baie a
sunat telefonul.

actiune care continua de ceva vreme
Yesterday I was jogging in the park. Ieri, faceam jogging in park.

actiune care are loc in acelasi timp cu o alta actiune in trecut
While I was reviewing the article my husband was watching his favourite tv
show. In timp ce eu revizuiam articolul sotul meu urmarea show-ul tv favorit.
un echivalent in trecut al prezentului continuu
They told us they were spending the night at Select. Ei ne-au spus ca o sa-
si petreaca noaptea la Select.

Adverbe folosite cu Past Continuous Tense: while, when , all morning, all
night, as

Past Perfect Tense : Forme
Afirmativ :
S + Past tense al verbului To HAVE + participiu trecut
Atentie: La verbele regulate participiul trecut = verb + ed iar la cele
neregulate este forma a 3a de pe lista verbelor iregulate.
At last she showed me the dress she had bought. Intr-un sfarsit, mi-a
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aratat rochia pe care si-o cumparase.

Negativ :
S + Past tense al verbului To HAVE + Not + participiu trecut
They hadnt gone to Mt. Omu, they had gone to another peak. Ei nu au
mers pe varful Omu, au mers pe alt varf.

Interogativ :
Past tense al verbului To HAVE + S + participiu trecut
Hadnt he loved you? Nu te iubea?

Past Perfect Tense se foloseste pentru a exprima :
- O actiune care a avut loc inaintea altei actiuni in trecut.
By 12 o clock the cleaning lady had aired all the rooms in the hotel. Pana la
ora 12 camerista aerisise toate camerele din hotel.
- Cauza unui efect trecut
Why did the window break? Because he had thrown a stone at it. De ce s-a
spart geamul? Pentru ca el a aruncat o piatra in el.

Adverbe care se folosesc cu Past Perfect Tense: just, already, by, hardly,
scarcely

Specialists- doctors
Anesthesiologist - administers drugs and monitors patient condition during surgery;
also provides pain management for acute and chronic conditions.
Cardiologist, Interventional Cardiologist, Cardiac Electrophysiologist - a
cardiologist specializes in diseases of the heart and blood vessels; an interventional
cardiologists uses guided imaging to diagnose and treat those diseases; a cardiac
electrophysiologist specializes in treating irregular heart rhythms caused by electrical
problems in the heart.
Cardiovascular Surgeon, Cardiothoracic Surgeon - a cardiovascular surgeon
specializes in the surgical management of blood vessels and heart disorders; a
cardiothoracic surgeon specializes in pathological conditions within the chest.
Emergency medicine - physicians who care for patients with acute illnesses or injuries
which require immediate medical attention; they diagnose a variety of illnesses and
undertake acute interventions to stabilize the patient.
Endocrinologist - diagnoses and treats diabetes, hormone imbalances, thyroid disease
and other disorders of the endocrine system.
Family medicine - provides continuing, comprehensive health care for the individual
and family. Encompasses all ages, both sexes, each organ system, and every disease
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entity; a family physician's care is based on knowledge of the patient in the context of the
family and the community, emphasizing disease prevention and health promotion.
Gastroenterologist - specializes in diseases of the digestive system.
Geriatrician (Geriatric Medicine) - general practice physician who specializes in caring
for older adults.
Hematologist - a hematologist specializes in diseases of the blood and bone marrow.
Hepatologist - specializes in diseases of the liver.
Hospitalist - internal medicine physician whose practice is limited to hospital inpatients.
Intensivist - hospital-based critical care medicine specialist who treats patients in
intensive care settings.
Internal medicine - provides diagnosis, management and nonsurgical treatment of
unusual or serious diseases.
Medical Geneticist - provides testing, counseling and therapy for genetic diseases.
Medical Oncologist, Radiation Oncologist - a medical oncologist specializes in the
diagnosis and treatment of all types of cancers and tumors; a radiation oncologist
specializes in the application of radiation to manage disease.
Neonatologist - cares for premature and critically ill newborns.
Nephrologist - specializes in diseases of the kidneys.
Neurologist, Neurosurgeon - a neurologist specializes in the diagnosis and treatment
of all types of disease and functions of the brain, spine, peripheral nerves, muscles and
nervous systems; a neurosurgeon provides surgical management of those disorders.
Neurophysiologist - a neurologist who diagnoses disorders of the central, peripheral
and autonomic nervous systems through clinical evaluations and electrophysiologic
testing.
Obstetrician/Gynecologist, Urogynecologist - an obstetrician/gynecologist
specializes in the medical and surgical care of the female reproductive system and its
associated disorders; a urogynecologist specializes in female urological problems.
Opthalmologist, Optometrist - an ophthalmologist provides comprehensive eye and
vision care, including to medically or surgically treat eye disorders; an optometrist
specializes in diagnosing diseases of the eye and correcting vision.
Orthopedic Surgeon - also known as an orthopod, an orthopedist is a surgeon who
treats diseases, disorders and injuries of the musculoskeletal system.
Otolaryngologist - the technical name for an ear, nose and throat physician.
Pathologist - usually works behind the scenes to diagnose diseases by studying
tissues, body fluids and organs.
Pediatrician - a child's physician who provides preventive health maintenance for
healthy children and medical care for children who are acutely or chronically ill;
pediatricians manage the physical, mental, and emotional well-being of their patients, in
every stage of development - in good health or in illness.
Perinatologist - specializes in caring for high-risk pregnancies.
Physiatrist - specializes in physical medicine and rehabilitation.
Podiatrist - specialist that treats both medical and surgical deformities of the foot and
ankle.
Pulmonologist - specializes in lung disease.
Radiologist, Interventional Radiologist - radiologists perform and interpret imaging
tests; interventional radiologists also perform minimally invasive procedures, such as
embolization, thrombolysis and biopsies, using imaging guidance.
Rheumatologist - specializes in arthritis and diseases of the joints, as well as
autoimmune disorders, such as lupus.
Sleep doctors - diagnoses and treats sleep disorders, and also may have expertise in
behavioral and cognitive methods to prevent them.
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