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the FluxusPerformanceWorkbook

edited by Ken Friedman, Owen Smith and Lauren Sawchyn

a Performance Research e-publication 2002

t h e F l u x u s Pe r fo r m a n ce Wo r k b o o k
introduction to the fortieth anniversary edition

The first examples of what were to become Fluxus

event scores date back to John Cage's famous class at
The New School, where artists such as George Brecht,
Al Hansen, Allan Kaprow, and Alison Knowles began to
create art works and performances in musical form.
One of these forms was the event. Events tend to be

Fluxus Performance Workbook, ed. Ken Friedman, Owen Smith & Lauren Sawchyn, Performance Research e-Publications, 2002
scored in brief verbal notations. These notes are known
as event scores. In a general sense, they are proposals,
propositions, and instructions. Thus, they are
sometimes known as proposal pieces, propositions, or
The first collections of Fluxus event scores were the
working sheets for Fluxconcerts. They were generally
used only by the artist-performers who were
presenting the work. With the birth of Fluxus
publishing, however, collections of event scores soon
came to take three forms.
The first form was the boxed collection. These were
individual scores written or printed on cards. The
classic example of this boxed collection is George
Brecht's Water Yam. A second format was the book or
pamphlet collection of scores, often representing work
by a single artist. Yoko Ono's Grapefruit is probably the
best known of these collections. Now forgotten, but
even more influential during the 1960s, were the small
collections that Dick Higgins published in the
Something Else Press pamphlet series under the Great
Bear imprint. These small chapbooks contained work
by Bengt af Klintberg, Alison Knowles, Nam June Paik,
and many other artists working in the then-young
Fluxus and intermedia traditions. The booklets were
highly portable. Even more important, they were easily
copied using what was then the new Xerox technology.
As a result, the Great Bear pamphlets spread an idea
about what art - and performance art - could be to a
vast and ever wider circle of artists and critics
interested in new ways of working.The third format
involved any of several large-format collections, often
carrying the work of many artists in neatly typeset
columns on a large sheet of paper. The best known of
these was the 1966 Fluxfest Sale Sheet compiled by
George Maciunas as chief editor and publisher of
Fluxus. This tradition carried forward the early concert
collections in new forms, and these collections
included the compilations that Ken Friedman published
at Fluxus West in the 1960s, as well as the Fluxus
compilations organized and reprinted by other
publishers in the 1970s.
By the 1980s, there were no widely available
publications devoted to the Fluxus event scores. While
Jon Hendricks's many books and catalogues included
the largest extant collection of scores ever compiled,
these were only available to those willing to search

through the astonishing array of Fluxus publications Genpei Akasegawa

and documents that Hendricks reproduced across the Kompo 13
many volumes of projects sponsored by the Gilbert and
Eric Andersen
Lila Silverman Fluxus Foundation. While these scores

Fluxus Performance Workbook, ed. Ken Friedman, Owen Smith & Lauren Sawchyn, Performance Research e-Publications, 2002
Opus 50 14
were readily available to scholars and historians, there Opus 46 14
was no easily accessible form for artists and Opus 9 14
composers to use in developing concerts or studying Opus 11 14
Opus 13 14
the event score by itself. Opus 15 14
In the late 1980s, Ken Friedman decided to develop a Opus 17 14
new edition of Fluxus event scores based on the Opus 19 14
tradition of the score collection. That led to the first Opus 21 14
Opus 23 15
edition of The Fluxus Performance Workbook, Opus 25 15
published in 1990. This edition was published by El Opus 27 15
Djarida magazine of Trondheim, Norway. The first Ay-O
edition of the Fluxus Performance Workbook was Rainbow No.1 for Orchestra 16
produced in a large press run that was widely Rainbow No.1 for Orchestra, Variation 16
distributed around the world. By the late 1990s, Rainbow No.2 for Orchestra 16
Exit No.1 16
however, even the once readily available workbook was
Exit No.2 16
hard to find. While copies occasionally turned up in the Exit No.3 16
catalogues of rare book dealers, it was no longer freely Exit No.4 16
available as it was originally intended to be. Exit No.5 16
Exit No.6 16
The opportunity to develop a special Fluxus issue of Exit No.7 17
Performance Research gives us an opportunity to Exit No.8 17
produce a new, revised edition of the Fluxus Robert Bozzi
Performance Workbook. We have had a chance to Choice 1 18
correct and revise some mistakes from the first edition. Choice 3 18
In addition, we have decided to incorporate projects by Choice 5 18
interesting artists that we feel fit the appropriate spirit. Choice 8 18
Choice 9 18
Fluxconcerts and Fluxus festivals have always included Choice 10 18
a variety of projects and performances by artists who Choice 12 18
have been close to Fluxus in some way, whether or not Choice 12, Variation 19
Choice 16 19
anyone making any of the many lists deems them to Choice 15 19
have been part of Fluxus. We decided that a collection Choice 18 19
of scores assembled for the fortieth anniversary of Concerto #3 19
Music Piece for Erik Dietman 20
Fluxus ought properly to include a selection of
Concerto #1 20
additional works. In Memoriam to George Maciunas #2 20
This new edition of the Fluxus Performance In Memoriam to George Maciunas #2, Var. 20
Workbook is published electronically and is available as A Piece for Chieko Shiomi 21
A Piece for Chieko Shiomi, Variation 21
a read-only, viewable document or as a free, In Memoriam to George Maciunas #1 21
downloadable, print-enabled .pdf from the
George Brecht
Performance Research website: www.performance-
Drip Music 22 It is the second collection of Fluxus Drip Music, Second Version 22
scores to be published this way. The first was the Heart Drip Music, Fluxversion 1 22
Fine Art edition of Ken Friedman's 52 Events. In the Time-Table Event 22
future, we hope to expand our collection and we hope Word Event 22
Incidental Music 22
eventually to make a comprehensive selection of event Word Event, Fluxversion 1 23
scores available in print and on-line. Tea Event 23
We particularly thank Lauren Sawchyn for her work Tea Event, Fluxversion 1 23
Two Durations 23
on this project. Her work as an editorial associate, Two Elimination Events 23
project secretary, and organizer made this edition of Two Vehicle Events 23
the Fluxus Performance Workbook possible. Three Aqueous Events 23

Ken Friedman and Owen Smith

2 f l u x w o r k b o o k f l u x w o r k b o o k 3
George Brecht continued

Three Telephone Events 23 Albert M. Fine

Three Lamp Events 23 Ice Cream Piece 34
Three Window Events 23 Piece for George Brecht 34
Three Broom Events 23 Fluxus Piece for G.M. 34
Three Yellow Events 24 Piece for Ben Patterson 34
Three Yellow Events, Fluxversion 1 24 Clothespin Piece 34
Direction 24 Concerto for Solo Piano and Performer 34
Instruction 24

Fluxus Performance Workbook, ed. Ken Friedman, Owen Smith & Lauren Sawchyn, Performance Research e-Publications, 2002
No Smoking Event 24 Luce Fierens
Five Events 24 Possible Flux Performances or Postfluxgames 35
Piano Piece 24
Organ Piece 24 Bici Forbes
Solo for Wind Instrument 24 Tumbleweed Event 36
Flute Solo 24 Breakfast Event 36
Saxophone Solo 25 Milk Festival 36
Saxophone Solo, Fluxversion 1 25 Become Invisible 36
Solo for Violin, Viola or Contrabass 25
String Quartet 25 Peter Frank
3 Piano Pieces 25 Roy Rogers Event 37
Piano Piece 25 Thank You Piece 37
Dance Music 25 Breaking Event 37
Concert for Clarinet 25 Paradigm (for Dick Higgins) 38
Concert for Clarinet, Fluxversion 1 25
Concert for Clarinet, Fluxvariation 2 25 Ken Friedman
Concerto for Orchestra 25 Fruit Sonata 39
Concerto for Orchestra, Fluxversion 1 26 Whoop Event 39
Concerto for Orchestra, Fluxversion 2 26 Restaurant Event 39
Concerto for Orchestra, Fluxversion 3 26 Christmas Tree Event 39
Entrance-Exit 26 Anniversary 39
Symphony No.1 26 Cheers 39
Symphony No.1, Fluxversion 1 26 Zen is When 39
Symphony No.2 26 Fly By Night Event 40
Symphony No.2, Fluxversion 1 26 Webster’s Dictionary 40
Symphony No.3 27 Edison’s Lighthouse 40
Symphony No.3, Fluxversion 1 27 Fluxus Instant Theater 40
Octet for Winds 27 Stage Reversal 40
For a Drummer (for Eric) 27 Lemon 40
Event Score 27 Zen Vaudeville 40
Symphony No.4 27 Fruit in Three Acts 40
Symphony No.5 28 Cardmusic for Audience 40
Symphony No.6 28 Mandatory Happening 41
Symphony No.6, Fluxversion 2 28 Fluxus Television 41
For a Drummer, Fluxversion 1 28 Orchestra 41
For a Drummer, Fluxversion 2 28 Empaquetage pour Christo 42
For a Drummer, Fluxversion 3 28 Twenty Gallons 42
For a Drummer, Fluxversion 4 28 Homage to Mike McKinlay 42
For a Drummer, Fluxversion 5 28 Unfinished Symphony 42
For a Drummer, Fluxversion 6 28 Telephone Clock 42
For a Drummer, Fluxversion 7 28 Homage to Christo 42
Don Boyd Boxing Day 42
Heat Transfer Event 42
A Performance Calendar (for El Djerrida) 29 White Duck Event 42
Henning Christiansen Loss 42
On a Jungle Path 42
Audience Eve 30 Stamp Act 43
Dialectical Evolution V 30 Variation for Food and Piano 43
Sonate for Piano (1) 30 Dance Class 43
Anthony Cox Explaining Fluxus 43
Finland, Wake Up!
Tactical Pieces for Orchestra 31 (for Jaana Kortelainen) 43
Jed Curtis Homage to Mahler 43
Viking Event 43
Music for My Son 32 Fluxus is Dead 43
Music for Wise Men 32 For Christo 43
Opus 1 32 Interpretation Game 43
Jean Dupuy Neck Tie Party 43
Theater Exercise 44
Bonjour M’sieurs Dames 33 Two Second Encore 44
Achoo 33 White Tooth Workshop 44
Bye-Bye 33

4 f l u x w o r k b o o k f l u x w o r k b o o k 5
Ken Friedman continued Bengt Af Klintberg continued

Theater 56
Act One 56
Exhibition 44
Act Two 57
Fluxus Balance Piece for Mieko Shiomi 44
Act Three 57
Marching Band 44
Lettuce Music for Sten Hanson 57
New Shoes Dance Theater 44
From Twenty-Five Orange Events 57
Selection Event 45
Orange Event Number 1 57
Stage Fright Event 45
Orange Event Number 3 57
Bartholomew in Munich 46

Fluxus Performance Workbook, ed. Ken Friedman, Owen Smith & Lauren Sawchyn, Performance Research e-Publications, 2002
Orange Event Number 4 57
Bird Call 46
Orange Event Number 7 57
Family Planning Event 46
Orange Event Number 8 57
Folk Dance 46
Orange Event Number 10 58
The History of Fluxus 46
Orange Event Number 12 58
Magic Trick #2 46
Orange Event Number 15 58
Magic Trick #7 47
Orange Event Number 16 58
Lee Heflin Orange Event Number 17 58
Orange Event Number 20 58
Fall 48
Orange Event Number 21 58
Ice Trick 48
Orange Event Number 24 58
First Performance 48
Orange Event Number 25 (‘Proposition’) 58
Hi Red Center 2 Exhibitions
1 Ice 59
Street Car Event 49
2 Mold 59
Hotel Event 49
Three Magic Events
Street Cleaning Event 49
Number 1 (to make a couple enemies) 59
Dick Higgins Number 2 (against rats in the barn) 59
Number 3 (for white washes) 60
Danger Music Number One 50
Streetcar Random 60
Danger Music Number Two 50
Calls (Cantos 1-6) 60
Hat. Rags. Paper. Heave. Shave. 50
Canto 1 (If You Catch Sight of a Friend
Danger Music Number Nine 50
in the Distance) 60
Danger Music Number Eleven 50
Canto 2 (Stage Version of Canto 1) 60
Danger Music Number Twelve 50
Canto 3 61
Danger Music Number Fourteen 50
Canto 4 (Hello-Chorus) 61
Danger Music Number Fifteen 50
Canto 5 (Telephone Call) 61
Danger Music Number Seventeen 50
Canto 6 (Letter) 61
Danger Music Number Twenty-Nine 50
Two Flag Events 61
Danger Music Number Thirty-One 50
1. In Copenhagen (for Ibi) 61
Danger Music Number Thirty-One 50
2. Demonstration 61
Danger Music Number Thirty-Three 51
Seven Forest Events 61
Judgment for String and Brass 51
Forest Event Number 1 (Winter) 61
Anger Song #6 (‘Smash’) 51
Forest Event Number 2 61
From Twelve Lectures about the Same Thing
Forest Event Number 3 61
or Bartenders Who have no Wings 51
Forest Event Number 4
Act Three 51
(Danger Music for Henning Christiansen) 62
Act Six 51
Forest Event Number 5
Act Seven 51
(The Lumberjacks’ and Pikers’ Union) 62
Constellation Number 4 52
Forest Event Number 6 62
Davi Det Hompson Forest Event Number 7 62
Untitled Event 62
Lessons 53
Event for an Unknown Person 62
Lessons 53
Party Event 62
Lessons 53
Plan Against Loneliness 62
Calculations 53
Olympia! 53 Milan Knizak
There’s Music in My Shoes 53
Fashion 63
To s h i I c h i y a n a g i Snowstorm No. 1 63
Snowstorm No. 2 63
Music for Piano No.5, Fluxvariation 54
Flour Game 63
Joe Jones Cat 63
Line 63
Duet for Brass Instruments 55
Glider 63
Piece for Winds 55
Jewelry 63
Dog Symphony 55
Game of Artist 64
Mechanical Orchestra 55
Aktual Clothes 64
Bengt af Klintberg Sunday Event 64
Walking Event 64
Food Piece for Dick Higgins 56
Smile Game 64
Dog Event 56
Confrontation No. 1 64
Identification Exercise 56

6 f l u x w o r k b o o k f l u x w o r k b o o k 7
Milan Knizak continued

Killing the Books 64 Jackson Mac Low

Removal 64 Tree Movie 77
Cover 65 A Word Event for George Brecht 77
A Week 65 3 Social Projects 77
Marriage Ceremony 65 Social Project 1 77
Lying Ceremony 65 Social Project 2 77
Wedding Ceremony 66 Social Project 3 77
Secret Ceremony 66 Piano Suite for David Tudor and John Cage 78

Fluxus Performance Workbook, ed. Ken Friedman, Owen Smith & Lauren Sawchyn, Performance Research e-Publications, 2002
Tracks 66 Thanks 78
Some Mathematical Operations 66
Some of the Enforced Symbioses 67 George Maciunas
White Process 67 Duet for Full Bottle and Wine Glass 79
Ceremony 67 Duet for C on Bass Sordune, Voice and
Material Events 67 Old Score 79
Idea (Mental Image, Notion) 67 In Memoriam to Adriano Olivetti 80
A Purge 68 Solo for Violin 80
Raft 68 Solo for Rich Man 80
Processes for a Body 68 Solo for Violin (For Sylvano Bussotti) 80
Alison Knowles 12 Piano Compositions for Nam June Paik 81
Solo for Conductor 81
Shuffle 69
Proposition 69 Richard Maxfield
Variation #1 on Proposition 69 Mechanical Fluxconcert 82
Nivea Cream Piece 69
Variation on Nivea Cream Piece 69 Larry Miller
Child Art Piece 69 Music from Scratch 83
Variation #1 on Child Art Piece 69 Figure/Ground 83
Street Piece 69 Chewed Drawing 83
Shoes of Your Choice 70 Mud Drop 83
Piece for Any Number of Vocalists 70 Bag Exchange 83
Color Music #1 for Dick Higgins 70 Patina 83
Giveaway Construction 70 Bit Part for Audience 83
Color Music #2 70 Playmate 83
Color Music #2, Revised 70 100 Yard Run 83
Braid 70 100 Yard Metronome Run 84
String Piece (Variation on Braid) 70 200 Yard Candle Dash 84
Composition for Paik 71 220 Yard Balloon Dash 84
Chair Piece for George Brecht 71 Long Jump 84
Wounded Furniture 71 Remote Music 84
Performance Piece #8 71 Talk/Don’t Talk 84
Newspaper Event 72 See You in Your Dreams 84
Ta k e h i s a K o s u g i Dream Machine 84
Visit 84
Tender music (for solo conductor) 73 Attune 84
Distance for Piano (to David Tudor) 73 Like/Don’t Like 85
South No.3 (Malika) 73 Finger Exercise 85
South No.2 (to Nam June Paik) 74 Only You 85
Theatre Music 74
Ear Drum Event 74 Yo k o O n o
Music for a Revolution 74 Four Pieces for Orchestra 86
Chironomy 1 74 Laundry Piece 86
South No.1 (to Anthony Cox) 74 Wall Piece for Orchestra To Yoko Ono 86
Manodharma with Mr Y 74 Lighting Piece 86
Organic Music 75 Painting to be Stepped On 86
For Mr M 75 Fly Piece 86
Micro 1 75 Tape Piece I 86
Malika 5 75 Stone Piece 86
Organic Music 75 Tape Piece II 87
Manodharma with Mr. T 75 Room Piece 87
Smoking Music 75
Anima 2 75 Nam June Paik
Bob Lens Fluxus Champion Contest 88
Prelude 88
#252 76 Fluxus Hero or Heroine 88
#257 76 Zen for Street 88
#185 76 Dragging Suite 88
#403 76 Atom Bomb Victim 88
#96 76 Moving Theater 88

8 f l u x w o r k b o o k f l u x w o r k b o o k 9
Willem de Ridder Ben Vautier
Laughing 89 Radio 102
Dressing 89 Theft 102
TV 89 Police 102
The Big Realization 89 Smile 102
Nap 89 Strike 102
Drink 1 102
Paul Sharits Drink II 102

Fluxus Performance Workbook, ed. Ken Friedman, Owen Smith & Lauren Sawchyn, Performance Research e-Publications, 2002
90 Degree Angles, Street or Field Version 90 Shower II 102
Telephone 102
To m a s S c h m i t The Others 103
Piano Piece No.1 91 They 103
Zyklus 91 Make Faces 103
Sanitas No.2 91 Wet 103
Sanitas No.151 91 Nothing 103
Sanitas No.13 91 Sale 103
Sanitas No.22 91 Run 103
Sanitas No.35 91 Mystery Food 103
Sanitas No.79 92 Apples 103
Sanitas No.151, Fluxvariation 1 92 Monochrome for Yves Klein 103
Sanitas No.165 92 Monochrome for Yves Klein, Fluxversion I 104
Monochrome for Yves Klein, Fluxversion II 104
Mieko Shiomi Meeting 104
Spatial Poem No.1 93 Verbs 104
Word event 93 Bathtub 104
Temperature Experiment 93 Push 104
Smoke Poem 93 Hens 104
Wind Music 94 Lesson 104
Wind Music, Fluxversion I 94 Curtain I 105
Wind Music, Fluxversion II 94 Curtain II 105
Shadow Piece 94 I Will be Back in Ten Minutes 105
Portrait Piece 94 Look 105
Music for Two Players 95 Ben’s Striptease 105
Mirror 95 Hold-Up 105
Event for the Twilight 95 Gestures 105
Event for Midday in the Sunlight 95 Choice 105
Event for the Late Afternoon 95 Tango 106
Event for Late Afternoon Fluxversion I 95 Orders 106
Event of Midnight 95 Expedition 106
Boundary Music 96 Supper 106
Star Piece 96 Piano Concerto No.2 for Paik 106
Music for Two Players I 96 Orchestra Piece No.4 106
Falling Event 96 Concerto for Audience by Audience 107
Fluxversion I 97 Three Pieces for Audiences 107
Fluxversion II 97 Audience Piece No.1 107
Passing Music for a Tree 97 Audience Piece No.2 107
Shadow Piece II 97 Audience Piece No.3 107
Air Event 97 Audience Piece No.4 107
Piece for a Small Puddle 97 Audience Piece No.5 107
Disappearing Music for Face 97 Audience Piece No.6 107
Photo Event for Two Players 98 Audience Piece No.7 108
Water Music 98 Audience Piece No.8 108
Mirror Piece No.2 98 Audience Piece No.9 108
Mirror Piece No.2, Fluxversion I 98 Audience Piece No.10 108
Mirror Piece No.3 98 Audience Variation No.1 108
Shadow Piece No.3 98
Flash Piece 98 Wolf Vostell
Balance Poem 99 II Main Happening 109
Wind Music No.2 99 Circle II 109
Wind Music No.2, Fluxversion I 99 Circle III 109
Circles I and IV 110
A n n e Ta rd o s III Post Happening 111
Bean Snow (for Alison) 100
Tristan Tzara
Vaseline Symphonique, 1921 Fluxversion 101

10 f l u x w o r k b o o k f l u x w o r k b o o k 11
TV Event 112
Washroom 112 Kompo
Event:10 112 Conductor wraps his baton with paper
Event:10 112 and string. Performers wrap their
Event:13 113
Subway Event 113 instruments.
Street Car Variation 113 D AT E U N K N O W N

Fluxus Performance Workbook, ed. Ken Friedman, Owen Smith & Lauren Sawchyn, Performance Research e-Publications, 2002
Casual Event 113
Two Inches 113
Duet for Tuba 113
C/S Trace 113
C/S Trace 113
C/T Trace 113
F/H Trace 114
Trace 114
Christmas Event 114
Emmett Williams
The Gift of Tongues 115
In Unison 115
Ten Arrangements for Five Performers 115
Emotional Duet 115
Vocal Struggle for Dick Higgins 115
Song of Uncertain Length 115
Duet for Performer and Audience 115
For La Monte Young 116
Ten Arrangements for Five Performers 116
Counting Songs 116
Expedition 116
Supper 116
Piano Concerto for Paik No.2 116

12 f l u x w o r k b o o k f l u x w o r k b o o k 13
Eric Andersen continued


Dec. 11, 1963: Sit down from 7P M to
Opus 50
8:03P M (Danish Time) and think about the
Place the palms of your hands side by
people all over the world who may be
side on this piece of paper. After a short
performing this.
time; raise hands and place your eyes at 1961
the same level as the palms. Notice the

Fluxus Performance Workbook, ed. Ken Friedman, Owen Smith & Lauren Sawchyn, Performance Research e-Publications, 2002
possible and coincident unus multurom Opus 25
retardation in the situations. 1 Select some objects which address
etc. themselves to your acoustic imagination.
or something else 2 Play with them according to a
1964 predetermined system.
Opus 46
This sentence should not be read by more Opus 27
than one person at the same time. The frequency a’’’’ is played as a violin
1963 frequency for 30 seconds at intensity pp.
Each year which passes after the first of
Opus 9
April 1962 involves that the duration for
Let a person talk about his/her idea(s).
which the frequency is played is
lengthened by 5 seconds.
Opus 11 1961
An occurrence or part of an occurrence is
recorded and played back.
Opus 13
Do and/or don’t do something universally.
Opus 15
The following frequencies are played as
piano frequencies:
(all C’s simultaneously on the piano, etc.)
C - D flat - D - E flat - E - F - G flat - G -
A flat - A - B flat - B
Opus 17
1 Two persons are situated on the stage.
One of them pronounces the sound ‘A’.
2 (Optional) The person who started with
the sound ‘A’ is only allowed to pronounce
the sound ‘B’. The other person is only
allowed to pronounce the sound ‘C’.
3 The performance is finished when one
of the persons pronounces the sound ‘D’.
Opus 19
To call by opus and a number.
Opus 21
Announce ‘X.’
(Perform ‘X’)
Announce that [‘X’ or ‘Y’] took place in the
same period.

14 f l u x w o r k b o o k f l u x w o r k b o o k 15
Ay-O continued

AY-O Exit No.7

The audience must pass through a
Rainbow No.1 for Orchestra
vestibule with a floor sloped upward and
Soap bubbles are blown out of various
downward at about 30 degrees.
wind instruments. The conductor breaks D AT E U N K N O W N
the bubbles with his baton.
D AT E U N K N O W N Exit No.8

Fluxus Performance Workbook, ed. Ken Friedman, Owen Smith & Lauren Sawchyn, Performance Research e-Publications, 2002
The audience must pass through a
Rainbow No.1 for Orchestra,
Variation vestibule where the floor has been
Soap bubbles are blown out of various covered with inflated balloons prepared to
wind instruments. The conductor cuts the burst on contact.
bubbles with a samurai sword.

Rainbow No.2 for Orchestra

A totally inexperienced orchestra plays a 7
note major scale on various instruments.

Exit No.1
The audience must pass through a
vestibule that has been covered with
upward protruding nails except for a few
areas left open in the shape of footprints.

Exit No.2
The audience must pass through a
vestibule across which many ropes have
been stretched at knee height.

Exit No.3
The audience must pass through a
vestibule with a floor covered with foam
rubber impregnated with soap suds.

Exit No.4
The audience must pass through a
vestibule with a floor covered with

Exit No.5
The audience must pass through a
vestibule with a floor covered with wood
blocks of various shapes and sizes.

Exit No.6
The audience must pass through a
vestibule in which the ceiling has been
lowered to a height 2 feet (70 centimeters)
above the floor.

16 f l u x w o r k b o o k f l u x w o r k b o o k 17
Robert Bozzi continued

ROBERT BOZZI Choice 12, Variation

A piano or any other musical instrument
Choice 1
is hitched between two horses (oxen,
The performer enters the stage with a
elephants, tractors, etc.). These pull in
tied parcel, places it on a table, and opens
opposite directions until the instrument
it to take out a whipped cream cake with
breaks into two halves.
10 candles. He lights the candles, then

Fluxus Performance Workbook, ed. Ken Friedman, Owen Smith & Lauren Sawchyn, Performance Research e-Publications, 2002
blows them out. He picks up the cake,
shows it to the audience, then flings it into Choice 16
his own face. A piano is lifted by means of a windlass to
1966 the height of 2 meters and then dropped.
This is repeated until the piano or the
Choice 3
floor is destroyed.
A piano is on stage. The performer enters 1966
wearing a crash helmet. He takes a stage
position as far from the piano as possible. Choice 15
He lowers his head and dashes toward A performers executes the following
the piano at top speed, crashing into the actions in succession:
piano with helmeted head. 1 nails down the great cover of a piano;
1966 2 plays an extremely extended low note
3 strikes the keys with his fists
Choice 5
alternating 4 low note strikes with 4
Two pianists sit behind two pianos. They
high note strikes
depress the pedals and crash the pianos
4 nails down the keyboard cover
into each other several times.
5 lifts the end of the piano with the low
notes and lets it drop
Choice 8 6 kicks at the end of the piano with the
The performer enters with a violin case. high notes
He removes a violin and a saw from the 7 opens both of the piano covers with the
case. He saws the violin in half, places the claws of a hammer
pieces and the saw in the case, closes the 1966
cases, bows and exits.
Choice 18
Performers use mirrors to show the
Choice 9 audience to itself.
Two performers fight between themselves 1966
using two violins as if the violins were
Concerto #3
swords, axes or clubs.
On signal from the conductor, each
section of the orchestra performs one of
Choice 10 the following actions in unison:
Four performers are divided into two • turn heads from side to side
teams. They draw lots for one violin. The • stand up or sit down
winning team plays the violin while the • open or close mouths
other team tries to gain possession of it. • turn around
1966 • move arms and legs
Choice 12 • blow noses
Two teams of performers compete against • look at watches
each other by pushing a piano from • scratch in various spots.
opposite sides.

18 f l u x w o r k b o o k f l u x w o r k b o o k 19
Robert Bozzi continued Robert Bozzi continued

Music Piece for Erik Dietman A Piece for Chieko Shiomi

Orchestra members cover their Performer lets the following objects fall
instruments with bandages or adhesive from his hand in succession:
tape. 1 cigarette from horizontal outstretched
1966 arm in standing position
2 eraser from horizontal outstretched
Concerto #1

Fluxus Performance Workbook, ed. Ken Friedman, Owen Smith & Lauren Sawchyn, Performance Research e-Publications, 2002
arm in standing position
On signal from the conductors, each
3 hat from vertical outstretched arm in
section of the orchestra performs one of
standing position
the following actions in unison:
4 glass of water from horizontal
• tie or untie neckties
outstretched arm while standing on
• unbutton or button up shirt sleeves
stool or top of ladder
• roll up or roll down sleeves
5 airmail envelope from vertical
• comb hair
outstretched arm standing on a stool or
• brush clothes.
top of ladder.
Each movement should accelerate in
tempo and stop suddenly.
1966 A Piece for Chieko Shiomi, Variation
Performer lets the following fall:
In Memoriam to George Maciunas #2
1 spittle from prostrate position
Performers position themselves in a
2 ear wax from supine position
semi-circle. The first performer operates
3 mouthful of water from kneeling
a perfume nebulizer; the second, throat
nebulizer; the third, a fertilizer sprayer;
4 hat worn on back of head from
the fourth, an insecticide sprayer. Then
backward inclined standing position
operate the equipment toward the
5 dandruff from forward inclined standing
audience following a pattern determined
in advance.
1966 6 trousers from standing position
In Memoriam to George Maciunas #2,
Variation In Memoriam to George Maciunas #1
Equal numbers of performers wearing A performer in a bowler hat sits behind a
gas masks sit in teams opposite each table on which a metronome has been
other. A balloon is placed between the two placed with a nebulizer. The metronome is
groups. Performers operate various set at andante or 60. In time with the beat
sprayers such as perfume nebulizers, of the metronome, the performer
deodorant sprayers, disinfectants, alternately salutes the audience and
insecticide sprays, paint or any other sprays his own throat with the nebulizer.
sprayers in pressurized or hand-pumped 1966
devices. Sprayers are operated toward the
balloon. Each group tries to push the
balloon away from its side and over to the
other team. The piece ends when the
balloon reaches one group.

20 f l u x w o r k b o o k f l u x w o r k b o o k 21
George Brecht continued

GEORGE BRECHT Word Event, Fluxversion 1

The audience is instructed to leave the
Drip Music
For single or multiple performance. A 1961
source of dripping water and an empty
vessel are arranged so that the water falls Tea Event
into the vessel. preparing empty vessel

Fluxus Performance Workbook, ed. Ken Friedman, Owen Smith & Lauren Sawchyn, Performance Research e-Publications, 2002
1959 1961

Drip Music, Second Version Tea Event, Fluxversion 1

Dripping Distill tea in a still.
1959 1961

Drip Music, Fluxversion 1 Two Durations

First performer on a tall ladder pours red
water from a pitcher very slowly down into green
the bell of a French horn or tuba held in 1961
the playing position by a second Two Elimination Events
performer at floor level. empty vessel
empty vessel
Time-Table Event 1961
To occur in a railway station. Two Vehicle Events
A time table is obtained. A tabulated time start
indication is interpreted in minutes and stop
seconds (for example, 7:16 equals 7 1961
minutes and 16 seconds). This determines
the duration of the event. Three Aqueous Events
1961 ice
Word Event steam
Exit. 1961
Three Telephone Events
Incidental Music When the telephone rings, it is allowed to
Five piano pieces, any number of which continue ringing until it stops.
may be played in succession, When the telephone rings, the receiver is
simultaneously, in any order and lifted, then replaced.
combination, with one another or with When the telephone rings, it is answered.
other pieces. 1961
1 The piano seat is tilted on its base and
brought to rest against a part of the Three Lamp Events
piano. on. off.
2 Wooden blocks. A single block is placed lamp
inside the piano. A block is placed upon off. on.
this block, then a third upon the second, 1961
and so forth, one by one, until at least Three Window Events
one block falls from the column. opening a closed window
3 Photographing the piano situation. closing an open window
4 Three dried peas or beans are dropped, 1961
one after another, onto the keyboard.
Each such seed remaining on the Three Broom Events
keyboard is attached to the key or keys broom
nearest it with a single piece of sweeping
pressure-sensitive tape. broom sweepings
5 The piano seat is suitably arranged and
the performer seats himself.

22 f l u x w o r k b o o k f l u x w o r k b o o k 23
George Brecht continued George Brecht continued

Three Yellow Events Saxophone Solo

1 yellow yellow yellow Trumpet
2 yellow loud 1962
3 red
Saxophone Solo, Fluxversion 1
The piece is announced. Performer enters
Three Yellow Events, Fluxversion 1 stage with an instrument case, places it

Fluxus Performance Workbook, ed. Ken Friedman, Owen Smith & Lauren Sawchyn, Performance Research e-Publications, 2002
3 yellow slides are projected on a screen. on a stand, opens it and pulls out a
Pause. One yellow slide is projected and trumpet, realizes the mistake, puts it
then the projector falls down on the floor quickly back in the case and exits.
as the slide is removed. After the 1962
projector is returned to its place, a red
Solo for Violin, Viola or Contrabass
slide is projected.
String Quartet
Arrange to observe a sign indicating
shaking hands
direction of travel. 1962
Travel in the indicated direction.
Travel in another direction. 3 Piano Pieces
1961 standing
Turn on a radio. At the first sound, turn it 1962
1961 Piano Piece
No Smoking Event 1962
Arrange to observe a N O SMOKING sign.
smoking Dance Music
no smoking gunshot
1961 1962

Five Events Concert for Clarinet

eating with nearby
between two breaths 1962
sleep Concert for Clarinet, Fluxversion 1
wet hand Clarinet is suspended by a string tied to
several words its center so that it holds it in a horizontal
1961 position about 6 inches above the
Piano Piece performer’s mouth. Performer attempts
a vase of flowers on (to) a piano to play a note without using his hands. He
1962 should do this either by swinging the reed
end down or jumping up to it and catching
Organ Piece
the reed with his mouth.
organ 1962
Concert for Clarinet, Fluxvariation 2
Solo for Wind Instrument
A clarinet is positioned upright on the
(putting it down)
floor. Performer with a fishing pole, sitting
at a distance of a few feet should attempt
Flute Solo to hook, lift and bring to his mouth the
disassembling reed end of the clarinet.
assembling 1962
Concerto for Orchestra

24 f l u x w o r k b o o k f l u x w o r k b o o k 25
George Brecht continued George Brecht continued

Concerto for Orchestra, Fluxversion 1 music stands in front of the orchestra

Orchestra members exchange their members. As soon as the conductor
instruments. begins to turn the pages of his book,
1962 orchestra members start turning theirs.
The books are leafed through either at
Concerto for Orchestra, Fluxversion 2
different rates of speed or same rate of
Orchestra members exchange their

Fluxus Performance Workbook, ed. Ken Friedman, Owen Smith & Lauren Sawchyn, Performance Research e-Publications, 2002
speed, but all are turned to the last page.
Symphony No.3
Concerto for Orchestra, Fluxversion 3
at three
The orchestra is divided into two teams,
from the tree
winds and strings, sitting in opposing
all night
rows. Wind instruments must be prepared
at home
so as to be able to shoot out peas. This
on the floor
can be accomplished by inserting a long,
the yellow ball
narrow tube into wind instruments. String
in the water
instruments are strung with rubber bands
which are used to shoot paper missiles.
Performers must hit a performer on the Symphony No.3, Fluxversion 1
opposite team with a missile. A performer (on the floor)
hit three times must leave the stage. Orchestra members sit down on the very
Missiles are exchanged until all forward edge of the chair and hold
performers on one side are gone. instruments in ready position. Upon signal
Conductor acts as referee. from the conductor, all players slide
1962 forward and fall smoothly off their chairs
in unison.
A smooth linear transition from white
noise to sinus wave tone is broadcast. Octet for Winds
Title is announced at beginning and at Equal number of performers seat
end, but at end, title is announced by a themselves opposite each other. A large
tape played backward. pan of water is placed between the two
1962 groups and a toy sailboat is placed on the
water. Performers blow their wind
Symphony No.1
instruments at the sail of the boat
Through a hole.
1962 pushing it to the opposing group. Both
groups try to blow the boat away from
Symphony No.1, Fluxversion 1 themselves and toward the other group. If
Performers position themselves behind a possible, all performers should play some
full size photo of another orchestra and popular tune while blowing on the sail.
insert arms through holes cut in the Piece ends when the boat reaches one
photo at the shoulders of the end or the other of the pan.
photographic musicians. Performers may 1964
hold instruments in the conventional way
For a Drummer (for Eric)
and attempt to play an old favorite. In
Drum on something you have never
case of wind instruments, holes must be
drummed on before.
cut at mouths of photographic musicians.
1962 Drum with something you have never
drummed with before.
Symphony No.2 1966
1962 Event Score
Arrange or discover an event. Score and
Symphony No.2, Fluxversion 1 then realize it.
Thick score books are positioned on 1966
Symphony No.4

26 f l u x w o r k b o o k f l u x w o r k b o o k 27
George Brecht continued

Symphony No.5 DON BOYD

I before hearing
A Performance Calendar (for El
II hearing Djerrida)
III after hearing For whom? Anyone.
When? Anytime.
Symphony No.6 JANUARY Obey all laws 30 days. One day disobey

Fluxus Performance Workbook, ed. Ken Friedman, Owen Smith & Lauren Sawchyn, Performance Research e-Publications, 2002
the music of dreams one law.
dream music FEBRUARY Make a work with the fewest elements
Second version: dream. possible. One item?
1966 MARCH Watch the clouds on a sunny day for 10
Symphony No.6, Fluxversion 2
APRIL Watch some kind of insect for 10 minutes.
Second version: dream.
MAY Take a book and a pen. (An old-fashioned
Event Score
ink pen). Sit in the woods for 30 minutes
Arrange or discover an event.
watching and listening. Write of what you
Score and then realize it.
see and feel and hear.
JUNE Find a sheep. Watch it 30 minutes.
For a Drummer, Fluxversion 1 JULY Find a wolf. Watch it 30 minutes.
Performer drums with drum sticks or AUGUST Write a letter to the IRS (Internal Revenue
drum brushes over the surface of wet Service or the equivalent income tax
mud or thick glue until brushes or sticks authority where you live), explaining how
get stuck and can’t be lifted. difficult it is to achieve lofty drynesS .
1966 SEPTEMBER Make a list of your four favorite books.
For a Drummer, Fluxversion 2 Send it to me.
Performer drums with sticks over a OCTOBER Make your favorite dish of food. Send me
leaking feather pillow making the feathers the recipe.
escape the pillow. NOVEMBER Go somewhere and watch it snow. Sit with
1966 a friend. Drink hot tea.
DECEMBER Give something you treasure to another
For a Drummer, Fluxversion 3 person.
Performer drums over drum with 2 ends 1989
of slightly leaky water hose.
For a Drummer, Fluxversion 4
Performer drums over drum with rolled
newspapers until the rolls disintegrate.
For a Drummer, Fluxversion 5
Performer dribbles a ping-pong ball
between a hand-held racket and drum
For a Drummer, Fluxversion 6
Performer drums with mallets or
hammers on a helmet worn by another
For a Drummer, Fluxversion 7
Performer drums with brushes inside a
vessel filled with cream until cream is

28 f l u x w o r k b o o k f l u x w o r k b o o k 29
Audience Eve Tactical Pieces for Orchestra
In the evening, during the performances: The orchestra is divided into teams,
. . . . . . . . . winds, and strings, sitting in opposing
. . . . . . . . . rows. Wind instruments must be prepared
. . . . . . . . . to be able to shoot out peas. This can be

Fluxus Performance Workbook, ed. Ken Friedman, Owen Smith & Lauren Sawchyn, Performance Research e-Publications, 2002
after 5 min. turn off the light accomplished by inserting a long narrow
after 5 min. turn on the light tube into wind instrument. String
after 5 min. turn off the light instruments are strung with rubber bands
after 5 min. turn on the light which are used to shoot out paper V
after 5 min. turn off the light missiles. Tubes, peas, rubber bands and
after 5 min. turn on the light paper missiles will be provided during the
continue through the whole program. rehearsal to those who did not prepare
. . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . their instruments in advance, but
. . . . . . . . . performers are advised to prepare their
If possible, then fade the light in and out, instruments in advance and practice
as beautiful as possible. (like the sea) shooting at home to improve their aim.
1964 In this piece, the performers are required
to hit a performer of opposite team with a
Dialectical Evolution V missile. If a performer is hit he must exit.
Record new sound for each 10 sec. Play The conductor will act as a referee.
the tape D AT E U N K N O W N
The duration of each sound; lesser that lo
sec. 10 sec. from the beginning of sound
to the beginning of new sound.
Duration: At least 6 min.
Pedagogy: To know is to believe in time,
exact time. To do is to spoil time, exact

Sonate for Piano (1)

1. movement
Sit before the piano, absorbed in
deepest meditation. Get down on all fours.
Now crawl around each of the legs of the
piano. Painstakingly.
2. movement
Sit before the piano, absorbed in
deepest meditation. Put your right hand
on the piano-lid. Now hop, (like a rabbit)
as gracefully as possible, around the
piano, to your left.
3. movement
Sit before the piano, absorbed in
deepest meditation. Now dash to the right
around the piano, as quickly as possible.
Turn the piano over as you pass it.
Bowing, receive the ovations from the

30 f l u x w o r k b o o k f l u x w o r k b o o k 31
Music for My Son Bonjour M’sieurs Dames
Do not prepare for (2 Performers)
the performance and With the use of a vacuum cleaner, a
even try to forget that performer takes up the hat of the other
in a short time you will be who salutes the audience with: ‘Bonjour

Fluxus Performance Workbook, ed. Ken Friedman, Owen Smith & Lauren Sawchyn, Performance Research e-Publications, 2002
performing. When the time of the M’sieurs Dames’.
performance comes, simply do something D AT E U N K N O W N

appropriate. Achoo
With the use of a vacuum cleaner, which
Music for Wise Men in this occasion blows out instead of
Commit suicide. sucking in, a performer envelopes the
D AT E U N K N O W N audience with a small cloud made from
three ounces of finely ground pepper.
Opus 1 D AT E U N K N O W N
One or more persons
do, sense, and/or think. Bye-Bye
D AT E U N K N O W N With the use of a vacuum cleaner, which
in this occasion blows out instead of
sucking in, a performer smothers the
audience with a large cloud made from
one pound of very finely ground pepper.
(Previsions: Nostrils stinging, eyes
streaming, peppery tempers rising, the
people will flee the house in less than 3
minutes flat).

32 f l u x w o r k b o o k f l u x w o r k b o o k 33
Ice Cream Piece Possible Flux Performances or
Performer buys an ice cream cone and Postfluxgames
then (a) eats it, or (b) gives it to a Undress someones and kiss the navel of
stranger, or his/her body.
(c) waits until it melts completely, then Take a balloon. Blow. Let it go. Say:

Fluxus Performance Workbook, ed. Ken Friedman, Owen Smith & Lauren Sawchyn, Performance Research e-Publications, 2002
eats the cone, or (d) on finishing the ‘Goodbye’!!!
piece, buys another ice cream cone. Take a rose. cut off the thorns. Give it to
1966 someone!!
Take lipstick, do your lips and kiss a bald
Piece for George Brecht
Enter the Sistine Chapel by the nether
Undress someone and put lipstick on
his/her buttocks!!
Survey the ceiling on the lintel.
Ask a child to dance with you. 1 minute.
Exit by the other door.
Ask a young woman/man to dance with
Fluxus Piece for G.M. 1 minute.
2 events are advertised at 2 adjacent Ask a middle-aged person to dance with
locations. Audience is brought into the you. 1 minute
same hall by separate entrances. The Ask an old woman to dance with you.
audiences are separated from each other 1 minute.
by a curtain. For the performance, the Dance with yourself. 1 minute.
curtain is raised. Blow a balloon. Take a child’s hand. Give it
D AT E U N K N O W N a kiss and S M I L E .
S L I M E game: ask two persons to wrestle in
Piece for Ben Patterson
mud with two lipsticks; the first one who
Construct a piano with the treble on the
has a lipstick mark on his nose is the
left ascending to the bass on the right.
Play all the old favorite classics.
Light a candle! Go the the nearest café
and wait for the GOdot!
Clothespin Piece Put a stamp on your head and deliver
Performers inconspicuously attach yourself to the nearest museum. If you
spring-type clothes pins to various objects are not accepted, Take a shower. Light a
in the street. candle and start dieting!
D AT E U N K N O W N 1987
Concerto for Solo Piano and
Performer removes a different item from
himself for each of the 88 notes: top hat,
tie, shoe laces, pen, handkerchief, etc.

34 f l u x w o r k b o o k f l u x w o r k b o o k 35
Tumbleweed Event Roy Rogers Event
Roll out white paper down the center of a 1 Girl comes out
room. Weight it down with stones. Set an 2 The pleasures of ventilation; also, Roy
electric fan at each end and play Rogers
tumbleweed balls back and forth. Roll 3 Backhand serve

Fluxus Performance Workbook, ed. Ken Friedman, Owen Smith & Lauren Sawchyn, Performance Research e-Publications, 2002
white balls back and forth. Roll and Forward Roll
bounce tennis balls dipped in red, yellow, 4 no event number 4
and blue paint. Cover with white paint. 5 Seven Roy Rogerses
Play tumbleweed back and forth. 6 Six month tour of the Gaspe Peninsula
1964 7 Fifteen eggs
8 Superimpostion of numbers 2 and 6
Breakfast Event
9 Sweat
Stueben glass waffles, served with piping
10 Superimpostion of number 3 and a
hot grade AA Vermont maple syrup.
1964 Donne sonnet
11 Ornate death of Roy Rogers
Milk Festival 1969
1st day Buy a quart of milk
Thank You Piece
2nd day Buy a quart of milk in Canada
Thank you
(Imperial quart)
Thank you
3rd day Make up a quart of milk from
Thank you
skimmed milk powder, water,and
Thank you
one ice cube
Thank you
4th day Dilute enough evaporated milk to
Thank you
make one quart
Thank you
5th day Dilute sweetened, condensed
Thank you
milk enough to make one quart
Thank you
6th day Express a quart of milk
Thank you
7th day Milk a cow: one quart
1966 Thank you
Thank you
Become Invisible Thank you
a) by hiding Thank you
b) by divesting yourself of all Thank you
distinguishing marks politeness is N O crime
c) by going away D AT E U N K N O W N
d) by sinking through the floor
Breaking Event
e) by becoming someone else
(in memoriam Robert Watts)
f) by concentrating so hard on some
Table of objects (some breakable, e.g.
object or idea that you cease to be
eggs, plastic toys, crystal goblets, etc.,
aware of your physical presence
some unbreakable, e.g. rubber objects,
g) by distracting everybody else from your
stones, etc.)
physical presence
Blinded performers (eyes closed or
h) by ceasing to exist
blindfolded) positioned at table, armed
with hammers.
Audience blindfolded or told to close eyes
once performers are postioned.
Conductor counts down from three; at
zero, performers bring hammers down
forcibly but only once, not repeatedly.
Everyone opens eyes or removes

36 f l u x w o r k b o o k f l u x w o r k b o o k 37
Peter Frank continued

Paradigm (for Dick Higgins) KEN FRIEDMAN

Locate an object, not spatially isolated
Fruit Sonata
from other objects of its kind nor different
Play baseball with a fruit.
from them in any significant way, and
designate it the current existing model for
all such objects. Whoop Event

Fluxus Performance Workbook, ed. Ken Friedman, Owen Smith & Lauren Sawchyn, Performance Research e-Publications, 2002
Observe how the distinctiveness of that Everyone runs in a large circle,
object emerges under these conditions. accompanied by a strong rhythm. On
1983 every beat, all whoop or yell in unison.
May also jump or raise arms to mark
Restaurant Event
Dress as badly as possible. Wear surplus
store clothes, tattered shoes, and an old
hat. Go to an elegant restaurant. Behave
with dignity and exquisite manners.
Request a fine table. Tip the maitre d’ well
and take a seat. Order a glass of water.
Drink the water. Tip the waiters, busboy,
and staff lavishly, then leave.
Christmas Tree Event
Take a Christmas tree into a restaurant.
Place the tree in a seat next to you. Order
two cups of coffee, placing one in front of
the tree. Sit with the tree, drinking coffee
and talking. After a while, depart, leaving
the tree in its seat. As you leave, call out
loudly to the tree, ‘So long, Herb. Give my
love to the wife and kids!’
Someone sneezes.
A year later, send a postcard reading,
Conduct a large crowd of people to the
house of a stranger. Knock on the door.
When someone opens the door, the crowd
applauds and cheers vigorously.
All depart silently.
Zen is When
A placement.
A fragment of time identified.
Brief choreography.

38 f l u x w o r k b o o k f l u x w o r k b o o k 39
Ken Friedman continued Ken Friedman continued

Fly By Night Event between 1 and 10 inclusive. He asks every

During the heavy fly season, kill as many member of the audience to think of a
flies as possible in one night. sound. He asks every member of the
1965 audience to think of an action that can be
performed while standing up at their
Webster’s Dictionary
A series of dictionary definitions inscribed

Fluxus Performance Workbook, ed. Ken Friedman, Owen Smith & Lauren Sawchyn, Performance Research e-Publications, 2002
It is explained that the piece is a simple,
on sidewalks and walls in public places.
1965 binary (on-off) process: when a member
of the audience sees his chosen number
Edison’s Lighthouse on stage, he stands, makes his noise, and
Create a passage with facing mirrors. performs his action. This continues as
Place candles in front of each mirror. Vary long as the number is visible. When the
the nature and intensity of light by varying number goes down again, he sits in his
the number and placement of the place and makes no sound.
candles. The conductor conducts the performers in
1965 displaying their numbers, using different
Fluxus Instant Theater timings, combinations, and sequences.
Rescore Fluxus events for performance by The audience performs the piece by
the audience. A conductor may conduct following the numbers in sounds and
the audience-performers. actions.
1966 1966

Stage Reversal Mandatory Happening

Go on stage naked, covered with paint. You will decide to read or not read this
Wash. instruction.
Dress and leave stage. Having made your decision, the happening
1966 is over.
1 Buy a large basket of lemons. Fluxus Television
2 Place the lemons Paint shows and images on the glass
3 Throw the lemons. screens of television sets.
1966 1966

Zen Vaudeville Orchestra

The sound of one shoe tapping. The entire orchestra plays phonographs.
1966 The orchestra tries to play a well-known
classical masterwork. Instead of an
Fruit in Three Acts instrument, every member of the
1 A peach. orchestra has a phonograph. Some of the
2 A watermelon. ways this can be performed are:
3 A pear. 1. All have some recording. All try to start
1966 at same time. 2. Each has different
Cardmusic for Audience recording or version of piece. All try to
Ten performers carry large cards marked start at the same time. 3. Different
with huge numerals, 1 through 10. They sections of the orchestra are given
stand on stage facing an audience. They different passage to play, rotating through
hold the cards so that when their arms entire piece in sequences. 4. Each
are down, the audience sees the blank member of the orchestra starts and stops
backs of the cards, and when they raise playing different sections of the recording
their arms, the cards are above their at will.
heads with numbers showing to the 1967
The conductor asks every member of the
audience to pick one of the numbers

40 f l u x w o r k b o o k f l u x w o r k b o o k 41
Ken Friedman continued Ken Friedman continued

Empaquetage pour Christo Stamp Act

A modest object is wrapped. A nude model is entirely stamped with
1967 images generated by rubber stamps.
Twenty Gallons
Cook soup for the entire audience. Variation for Food and Piano
Serve it. A piano is prepared with food.

Fluxus Performance Workbook, ed. Ken Friedman, Owen Smith & Lauren Sawchyn, Performance Research e-Publications, 2002
1967 (The piano may be played.)
Homage to Mike McKinlay
Eat hot peppers and pickled foods of a Dance Class
spicy nature. Learn Norwegian. Visit Italy.
1968 1985
Unfinished Symphony Explaining Fluxus
Eat hot peppers and pickled foods of a Explain Fluxus in five minutes or less,
spicy nature. using a few simple props.
1968 1986
Telephone Clock Finland, Wake Up!
Telephone someone. Announce the time. (for Jaana Kortelainen)
1967 Arrange a performance of Jan Sibelius’s
symphony, Finlandia, orchestrated for 120
Homage to Christo
tubas and 80 kettle drums.
Something is unwrapped. 1987
Homage to Mahler
Boxing Day
A symphony is performed. The different
Prepare boxes, at least 100, of many
sections of the orchestra march on and
different kinds: wood, paper, cardboard,
off stage as they perform.
plexiglass, metal, colored, painted, plain, 1989
etc. Fill some gifts. Leave some empty.
Give them all away –on the street, to Viking Event
homes, by mail, at a concert, etc. Performers enter from stage right and
1968 stage left. Each stands at the far edge of
the stage. One shouts, ‘Hail, Ragnar!’ The
Heat Transfer Event
other shouts back, ‘Hail, Einar!’
Glasses: one filled with ice water, one 1989
with boiling tea, one or more empty
glasses. Liquids are transferred from Fluxus is Dead
glass to glass until the tea is cooled to Send someone the smallest sculpture you
drinking temperature. own.
1970 1989

White Duck Event For Christo

Sewn. Something is wrapped in the most
Glued. humble way.
Bound. 1989
1970 Interpretation Game
Loss Play a game for one day. Imagine that
Lose tools or useful objects. everything you say or read or hear
1971 happens exactly as it is expressed in
On a Jungle Path 1989
A gate is built.
Songs are sung. Neck Tie Party
Performer passes through gate. Borrow an ugly necktie from a friend. Give
1972 it to another friend.
F I R S T R E A L I Z E D I N O S L O , N O R W A Y.

42 f l u x w o r k b o o k f l u x w o r k b o o k 43
Ken Friedman continued Ken Friedman continued

Theater Exercise performers will dance in new boots or

Stage a play in which the actors carry all new men’s black dress shoes. Even the
scenery with them. They must construct women will wear men’s shoes. If the
and take down scenery and stage dance is performed more than once, use
materials while they play is in progress. completely new shoes or boots for every
1989 concert.

Fluxus Performance Workbook, ed. Ken Friedman, Owen Smith & Lauren Sawchyn, Performance Research e-Publications, 2002
Two Second Encore
The performer walks out on stage, looks Selection Event
at the audience sincerely and Prior to the performance, the director
passionately, crying out the words ‘O-din! selects music and a kind of dancing. The
O-din!’ The performer’s own national music is played through once for the cast.
accent should be prominent. The cast is invited to conceive of a kind of
1989 dance they will perform to the music after
only one hearing. No rehearsal takes
White Tooth Workshop
Brush your teeth using a different
At the time of the performance, a large
toothbrush for each tooth.
1989 paper screen is stretched across the
stage or the front of the hall so that when
Exhibition performers stand behind it, only their
Arrange an exhibition where a curtain calves and feet are visible. All the male
conceals each work of art. Next to the performers stand behind the screen.
curtain is posted the description of the A female performer is selected by some
piece. On payment of a fee, an attendant arbitrary method. The female performer
pulls the curtain aside to display the selects her dance partner by choosing the
work. After the viewer has finished pair of feet that she likes best. The two
examining the work, the curtain is performers dance together to the music.
replaced. 1991
The fee may be the same for all works, or
Stage Fright Event
it may vary according to size of work,
Wear a costume that covers almost all of
fame of work, market value of work,
the body from the top of the head to the
insurance value of work, etc.
1991 knees. Only the legs from the knees down
should be visible. Examples of the
Fluxus Balance Piece for Mieko costume: a large, broad-brimmed hat, a
Shiomi scarf, a huge sweater with a very high
A bowl of water is placed on one side of a neck, and a bulky wool skirt; or, a bundle
balance. The bowl is filled with water of layered wool blankets; or, a specially
exactly equal in weight to whatever is on sewn sack with holes cut for the hands
the other side of the balance. and legs. The audience may not see the
1991 performer and the performer may not see
Marching Band the audience.
A marching band carries its instruments Walk out on stage or into the hall, moving
and sings or hums the music. about slowly during the allocated time. At
1991 the end of the time, two or three cast
members come out to guide the
New Shoes Dance Theater performer off.
Organize a short dance piece. Create This may be performed as a solo, or it
choreography to be danced to any normal may be performed by several or many
classical or modern music. Rehearse in performers who will slowly bump into
traditional dance costume or leotards. each other or the audience as they move
For the public presentation of this work, through the piece. Music may be played,
clothing will be the same as at the or the event may take place in silence.
rehearsal. There will be one change: all 1991

44 f l u x w o r k b o o k f l u x w o r k b o o k 45
Ken Friedman continued Ken Friedman continued

Bartholomew in Munich Magic Trick #7

Green glass bottles and clear glass Walk on stage with a big sheet of paper
bottles. Fill the clear bottle with plaster of and a magician’s hat. Hold the paper up
Paris. Fill the green bottle with salt. to the audience to show that it has been
Display on a small wooden shelf. painted or printed with the word F LU X U S .
1992 Tear the paper into pieces and drop them

Fluxus Performance Workbook, ed. Ken Friedman, Owen Smith & Lauren Sawchyn, Performance Research e-Publications, 2002
into the hat. Shake them.
Bird Call
Reach into the hat and pull out a large
Make a telephone call to a bird. If you do
cloth that reads, TH E E N D .
not know a bird who has a telephone,
make a telephone call in which you make
bird noises.
Family Planning Event
Get pregnant for 18 months and have
Folk Dance
The dancers perform a traditional folk
dance while dancing on stilts. If there are
several dancers and some feel avant-
garde, they may use stilts of a different
height than the other dancers.
The History of Fluxus
Take a plain wooden table with no metal
or plastic surfaces. Paint the table white.
Use white-wash or a flat white paint.
Prepare a dull surface, not glossy. Place
two black shoes on the table. If you use a
small table, place the shoes slightly off
center toward a corner. If you use a large
table, place the shoes closer to the corner
than to the center.
Fill the left shoe with white table sugar.
Fill the right shoe with sea salt. If you
wish, you may polish the shoes from time
to time.
Magic Trick #2
Walk on stage with a sledge hammer, an
egg and a small tape recorder. Place the
egg on one side of the stage. Place the
tape recorder on the opposite side of the
stage. Turn the recorder on in the
playback mode. Walk back to the egg.
Pick up the hammer. Raise it high. Wait 30
seconds and smash the egg. Stand and
After 15 seconds, the tape recorder plays
the noise of a chicken.

46 f l u x w o r k b o o k f l u x w o r k b o o k 47
Fall Street Car Event
Throw things that are difficult to throw A long string is prepared with various
because of their light weight. everyday objects attached to it at
D AT E U N K N O W N intervals. The objects include such things
as: hats, shoes, underwear, toothbrushes,

Fluxus Performance Workbook, ed. Ken Friedman, Owen Smith & Lauren Sawchyn, Performance Research e-Publications, 2002
Ice Trick
hammers, cans of soup, books, household
Pass a one pound piece of ice among
tools, cups, phonograph records, etc. The
members of the audience while playing a
string is laid out on the street
recording of fire sounds or while having a
continuously from a moving street car.
real fire on stage. The piece ends when
the block of ice has melted.
D AT E U N K N O W N Hotel Event
A hotel room is set up as a clinic where
First Performance
various measurements are taken for each
Performer enters, bows, then exits. This
visitor. Examples are: head volume, mouth
is executed once for every member of the
capacity, difference between shoe and foot
length, finger strength, saliva production,
length of extended tongue, inflated cheek
width, distance from thumb at the end of
outstretched arm to nose, distance
between nipples, distance between finger-
tips of outstretched arms, length of penis
(flaccid), length of penis (erect), depth of
vagina, circumference of body at key
points (head, neck, shoulders, chest,
waist, hips, knees, ankles, elbows, wrists),
amount of air filling a balloon as inhaled
and expelled in one breath, amount of
liquid swallowed in one draught, etc.
Visitors to the event must perform various
feats or events before admission to the

Street Cleaning Event

Performers are dressed in white coats
like laboratory technicians. They go to a
selected location in the city. An area of a
sidewalk is designated for the event. This
area of sidewalk is cleaned very
thoroughly with various devices not
usually used in street cleaning, such as:
dental tools, toothbrushes, steel wool,
cotton balls with alcohol, cotton swabs,
surgeon’s sponges, tooth picks, linen
napkins, etc.

48 f l u x w o r k b o o k f l u x w o r k b o o k 49
Dick Higgins continued

DICK HIGGINS Danger Music Number Thirty-Three

(for Henning Christiansen)
Danger Music Number One Have a ball show.
Spontaneously catch hold of a hoist hook M AY 1963
and be raised up at least three stories.
APRIL 1961 Judgment for String and Brass
A brass musical instrument, string, and a

Fluxus Performance Workbook, ed. Ken Friedman, Owen Smith & Lauren Sawchyn, Performance Research e-Publications, 2002
Danger Music Number Two performer are required for this piece.
Hat. Rags. Paper. Heave. Shave. The performer slowly wraps the brass
M AY 1961 instrument in the string, exercising the
Danger Music Number Nine greatest economy of movement.
(for Nam June Paik) SPRING 1963
Volunteer to have your spine removed. Anger Song #6 (‘Smash’)
1 Inviting the people to come free, if they
Danger Music Number Eleven bring whistles and hammers.
(for George) 2 Arraying and hanging as many
Change your mind repeatedly in a lyrical breakable images around the room as
manner about Roman Catholicism possible — fine bottles, decanters,
FEBRUARY 1962 flower pots and vases, busts of Wagner,
Danger Music Number Twelve religious sculptures, etc.
Write a thousand symphonies. 3 When they come, explaining the rules:
MARCH 1962 a) They surround the ringleader. b) He
turns, ad lib. c) When he has his back to
Danger Music Number Fourteen anyone, this person is as silent as
From a magnetic tape with anything on it, possible. d) When he has his side to
remove a predetermined length of tape. anyone, this person blows his whistle
Splice the ends of this length together to repeatedly, not too loud. e) When he
form a loop, then insert one side of the faces anyone, this person blows his
loop into a tape recorder, and hook the whistle as loudly and violently as
other side over an insulated nail, hook, possible. f) When he actually looks into
pencil or other similar object, to hold the anyone’s face, this person smashes an
tape and to provide the minimum of slack image with his hammer.
needed for playing of the loop. Play the 4 Continuing from beginning until all of
loop as long as useful. the images are smashed.
M AY 1962 SUMMER 1966
Danger Music Number Fifteen From Twelve Lectures about the
(for the Dance) Same Thing or Bartenders Who have
Work with butter and eggs for a time. no Wings
M AY 1962 Act Three
Danger Music Number Seventeen A cigar store. An Apollo emerges from
Scream! Scream! Scream! Scream! behind the counter. He says, ‘I am not
Scream! Scream! really an APOLLO.’
M AY 1962 Act Six
A very pretty naked girl. After a time she
Danger Music Number Twenty-Nine
notices that she is naked and is
Get a job for its own sake.
somewhat embarrassed.
MARCH 1963
Act Seven
Danger Music Number Thirty-One A man with a Belgian flag, a woman with
Liberty and committee work! a Greek flag, and a man with a Guyanese
MARCH 1963 flag. The man with the Belgian flag says,
Danger Music Number Thirty-One ‘This is not a Cuban flag.’ The woman with
(for George Maciunas) the Greek flag says, ‘This is not a
Do not abide by your decision. Guyanese flag.’ The man with the
APRIL 1, 1963 Guyanese flag says, ‘I am not French.’
M AY 31, 1966

50 f l u x w o r k b o o k f l u x w o r k b o o k 51
Dick Higgins continued

Constellation Number 4 DAVI DET HOMPSON

A sound is made. The sound is to have a
clearly-defined percussive attack and
Arrange nine crackers on a table.Ask
decay (such as produced by plucking
someone to choose the most beautiful
strings, hitting gongs, bells, helmets or
cracker from the grouping.Smash the
tubes). Each performer produces his
remaining crackers with your fist.

Fluxus Performance Workbook, ed. Ken Friedman, Owen Smith & Lauren Sawchyn, Performance Research e-Publications, 2002
sound efficiently and almost
simultaneously with other performers’
sounds. Each sound is produced only Lessons
once. Telephone a random number and ask for
D AT E U N K N O W N the name of the person who answers.
Telephone a known number and ask for
the name obtained from the first call.
List the difference, in cubic inches,
between you bed and your tub.
List the difference, in square inches,
between your porch and bathroom floors.
Sixty two and sixty two and sixty two is
one hundred eighty six.
A yellow cab under a red flag over a blue
There’s Music in My Shoes
Place a wet bar of soap in the center of a
room. Listen for someone to fall.

52 f l u x w o r k b o o k f l u x w o r k b o o k 53
Music for Piano No.5, Fluxvariation Duet for Brass Instruments
An upright piano is positioned at center Rubber gloves are placed over bells of
stage with its profile toward the audience. brass instruments and tucked inside Two
The pedal is fixed in a depressed position. performers play duet while gloves emerge
A performer, hidden from view in the from instruments and expand. Variation

Fluxus Performance Workbook, ed. Ken Friedman, Owen Smith & Lauren Sawchyn, Performance Research e-Publications, 2002
wings, throws darts into the back of the may be performed using inflatable leg.
piano according to the time pattern D AT E U N K N O W N
indicated in the score.
Piece for Winds
A rubber inflatable glove or leg is
stretched over the rim of the instrument
and stuffed inside the bell. Performer
blows into instrument inflating the glove
or leg, making it emerge slowly from the
bell. It expands slowly, finally shooting out
of the bell toward the audience.

Dog Symphony
Dogs are admitted to the audience. The
orchestra is equipped with dog whistles.
On signal from the conductor, the
whistles are blown and played while the
dogs bark.

Mechanical Orchestra
Self-playing, motor-operated reeds,
whistles, horns, violins, bells and gongs
play predetermined, dynamically variable
and continuous tones for a determined
length of time.

54 f l u x w o r k b o o k f l u x w o r k b o o k 55
Bengt af Klintberg continued

BENGT AF KLINTBERG a healthy, even rubicund look. In the

middle of the floor, a big ice block is
Food Piece for Dick Higgins
slowly melting.
A rich variety of food has been placed on a
Act Two
table. The performer starts to take food
Soft-boiled eggs and paper plates.
and put it in his mouth, but he drops the
food to the floor the same moment it Act Three

Fluxus Performance Workbook, ed. Ken Friedman, Owen Smith & Lauren Sawchyn, Performance Research e-Publications, 2002
touches his lips. He takes as much food Same as act one, but in the evening. The
as in a regular meal, but when he has whole stage seems to have turned slightly
finished all food is on the floor in front of to the left. Moonlight strains in through
him. branch-holes and key-holes. On the
1963 Christmas tree a dying candle is dripping.
Some springs have shot up through the
Dog Event sofa cover, the broken-off mustache tip is
This piece can be performed in places clumsily mended with blue modeling clay.
where many persons have gathered, such In the distance, we hear an eighteen-shot
as openings of art exhibitions, cocktail salute, but on stage nothing happens.
parties or – preferably – dog exhibitions. 1960
The performers are divided into four
groups and circulate in the room. Their Lettuce Music for Sten Hanson
activities take place abruptly, without any The piece requires two performers, a
simultaneity, and do not last longer than head of lettuce on a music rack, a whistle
ten seconds. Afterwards they remain and a small charge of explosive.
passive for at least one minute before the Short signals on whistle.
activities are repeated. Head of lettuce explodes:
Group A lick people on their faces. A green rain. Long signal on whistle.
Group B smell people in their crotches 1963
Group C lay down in front of people and From Twenty-Five Orange Events
whine Orange Event Number 1
Group D bite down on their legs (for Kerstin Aurell)
APRIL 1966 Try to find out which musical instrument
Identification Exercise you would first connect with an orange.
Identify yourself with a graham cracker, a Play it, as long as you like. Or pretend to
gramophone, a granger, a grapefruit, a play it for the corresponding time.
grass-blade, a grave-digger, a Greek, a Orange Event Number 3
greenery, a grenade, a grindstone, a Peel an orange carefully and arrange pigs
gripsack, a grizzly, a groundnut, a grouse, in a row. Choose one of the pigs.
a grub-axe, a bandy team Orange Event Number 4
the Gulf Stream and a grunt Peel an orange carefully and place pigs
1966 here and there in the apartment. Eat
them when you happen to pass.
Orange Event Number 7
Act One
Eat an orange and at the same time,
The stage represents a room, which once
listen attentively: to sounds of chewing, of
was a hen-house, as can still be seen
sucking, of swallowing and external
from some equipment, hens, eggs, and
sounds that may occur.
hen-shit. The room is furnished in heavy
Empire style. In one corner are a shit- Orange Event Number 8
(for Pi Lind)
covered plastic bust of Bismarck with one
Eat an orange as if it were an apple. (Hold
mustache-tip broken off and a
it, unpeeled, between forefinger, middle
tremendously dry, brown Christmas tree
finger and thumb, bite big mouthfuls, etc.)
in the other corner, decorated with one
colored glass ball and some cardboard
angels. Behind a sofa, an organ is vaguely
visible, incessantly attacked by a boy with

56 f l u x w o r k b o o k f l u x w o r k b o o k 57
Bengt af Klintberg continued Bengt af Klintberg continued

Orange Event Number 10 2 Exhibitions

Use at the same time an orange and a 1 Ice
lemon, an orange and a die, an orange Some days after the break-up of the ice,
and a bucket, an orange and an apple, an one can find large ice sheets floating in
orange and a phonograph, an orange and the northern creeks of the lakes. Lifted up
a shoe, an orange and a tangerine, an in the air, these half-melted sheets will

Fluxus Performance Workbook, ed. Ken Friedman, Owen Smith & Lauren Sawchyn, Performance Research e-Publications, 2002
orange and an organ and a ski-track, or often show an extraordinary beauty. There
an apple and an umbrella. are holes in most of them, which makes it
Orange Event Number 12 possible to hang them on dry spruce-
(for Staffan Olzon) branches.
Fill all the drawers of a chest to the brim Go up one morning and decorate the
with oranges and depart for another part forest with ice and let the opening start
of the world. soon after. There should be a number for
Orange Event Number 15 each piece of ice. The opening guests are
For umbrella, orange and sewing- served sherry.
machine. 1965
Orange Event Number 16 2 Mold
(for Åke Hodell)
The hot summer is the best season. At
Regard two or three oranges for a long
various times one puts old pieces of bread
into a number of bread boxes in gay
Orange Event Number 17 colors. Let them stand with closed lids for
(for Folke Heybroek)
some time. Now and then one checks how
Leaning over a bridge parapet, look down
the mold is developing. At an interesting
into the water whirls of the Stockholm
and beautiful phase, one makes an
Stream. Between your two hands, roll an
exhibition. Have a number for each box.
orange so that the peel becomes soft and
Instead of sherry, serve vin rosé.
will easily come loose from the orange. 1963
Quite often, you will hear the rattle of
trains that are passing over the railway Three Magic Events
bridge in the neighborhood. At certain Number 1
junctures you will also hear the bells of at (to make a couple enemies)
least three churches ringing. When these Take an egg and boil it hard and write a
two sounds reach you at the same time, couple’s names on it. Then cut the egg in
start peeling the orange and let the peels two pieces and give one of the halves to a
fall down into the water. dog and the other half to a cat.
Orange Event Number 20 Number 2
Paint an orange white and place it (against rats in the barn)
together with other oranges in a white When the first load of grain is carted in,
bowl. those who are standing in the barn ask:
Orange Event Number 21 ‘What are you bringing here?’
Roll an orange over a floor, covered with ‘We are bringing a load of cats!’
hens’ feathers. Now ask what the rats shall have to eat.
Orange Event Number 24 ‘Stone and bone and henbane-root.’
Stay for a long time in a room in which The first load is brought in during as dead
there is silence. Breathe silently, move silence.
silently if you move. At a time that you During the following loads one talks about
choose yourself, crack a nut. cats all the time.
Orange Event Number 25
Make a fruit salad of oranges and nuts
and serve it.

58 f l u x w o r k b o o k f l u x w o r k b o o k 59
Bengt af Klintberg continued Bengt af Klintberg continued

Number 3 development: from simple calls to very

(for white washes) complex calls. The piece is over when they
At the washing a person who comes in meet on the stage.
shall say:
‘I saw a swan.’ Calls, Canto 3
Then the clothes will be clean and white. Two persons, one standing on the south
side of a large lake — a least 1 kilometer

Fluxus Performance Workbook, ed. Ken Friedman, Owen Smith & Lauren Sawchyn, Performance Research e-Publications, 2002
On the other hand the whole wash
will be spoiled if he says: ‘I saw a raven.’ apart — the other standing on the north
1965 side of the lake, talk to each other.
(from Bengt af Klintberg’s Svenska Calls, Canto 4 (Hello-Chorus)
Trollformer) A party of about 100 persons walk out into
Streetcar Random a forest at sunrise, climb up to the
(music for any number of participants) treetops and call and sing a hello-chorus.
One used streetcar ticket is given to each
participant. On the cross-ruled ticket, Calls, Canto 5 (Telephone Call)
there are squares for day and hour, each Make a telephone call in a bathtub,
of which indicates one beat. The length of talking with you lower lip under the water
the beats is decided by each participant, surface and your upper lip over it. The
who also determines how he wants to piece requires a long telephone cord.
read the ticket: horizontally or vertically,
to the right or to the left. It is expedient Calls, Canto 6 (Letter)
that he keep to the chosen reading during Open an empty envelope with both hands
the whole performance. The uncut and talk loudly into it. Then close the
squares indicate pauses, the squares envelope quickly and post it to anyone
where the streetcar conductor has cut a whom it may concern.
round hole indicates one beat of sound. DECEMBER 1965 - JUNE 1966
The source of the sound is optional. The
Two Flag Events
piece is over when the last participant has
1. In Copenhagen (for Ibi)
become tired.
A big Danish flag is tacked to a wall.
Suggested sources of sound: symphony
Paint the white cross yellow.
orchestra; car horns.
1965 Drink a Tuborg (or a Carlsberg).
Paint the four red squares blue.
Calls (Cantos 1-6) 2. Demonstration
Calls, Canto 1 (If You Catch Sight of a Arrange a demonstration march with
Friend in the Distance) flags. If it is a sunny day with light blue
If you catch sight of a friend in the sky, the flags shall be light blue. If the sky
distance: go towards him calling out is white, the flags shall be white. Gray
loudly. Let the calls ring out. Answer his sky: gray flags.
calls. Develop the structures of his calls. DECEMBER 1965
Desirable development: from very simple
to very complex calls. Seven Forest Events
(Can be performed in public libraries, Forest Event Number 1 (Winter)
lecture halls, churches, central stations, Walk out into a forest when it is winter
civil service departments and in outdoor and decorate all the spruces with burning
places under an immense blue sky.) candles, flags, apples, glass balls and
tinsel strings.
Calls, Canto 2 Forest Event Number 2
(Stage Version of Canto 1) Walk out into a forest and wrap some
At the beginning of the piece one drab trees, or yourself, in tinsel.
performer stands in the left back corner, Forest Event Number 3
the other in the right back corner of the Climb up to a treetop with a saw. Saw
hall. Calling out loudly to each other, they through the whole tree-trunk from the top
advance toward the stage. Desirable right down to he root.

60 f l u x w o r k b o o k f l u x w o r k b o o k 61
Bengt af Klintberg continued

Forest Event Number 4 MILAN KNIZAK

(Danger Music for Henning Christiansen)
Climb up into a tree. Saw off the branch Fashion
you sit upon. Cut the coat along its entire length.
Wear each half separately.
Forest Event Number 5 (The
Lumberjacks’ and Pikers’ Union)

Fluxus Performance Workbook, ed. Ken Friedman, Owen Smith & Lauren Sawchyn, Performance Research e-Publications, 2002
‘Charlotte Moorman exchanged the Snowstorm No. 1
sandpaper for a wood-saw, but using that Paper gliders are distributed to an idle
sawing technique, she would have been and waiting audience.
sacked from the Lumberjacks’ and Pikers’ 1965
Snowstorm No. 2
Forest Event Number 6 A great quantity of paper flakes or
Walk out of your house. Walk to the forest. crushed expanded white polystyrene is
Walk into the forest. dumped from a rooftop during a windy
Forest Event Number 7 summer day.
When you walk into a forest, don’t forget 1965
to knock.
1966 Flour Game
At the same time every day, using the
Untitled Event same words, in the same store, for 100
Smear yourself and a blue satin umbrella days, you purchase 10 dkg. of flour
with ashes and apricot jam; embrace a (approximately 1/4 pound).
sleeping person. On 101st day, you buy 1 q. (200 pounds) of
1967 flour.
Event for an Unknown Person For the next 100 days, buy l0 dkg. (1/4
A love letter on a bicycle carrier. pounds) again. On 202nd day, buy 1 q. (200
1967 pounds) And again, and again, and again.
With the flour, mold a big cone. The one
Party Event
who makes the biggest cone is the winner.
Send invitations to all your friends – 1965
except one – with the following:
green party green clothes Cat
And to one person: Get a cat.
red party red clothes 1965
1967 Line
Plan Against Loneliness A line is drawn on the sidewalk with
Some yellow seats in all parks, squares chalk. The longest line wins.
and subway trains, where people who 1965
want to be talked to can sit down. Do this Glider
in every city all over the world. Fold a 2-yard paper bird (paper glider).
1967 1965
Make a list of all articles about 20 - 40
cm. large which are at your disposal. Also
make a small arrow or dart with a sharp
point. Mark some names of articles on
your list and attach the list, face down, to
a board. From a given distance, shoot your
arrow. Whose arrow pierces the marked
name of the objects, that person will wear
the object on his or her chest as jewelry
for the entire following day.

62 f l u x w o r k b o o k f l u x w o r k b o o k 63
Milan Knizak continued Milan Knizak continued

Game of Artist Cover

On the wall of your room, just under the Cover a large area with paper joined
ceiling, nail 100 small hooks spaced at together.
about 5 cm apart. Twist strings around 1965
them. To their ends, tie a fork, scissors,
A Week
shaver, candlestick, bottle, shoes, ladle,
1st day All your clothes should have

Fluxus Performance Workbook, ed. Ken Friedman, Owen Smith & Lauren Sawchyn, Performance Research e-Publications, 2002
clothes hanger with a jacket, etc., etc.
same color. Also underwear.
Create new arrangements (pictures) again
2nd day Keep silence all day long.
and again by pulling and shifting.
3rd day Look at your naked body in a
mirror for at least an hour. Do it
Aktual Clothes carefully.
Cut a circle into all parts of your clothing. 4th day
1965 5th day Sing or whistle the same tune all
day long without a pause.
Sunday Event
6th day Make a trip by train. Buy no
A broom (or some other thing) is tied to
the end of a string about 3 yards long.
7th day Walk all day long aimlessly
Then it is pulled behind all over the busy
through the city. The best is
streets on a Sunday.
1965 alone.
Walking Event
Marriage Ceremony
On a busy city avenue, draw a circle about
Everyone walks deep into the woods until
3m in diameter with chalk on the
they come to a clearing. They sit in a
sidewalk. Walk around the circle as long
circle with the couple in the center. They
as possible without stopping.
1965 are silent. Then the lovers stand and kiss.
They exchange gifts, which must not be
Smile Game bought.
Say hello to every pretty girl you meet. If They drink red wine from a goblet. Then
she replies with a smile, you get a point. everyone drinks red wine. In the center of
The one with the most points wins. the circle, they plant a tree, and, in a
1965 different place, they light a fire.
Confrontation No. 1 Everyone eats, drinks, talks and enjoys
Each participant wearing a paper cap themselves together.
tries to knock off with wood or toy sword Every third year the couple must visit this
the cap of another while defending place on their anniversary. Only the most
himself with own sword against the serious reasons must prevent them from
attempts of opponents. doing so.
1965 1967

Killing the Books Lying Ceremony

by shooting Blindfolded people lie on the ground for a
by burning long time.
by drowning 1968
by cutting
by gluing
by painting white, or red, or black
Lower an island one inch by removing one
inch of its top surface.

64 f l u x w o r k b o o k f l u x w o r k b o o k 65
Milan Knizak continued Milan Knizak continued

Wedding Ceremony Some of the Enforced Symbioses

An untouched, snow-covered plain. Do everything twice.
We walk round in a circle until our steps Hate everything twice.
form a ring in the snow. Bind together 2 thoughts, 2 white
Then we pour gasoline on the circle and surfaces, 2 fires, 3 cars, 3 stones, 3
light it. words, 3 people.

Fluxus Performance Workbook, ed. Ken Friedman, Owen Smith & Lauren Sawchyn, Performance Research e-Publications, 2002
Inside the fiery ring, I kiss her tenderly on Glue together breads, machines, clouds,
the nipples of both breasts. tastes.
Then we drink red wine: she first fills her Clothes for 2, for 3, for a crowd.
mouth, then slowly releases the wine into Etc..............
my mouth. Etc.
We color the snow around with the wine 1977
that remains.
White Process
In the night, before we begin to make mad
Stay 10 days in a white room with white
and biting love, we paint stars on each
furniture, white pictures, etc. Eat only
other’s bodies.
white food.
Drink only white drink. Wear only white
Secret Ceremony clothes. Read white books without black
People mutually (not in a vulgar fashion, letters. You may also paint white pictures,
but secretly, proudly, and with a desire to make white sculptures, amuse yourself by
please the other, to overwhelm him, bring making white things or simply playing
him nearer) shows him or her a part of with white things.
their body that normally remains hidden. Make your ideas white as well.
They may also exchange deep secrets. 1977
Anywhere in a beautiful and magic place
at a beautiful and magic time.
2/ water (a smell)
Tracks 3/feeling of a lightness in the belly
Tracks left by: (feeling of lightness in sex)
a stone 4/
clothes (left lying about, hanging up, on 5/ breaking a stone (to find its soul)
someone) 6/round square
wood (in a tree, on the ground, on a 1977
hand, etc.)
Material Events
The encounter of various materials. A
discussion between materials. A duel of
an automobile (on us, on a road, etc.)
man (his foot, bare, shod, the tracks left
Material wars.
by his activities, etc.)
Personification. Of anything whatsoever.
thoughts (of man, thoughts themselves)
The encounter between various areas of
words (on paper, in mouths, etc.)
existence. Encounter an encounter of
etc., etc.
living beings.
We may observe tracks, examine them, if 1977
possible photograph them, draw them,
paint them, etc., or simply be aware of Idea (Mental Image, Notion)
them. A given number of people, at a given,
1971-78 precisely determined time, think of a
given, precisely determined thing.
Some Mathematical Operations
Create a collective idea (mental image,
1) house + shout =
2) homeland + paper + swallowing =
Examples: think together about:
3) (eye – pencil) x glue =
a headache
4) breath x breath =
a handshake
6) soul

66 f l u x w o r k b o o k f l u x w o r k b o o k 67
Milan Knizak continued

the warmth of the sun ALISON KNOWLES

the note C
the flight of a bird
The performer or performers shuffle into
beauty independent of objects and
the performance area and away from it,
above, behind, around or through the
audience. They perform as a group or

Fluxus Performance Workbook, ed. Ken Friedman, Owen Smith & Lauren Sawchyn, Performance Research e-Publications, 2002
the warmth of skin
solo: but quietly.
an eye
the spirit Proposition
nothing Make a salad.
a black cloud 1962
a blue sky Variation #1 on Proposition
a collective brain Make a soup.
a collective heart 1964
an earth that is getting smaller
an earth that is stretching etc. Nivea Cream Piece
First variation: the people are together First performer comes on stage with a
when they do this. bottle of Nivea Cream or (if none is
Second variation: each person is alone (in available) with a bottle of hand cream
their own home). labeled ‘Nivea Cream.’ He pours the
1978 cream onto his hands and massages
them in front of the microphone. Other
A Purge performers enter, one by one, and do the
1) Step into a river completely clothed. same thing. Then they join together in
Undress in the water. Put the clothes front of the microphone to make a mass
into a vessel. Let it float downstream. of massaging hands. They leave in the
2) Wash each other. reverse of the order in which they entered,
3) Under a big canvas with holes cut in it on a signal from the first performer.
for heads, leave the water and go to 1962
your homes.
1979 Variation on Nivea Cream Piece
Large quantities of Nivea Cream must be
Raft available, at least one large jar per
Build a raft. Set a fire on it. Float with it person. The performers enter and each
for as long as it takes the fire to burn lathers up his arms and face, then his
through the raft to the water. colleagues, in a fragrant pig-pile.
Processes for a Body Child Art Piece
1 The performer is a single child, two or
An eye covered with green palm. three years old. One or both parents may
Rice glued on a blue breast. be present to help him with a pail of
With left foot to balance a nail. water, a banana, etc. When the child
(Somewhere might be something red or leaves the stage, the performance is over.
violet.) 1962
Half a beard. Variation #1 on Child Art Piece
Dark object c.500 yards away. Exit in a new suit.
To qualify with the tongue. 1964
A thought placed into a finger. Street Piece
(You can accent it with paint.) Make something in the street and give it
Time unit remaining of feeling wet. away.
1982-1985 1962

68 f l u x w o r k b o o k f l u x w o r k b o o k 69
Alison Knowles continued Alison Knowles continued

Shoes of Your Choice Composition for Paik

A member of the audience is invited to Select a platform, or any large square or
come forward to a microphone if one is rectangular area that is set apart, or
available and describe a pair of shoes, the raised above a room. Measure this area,
ones he is wearing or another pair. He is using Paik as assistant, finding its center.
encouraged to tell when he got them, the Then drop a plumb line to this point from

Fluxus Performance Workbook, ed. Ken Friedman, Owen Smith & Lauren Sawchyn, Performance Research e-Publications, 2002
size, the color, why he likes them, etc. the ceiling. Find the center of this
1963 distance and mark the string with chalk.
Build Paik a platform up to this point so
Piece for Any Number of Vocalists
that he may sit there for the duration of
Each thinks beforehand of a song, and, on
the performance.
a signal from the conductor, sings it
1962 Chair Piece for George Brecht
Before the performance, place an empty
Color Music #1 for Dick Higgins
chair in the center of the center aisle,
List your problems from one to five.
equipped with a reading light and a book.
For each problem, list the best solution
If nobody has taken this seat by the
you can think of.
intermission, one of the performers
For each problem, also list a color.
should do so.
Whenever the problem arises in your
mind, think first of the best solution, and
if you cannot act on it immediately, switch Wounded Furniture
to concentration on the color until an This piece uses an old piece of furniture
absolute necessity intervenes. in bad shape. Destroy it further, if you like.
1963 Bandage it up with gauze and adhesive.
Spray red paint on the wounded joints.
Giveaway Construction
Effective lighting helps. This activity may
Find something you like in the street and
be performed with one or more
give it away. Or find a variety of things,
performers, and simultaneously with
make something of them, and give it
other events.
Performance Piece #8
Color Music #2
Divide a variety of objects into two groups.
Print in the streets.
Each group is labeled “everything.” These
1st movement: orange
groups may include several people. There
2nd movement: black
is a third division of the stage, empty of
3rd movement: blue
1963 objects, labeled “nothing.” Each of the
objects is “something.” One performer
Color Music #2, Revised combines and activates the objects as
Print a silk screen on the pavements and follows for any desired duration of time:
streets of a city. This piece is dangerous. 1 Something with everything
Have some ready excuse such as ‘This ink 2 Something with nothing
is water soluble’. 3 Something with something
1963 4 Everything with everything
Braid 5 Everything with nothing
The performers, usually two, find 6 Nothing with nothing
something to braid – hair, yarn, etc.– and 1965
do so.
String Piece (Variation on Braid)
Tie up the audience.

70 f l u x w o r k b o o k f l u x w o r k b o o k 71
Alison Knowles continued

Newspaper Event TA K E H I S A K O S U G I
Performers who speak at least five
Tender music (for solo conductor)
different languages use newspapers or
1.Tip over some object 2. Tip back same
books in the different languages as
object 3. Slant some object 4. Slant back
scores. They read the texts in time and
some object 5. Tip over the slanted object
volume according to the instructions of a
6. Slant an object that has been tipped.

Fluxus Performance Workbook, ed. Ken Friedman, Owen Smith & Lauren Sawchyn, Performance Research e-Publications, 2002
composer. (Can go from very soft to
Conductor performs these six mani-
extremely loud and stop, soft-loud-soft
pulations with any number of objects in
again, varied tempos, etc.)
any desired direction, according to any
score, timetable, or other useful timing
system, but always keeping distance form
the objects. This piece can be used to
conduct another piece (music, dance, etc.)
Distance for Piano (to David Tudor)
Performer positions himself at some
distance from the piano from which he
should not move. Performer does not
touch piano directly by any part of his
body, but may manipulate other objects to
produce sound on piano through them.
Performer produces sounds at points of
piano previously determined by him.
Assistants may move piano to change
distance and direction to directions of the
South No.3 (Malika)
1. Performer considers S(O, U, T, H) as
sound and pronounces the letters as (s)
((a) (u) (th) (th)).
2. Performer considers S(O, U, T, H) as
forms for actions to sound and performs a
movement to the shape of each letter.
This piece may be performed as:
• single performance of each letter either
with sound or action
• multiple performance of each letter by
single performer as sound or action.
• simultaneous performance of S with H,
O with S, U with O, T with U, H with T.
• continuous performance of S following
H immediately
• interrupted performance with a pause
between each letter.
Any of these forms may be repeated any
number of times.

72 f l u x w o r k b o o k f l u x w o r k b o o k 73
Takehisa Kosugi continued Takehisa Kosugi continued

South No.2 (to Nam June Paik) Organic Music

Pronounce ‘S O U T H ’ during a duration of Breath by oneself or have something
more than 15 minutes. Pause for breath is breathed for the number of times which
permitted by transition from you have decided at the performance.
pronunciation of one letter to another Each number must contain breath-in-
should be smooth and slow. hold-out.

Fluxus Performance Workbook, ed. Ken Friedman, Owen Smith & Lauren Sawchyn, Performance Research e-Publications, 2002
D AT E U N K N O W N Instruments may be used incidentally.
Theatre Music
Keep walking intently. For Mr M
D AT E U N K N O W N Insert a rolled-up sheet of paper into the
throat, then move the roll to the outside of
Ear Drum Event
the mouth. Repeat this many times.
1 Performer puts hands close to
Do not swallow the roll. Do not drop the
eardrums, then puts hands far away
roll until the end. Do not use hands except
from eardrums. He repeats this many
at the beginning.
times slowly or quickly.
2 The performer carries some material
to a sounding object, covering the Micro 1
object tightly with material. He then Wrap a live microphone with a very large
carries the cover over to the starting sheet of paper. Make a tight bundle. Keep
point. Performer repeats this many the microphone live for another five
times. minutes.
3 The performer opens and closes a D AT E U N K N O W N
door (a shutter, a window, a sliding
Malika 5
door,etc.) He repeats this many times
Watch a flower until one of them falls or
quickly or slowly. Any sound condition
until all of them fall.
or moving condition may be provided D AT E U N K N O W N
behind the door.
D AT E U N K N O W N Organic Music
Orchestra breathes in unison and slowly
Music for a Revolution
following the rhythm indicated by
Scoop out one of your eyes five years from
conductor. Breathing is done through long
now and do the same with the other eye
tubes or wind instruments without
five years later.
Chironomy 1
Manodharma with Mr. T
Put out a hand from a window for a long
Performance with Mr T.
time. D AT E U N K N O W N
Smoking Music
South No.1 (to Anthony Cox)
Smoking event using the instructions for
Pronounce “SOUTH” during a
Organic Music. Smoking instrument may
predetermined or indetermined duration.
be used.
Manodharma with Mr Y
Anima 2
Watch over every part of Mr. Y’s body
Enter into a chamber which has windows.
about 10 cm apart when he brushes his
Close all windows and doors. Put out
teeth. If it is dark, a flashlight may be
different part of the body through each
used. If it is bright, a magnifying glass
window. Go out from the chamber. The
may be used.
chamber may be made of large cloth bag
U N K N O W N D AT E ?
with door and windows made of zippers.

74 f l u x w o r k b o o k f l u x w o r k b o o k 75
#252 Tree Movie
Bottle of water Select a tree.* Set up and focus a movie
Fill glass with water from bottle camera so that the tree fills most of the
Return water from glass back into bottle picture. Turn on the camera and leave it
Fill glass and repeat procedure as above on without moving it for any number of

Fluxus Performance Workbook, ed. Ken Friedman, Owen Smith & Lauren Sawchyn, Performance Research e-Publications, 2002
Many times till all water is spilled hours. If the camera is about to run out of
D AT E U N K N O W N film, substitute a camera with fresh film.
The two cameras may be alternated in
this way any number of times. Sound
Eat juicy apple (s) during concert.
recording equipment may be turned on
simultaneously with the movie cameras.
#185 Beginning at any point in the film, any
Wind materials you find length of it may be projected at a showing.
Around objects you find on a walk *For the word ‘tree’, one may substitute
Leave them along your path ‘mountain’, ‘sea’, ‘flower’, ‘lake’, etc.

#403 A Word Event for George Brecht

Draw an alarm clock with pencil in front A man utters any word, preferably one
of audience without expletive connotations. He then
Have an alarm clock installed (possible as proceeds to analyze it, 1st, into its
example for drawing model) successive phonemes; 2nd, into a series
When alarm sound plays, erase the of phonemes representable by its
drawing. successive individual letters, whether or
D AT E U N K N O W N not this series coincides with the 1st
#96 series.
Saw a chair into pieces After repeating each of these series
Make a chair out of these pieces alternately a few times, he begins to
Same procedure with other furniture permute the members of each series.
pieces or various other objects After uttering various permutations of
Deconstruct-construct. each series alternately several times, he
D AT E U N K N O W N utters phonemes from both series in
random order, uttering them singly,
combining them into syllables, repeating
them &/or prolonging them ad libitum.
He ends the event by pronouncing one of
these phonemes very carefully.

3 Social Projects
Social Project 1
Find a way to end unemployment, or
find a way for people to live without
Make whichever one you find work.

Social Project 2
Find a way to end war.
Make it work.

Social Project 3
Find a way to produce everything
everybody needs,
And get it to them.
Make it work.

76 f l u x w o r k b o o k f l u x w o r k b o o k 77
Jackson Mac Low continued

Piano Suite for David Tudor and John GEORGE MACIUNAS

Note on the Graph Scores: The first scores in this
(any number of persons may participate in
section are printed here as a list of words. The
one or more or the movements)
way they are to be performed is that a graph chart
1 . . . . .Carefully disassemble a piano.
is set up, with the words running down the side
Do not break any parts or separate
axis. Across the top, numbers are filled in with

Fluxus Performance Workbook, ed. Ken Friedman, Owen Smith & Lauren Sawchyn, Performance Research e-Publications, 2002
parts joined by gluing or welding
time designated in blocks of seconds. The score is
(unless welding apparatus &
filled in some manner. Then, when the
experienced welder are available for
performance time for each action comes up, that
the 2nd movement). All parts cut or
action is performed to generate sound.
cast or forged as one piece must
remain as one piece. Duet for Full Bottle and Wine Glass
2 . . . . .Carefully reassemble the piano shaking
3 . . . . .Tune the piano slow dripping
4 . . . . .Play something fast dripping
7 APRIL 1961 THE BRONX small stream
Thanks pouring
a simultaneity for the people splashing
Any person in the room may begin the opening corked bottle
action by making any vocal utterance. roll bottle
Other people may make utterances or be drop bottle
silent at any time after the beginning. strike bottle with glass
Utterances may be in any language or break glass
none. They may be (1) sentences, (2) gargle
clauses, (3) phrases, (4) phrase drink
fragments, (5) groups of unrelated words, sipping
(6) single words (among which may be rinsing mouth
names of letters), (7) polysyllabic word spitting
fragments, (8) syllables, (9) phones
(included or not within phonemes of any Duet for C on Bass Sordune, Voice
languages), (10) any other sounds and Old Score
produced in the mouth, throat, or chest. C on sordune
Any utterance may be repeated any scratch score
number of times or not at all. After a shake score
person makes an utterance and repeats it throw or drop score
or not, s/he should become silent and strike pile of scores
remain so for any duration. After the strike suspended score
silence, s/he may make any utterance, wrinkled score
repeat it or not, again become silent, etc. pierce score
People may continue to make utterances cut score
or not until no one wants to make an rip score
utterance or until a predetermined time throat voice pitched
limit is reached. throat voice not pitched
All utterances are free in all respects. gargle
Nonvocal sounds may be produced and drink
repeated or not in place of utterances. lips-teeth pitched
Anyone may submit an or all elements of lips-teeth not pitched
this simultaneity to chance regulation by hiss
any method(s). lip-fart
rinse mouth
smack lips

78 f l u x w o r k b o o k f l u x w o r k b o o k 79
George Maciunas continued George Maciunas continued

In Memoriam to Adriano Olivetti drill violin

Performers use old adding machine tape drive a nail into violin
as a score. Each number on the tape hammer violin with hammer
represents a metronome beat. Each bite violin
performer is assigned a number. When step over violin and crush it
his number appears, he performs upon rip violin apart

Fluxus Performance Workbook, ed. Ken Friedman, Owen Smith & Lauren Sawchyn, Performance Research e-Publications, 2002
the beat. Performance can consist of drop violin over floor
actions (raising and replacing hat, shaking throw violin or parts of it to the audience
fist, making faces, etc.) or sounds (tongue 1962
clicks, pops, smacks, lip farts, etc.)
Performers may all perform same action 12 Piano Compositions for Nam June
or different, or all perform same sound or
different. Performers should practice Composition No.1 Let piano movers carry
their assigned sound or action so that piano into the stage.
each can perform clearly – sharp, defined Composition No.2 Tune the piano.
action or sound, loud if sound, in time Composition No.3 Paint with orange paint
with beat. patterns over the piano.
1962 Composition No.4 Using a straight stick
the length of the keyboard sound all keys
Solo for Violin
Old classic is performed on a violin.
Composition No.5 Place a dog or cat (or
Where pauses are called, violin is
both) inside the piano and play Chopin.
mistreated by scratching the floor with it,
Composition No.6 Stretch the 3 highest
dropping pebbles through f hole, pulling
strings with a tuning key until they break.
out pegs, etc.
Composition No.7 Place one piano on top
of another (one can be smaller).
Solo for Rich Man Composition No.8 Place piano upside
shaking coins down and put a vase with flowers over the
dropping coins sound box.
striking coins Composition No.9 Draw a picture of a
wrinkling paper money piano so that the audience can see the
fast ripping of paper money picture.
slow ripping of paper money Composition No.10 Write a sign reading:
striking paper money piano composition #10 and show the
throwing coins audience the sign
D AT E U N K N O W N Composition No.11 Wash the piano, wax
Solo for Violin (For Sylvano Bussotti) and polish it well.
play any sentimental tune Composition No.12 Let piano movers
scrape strings with a nail carry the piano out of the stage.
loosen strings and pluck
break string by over tensioning peg Solo for Conductor
insert bow between strings & sound Conductor enters and takes a deep bow
board & oscillate bow toward the audience. He remains bowed
hold bow to shoulders & bow with violin while he performs various acts with his
strike with bow over sound board hands at floor level, such as: tie shoe
scrape inside of sound box with bow laces, straighten out socks, wipe shoes
blow through sound holes with cloth, pick up little specks from floor,
put pebbles inside sound box and shake etc. Performance ends when conductor
violin straightens up and exits.
scrape floor with violin 1965
push-pull violin over table or floor
scratch violin with sharp tool
saw violin or part of it

80 f l u x w o r k b o o k f l u x w o r k b o o k 81
Mechanical Fluxconcert Music from Scratch (Hommage to
Microphones are placed in the street, Lamonte Young)
outside windows or hidden among While remaining otherwise silent,
audience and sounds are amplified to the numerous performers scrape their
audience via public address system. fingernails on a large blackboard, with

Fluxus Performance Workbook, ed. Ken Friedman, Owen Smith & Lauren Sawchyn, Performance Research e-Publications, 2002
D AT E U N K N O W N attentive consideration given to the sound
qualities and for a period of time
sufficient to render these qualities
appreciated. If possible one or more
microphones in close proximity to the
blackboard surface is desirable.
Wear white clothes and skid into the
Chewed Drawing
Chew a nice piece of notebook or drawing
Mud Drop
A large heap of mud is dropped from a
height onto an egg placed on the ground.
Bag Exchange
On a given day, everyone is asked to bring
a brown bag with an object of their choice
in it. An area is designated to contain the
bags. At the end of the day, the bags are
distributed at random.
Urinate on an egg until it has a nice
patina or until it explodes.
Bit Part for Audience
Each word of a poem is written on
separate cards passed out to the
audience, who perform them in sequence.
Teeter-totter with your own weight in
100 Yard Run
Runners proceed to the 50-yard mark by
taking 3 steps forward and 2 backward;
and from the 50-yard mark back to the
starting line by taking 3 steps backward
and 2 forward.

82 f l u x w o r k b o o k f l u x w o r k b o o k 83
Larry Miller continued Larry Miller continued

100 Yard Metronome Run Like/Don’t Like

Runners may only take a step when they Something liked.
hear a designated sound such as an Something not liked.
amplified metronome or music. Only one 1981
foot may touch the ground at any time.
Finger Exercise
Perform with finger(s).

Fluxus Performance Workbook, ed. Ken Friedman, Owen Smith & Lauren Sawchyn, Performance Research e-Publications, 2002
200 Yard Candle Dash 1983
Each runner carries a lighted candle. He
Only You
must stop to light it if it goes out. Nothing
Copyright your genetic code.
may be carried to protect the flame. 1989
220 Yard Balloon Dash
All runners have as many inflated
balloons as possible tied to their bodies.
Once the balloons are in place, they run a
normal 220-yard race.
Long Jump
A jumper performs a long jump while
holding a lighted candle. The jump must
be completed with the candle lit.
Remote Music
For single or multiple keyboard
instruments in concert.
A mechanical hand with pointing index
finger (or a boxing glove) is arranged out
of view on a string-and- pulley system
above the keyboard prior to the
performance. Out of view, the performer
lowers the hand onto the keyboard to
produce a single note.
Talk/Don’t Talk
Performer talks, audience listens.
Audience talks, performer listens.
See You in Your Dreams
Appear in another’s dreams.
Dream Machine
Don’t dream.
Visit a caged animal regularly.
Discover which note in the octave is yours.

84 f l u x w o r k b o o k f l u x w o r k b o o k 85
Yoko Ono continued

YOKO ONO Tape Piece II

Four Pieces for Orchestra Room Piece
To La Monte Young Take the sound of the room breathing
(Provisional Instruction. It may be revised 1) at dawn
by conductor.) 2) in the morning
a. Upon first signal from the conductor, 3) in the afternoon

Fluxus Performance Workbook, ed. Ken Friedman, Owen Smith & Lauren Sawchyn, Performance Research e-Publications, 2002
each performer begins to rub a dowel, 4) in the evening
screwdriver or file across the f hole of any 5) before dawn
string instrument which will be provided Bottle the smell of the room of that
for that purpose, or with an eraser on the particular hour as well.
surface of a wind instrument. Second 1963 J O E DE M A R CO , GA L L E R I E DE LU X X E
signal will indicate termination.
b. Upon third signal, each performer
peels off a tape taped upon their
c. Upon fourth signal, each performer
tears off a page from the score.
New instructions to these pieces will
most likely be provided by La Monte Young
during rehearsal.

Laundry Piece
In entertaining your guests, bring out your
laundry of the day and explain to them
about each item. How and when it
became dirty and why, etc.
Wall Piece for Orchestra To Yoko Ono
Hit a wall with your head.
Lighting Piece
Light a match and watch it till it goes out.
Painting to be Stepped On
Leave a piece of canvas or finished
painting on the floor or in the street.
Fly Piece
Tape Piece I
Stone Piece
Take the sound of the stone aging.

86 f l u x w o r k b o o k f l u x w o r k b o o k 87
Fluxus Champion Contest Laughing
Performers gather around a large tub or Four performers enter and stand in a row
bucket on stage. All piss into the bucket. facing the audience. They have four
As each pisses, he sings his national laughing masks on their faces and stand
anthem. When any contestant stops 10 minutes motionless after which they

Fluxus Performance Workbook, ed. Ken Friedman, Owen Smith & Lauren Sawchyn, Performance Research e-Publications, 2002
pissing, he stops singing. The last bow and leave again. Great fun.
performer left singing is the champion. 1963
Prelude Two performers of clearly different length
Audience seats are tied up to backs or width enter the stage area. One by one
before performance. they take off their top clothing, hand the
D AT E U N K N O W N pieces to each other and put them on
again. So they exchange clothing and
Fluxus Hero or Heroine
(For Frank Trowbridge) leave the stage again.
Piss on the subway tracks and thus stop 1963
the train. TV
D AT E U N K N O W N Construct a mirror in front of your TV set
Zen for Street so that the mirror covers the entire
Adult in lotus posture & eyes half shut screen. Now switch on your favorite
positions himself in a baby carriage channel and watch the show.
(perambulator) and is pushed by another 1964
adult or several children through a The Big Realization
shopping center or calm street. Turn off all water, gas, and electricity for
D AT E U N K N O W N one week.
Dragging Suite I wish you a good time.
Drag by a string along streets, stairs, 1964
floors: large or small dolls, naked or Nap
clothed dolls, broken, bloody or new dolls, Prepare a bed on the table in the living
real man or woman, musical instruments, room. Preferably the dining table. Take an
etc. afternoon nap on it.
D AT E U N K N O W N 1964
Atom Bomb Victim
Two uniformed men wearing gas masks
carry on a stretcher an “atom bomb
victim,” a woman, half of the body
prepared in a manner of cruel wounds
and deformations, the other half in a sex-

Moving Theater
Fluxus fleet of cars and trucks drives into
crowded city during rush hour. At the
appointed time, all drivers stop cars, turn
off engines, get out of cars, lock doors,
take keys and walk away.

88 f l u x w o r k b o o k f l u x w o r k b o o k 89
90 Degree Angles, Street or Field Piano Piece No.1
Version Performer places various objects — toys,
8 performers (4 male, 4 female) chess pieces, concrete blocks, wood
sweatsuits and tennis shoes; each blocks, bricks, glass vases, rubber balls,
carrying one sports object (a basketball, a etc. — on the closed lid of a grand piano.

Fluxus Performance Workbook, ed. Ken Friedman, Owen Smith & Lauren Sawchyn, Performance Research e-Publications, 2002
football, tennis racket, etc.) begin walking He may arrange these objects very
or running at any desired speed from one carefully and with deliberation. He may
location, turning left or right at right construct a building out of the blocks, or
angles when hearing “left” or “right” arrange the chess pieces, or arrange the
instructions given by alternated male or various toys, etc. When he has completed
female voice over loudspeaker or his arrangement, he lifts the great lid
megaphone. Female performers respond suddenly. The piano must be placed so
only to female voice, male performers that when the lid opens, the objects slide
only to male voice. Event ends either toward the audience.
when performers return to original 1962
location or move beyond reach of
instructions. Score for gym version.
1966 Water pails or bottles are placed around
the perimeter of a circle. Only one is filled
with water. Performer inside the circle
picks the filled vessel and pours it into the
one on the right, then picks the one on
the right and pours it into the next one on
the right, etc., till all the water is spilled
or evaporated.

Sanitas No.2
Auditorium or theater should be dark.
Performers throw small objects, coins,
toys, etc., into the audience and then try
to find these objects using flashlights.

Sanitas No.151
250 nails are hammered.

Sanitas No.13
Telephone time service is relayed to the
audience for an hour.

Sanitas No.22
Performer reads aloud an entire
newspaper, advertisements and all.

Sanitas No.35
Blank sheets are handed to the audience
without any explanations. 5 minutes

90 f l u x w o r k b o o k f l u x w o r k b o o k 91
Tomas Schmit continued

Sanitas No.79 MIEKO SHIOMI

A bus carries the audience a good
Spatial Poem No.1
distance, deposits them in a desolate
location and returns empty. Word event
D AT E UNKNOWN Write a word or words on the enclosed
card and place it somewhere. Please tell
Sanitas No.151, Fluxvariation 1 me the word and the place, which will be

Fluxus Performance Workbook, ed. Ken Friedman, Owen Smith & Lauren Sawchyn, Performance Research e-Publications, 2002
All the piano keys of a chromatic scale are edited on the world map.
nailed down. 1965
Temperature Experiment
Sanitas No.165 props: hot water, cold water,
Audience is seated on mis-numbered thermometer, a dozen or more glasses,
seats, then are asked to correct the two large spoons (one for cold water and
mistake by switching about, (first row to another for hot water), cards.
last, etc.) One performer asks the audience to
nominate the names of well known artists
and writes them down on cards. Then he
works on the hot water and cold water
according to the alphabet letters which
consist their names.
If the name is John Cage, he puts into an
empty glass
one spoon of cold water for J
one spoon of hot water for O
one spoon of cold water for H
one spoon of cold water for N
one spoon of cold water for C
one spoon of hot water for A
one spoon of cold water for G
one spoon of hot water for E
reading aloud each letter of J, O, H, N, C,
A, G, E. He applies the same operation to
all the other names (i.e., for each of A, E,
I, O, and U- one spoon of hot water, and
for each of the other letter- one spoon of
cold water), then takes each temperature
of these mixed water and reads them for
the audience mentioning the names which
they correspond.
Note; He may read the temperature each
time after mixing the water for the name.
Actually in this way he could get more
exact degrees.
Smoke Poem
props: cigarettes, lighters, finest markers
Each volunteer in the audience writes on
a cigarette a name of a person whom he
hates or doesn’t feel sympathetic. In case
he has no such person, he may write a
name of a fish.
Then they smoke all together.
The detailed facts of this performance
should be hold in secret each other.

92 f l u x w o r k b o o k f l u x w o r k b o o k 93
Mieko Shiomi continued Mieko Shiomi continued

Wind Music Music for Two Players

1 Raise wind. In a closed room pass over 2 hours in
2 Be blown by wind. silence.
3 Wind at the beach, (They may do anything but speak)
wind in the street, 1963
wind passing by a car.

Fluxus Performance Workbook, ed. Ken Friedman, Owen Smith & Lauren Sawchyn, Performance Research e-Publications, 2002
Stand on a sandy beach with your back to
the sea. Hold a mirror in front of your face
Wind Music, Fluxversion I and look into it. Step back to the sea and
Scores are blown away from stands by enter into the water.
wind from a strong fan in the wings as the 1963
orchestra tries to hold them.
Event for the Twilight
Steep the piano in the water of a pool.
Wind Music, Fluxversion II Play some piece of F. Liszt on the piano.
Loose score leaves on music stands are 1963
blown away by a very strong wind
Event for Midday in the Sunlight
produced by a very large fan. This piece
12:00 Shut your eyes
should be produced only if such a fan is
12:03 Open your eyes
available. Performers may try to catch
12:03’05’’ Shut your eyes
scores and put them back on the music
12:04 Open your eyes
stands. They should not try to hold them
12:04’04’’ Shut your eyes
on the stands.
12:04’30’’ Open your Eyes
12:04’33’’ Shut your eyes
Shadow Piece 12:04’50’’ Open your eyes
Make Shadows — still or moving — of 12:04’52’’ Shut your eyes
your body or something on the road, wall, 12:05 Open your eyes
floor or anything else. 12:05’01’’ Shut your eyes
Catch the shadows by some means. 12:05’05’’ Open your eyes
1963 12:05’06’’ Shut your eyes
12:07 Open your eyes and look at
Portrait Piece
your hands
Do this piece with a portrait of yourself or
of your dearest one.
Crumple up the portrait without tearing it. Event for the Late Afternoon
Smooth it. Suspend a violin with a long rope from the
Look at the face in the portrait, crumpling roof of a building ‘till it nearly reaches the
and smoothing it. ground.
Look at the face through a magnifying 1963
Event for Late Afternoon Fluxversion I
Violin is suspended with rope or ribbon
inserted through pulley at top and
secured to floor. Performer in samurai
armor positions himself under suspended
violin, draws his sword and cuts rope in
front of him, releasing violin which falls
on to his helmeted heat.
Event of Midnight
0:00 one light
0:04 five tones
0:05 smile

94 f l u x w o r k b o o k f l u x w o r k b o o k 95
Mieko Shiomi continued Mieko Shiomi continued

Boundary Music Fluxversion I

Make the faintest possible sound to a Concert programs are distributed to the
boundary condition whether the sound is audience as paper gliders flown from
given birth to as a sound or not. At the balcony or ladders or thrown as paper
performance, instruments, human bodies, balls.
electronic apparatus or anything else may 1963

Fluxus Performance Workbook, ed. Ken Friedman, Owen Smith & Lauren Sawchyn, Performance Research e-Publications, 2002
be used.
Fluxversion II
Parachute or very large sheet is
Star Piece suspended over audience. Performers cut
The biggest star all supports simultaneously, letting the
Look at while you like sheet fall over the audience.
The second biggest star 1963
Obscure it with the smoke of a cigarette
Passing Music for a Tree
The third biggest star
Pass by a tree or let some object pass by
Shoot it with a gun
a tree, but each time differently.
The fourth biggest star 1964
Hold a cat in your arms
The fifth biggest star Shadow Piece II
Look at it through a telescope 1
The sixth biggest star Project a shadow over the other side of
When you find it, look at your watch this page.
The seventh biggest star 2
Reflect on it in the water of a glass and Observe the boundary between the
drink it. shadow and the lighted part.
The eighth biggest star 3
Lie down and look at it through a loop in Become the boundary line.
your fingers 1964
The eleventh biggest star Air Event
Read a letter sent to you recently Inflate a small rubber balloon in one deep
(draw connecting lines as you like) breath and sign your name on the surface
1963 of the balloon.
Music for Two Players I (this is your lung)
Stand face to face to one another and You can buy the lungs of other performers
stare at the opposite player’s eyes, at an auction.
first 3m. apart (4 minutes) 1964
then 1m. apart (4 minutes) Piece for a Small Puddle
then 0.3m apart (4 minutes) This piece is performed by several
then 6m. apart (4 minutes) performers. Each performer takes
then 0.5m apart (4 minutes) position around the puddle. Each stands
An assistant my show them time and or squats according to ones own chosen
distance. rhythm looking at the surface of the
1963 puddle.
Falling Event 1964
1 Disappearing Music for Face
Let something fall from a high place. Change gradually from a smile to a smile.
2 In concert performers begin the piece
Let yourself fall from a high place using with a smile, and during the duration of
an elevator, parachute, rope or anything the piece, change the smile very slowly
else, or using nothing. and gradually to a smile. Conductor
1963 indicates the beginning with a smile and
determines the duration by his example
which should be followed by the

96 f l u x w o r k b o o k f l u x w o r k b o o k 97
Mieko Shiomi continued Meiko Shiomi continued

Photo Event for Two Players Balance Poem

Both performers take photos of each Prepare a balance (scale) and many cards
other including complete figure or close- of various sizes and weights. Ask the
up of some parts. audience to write on each card a name of
Second performer uses film already an object or material and its quantity (for
exposed by first performer. example, 2 gallons of wine, 4 elephants,

Fluxus Performance Workbook, ed. Ken Friedman, Owen Smith & Lauren Sawchyn, Performance Research e-Publications, 2002
1964 etc.) After collecting the cards from the
audience, place them one by one on both
Water Music
balance pans so that they will keep
1 Give the water still form.
balance. Cards of equal weight are
2 Let the water loose its still form.
1964 balanced and their contents announced.
Mirror Piece No.2
Wind Music No.2
Orchestra members spread their
Several performers operate fans toward
instruments on the Floor. Each walks
suspended objects such as bottles,
backwards through the instruments,
radios, bells, etc., making them swing.
using a hand mirror to guide himself,
trying not to step on the instruments.
1966 Wind Music No.2, Fluxversion I
Several performers operate fans toward
Mirror Piece No.2, Fluxversion I
suspended musical instruments such as
Orchestra members spread their
bell, gongs gourds, etc., making them
instruments on the floor. Each walks
swing and sound.
backwards through the instruments,
using a hand mirror to guide himself,
trying not to step on instruments.
Whenever a performer touches an
instrument, he must leave the sate.
Mirror Piece No.3
Performers seat themselves around a
large mirror on the floor of a dark stage.
A vessel filled with water stands in the
middle of the mirror. Performers stand
and sit at random intervals with flashlight
pointing to the mirror. The water may be
Shadow Piece No.3
Performers eat various fruits behind a
white screen. A light projects their
shadows on the screen. Eating sounds
may be amplified.
Flash Piece
A performer plays a record player on a
dark stage, turning it with a stuffed bird
on it, while other performers blow soap
bubbles and another flashes photo
flashlights or flashes on stage lights.

98 f l u x w o r k b o o k f l u x w o r k b o o k 99
Bean Snow (for Alison) Vaseline Symphonique, 1921 Fluxversion
Read the text slowly and deliberately, Microphone, hands, vaseline.
using a normal tone of voice.
Bean snow.
Bean snow beans.

Fluxus Performance Workbook, ed. Ken Friedman, Owen Smith & Lauren Sawchyn, Performance Research e-Publications, 2002
Bean snow beans about themselves.
Bean snow themselves.
Bean snow beans about themselves.
Bean snow.

100 f l u x w o r k b o o k f l u x w o r k b o o k 101
Ben Vautier continued


Various people such as blind beggars,
drunks, bums, tramps, etc., are invited to
Performers and audience listen to a play
a meeting they know nothing about. They
over the radio.
are led onto the stage by way of a back
entrance. When all are assembled on

Fluxus Performance Workbook, ed. Ken Friedman, Owen Smith & Lauren Sawchyn, Performance Research e-Publications, 2002
Theft stage, the curtain is raised.
A theft is announced and the audience is 1962
Spoerri, Isou, Kaprow, Higgins, Patterson
Police and Vautier accept an invitation to live
Performers disguised as police officers imprisoned in a cage for 48 hours. The
push the audience to the stage. audience watches.
1961 1962
Smile Make Faces
5 performers walk about smiling. 20 performers grimace at the audience,
1961 making faces and vulgar gestures until
Strike the audience expresses protest.
After the audience is admitted to the
theater and seated, a member of the Wet
actors’ union gives a 5- minute talk on low Performers throw wet objects into the
wages and announces a 3-hour strike. audience.
1962 1962
Drink 1 Nothing
While other pieces are being performed, Performers do nothing.
one performer sits drinking in a corner of 1962
the stage. He gets drunk and starts being
a nuisance.
Performers sell the theater.
Drink II
Performers drink as much as they can
A performer runs about, around and
drink, as fast as possible.
through the audience until completely
Shower II 1963
A performer sits on a chair in the center
Mystery Food
of the stage holding a fire hose and does
Performers eat a meal that cannot be
nothing. On hearing the audience begin to
identified by anyone.
complain, he shouts “Go!” The water is 1963
turned on. The performer soaks the
audience. Apples
1962 4 performers eat 4 apples.
Using a telephone placed on stage with a Monochrome for Yves Klein
monitor hooked up to a loud speaker, the Performer paints a large white panel
performer makes one of the following black.
calls: 1963
1) Call the police and talk as long as
2) Call the president of the country.
3) Call the local newspaper with false

102 f l u x w o r k b o o k f l u x w o r k b o o k 103
Ben Vautier continued Ben Vautier continued

Monochrome for Yves Klein, Curtain I

Fluxversion I After the traditional 3 rings or 3 knocks,
Performer paints a movie screen with the curtain doesn’t go up. Rings or
nonreflective black paint while a favorite knocks are repeated 10 time, 20 times,
movie is being shown. 100 times, 1000 times for 2 hours, but the
1963 curtain never goes up.

Fluxus Performance Workbook, ed. Ken Friedman, Owen Smith & Lauren Sawchyn, Performance Research e-Publications, 2002
Monochrome for Yves Klein, 1963
Fluxversion II Curtain II
An orchestra, quartet or soloist, dressed A noisy performance takes place behind a
in white, plays a favorite classic. A fine closed curtain. Curtain is raised only for a
mist of washable black paint rains down bow.
during the performance. Performers 1963
continue to play as the scores and music
stands, their instruments and clothes I Will be Back in Ten Minutes
slowly turn from white to black. The Performer positions a poster on the stage
performance ends when no performer can announcing, ‘I will be back in 10 minutes!’
read the notes. and goes across the street to have a cup
1963 of coffee.
4 people who have never met are invited Look
on stage to talk to each other for 20 The performer looks at an object (a piano,
minute or more. for instance) in as many different ways as
1963 possible.
Performers enact different verbs from a Ben’s Striptease
book of verbs. A naked performer enters an entirely
1963 darkened stage. The lights go on for a
fraction of a second.
Bathtub 1964
As many performers as possible jam
themselves into a bathtub. Hold-Up
1963 A real hold-up is enacted in the theater.
As much loot as possible is stolen and
Push taken away by thieves.
Ten to 20 performers push each other 1964
from the stage nonviolently until only 2
performers are left. Gestures
1963 1st performer positions a table on the
Hens 2nd performer positions a suitcase on the
Three hens are released and then caught. table.
1963 3rd performer takes the suitcase off the
Lesson table.
Like a classroom teacher with a 4th performer takes the table off the
blackboard, performer gives a lesson to stage.
other performers on a subject such as 1964
geography, Latin, grammar, mathematics, Choice
etc. 4 identical objects are placed on the
1963 stage. 3 performers enter. Each chooses
one of the objects, and leaves after
choosing, taking the object away. The last
object remains on the stage.

104 f l u x w o r k b o o k f l u x w o r k b o o k 105
Ben Vautier continued Ben Vautier continued

Tango Concerto for Audience by Audience

The audience is invited to dance a tango. The audience is invited to come to the
1964 stage, take instruments that are provided
to them, sit on the orchestra seats and
play for 3 minutes. If the audience does
One performer seated at a table on the
not respond to the invitation, instruments
stage gives orders such as ‘get up,’ ‘run,’

Fluxus Performance Workbook, ed. Ken Friedman, Owen Smith & Lauren Sawchyn, Performance Research e-Publications, 2002
should be distributed to them.
‘jump,’ etc., to 20 performers seated
among members of the audience. The
audience is free to join in. Three Pieces for Audiences
1964 1 Change places.
2 Talk together.
3 Give something to your neighbor.
Light but very voluminous packages are
carried by performers from the stage
through the audience to the exit, through Audience Piece No.1
crowded street, onto street cars, etc. Audience is locked into the theater. The
1964 piece ends when they find a way out.
The curtain is raised. A large table set Audience Piece No.2
with food, drink, flowers and candles is The curtain remains closed. At the exit,
displayed on stage. 10 well dressed leaflets are distributed saying, “Ben hopes
performers carrying instruments enter, you enjoyed the performance.”
bow, and seat themselves behind the 1964
table. They lay down their instruments. 2
Audience Piece No.3
waiters begin to serve food and wine.
An announcer asks the audience to follow
Performers begin to eat, drink and talk.
a guide. The guide leads them to another
After a few minutes, the audience can
theater to watch an ordinary play or
also be offered food and drink.
Piano Concerto No.2 for Paik
Audience Piece No.4
Orchestra members seat themselves and
After the audience is seated, performers
wait for the pianist. The pianist enters,
proceed to clean the theater very
bows and walks to the piano. Upon
thoroughly: wash floor, vacuum chairs
reaching the piano, he jumps from the
and curtain, white wash stage, change
stage and runs to the exit. Orchestra
light bulbs, etc.
members must run after him, catch him, 1964
and drag him back to the piano. The
pianist must try his best to keep away Audience Piece No.5
from the piano. When the piano is finally Tickets are sold between 8 and 9 p.m. At 9
returned to the piano, the lights are p.m., the announcement is made that the
turned off. performance has already begun and will
1965 end at 12 p.m. At no time is the audience
admitted to the theater.
Orchestra Piece No.4 1964
Instruments, stands and empty seats are
displayed on stage. Performers appear Audience Piece No.6
one by one, slowly and very silently. The stage is transformed into a
Performers entering from the left must go refreshment area. After the curtain is
to the far right and vice versa. Conductor raised, the audience may come on stage
enters last, just as slowly. The whole entry to eat and dance.
should last 10 minutes. Upon completion 1964
of the entry, the lights are turned off.

106 f l u x w o r k b o o k f l u x w o r k b o o k 107
Ben Vautier continued

Audience Piece No.7 WOLF VOSTELL

The audience is requested to come on
II Main Happening
stage one by one to sign a large book
At a dog kennel in Wantagh Long Island
placed on a table. After signing, each is
from 7:30-9:30 pm
led away, one by one, to the street. This is
S AT U R D A Y M A Y 21ST 1966
continued until all have signed and left

Fluxus Performance Workbook, ed. Ken Friedman, Owen Smith & Lauren Sawchyn, Performance Research e-Publications, 2002
the theater. Those led outside are not Circle II
permitted to return. Participation is based on walking around
1965 in circle II in the indicated direction for 90
minutes meanwhile other circles are
Audience Piece No.8
actioning and rotating around you in
The audience is told that the next piece is
different directions every five minutes the
presented in a special area. They are led
happening changes jump into the circle
away in small groups by ushers, taken
walk around without interruption say out
through back exits to the street and left
loud whatever you are thinking during this
time or repeat the sentences being
spoken by others every time you pass the
Audience Piece No.9 table iron the meat
Each member of the audience is led Circle III
individually into an antechamber where Persons in Circle III walk around in the
they are asked to undress and led into a opposite direction form those in Circle II
dark theater. Those who refuse can have the circles are enclosed on two sides by
their money returned. When the entire 60 to 80 dogs in kennels the action
audience is seated naked in the changes every 7 minutes
auditorium, a huge pile of their clothing is 7:30-7:37 participants are covered with
illuminated on stage. plastic coats which press their arms to
1965 their bodies each has a megaphone
Audience Piece No.10 through which he repeats during the 7
An announcer hidden from view of the minutes MAKE EACH LESSON SHORT 15
audience observes all who enter the TO 20 MINUTES IS ENOUGH
theater with binoculars and describes 7:38-7:44 they cover their heads with
each in detail over a public address boxes and repeat DON’T SAY I WANT YOU
1965 7:45-7:51 they fasten to their chests a
plastic sack containing a pair of live crabs
Audience Variation No.1 and repeat NOT KNOWING WHAT I HAVE
The audience is all tied up together using TO DO YET THEY URGE ME TO DO MY
a long string. Performers in the aisles use BEST IN KILLING THE ENEMY
balls of string, throwing string over the 7:52-7:58 they carry signal lamps with
heads of the audience to opposite rows of revolving red lights and repeat DIARY OF A
performers. Balls are thrown until all the SOLDIER
string is used up in creating a dense web 7:59-8:05 they lie down and repeat I
over the audience. Enough string must be WANT TO BOIL SOME WATER BUT
used to entangle the whole audience, ENEMY AIRCRAFT WHIR OVERHEAD AND
tying them to each other, to their chairs, WE MUST DRINK HALF-BOILED WATER
etc., making it difficult for them to leave. 8:06-8:12 to the other equipment they are
After this has been achieved, the wearing they add a large box of crabs it is
performers leave the hall. The audience is tied to their backs and they repeat WE
left to untangle itself. FEEL DOG TIRED AS WE WALK IN THE
8:13-8:19 flashlights are turned to light up
the crabs in the boxes one side of the
boxes is transparent they repeat IT’S

108 f l u x w o r k b o o k f l u x w o r k b o o k 109
Wolf Vostell continued Wolf Vostell continued


8:20-8:26 they walk around still dressed in 8:47-9:00 biting the grass DOGS BARKING
their plastic coats boxes covering their III Post Happening
heads a box of crabs on their backs and a large room in which notations sketches
plastic sacks containing a pair of live drawings of DOGS AND CHINESE NOT
crabs fastened to their chests signal ALLOWED were exhibited

Fluxus Performance Workbook, ed. Ken Friedman, Owen Smith & Lauren Sawchyn, Performance Research e-Publications, 2002
lamps with revolving red lights repeating the notations were made with luminous
AFTER LUNCH WE GET ORDERS FOR AN paint spectators had to wear bathing suits
URGENT OPERATION to be admitted to the exhibition they were
8:27-8:33 they smear honey on the faces given pencil flashlights to look at the
of the participants in circle II as they pictures in the darkened room a video
continue circling repeating IT COULD ALL tape of the main happening was shown
PROBABLY BE EXPLAINED BY THE FACT space heaters made the room very hot
THAT PEOPLE IN PANIC SAW AN foot switches were scattered about the
IMAGINARY LIGHT floor when the foot switches were stepped
8:34-8:40 they stand still repeating on tape recorders played amplified beats.
8:41-8:47 they resume their circling and
8:48-9:00 silence

Circles I and IV
(capitials indicate circle IV)
7:30-7:37 lying on the ground DOGS
7:38-7:44 walking around projecting a film
about the war in Vietnam on his (vostell’s)
tongue with an 8-mm mobile projector
7:45-7:51 spotlighting live crabs with an
ultra-violet light DOGS BARKING
7:52-7:58 projecting a dog- training movie
on his tongue DOGS BARKING
7:59-8:05 giving large nails to everybody
8:06-8:12 painting letters and signs on
participants’ plastic coats with luminous
8:13-8:19 painting other persons with
luminous paint DOGS BARKING
8:20-8:26 smearing honey on participant’s
8:27-8:33 flashing the electronic flasher
on the participants so that their clothing
painted with luminous paint will glow in
8:34-8:40 lying on the floor with nails on
8:41-8:47 pouring honey over the nails on
his head while lying in the grass DOGS

110 f l u x w o r k b o o k f l u x w o r k b o o k 111
Robert Watts continued

R O B E R T WAT T S Event:13
From backstage, at stage left, release 13
TV Event
helium filled balloons through a slit in the
Provide flat, painted flat white, 8ft.x 8ft.,
curtain. From backstage at stage right,
with hole approx., 3ft., square in center.
drop 13 white balls or eggs through a slit
Arrange girl on ladder behind flat so only
in the curtain.
bare crossed legs are exposed.

Fluxus Performance Workbook, ed. Ken Friedman, Owen Smith & Lauren Sawchyn, Performance Research e-Publications, 2002
Curtain closed.
Subway Event
spot on curtain where legs will appear.
Performer enters the subway station with
Open curtain to expose girl applying nail
a token and the exact change for a second
polish to toenails.
token. He uses token to enter subway by
Close curtains.
the gate. He leaves by the nearest exit and
Open curtain to expose full flat where
buys one token at the booth.
man in aluminum foil suit including 1962
mask is revealed drawing vertical parallel
black lines top to bottom, left to right Street Car Variation
simultaneously with girl drawing parallel Any number of performers in a queue
black lines from feet up legs. enter a bus one by one. Each performers
Curtain closed. pays the fare, exits immediately to rejoin
Option: left curtain to follow man from left the tail of the queue and start the cycle
to right, closing out action on the right again. Performance may last for any
D AT E U N K N O W N duration of time.
The local national anthem or another Casual Event
appropriate tune is sung or played in the Performer drives to a filling station to
washroom under the supervision of a inflate right front tire. He continues to add
uniformed attendant. air until the tire blows out. He changes
1962 the tire and drives home. If car is a newer
model, he drives home on the blown-out
Event:10 tire.
A performer stands on a dark stage with 1962
his back to the audience. He strikes 10
matches at uniform intervals. Another Two Inches
performer rings a bell 10 times at the A 2-inch-wide ribbon is stretched across
same (or different) intervals. the stage or street and then cut.
1962 1962

Event:10 Duet for Tuba

10 performers are supplied with 1 match A tuba is prepared so that it dispenses
each. 10 other performers are supplied coffee from one spit valve and cream from
with 1 bell each. They take positions in a the other.
completely dark performance area. The 1963
first performer strikes a match. The 2nd C/S Trace
performer immediately strikes a bell. The An object is fired from a cannon at a
match is permitted to burn out, followed cymbal.
by a pause. The 3rd performer strikes a 1963
match, followed immediately by the 4th
performer striking a bell. This continues C/S Trace
until all 20 performers have completed An object is fired from a cannon and
their action. caught in the bell of a tuba.
C/T Trace
A squeaking rubber toy or an egg is
caught between two cymbals.

112 f l u x w o r k b o o k f l u x w o r k b o o k 113
Robert Watts continued


A French horn is filled with small objects
The Gift of Tongues
(ping-pong balls, ball bearings, rice, small
Sing meaningfully in a language made up
toys, etc.) or fluid (water, mud, whiskey,
on the spot.
etc.). Performer enters the stage, faces
the audience, and bows toward the
In Unison

Fluxus Performance Workbook, ed. Ken Friedman, Owen Smith & Lauren Sawchyn, Performance Research e-Publications, 2002
audience so that the objects cascade out
of the bell of the horn into the audience. Two or more performers onstage, each
1963 with a musical instrument. Lights out.
Performers produce a sound on their
Trace instruments.
Place a card on a horizontal surface. The piece continues until the performers
Place a straw in the center of the card. produce their sounds in unison.
Light one end of the straw with a match. 1962
When the flame is extinguished, hang the
card on the wall. Ten Arrangements for Five
The conductor rings a bell, performers
Christmas Event move about freely. The conductor rings
Send a yam this year. the bell again, the performers freeze, and
D AT E U N K N O W N say a single word. This procedure is
repeated nine times.
Emotional Duet
Performer A inflicts pain upon himself.
Performer B inflicts pain upon herself.
Performer A inflicts pain upon performer
Performer B inflicts pain upon performer
Vocal Struggle for Dick Higgins
Song of Uncertain Length
Performer balances bottle on own head
and walks about singing or speaking until
bottle falls.
Duet for Performer and Audience
Performer waits silently on stage for
audible reaction from audience which he

114 f l u x w o r k b o o k f l u x w o r k b o o k 115
Emmett Williams continued

For La Monte Young

Performer asks if La Monte Young is in
the audience.
Ten Arrangements for Five

Fluxus Performance Workbook, ed. Ken Friedman, Owen Smith & Lauren Sawchyn, Performance Research e-Publications, 2002
Leader rings bell, performers move.
Leader rings bell a second time, and all
freeze, each saying a single word.
Counting Songs
Audience is counted by various means —
f.ex., performer gives a small gift (coin,
cough drop, cookie, toothpick, match
stick, etc.) to every member of the
audience, counting each as he does so, or
marks audience members with a chalk, or
keeps track by pointing finger, etc. FluxusPerformanceWorkbook
1962 edited by Ken Friedman, Owen Smith
and Lauren Sawchyn
Light but very voluminous packages are designed by Kevin Mount / DeMo
carried by performers from the stage published by Performance Research
through the audience to the exit, through
crowded street, onto street cars, etc. This special 2002 edition of the
1964 FluxusPerformanceWorkbook is a digital
supplement to Performance Research Vol.7,
Supper No.3 'On Fluxus', September 2002
The curtain is raised. A large table set London: Routledge/ Taylor & Francis
with food, drink, flowers, candles is ISSN 1352-8165 & ISBN 0-415-28942-[4]
displayed on stage. 10 well dressed
performers carrying instruments enter, The works in The FluxusPerformanceWorkbook
bow, and seat themselves behind the are copyright by Fluxus and by the individual
table. They lay down their instruments. 2 artists. Dates indicate the year of publication
waiters begin to serve food and wine. and copyright. All rights are reserved. Work
Performers begin to eat, drink, and talk. may be reproduced and performed provided
After a few minutes, the audience can that credit is given to the artists and to Fluxus.
also be offered food and drink. Any program or presentation of these works in
1965 live or broadcast performance or in
reproduction must be identified as a
Piano Concerto for Paik No.2
'Fluxconcert' when Fluxus events are more
Orchestra members seat themselves and
than 50% of the programme.
wait for the pianist. The pianist enters,
bows, walks to the piano. Upon reaching
the piano, he jumps from the stage and A Performance Research e-publication, 2002
runs to exit. Orchestra members must
run after him, catch him, and drag him publications.html
back to the piano. The pianist must try his
best to keep away from the piano. When
the piano is finally returned to the piano,
the lights are turned off.

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