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DepartmentoftheInterior BLM-AlaskaTechnicalReport17
Bureauof LandManagement BLM/AK/ST-94/020+3045+985
AlaskaStateOffice
222West7th#13
Anchorage,Alaska99513
AComparisonofCrudeOilChemistryon
America'sNorthSlope:
ChukchiSea-MackenzieDelta
ArthurC.Banet, Jr.
saturates
The Bureau of Land Management-Akska, Division of Minerals is responsible for the assessment and
evaluation of the federal minerals estate. To this end, I have been able to pursue various geological and
geochemical investigations. I sincerely appreciate the continued support that current and previous managers
directing the Division of Minerals have provided towards my effotts in these fields.
In addition I wish toacknowledge the editorial mntribMions pmvided by Dan flurlbert and Susan Banet (MMS),
Tom Mowatt (BLM), Mike Werner (ARC01 and Marvin Mangus. Mike Mickey and hideyo tiaga (Micro Pal-
Associates) and Kirk she^^ (MMS) have also shared their exptrtise with me. These colleagues have
provided i mp~ant cifiiques, observations and suggestions towards making this analysis available. While I
take respnsibilw fur the data presentation and interpretation, I hope this material reflects their professional
input. Also I thank Ed Bovy (BLM Office of E3ternal Affairs) for manipulating my report into the format which
. is the trademark of the BLM-Alaska technical report series.
Author
Atthar C. Banet, Jr. isa geologist in the Bureau of Land Management's Alaska State Mice, Division of Mineral
Resources~Branch of Mineral Assessment, Anchoragev Alaska.
TechnicaI repotts issued bythe Bureau of Land Management-Alasb present the results of research, studies,
investigations, literature searches, testing or similar endeavors on a variety of scientific and technical subjects.
Tbe results presented are final, or are a summation and analysis of data at an intemediate point in a long-
term research project, and have received objective review by peers in the author% fiek4.
The reports are available at 5LM offices in Alaska, the USDI Resources Libraty in Anchorage, vafius libraries
of the University of Alaska, andother selected locations.
Copies are also available for inspection at the USDI Natural Resources Libraw in Washington, D.C. and at
the E3LMService Center Library in Denver.
AComparisonofCrudeOil
ChemistwonAmerica'sNofihSlope:
ChukchiSeamMackenzieDelta
Arthur C.BanetBJr.
BureauofLandManagement
AlaskaStateMi ce
Anchorage,Alaska995l3
Table of Contents
......................................................................................................................... introduction 1
....................................................................................................................... Stratigraphy 2
Oils* .................................................................................................................................... 4
...................................................................................... A . Prud hoe Oil Type 4
.........................................................................
8. Prud hoe Suite Variations 5
C . Umiat Type Oil ......................................................................................... 6
................................................................................ D . Mackenzie Type Oils 6
...............................................................................................
Discussion and inferences 8
....................................................... Mked Oil Types Along Barrow Arch 8
Chukchi Sea Oils .................................................................................... 8
NPRA ..................................................................................................... I 0
............................................... Colville Delta Discoveries: Kuukpuk Unit 11
Seal Island .............................................................................................. 11
Badami ................................................................................................... I 1
Pt . Thomson .......................................................................................... 11
Hammerhead Oil ................................................................................... I 1
Kwlum .................................................................................................. -12
ANWR 1002 Area .................................................................................. 13
Aurora Well ............................................................................................ 14
Belcher Well .......................................................................................... 14
............................................................................................. 5 Summary and Conclusions 15
........................................................................................................ 6 . figures and Tables 19
7 . Bibliography .................................................................................................................... - 64
tist of Tables
Table 1 .
Table 2 .
Table 3 .
Table 4 .
Compilation of geochemical data from North Slope Alaska. oil discoveries and seeps
Geochemical data from wells along Barrow Arch and foothills
Gmchemical oil type data from Mackenzie Delta wells
Geochemical data for selected offshore wells (US.)
Listof Figures
GeographicandmajortectonicfeaturesoftheArctic
Schematicstructura1-stratigraphiccrosssectiononNorthSlope
Seismiclineoffshoreof ANWR 1002areashowingdeformationstylesaffectingBrookian
sediments
GeneralizedSW-NEcrosssection,superimposingNorthSlopepetroleumtraps
ComparisonsofchromatogramsfromPrudhoeandUmiatOilsuites
~turates:~mmti cs:NSO
,
ratiosofNorthSlopeoilsandsourcerockextracts
Metalsratiosvs.APIGravityseparatethePrudhoefromUmiatSuites
Oilsourcedeterminedfromcarbonisotopesvs. pristane:phytaneratio
Aromatic:aliphatic isotoperatiosforUS. andMackenzieoil
Cw-C28-CmternarydiagramsforNorthSlopeoilsandsomesourcerocks
ChromatogramofthethreemajorMackenzieoiltypesandsourcerockextmcts
ChromatogmmandkagmentogramsfromBelcherandKlondikewellsamples
ChromatogramandfragmentogramsforBurgerwelllithologiesandoil
GeochemicalprofileofHammerheadwell
Lflhologies,chromatogmm, fragmentogramsandgeochemicaldatafromHammerheadwell
ComparisonofC,& chromatogramsofrockextractsandoilseepsfromANWR
RepresentativechromatogramsfromAurorawellcuttingsandextract
Listof Plates
Platet. Someofthemajoroilandgasactivitiesin theArztic
Plate2. Compositestratigraphiccolumnswithspecificemphases: thewesternNorthSlopeand
mountains;theentireCoastalPlain;theMackenzieDeltatoTuktoyaktukPeninsula.
Plate3. Fmgmentqramsandhistogram plotsofsteranes( d z217) andtritepanes( d z 191)from
oils,stainedsedimentsandseeps:Prudhoe,Umiat,1002areaandMackenzieDelta.
Phte4. Fragmentograms fromoilsandsourcerocksatd z 217andWz191showingcorrelations
andvariationswithgeographyandthermalmaiurii.
AComparisonof CrudeOilChemistryonAmerica's
NorthS1ope:ChukchiSea-MackenzieDelta
Publicly available geochemical data provide the basis for cornelating and comparing the
major Norkh Slope oil types. These data define tenoil types repmsenting independent
petroleum system. Thh analysis concurs with earlier work that identifies the major and
che~cdy&st hct i veoil types germane to the North Slope.
Prudhoe type oils are shown t o extendto immediately west of the Arctic Nationd Wildlife
Refege 1002area. Also, comparisons of the geochemical data show that considerable
mixingof the Pmdhoe and Umiat oil types has ocmmd in reservoirs along the Barrow
Arch. Data kom the most recent onshore discoveries fit w i t h the Prudhoe or mixed oil
s i b chemistry. Biological marker analysis of the ANWR 1002 area oils show that them
are three types. The J wo- Kat akw- Mmi ng R.type-correlates with Mackenzie Type
Aoils. These oils are derived fkom the upper Cretaceous Benbnitic, the richest source rock
on the Noxth Slope! The AngunPt.oil is of marine origin and likely derived h mmultiple
~ ~ e s , The Kavik oil stain is unique. Biomarker data indicate that some nonmarine
Mackenzie type C2oils have migrated into reservoin which typically yield type Cl oils.
These geochemical data also show that oils from two wens in the Chukchi Sea reprewnt
a newly described and independent petroleum system. The multi-faceted chemistry ofthe
Hammerhead oil shows it is the most e q n e and enigmatic type on the North Slope. It
represents another independent petrolem system. Additional data are required to
determine how and ta what extent the major EuvIum discovery best mrrelates fathe
h d h o e , Hammerhead, Mackenzie Delta or LIN'WRmites.
1. Introduction tional polarity, mdthe amount of data avail-
able. The western tectonic regime is pre-
The North Slope is the major petrolem d o h G ycompressiod in the south with
province of North America. It is located en- an abundance of large scale! far- traveled
tirely within the harshest of frontier climes; thrust sheets. North of the ColviUe foreland
the Arcticf between approximately 132' and basin# this regime changes to a relatively
170' Wand 69' and 71(Plate1).From the undisturbed area beneath muchof the Arctic
ChukchiSeaon the west to theTul ct oyak~ Coastal plain. North of the Bmaw Arhf
Peninsula on the east &is area encompasses ba~mmt-involvdextensiod deformation
some20Ot000sq.mi.(518t000sqkm).Distinc- isprevalentf particukly inthe offshore (fig-
aver@odgwlo@d eneo-ts include ure 2).
theBrooks b p d i b f mWs t t h e Co l v Ue
Trough (foreland basin), the Arctic Coastal Complexity increases easkward.At about
Plain, the Barrow Arch uplifts and the CarmingRiver! there is a distinct northward
Mackenzie Delta onshore. The C3tukeh.i Plat- bulge of hemountain front! which superim-
form and the Beaufort Sea passive margin poses these tectonic regimes (figure I).
comprise the offshore (figures 1and 2). Alldthom are also much smaller both in
arealextent and thickness of stratigraphic
The stratigraphic record in this region section moved by each
includes rocks of Proterozoic through Re-
cent age. These rocks can be divided into at The eastern region, cunsistiisg of the
least 11depositional megasquences, based Mackemie Delta and 42amdian Beaufort, is
on ages of the variois units,their deposi- mostly outboard of the large thrust sheet
style of deformation. This part of the Beau-
fort shows a considerable amount of vertical
uplift from compression of relatively uncon-
solidated Tertiary age lithologies and it also
has ' undergone deformation by predomi-
nantly listric extensional tectonics (figure 3).
Transtensional tectonics also appear to affect
the offshore.
Oilf gas or significant shows are present
inalmostallof the stratigraphic units. How-
everf the major economic reservoirs are of
Mssissippia.nf Triassic, Cretaceous and Ter-
tiary ages. The most prolific potential source
rocks are found in Triassicf Lower Jurassicf
middle and Upper Cretaceous unitsj and
possibly the Tertiary. Howeverf most shales
and carbonates in this region have at least
fair-tu-good hydrocarbon source potential.
Current oil and gas assessments identify some
f&y distinct md mostly independent explo-
ration plays in this regionf based on strati-
graphic and structural relationships (Birdf
1991; Craig othersf 19S;Thurston and Theissf
1987; and Exon &rid others 1988).
Exploration interest hthis area started
about the turn of the century as explorers
reported the presence of oil and gas seeps on
the Coastal Plain.Laterf reconnaissance geo-
logical mapping spread out to the Brooks
logical complexity. Rixon and others (1985),
Hubbard and others (1987) and Moore and
others (1992), offer the most recentf compre-
hensive and complete regional syntheses of
the available data. Birdf (1991), Banet (1990)f
Thurston and Theiss (1987) Bird and Bader
(1987) Bird (1985)f Norris (1985) and Lerand
(1973) also provide summaries and correla-
tions of available North Slope data.
Crystalline rocks are relatively rare on
the North Slope. Exposures and drilling
samples of stocks and plutons typically yield
isotopic age-dates similar to surrounding
sedimentsf suggesting that they are parts of
fault-emplaced allochthons. Undisputable
crystallinef or metmoqhic basement rock
is not known in this region.
Geographically widespread outcrops
show that the oldest sediments are of Prot-
erozoic to Devonian age. These units are
truncated by a regional sub-Mississippian
mconformity (or possibly unconfomities).
Orighdy described as the northerly de-
rived Franklinian sequence (L.erandf 1973)#
later work shows that these lithologies are
far more complex innature and origin. &is-
mict welland outcrop data suggest that there
are several uncorrelated cabonate qumces
which reach several thousands of meters of
thicknessbeneaththeChukchi Platfom and m e f w M s . ~ e ~ o ~ a k o ~ c l u d ~ s o ~
seismic analyses and exploration drilling
under the auspices of the U.S. Navy follovv-
h g the second World War and during the
Korean Conflict. Industry exploration fol-
lowed, concentrating first on surfacemapped
anticlinesinthe foothills of the Brooks Ranget
before turningtoseismically mapped pros-
pwbheat ht hecat r d Arctic CoastalPlain
andeconomic success. Stilllater, exploration
expanded to the offshore regions of the
Mackemie Delta and Beaufort Sea where
discoveries todate are still subeconomic.
2. Stratigraphy
North Slope stratigraphy is expansive,
with c mmt efforts sti l l unraveling its gee-
in the Bulgef e.g. the Baird Groupt the
Katakturdcf the Nmookf Mt. Copplestone
and carbonate facies within the Neruokpuk
Group (Plate 2). Generallyt structural defor-
mation has been mostly fault repetitions
which comprise large scale, far-traveledf
allochthons within the Brooks Range.
Theclastic lithologies consist of quartz-
ites# ar@test s&stst and volcanidastics,
with some interbedded carbonates. These
lithologies are severely foldedf fractured md
fadfed along the Barrow ArCh and at the
mountain front.
A major regional and angular
unconformity with considerable locd relief
separates these oldest sediments from the
overlying mmmefian*umce. Ellesmdan
rocks record thee depositional sequences of
northerly derivedf carbonate and clas tic sedi-
ments (Hubbard and others 1987). Lower
Ellesmerian clastics are present only on
allwhthonsinthe Brooks Range. Palirispastic
reconstruction of these Iithologies suggests
that they were deposited hundreds of km
south of their present outcrops. Mayfield
and others (1991) andMoore and others (1992)
describe the extent of shortening recorded in
these thrust sheets or ffpanels.ff
In contrastf the Upper Mississippian
through Triassic/ middle and upper
Ellesmerian rocksf are thick south of the Bar-
row Arch and line the Colville basin. Only
their fine-gained, distaland condensed sec-
tion lithologies are exposed on smaller scale
thrusts along the front of the Brooks Kange.
The light colored, cliff-forming Lisburne
Group carbonates are also prominent among
the other units exposed along the mountain
front. haddition, drilling and seismic data
shows that the Lisburne carbonates line the
Colville trough and are truncated along the
Barrow Arch uplifts.
Ellesmerian clastics md carbonates are
reserwoirs for most of the economically re-
coverable oil reserves yet discovered in
Alaska. Thermally mature facies of the
Shublik Fomticm (Triassic) are the most
likely sources for the high sulfur and metals
content of the oils at Prudhoe Bay field. The
t h e d maturityregime indicates that some
finer-grained clastics and facies of the
Lisburne Group could have also contributed
minor amomts of hydrocarbons. However,
the available geochemical analyses are not
xefined enough to identify diagnostic com-
ponents.
Breakup sequence rocks (Jurassic-mid
Cretaceous) record the most recent activa-
tion of the Barrow Arch and the stepwise
o p m g / ~ k gof the kctic ocean. Mul-
tiple load uplifts shed over a kilometer of
s&mts into the Colville basin south of the
h&, md over threekilometers of sediments
tothenorth, intodeep grabens forrned by the
rifting away of the northern land source
(Hubbard and others, 1987). Unconformities
are common withinthis section. At about 128
ma the Lower Cretaceous Unconformity
(LCU) removed much of the EUesmerian
section from the crests of the Barrow Arch
uplifts.
Hubbard and others (1987') identify a
"low velocityf' zone withinthe hwer Kingak
Shale (Jurassic) as a potential oil source rock.
Carman and Hardwick (1983) identify a High
Fbdioactive Zone (HRZ)or Pebble Shale Unit
(Hauterivian - Bmernian) as another, or-
ganic-rich, potential oil-generating source
rock.
Basin deposiGond polarity subsequently
changed to the south, with the deposition of
Brookan sediments.Thi s started perhaps as
early as Bajocian and proceeded to about
lower Pliocene. The Brookian section con-
sists of threedistinct pulses of thick clastics.
Hubbard and others (1987) cite over 8kxn of
sediment in the Colville basin and over 10
k m of sediment on the l3eadort shelf. These
are mostly chert l i w&t es and shalesf with
lesser amomts of interbedded coals and silt-
stones. The coals are widespread, mostly
subbitumhous and have low sulfur con-
tents. West to east, progressively regressive
facies overstep the Archand deposit onto the
Beaufort Shelf (Banetf 1990).
Organic rich condensed facies occur
within the Torok Formation (Aptian-
C e n ~ k r n ) ~ the Colville SMe (e.g. the
T w o ~ a n - ~ ~ s ~ & t i m h t o ~ ~ c s ~ e , t h e
Smoking Hills Formation and Boundary
Creek Formation) and likely within the up-
per Brookian shales on the Beaufort shelf.
Creany and Passey (1993) illustrate the se-
quence stratigraphic occurrence of these
multiple and thick sections of organic rich
rocks. Their high T K bases (l3TB's) repre-
sent d m u m flooding surfaces. These
W s typically have high radioactive zones
whit31 have preserved appreciable amounts
of sapropelic material.These faaes arefound
in the Brmkian sequences in both the U.S.
arid Canada @metf 1990).
of diasteranes supports the contribution of
marhe shale source rocks rather than just
carbonate lithologies.
Terpme concentrations are greater than
steranes (Mackenzie andothersf 1985). Plates
3 and 4 show that m/z 191 CZ9hopane is
typically equal to or larger than C3,,in the
Prudhoe suite. There is also a series of ex-
tended hopanes. Together with the presence
of Cshopanes, this suggests the mix of car-
bonate and marine shale source material
(Waples, 1991). Tricyclic terpmes are also
prominentt suggeskgwt the Prudhoesuite
oils are thermally mture.
3. Prudhoe Suite Variations
However, thereare several intemlvaria-
tions of note within the Prudhoe suite. Gn-
er dyj API gravities typically are heavier in
shallower reservoirs with lower reservoir
temperatures (table 1). 13cisotopes and gas
chromatographs of oils from the Kekiktlcuk
Reservoir (WdicoR Group) appear to have
some noticeable nonmarine character (fig-
ures 5 and 8). Perhaps this reflects some
contribution of indigenous kerogens from
the Endicott Group nonma.rine sediments.
Theveryhighsulfur and metals content,
very low gravity oil from the G.W. Dalton
well lacks steranest as if it had beenseverely
degraded. Its triterpane distribution is iden-
tical to Pmdhoe. It also has the lowest satu-
rate concentration of the Prudhoe Suite (fig-
ure 6);but it still has resolvable alkanes,
sumeskg that some oilmixing postdating
degradation has taken place dter degrada-
tion. Similar oil from the hvearak Pt. well
has high flsme:ph*e ratios and the
heaviest *
f
C isotope ratio (figures 8and 9) .
It is apparent that a degraded oil has prob-
ably been mixed with a nondegraded oil.
However,inthis case it appears that bothoils
have chemistries that suggest they are
Prudhoe type oh.
The South b o w #I9 oil is a typical
Prudhoe suite oil found in an upper
ENesernerianSand, the Sag River (Triassic).
Howeverf its V/V+Ni ratio is slig$tly lower
thanthe Prudhoe oil. The nearby South Bar-
row#20is found ina Breakup sequence sand
within the Pebble shale. Its V/V-tNi ratio is
identical to Barrow #19.Howeverf the satu-
ratesf and the API Gravity are higher. The
sulfur content and metal contents are dra-
matically lower indicating that this is not a
typical Pru&oe suite oil, Either the Shublik
Formation has not contributed to South Bar-
row # 20, or more likely, oil type mixing has
occurred, affecting South Barrow # 20 more
than # 19.
Geochemical analyses show that the
Shublilc Formation and/or its distal facies;
the W k Formation, the King& Shale and
the Pebble Shale Unit, are the likely sources
for most of the Prudhoe oil. However; with
all of the analyses that have been done on the
North Slopej none of these most likely units
have been "caught in the act" of actively
generating and expelling hydrocarbons.
The Sublik is a phosphatic marine car-
bonatejri chin sapropelic organic carbon. It
contributed the high sulfurt highmetal con-
tentandtrikrpanes to the oil (Plate 4). Facies
of the King& SMe are sufficiently rich in
organic matter andvolmetricdy sufficient
to have been a major source for thePrudhoe
oil.
Wheremturejthe h g a k kerogens con-
tribute a considerable amount of diasteranes
to the m/z 217 spectra. However, extended
hopanes are not prominent (Plate 4). The
KhgalcShaleisaregionally widespread unit
with kerogens that vary in organic
d b e s s , g m&e ~ d character and burid
history. Thus, the .Kin@ Shale m y have
contributed to more thanone kind of No&
Slope oil.
The Pgbble Shale wi t is dso a wide-
spread marine shale containing relatively
hydrogen-rich urganic matter. Like the
kg&, the Pebble Shale m/z 217 spectra
have considerable diasterane conMbu~on.
In addition the m/z 191 spectra show the
extended hopane series, such as that whichis
so prominent inPrudhoe suite oils (Plates 3
and 4). The Pebble SMe Unit's relatively
highT K , biomarker distribution, and strati-
graphic proximify to both cmier beds and
major reservoir units, identify it a candidate
for a Prudhoe suite source rock where it is
thermaI1y mature (Seifert and others, 1979).
C. Ud a t TypeOil
The Umiakoils are found both in shallow
reservoirs along the Brooks Range foothills,
inthe Cape Simpson area and at seeps across
theWMCoastal Plain area. It is commonly
referred to as the Umiat-Shpson type oil (in
Magoon and Claypool, 19S). These are light
coloredl high gravity oils and condensate
with sulfur contents less than0.1% (Table 1).
Note that sample 105 (table 2)is an Umkt oil
andisfrom a reservoir greater than14,000ft.
This is the deepest resewair reported: the
location is not indicated.
Gash o r n t o p a m of unaltered Umiat
oil samples are generally not distinguishable
The most striking feature of the m/z 191
fragmentogrm is that C29 is substantially
less than CCJ~, which is normal for non car-
bonate-derived oils (Plate 3). TricycIics and
the partial series of extended hopmes are
Iess pronounced than in the Prudhoe oil.
Tm/Ts ratios are also less which could be
either attributed to source differences or in-
dicate that Umiat oils may bemore thermally
mature. Morefanes artd uleananes, indica-
tive of nomarine en~i r omen6~ are not
prominent. Thus, nonxnarine contributions
to the Urniat oils are not manifest as major
constituents inthem/z 191 frapentogams.
Umiat oils are derived from mostly marine
clastic source rocks.
St r a t i ~a p~~a l l y~ the Torok and Pebble
Shale are the most likely candidates, withthe
b g a k as a less likely source. The m/z 217
spectra show that all three sources have
diasteranes similar to the U&t oil. How-
ever, all threesources have a large CZ9peak,
unlike the Umiat oil. This supports the tenet
that the Umiat oil is at a high degree of
fromthePrudhoe suite. Grosscomposi ~o~
thermal maturity. At miz 191, Umiat ails
analyses show that the saturate fraction is
much higher in the Umiat oils. Attendant
prisme:phfiane ratios are muchgreater than
1.5 and CPI's are also greater than 1.0. 13c
isotopes are between -29.1 and -2723 ppt.
Metal contents are between 0.1 and 5.0ppm.
Nickel content is typically higher than vana-
&urn with V/V+Ni ratios <O.!iO(figures 6to
9j.
Biomarker concmkaaom of the LJmiat-
type oils are less than the Prudhoe suite
(Mackemie and others, 1985). The distribu-
tion of c2748-29 stermes reflects more
no&e kerogm source contribution than
the Prudhoe suite (figure 10).The relatively
low concentrations and overall sterane ciis-
tribution also suggest that Umiat oils are
mare thermally mature than the Prudhoe
ails. Neither long migration nor advanced
biodegradation alterations are apparent.
Plates3and 4 also show that the Umiat oils
typically have less prominent C30sterane
peaks,whichsuggests dilution possibly due
to some terrigenous source materid.
have a morefane peak like the Torok, but the
Umiat oils have minor mounts of extended
hopanes as do the Kingalc samples (Plate 4).
Magoon and Claypool (1985) propose
that there may be sufficient variation be-
tweenthe Simpson md Umiat oils to indi-
cate that each oil a has different or unique
sMe source- Alternatively, available analy-
ses suggest that faciesand thermal maturity
v~at i omd%~e&g&md Pebbleshale
(and perhaps the Torok) are likely great
enough to account for the relatively subtle
differences in Umiat oil chemistry.
D. Mackenzie TypeOils
Three m ~ o r types of oils are found on
the Mackenzie Delta and the offshore Cana-
dian Beaufort Sea (Snowdon, 1979; Brooks,
1986;SnowdonandPowell, 1988). Theseare
16Oto48O MI gravity oils and condensates.
Brooks (1986) and Snowdon and Powell
(1988) report that m y aretypically biode-
graded, some t~ great depth. These oils
frequently lack a 'dnormal'' alkane fraction
(figure 11). The topped oils lack appreciable
amounts of NSUs. Sahrates:aromtics:NSO
ratios do not separate the Mackeruie oils into
definite classesf like the Padhoe and Umiat
suites (figure 6). Sdfur contents are bimo-
dal. The mi n e derived (Type A) oils have
about 1% sulfur while the nonmarine de-
rived (Types I3 and C) typically have less
than0.2% (table3). Pfistane:phyke ratios
are much greater than1.5 and are higher than
any from the Alaskan section of the North
Slope (figure 8). 13cisotopes are low (light)!
dramatically lower than any others encoun-
tered in this North Slope studyl suggesting
considerable normarine input (table 3).
Curiale (1991) shows that Type A oils
have sulfur contents between about 0.5 and
1.0% withvariable metal contents up to about
12 ppm. Vanadium is prd0-t over
nickel. Type C oils have between about 0.01
and 0.2% sulfur withmetal contents less than
2ppm (often nondetectible). Type A oils plot
similar to the Prudhoe suite# while Type C
are more similar to Umiat-type oils (Figure
7). All Mackenzie oils are isotopically very
light. Type l3 oils and oils in the Kupl l i t or
Richards Formation reservoirs are 1.2~/00
heavier thanTypes A or C (figures 8and 9).
Brooks (1986) reports on biomrker
geochemistry of Mackenzie ails. He uses bar
charts (Plate 3)of ht epat d spectral peaks
whichfacilitates comparison of oil types pre-
sented. W l e useful for comparisons and
ratios# this method does not totally replace
using spectra as the chartsdo not show dou-
blets from near-coeluting peaks. Inaddition,
it is not always s&&@Homard in compar-
ing spectra from different laboratories be-
cause of d i f f e ~ g extraction /isolation /in&-
gration methods and analytical hardware.
The C27-2G29+ steranes resolve both a
distinct mi n e od type and a nonmarine
suite(figure10).ThetypeA marine oils dm
have a prominent Cmpeakl and diasteranes
are present (Plate 3). Sterane ratios do not
separate type l3 from the C types# the
n o d e oils. Brooks eparatesType Coils
into two subgroups based on biomarker
maturity parameters and diasterane ratios-
He proposes a comonsource~ Curiale (191)
subdivides the Type C oils based on reser-
voir agef the presence of ol emes f terpanes
and nor-compounds discerned in rn/z 218
spectra. His Kupl l i t - Rhr ds oils corre-
late wikh Brooks' (1986) C1 subgroupf and
are generated from yet unidentified andther-
mally mature Richards (HTl3) facies. The
Reindeer-Maose Channel oils correlate with
the C2 subgroup. Unlike Brooks (1986)f these
oils are proposed to be generated from a
Paleocene source (Curiale, 1991).
The biomarkers of the Kugmallit-
Richards C1 oil fit very well with those jden-
tified in the Rchards Shale (Eocene). Like-
wise biomkers found in the Reindeer-
Moose Channell C2# have been identified in
Paleocene sediments of the Cmdi an Beau-
fort (Snowdonf 1988). These data suggest
that the Cl and C2 oils are separate and
distinct groups. There is disagreementl or
noncorrelation occursl where the C2
Issun@ and Tarsiut oils are tested from
K u g d t reservoirs. Howeverl upsection
migration of a C2 oil into a Cl reservoir
would explain the discrepancies.
Type A smwhdedved 03s have more
tricyclic peaks and lower Tm ITS ratios than
either B or C oils. The m/z 191shows that
C29 norhopane is less than C3Ohopanel Iike
most dastic derived oils. Type A oils have
well developed C31-35 extended hopane
peaks, as expected for marine derived oils.
Morehe, possibly indicative of normarine
rock contributions, occurs inTypeA oils, but
o l e me was not detected (Brooks, 1986)-
Type B oils are derived from pre-Term
tiary, p r e d o e f l y n o mh e source rocks
and are found in hwer Cretaceous reser-
voirs. They also differ from Type A oils be-
cause (29 norhopane is almost as pmminmt
asC30hupane, rather like thePmdhoesuite.
Thisisrather mco-n for nomr hecbs-
ticderived oils in general. The Tm/Ts ratio
is also higher thaninthe Type A oils. Minor
amounts of moretane and oleanme were
Type B oils are probably Lower Creta-
c a w n o mi n e ofis and Type C oils are
Tertiary nonmarine oils (SnowdonI 1979;
Brooks, 1986; Curiale, 1992). However, oil- to
actively generating source correlations have
nGt yet bmmdef or ~es BI Cl andC2.As
yet, only organic-lean and thermally imrna-
ture possible source rock facies have been
tested. T h e d y maturef organic rich fades
are postulated to exist more basinward and
in deeper waters than current drillhg tech-
niquespermit sampling(Iss1er andsnowdon
(1990).
However, important similarities to the
Prudhoe suite include the abundance of
diasteranes and h e well developed series of
c31c35 extended hopanes (Plates 3 and 4).
Evidently,thisisacase of overlapping petro-
leum system char eg the same reservoirs.
The Barrow #19 and # 20 oils are likely a
similar situationf but sufficienay quantita-
tive biomker data are not yet available for
comparison.
B. Chukchi Sea Oils
The Shell Western E &PC?CS-Y-1413# 1
Burger well and CXS-Y-1482 #1 K3ondike
well were df l ed off the northwest coast of
the National petroleum Reserve-Alaska
(WRA)(Plate I). At Burger well, Repeat
Formation Tests (RFT"s) from a reservoir
between 5560-5665 ft yielded hydrocarbons
from clastic sediments just entering thermal
maturity (YoRo about 0.60%). The reservoir
is a transgressive sand unit, and is typical of
the Breakup depositional sequence, i.e. de-
rived from local uplifts during lower Creta-
ceous or upper Kingalc times.
Oil was recovered at Klondike well at a
depth of approximately 9,916 ft. These sedi-
ments are a fine-grained facies comelatable
to the Sadlerochit Group which is the main
Prudhoe reservoir. At this location these
sediments areat the threshold of catagenesis.
Geochemical analyses of cuttings and
sidewall core data show that Burger and
Nondike oils are found in lithologies having
about 1to 2% T Ws in both wells.
Analyzed samples include 3Z0 to 57O
API gravity oil? condensates and extracts.
Chromatogram show Klondike oil with
normal? mature# Inarjne-derivd character.
Some Burger oil has been thermally altered
to condensate and some has a prominent
n-CZ5 peak (figures 12 and 13).
Sa~ra&s:aromatics:N~ratios plot between
the Prudhoe and Umht suites (figure 6).
Pristane:phytane ratios are like the
Umiat-type (figure 8). Sulfur contents are
very low: between 0.0670and 0.4% (table4).
Metal content of the Burger oil is similar to
Umiat oils? but (V/V+Ni) ratios are divided
(figure 7). Isotopidyf Burger is similar to
Uiniat whereas Klondike plots considerabIy
lower than Prudhoe type oils: more like
hvearak Pt. (figures 8md 9).
Steranes# at m/z 217# from the Burger
well have b m altered due to thermal degra-
dation ( f i p e 13). The C27-2s2g steranes of
shales, sandstones and the oil plot as
marhederived organic material (Figure 10).
However, no CB stermes were measured.
Smalldimterane peaks are also present. The
steranes from aondike have not been so
a f f d . The C27-2s29regular. sterane ratios
and the presence of CS0sterane suggest ma-
rine source racks (figures 10and 12) for this
oil. Diasteranes are also very prominent,
probably as a result of maturity affects and
because typicid carbonate source rocks ap-
parently have not contributed to the oil.
The m/z 191 spectra of Burger and
Klandike are practically identical. Tricyclic
terpanes are present in appreciable quanti-
ties. The CS0 hopane exceeds CZ9hopane
like the Umiat oils. The c31-35 extended
hopane series is also present in significant
quantities, as would be expected for an oil
with a marine clastic source.
Clearly, the sulfur and metal contents
indicate that the Chukchi oils are not of the
Prudhoe suite. These oils differ from the
Udat oils in their sterane distributions and
extended hopmes. They are isotopically
lighter, as well. Thus, the Chukchi oils are
not a mi xbe of known oil types and prob-
ably represent the product of another petro-
leum system-
At Klondike, the Shublik overlies the
section that yielded the oil sample (Plate 2).
This Shublik is a black splintery shale with
interbedded limestone. It has TCC values,
Hydrogen Indices and a sufficient thermal
maturity which suggest that it is a richsouce
rock and prime wdiate for generating the
Chukchi oils. However, known
Shublik-derived oils (Prudhoe Suite) typi-
cally have hi@ sulfur and metals contents
with Vanadium more prevalent. Although
the phosphatic fades of the Shublik are ab-
sent at Klmdikef the carbonate, and prob-
able source of the sdfurf remains. The 13c
isotopes are ambiguous.
These data support a marine, or some-
what deltaic shale as the most likely source
rock. Howeverf of the marine shales tested
and analyzed intheChukChiexplorationfthe
Kingalc, the Pebble Shale and Torok have no
source potential or are mostly gas prone.
Biomarkers at m/z 191do not exclude con-
sidering the Shublikt the Pebble Shale Unit
md, perhaps, certain facies (regiody) of
theKing&to be candidates for the source for
such isotopically heavy hydrocarbons. Evi-
dently, the proposed source rocks have sig-
nificantly different kerogen chemistry from
the areas where they are currently quantita-
tively described. In addition, these same
chemical characteristics may also be account-
able, perhaps more than mixing with the
Umiat oilf for the mixed oil types found
along the Barrow Arch uplifts.
C.NPR-A
Approximately23million acres comprise
the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska
(WRA). This area was set aside because of
the numerous oil and gas seeps along the
coast and favorable geologic structures in
the foothills. Gvemmtexploration started
inthe 1940's with a drilling program inthe
19WsJ testing areas of h o r n seepages and
anticlines. These efforts found several s d l
oilandgas fields at relatively shallow depths.
Later drilling programs, based largely on the
results of modern CDP seismic interprets-
thns during the 1970's tested a wider area,
but found only oil shows and gas (Gryc,
2988). Four lease o f f e ~g s have resulted in
only one Industry test wellf Brontosaurus, in
northwestWRA.Plate I shows the extent of
NPRA exploration. Drilling density is not
highf even along the Arctic coast. The results
indicate that there is probably no Prudhoe-
style ElIesmerian truncation accumulation
to be found along the coast. However the
regional geology and drilling immediately
east of WRAsuggests that Breakup sequence
sandstones are probably prospective in the
subsurface of the northern coastal plain.
(Table1describes what is knownabout these
oil discoveries.) Also,theminimalamount of
exploration of the foreland foldbelt and
overthrust belt of the Brooks Range has been
far from conclusive: inrealityf it's just barely
informative.
The numerous authors in Gryc (1988)
present the synthesis of various NPIU geo-
logical and geochemical investigations.
Magoon and Claypool-(1988) identify three
oil types: the Pmdhoe suite; the Urniat oils;
and they separate the condensates into a
third group based on migrational effects.
Potential oil prone source rocks include the
Torok Formation, Pebble Shalef KingakShale
and the Shublik Formation (Magoon md
Bird, l98&), butnone of these unitswas found
to be actively generahg hydrocarbons where
tested.
Although the WRA studies are exten-
sive, there are still some areas which need
additional analyses. Data are sparse from the
Skdl Cliffs seep in northwestern WRA. It
has low sulfur content and low MI gravity
(Magoon and Claypoolf 1982). Perhaps it is
part of the Chukchi oil system. If so, then
parts of western W U may warrant addi-
tional resource estimation analyses.
The variations found in the thermal ma-
turity of outcrops along the foreland foldbelt
are of pa~dwinkrethdete&gwK&
potential source rocks are viable in NPRA
analyses ( Johson and othersf 1991; Howell
and othersf 1992). The nature of oil emplace-
ment at Umiat is of particular interest* At
present# this petroleum system is poorly m-
derstood. Umiat type oils are found across a
large area in a number of structural and
stratigraphic mvironments. U ~ e U d a t w e
oils are related to the enigmatic dead 03
shows from the Cretaceous clastic section at
Gsburne well (Plate I), it greatly expands the
area of anexploration play into the foothills
region.
ICleist and others (1983) report on oil-
stained Lisbme limestones in the central
foothills of the Brooks Range thrust belt.
Certainly, these oil stained carbonates and
the blaCkJ ignitablef organic-rich "blubber
roc&ff found locally on fisbume allochthom
warrant fuzther geochemical evaluation.
Current data suggest that these rocks are too
t h e d y mature tahost their hydrocarbons
(Johnsson and othersf 1991; Howell# 1992).
Ether one of the known petroleum systems
has been able to put hydrocarbons inthese
rocksf or there may be anotherf as yett unde-
finedpetroleum system h operation. Ad&-
tional geochemical data may help to deter-
mine the areal extent and productive lifespan
of the petroleum system emplacing hydro-
carbons along the mountain front.
D. CulvilleDeltaDiscoveries: The Kudcpik
unit
Recent drilling west of the Prudhoe-
Kuparuk area has resulted in several oil and
gas discoveries (Plate 1) immediately east of
NPM. This is the Kuupkik Unit. As of yetf
the operators have not released much perti-
nent data on their recent discoveries. Table 1
shows that these wells have tested between
180 and 1200 BOPD of 26' to 32OMI gravity
oil with GORs of 250 to 500 from multiple
reservoirs (table 1). Current speculation from
the publicly available well depths and the
API gravities is hat these are Prudhoe suite
oils or a mixture tested from the Breakup
sequence sands.
E. Seal Island
The Seal Island discovery represents
about 300 million barrels of condensate and
oil found offshore, north of Prudhoe Bay
field (Plate I). Hydrocarbons are tested from
the Sadl er dt Group sands. The Northstar
accumulation is a continuation of this trend,.
onshore. The Shell E & P CXS-Y-181 well
(table 4) shows high API Gravity oil/con-
densate. It also yielded high levels of H2S,
which is more commonly associated with
Prudhoe suite oils produced from sea water-
injected and d c r o b d - a wt d areas of the
Prudhoe field, or the fisburne field carbon-
ate reservoirs.
. .
The Badami discovery is approximately
30d e s east of Prudhoe Bay field (Plate 1). It
tested approximately 4250 BOPD of 27' to
2BQAPIgravity oil and 1.2 Wmgas from
middle Bmokian sands. Without additional
geochemicaldata,.speculation is h t this is a
Prudhoe oil, or possibly a mixed suite.
Oil is found in basement rocks, the Pk
Thornon sands of the Breakup sequence
and Flaxman sands of the middle Brookian
sequence. These are 1Bu to >40 MI gravity
oils with GOR's between 400 and 22# 705. The
sections which were tested are from depths
between about 11,500 and 14,300 ft. (Banet,
1992). Table 2 shows that sampleDZE, from
a Cretaceous sand, has API gravityf sulfur
and metal contents that place it within the
Prudhoe suite (figure 7). This is the deepestf
and the maximum down dip occurrence yet
h o r n along the Barrow Arch uplifts and
furthest east identified extent of the Prudhoe
suite oils. It expands the geographic range of
the Prudhoe oils right to the very western
border of the highly prospective Arctic Na-
tional Wildlife Refuge 1002 area.
The Flaxman sands (Paleocene) are
upsection of thePt. Thomson sands and they
also tested oil, up to 2!30 BOPD. Anders and
others (1987) posit that the variability in MI
gravity oil in Pt. Thomson area is because
there are two different oils in these respec-
tive reservoirs. DeaspMting causes both a
high gravity oil (35' to 45O)and low gravity
residue (la0) in the Cretaceous Thomson
sands. The Flaxman sands ( met , 1990 fig-
ure 7)then, have a genetically different 21' to
27' gravity oil. Anders and others (1987)also
propose that some 44' gravity oil has mi-
grated vertically into the F l a m sands.
This report demonstrates two oil types
are present along the Barrow Arch, and
where/ how mixing of these oil types occurs.
Note that the analytical variations, docu-
mented by publicly available data within the
Prudhoe suite alone, could account for allthe
differences between the Pt Thomson and
Haxxnanreservoirs. These oilsare present in
neareonomic accumulations, additional
and definitive crude oil chemical analyses
should be @opehHy) forthcoming to the
Eterature.
G.Hammerhead Oil
The Tibmnerhead discovery is off shore,
north of h e Pt. Thornson area (Plate 1). The
discovery well tested almost l,.WBOPD
frommostly unconsolidated early Oligocene
sediments (figure 14). These are thermally
immature, upper Brookian sands, silts and
mudstones. The sediments have high TOCs,
highGenetic Potentials from oil staining and
high Oxygen Indexes from the predomi-
nantly terrigenous indigenous kerogens (fig-
ure 15).
Hammerhead oil has a greenish color.
Analyses show a dramatically higher sulfur
content than the Prudhoe suite or even the
Dalton oil. API gravity is low, 17' to 20'
(table 4). The a1kane:aromatic:NSCys ratios
(figure 6) and alkane distribution indicate
that this oil has been extensively degraded
(figure 15). 13cisotopes of Hammerhead
kerogens and extracts are low (figure 8)which
is probably more indicative of the extract
from its nonmarine reservoir sediments than
the oil. Sterane distributions vary signifi-
cantly with depth representing thermal or
migrational alteration. Note the dramatic loss
of COTwith depth, which reflects increasing
thermal maturity. Diasteranes, which are
typically rare inhigh sulfur crudes, arepromi-
nent in all samples and also increase with
depth (figure 15).
The high sulfur content, the Cw^e.20
sterane ratios and the possible elution of %
sterane (figures 10 and 15)suggest that this
crude oil is derived from marine shales and
carbonates, with noticeably less (or no)
nonmarine source contribution than the
Prudhoe suite (figure 10).
The triterpanes (m/z 191)also show in-
triguing distributions and changes with
depth, hi shallower samples C29 hopane is
less than C30hopane. In deeper samples
there is more Cw, which like the Prudhoe
suite, suggests marine carbonate source rock.
The extended hopanes become prevalent
down section. Also the concentration of CS
extended hopane inthe deepest sample sup-
ports marine carbonate-derived oil. Tricyclics
are more prominent with depth suggesting,
like the sterane chemistry, that detectable
thermal maturation changes occur down
section. Tm>Ts in all-samples. This ratio
decreases down section, reflecting thermal
maturity and the marine derivation of the oil.
Also, peak ratios of the C31extended hopanes
of the Hammerhead oil (figure 15;NO) are
rather similar to those attributed to marine
oils leaching biomarkers out of Tertiary coals
(Philp and Gilbert, 1986).Bothmoretane and
bisnorhopane, which are usually associated
with n o d e - d e r i v e d oil, are eluted from
the Hammerhead samples.
The sybillistic chemistry of the Ham-
merhead oil makes it the most enigmatic on
the North Slope. Biomarkers show appre-
ciable thermal maturity changes with a rela-
tively small increase of depth. The high sul-
fur content and biomarkers indicate deriva-
tion, at least inpart, from marine carbonates;
perhaps more so thanthe Prudhoe oils and
Dalton oil. However, high diasterane con-
tent, the presence of moretane and
bisnorhopane are more typical of terrigenous
source input. Also, (he Hammerhead oil is
found in upper Brookian sediments depos-
ited during a transgressive high stand.
Known marine carbonate possible source
rocks are more distant areally and
stratigraphicdy from Hammerhead than
from any other North Slope discovery.
Kuvlumis an offshorediscov eryapproxi-
mately 15 miles east of Hammerhead (Plate
1).It tested 3400BOPDof 3 4 O gravity oil and
2.04 MMCFD of gas from middle or upper
Brookian sands. These limited data show
that the Kuvlum oilchemistry differs from
the nearby Hammerhead oil. Initial specula-
tion is that it may be a high gravity Prudhoe
suite oil, similar to the Pt. Thomson oil(s).
However its juxtaposition to Hammerhead,
ANWRandMackenzie areas with their mul-
tiple petroleum systems mandates the exer-
cise of caution in predicting oil type at this
stage. With initial reserves estimated at 1
BBO, perhaps marginally economic, addi-
tional date should be forthcoming.
The1.5Inillion acre kctic National Wild-
life Refuge 1002 areaf in northeast Alaska,
has high potential for the discovery of sig-
nificant oil and gas reserves. The stratigra-
phy shows that there arq numerous prospec-
tive petroleum source rocks and reservoir
rocks in this area {Bird and Molenaar, 1987;
Banetf 1992). There are also numerous
mapped prospects (Foland and Ldla, 1987)'
Volumetric estimates for the 1002 area rival
those estimated for the entire WRA{Dolton
md othersf 1987; Bird, 1991).
Outcrops are uncommon across the fea-
tureless Arctic Coastal Plain' However, these
relatively few Coastal Plain exposures yield
a number of oil seepsf 03stained sediments
and organic-rich lithologies. Due to its kctic
environrnentf intense weathering and bia-
degradationhas affected the oil seep samples
and sediment samples from locations on
Utdcturuk Jag0 Ref and Kavik Ck(figure
16. - The bvi k Ck. locatian is technically
outside the 1002 area but is included in the
analyses.).
Chromtog~ams of the CIS+ fraction
show that some samples are dtered to vary-
ing degrees. Consequentlyf definitive inter-
pretations made from them may be arp-
able. However, figure 16 shows that eluted
elements have general similarities between
the surviving nomesolvable portions of the
l3ento~tic Shale (Upper Cretaceous) onJago
R.and nearby ( b d a t e l y d o m&e m)
very odorous, oil-stained Eocene siltstone.
There is also rninor similarity between the
nonresolvables of the lower Katak- Ck.
oil stajned sandstone and the Kavik Ck.oil
s h e d sandstone- These latter two smd-
stones are from the upper Brookian
Sagavanirktok Formation. The m e degree
Chromatograms from the remaining
sampies resemble typical exfracts of mature,
marine derived hydrocarbons. All have low
pristme:phyme ratios.
No identifiable alkanes or iso-alkanes
were resolved from the oil seep samples.
Manning Pt. appears to have a unimodal
m a ~ e character, whereas the Angun Pt.
seep may have some bimodal nonmarine
character (figure 16).Sa~at e: mom~cs: NW
distributions show that the Mannhg Pt.,
South Katakturuk Ck. and Jag0 samples are
similar to t?te Prudhoe andUrniat oils whereas
the North Katakturuk and A n p samples
plat like source rocks because weathering
has removed much of the saturate fraction
(figure6).Variations of the pristane:phytane
ratio separate the North from South
btakturuk samples (figure 16).13cisotope
variations (figure 9) place the bvi k sample
out by itself.A n pPt. samples are similar to
oils generated from m a ~ e clasticsf while
the others are closer to the Prudhoe suite.
The Manning Pt oil seep has isotope ratios
which suggest mixed source materials (fig-
ure 9).
Biomarker analysis shows that regular
sterane concentrations are low and
diasteranesare very prominent in fhe m/z
217 spectra. Like so m y of the Mackenzie
oils this is probably due tu thermal mMty
or possibly bi de~adat i on~ weatheringf and
derivation from dastic source rocks. Only
the Kavik smple has no quantitatively re-
solvable stermes (plate 4) Thec27-2&29 dis-
tribution shows that the h4aming Pt. seep
plots between the nonmarine Mackenzie
(types Bj ClandC2)andPmdhoesuites. The
Katakturukj Jago and A n p samples and
Manning Pt. stain plot as inarin&fflved
oils (figwe 10).HoweverfCN st eme is not
readily resolved inmyof these spectra (Plates
of s ~ ~ m y d s o e x t m d ~ ~ o 3 s ~ d 3and 4).
middle Brookian turbidite samples found
along upper Ka a - Crmk and Canning
River. In additionf the resolvable alkanes
show that thesesmples appear tohave some
nonmarine character and high
pristane:phytane ratios (Banet, 1990).
Triqclicsare present inallrniz191spec-
tra. As in the Uxniat m/z 191 spectra, the
tricyclic cuncentrations arevery minor.How-
ever, degradation leaves the relatively stable
tzicyclicsasthe only reaflyidmMable peaks
in the hvi k and hgun samples. Oddly,
both A n p seep and stain samples retain
their steranes relatively intact albeit mostly
altered. In the Jago, Manning Pt. and
Katakturuk samples# C29norhopane is much
less than CN hopane and Tm slightly larger
than Ts. These samples also have well re-
solved extended c31c35 hopane series! like
the Prudhoe suite, suggesting marine clastic
source derivation. Overallf their m/z 191
spectra are nearly identical.
Both the Kavik and A n p Pt. samples
are severely altered in the hopane spectra.
They also lack tiheextended hopmes. How-
ever! unidentified peaks intheir spectra elute
where o l e me and moretime, indicative of
Tertiary deltaic source materialt should be
suspected.
The chromatogram show considerable
nonmarine source character that is not par-
ticularly coincidental to the biomarker
geochemistry. With the severity of degrada-
tion# the biumker interpretation is prob-
ably less compromised than the chromato-
grams.Thust the available data show h t the
1 0 2 area samples have predominantly ma-
rine source rock characteristics. The
biomarker data definetheJago-Kat&imuk-
M m g Pt. group, which includes all of the
samples from the middle Brookian turbid-
ites and the Pebble Shale and Kemik samplesf
too (figure 16).The Upper Cretaceous Bento-
nitic Shale is the predominant source rockt
whereas the biomrker distributicm sug-
gest Kingak and the Pebble Sble are also
minor contributors (Plates 3and 4). Insome
wells immediately west of the 1002area the
J3entonitic shale has high resistivities and
low sonic velocities suggesting that oil is
actively being generated and f i g pore
space# thus altering the petrophysical prop-
erties. The kt oni t i c Shale correlates to the
Smoking Hills and Boundary CreekForma-
tions which are the most likely source of the
hhckenzie Type Aoils (Snowdonand Powellf
1979;Snowdon 1980;and Brooks# 1986).
&vik stain is severely weathered and
mostly d i k e the other samples. It may be
related to the oil stainedf nonmarine,
Sagavdrktok sandstone found along north
Katakturuk Creek. The presence of steranes
a t h p where alkanes andtriterpanes have
been severely altered, may be due to mixing
of two or more oils. Werwise it appears to
be a severely altered marine derived crude
oil.
K. Aurora Well
The Aurora well provides the most re-
centf publicly available geological data for
northeast Alaska. This well tested a thinup*
per Brookian sequencef a thick middle{
Brookian sequence, and Breakup sequence
rocks. Indigenous hydrocarbon potential is
very poor#- to gas prone (Banet# 1993).How-
ever# there were appreciable amounts of ex-
tractable hydrocarbons that migrated into
the system. Chromtogams show that alter-
ation and degradation are common (figure
I?).There is minor similarity with 1002area
samples derived from mi n e shales: the
b a k r d - J a g o - Mb g Pt. and hgun
Pt. samples. High and variable
pristane:phytane and high CFI's show that
there are also nonmarhe source characteris-
tics. The geochemistry and geographic prux-
i dt y suggests a possible mixingconnection
with the Manning Pt. samples.
L. Belcher Well
The Belcher well is the furthest offshore
test in the Beaufort# to date. It penefxated
thermally immature Tuktoyaktuk and up-
per Brookian sequences. &omt opam
show b t immature or biodegraded? iso-
prenoid-rich saturates are present. Ternary
plots of sa~a&s:momtics:NW~s showthat
klcher extracts are unique; most likely re-
lated to the Mackenzie Type Cland C2oils
(figure 6). Pfisme:ph*e ratios are low,
covering the range of marhederived clastic
rocks. No isotope data are available.
able mixingof oil types has occurred along
5m
c'nc'usions &e Barrow hhuplifis hreservoirs previ-
for oils found in the basement rocks, or the
upsection Flaxman Sandsf within the Pt.
Thomon Unitf but their API gravities are
variable and are within the range of the
Prudhoe Type. Oil type mixingf or a separate
oil type are possiblef but such migrational
pathways and timings are difficult to effect.
The Hammerhead oil is the most e ~ g -
mt i c oil on the North Slope. It has a chex'nical
compositionf chromatograms and
frapentograms that are indicative of its
having multiple hydrocarbon sourcesf which
have subsequently undergone degradation
and thermal alteration. The geochemistry
sugges6 derivation from both marine car-
bonates and possibly Tertiary age, deltaic
sources. Stratigapfi~dly~ is neither ~cenario
more likely thanthe other. The conclusion is
that Hamerhead is a mixed suite oilf but
perhaps not necessarily mixture of Pmdhoe
and Umiat types.
The Kavik oilf from immediately west of
the1002area, is so severely altered that gross
chemical composition, distributions and
biomarkers do not reveal much of its origin.
Isotapes show that it does not resemble any
of the other oils andthus it is still considered
as a separate type at this h e . Jn the 1002
area; the AngunPt. stainmd seep has sterane
distributions and isotopes suggesting that it
is derived k o mp r d o mf l y mi n e source
rocks. However, both alkanes and
pentaqclics triterpanes are severely altered.
Thus, further correlations cannot be made
with a highdegree of comfort.
The oils extracted from stained sediments
and seeps along KataktumkCreekand along
Jag0 River are derived from marine sources.
Their geochemistry/ chromatograms and
f r apent opms correlate well with the
Mackenzie Type A oils. The Maruting Pt. oil
has sterane distributions and isotope ratios
indicating that it also has a significant
n a b e source component. Resolved m/
z 191 terpane distributions; however, place it
wit31 the Katakturuk and Jago samples. The
source of these oils is most probably the
highly radioactive/ orgdc-rich/ Upper Cre-
taceous, paper- to cardboard texturef HTR
shale facies which represents the distal par-
tion of the maximum, middle Brookian
transgressional event. This facies is locally
called the Bentonitic Shale Unitf Smoking
Hills Formation or Boundary Creek Form-
tion.
The majority of Mackenzie oils are
nonr na~e. They are isotopically light, have
lowNSO contents, low metal and low sulfur
contents. The pristane:phyme ratios are the
highest of anyon the North Slope. Tp e I3 oils
are fomd in Cretaceous reservoirs and have
terpane biomarkers distinctly different from
the Type Coils. Two type C oils are differen-
tiated on their reservoir ageand biomrkers.
Type Cl oils are found in Richards or
KugmaHit (mid Eocene - Oligocene) reser-
voirs. Risnorlupanef oleamnes and some rim-
compounds are eluted intheir m/z 218spec-
tra. Type C2 oils are fomd in the older Rein-
deer and Moose Channel Formations
(Maastrichtian- early Eocene) and lack the
aforemention4 biomarker compaunds. The
apparent lack of these biomarkers suggests
that oils at Issungnak and the Tarsiut areas
appear to be type C2oilsthathave migrated
up into the Richards and KugmaUit reser-
voirs.
In s w f at least 10 oil types are
differentiated on the basis of bulk geochem-
istry; isofopesf ratiosf chromatograms arid
biomarkers. These data indicate that some
mixing of oil types has occurred and that
there are likely multiple phases of oil em-
placement from single sources. Also, one oil
type is common to bath the U.S. and
Mackemie area. Limited data show two oils
(the h g u n and Kavik) are severely de-
graded, but are also different from the other
types.
These 10 oil types represent different
petroleum systems operating independently
orinconcert. Some oiltypesarefound across
a wide geographic area. ICnornreserveesti-
mates for this area approach 100 billion bar-
rels. 'This is a tremendous amount of oil. h
addition, oil stained sediments andoil seeps
suggest that much remains to be learned,
parficularlyin *e~ghdyexpIored areas away
from the Barrow Arch uplifts.
With at least 10different petroleum sys-
t em inoperation to draw from, the task at
hand is to determine which petroleum sys-
tems were in action (or interaction) at spe-
cific times, which migration pathways were
available, and the ~~g of the trapping
m&anisms. The next Iogical step to assist
successful exploration is to identify, quan-
tify andrank the source rock facies involved
and then to determine when and where in
the North Slope basin's burial history they
were most active and in which plays their
products are still preserved.
Ts
KTc
Kn
Kt
Kfm
KO
JKk
JKk
Sogovonlrktok
Colville Gp. ss & ah
Wanushuk Gp.
Torok Formation
Fortress Mountain Frn.
OkpIkruak/Apt-AI flysch
Breakup aequnc 8s & sh
KIngok Shoie Fm.
Shublik and Sag R. F m .
Sodlorochlt Gp.
Etlvluk Gp.
Llaburne Gp.
Endicott Gp.
Hunt Fork/Kanayut
Baucoup Fm.
wariou* basomant lithologtes
^"-
Not to Scale
Brooks Range
Foothills Coastal plain
^s
f .
Beaufort Sea
\
s
Sea Leve
-5,000'
- 10,000'
-15.000'
-20,000'
-25,O00'
-30,000*
<D
@
<S)
Figure 2
Schematic structural-stratigraphic cross section of the North Slope
pre-Ellesmerian sequences
northerly derived Ellesmerlan sequences
southerly derived Brookion sequences
fault bounded Borrow Arch
duplex cored anticlines in BrooMon rocks
chaotic Brooklon sedimentation/deformation
thrust sheets of Ellesmerlan rocks
lorge scale, far flung atlochthons, or panels
prominent to the west
(a collage of major tectonic and depositional styles; vertical exaggeration approximately 16x)
- -
NORTHSLOPESTERANES
0 Hammarhaad {sedacutttngs)
@8urgar (as-sandstono & sh-shale)
TERNARY DI AGRAMS
/
&Z2S - UMIAT OIL
\
27
for r n/ z 217 Regul ar
PRUDHOESUITE I.. Brookion
Ellesm~rlan/Breokup sources
Prudhaa and llmlat ?leldafrem
Safer and othmrs, 1985
1002 area
0
TYPE A
lmnak
Wognark
Atkinson
W. Atkinson
w
W E C
Pullen
Kwkkoal
Koponoo
lvik
Tar3ult
IssunQnc
Niglintak
Adqo
Kumak
source rocks
stalns and seeps
oils
Figure 10
C27-28-29ternarydiagramsfor NorthSlopeoilsandsome sourcerocks
(DO
sample
BURGER
SSBW
$109h
#hob
FSFGER
18SA
on
Rm f s
AM 52.7
mot. 36.7%. ore 26.6%
2
I")
#25
MANNING PT.
31 I P 79 OIL SEEP
T,3NeR.22E.SEC.17 1.4N.,R.35EuSEC.33 T.9N.Rr34EvSEC.21
PRi'PH 2.6% 53
nonmarine, oil- stained ss
Eocene oil stained silt stone
oil stained ss/cgl (Sogavanirktok) Sabbath Conqlomerate
Kotokturuk R.
Jago R. Kovik Ck. Sabbath Ck.
poper/cardboard
Jogo R.
fientonitic Shale Unit
poper/cardboard Bentonitic Shale Unit
Colville turbidite
tributary of Katakturuk R.
Colville trubidi
Kotokturuk R.
te
1
Colville turbidite
Pebble Shale
interbedded shale of Kemik Colville Gp. sh
Conning R.
Ignek Ck. Conning R.
Itkilyariak Ck.
ale
ANGUN PT.
OIL SEEP
T.7NvR.39E:.,SEC,33
K E Y
sample tt
i dent i f i cat i on number
1 T.4N.,Rw27E.SEC.l l
- prls-tane/phytane of n ( f t samples3
stratigraphic uni t
location
Figure 16
Comparison ofC15+ chromatograms of rock extracts and oil seeps from ANWR
(dataf tom Lyle andother, 1980; Magoon and Claypool, 1981)
st-
Table 1.
Compilationof geochemicaldatafrom NorthSlope,Alaskaoildiscoveriesandseeps
u
DEPTH
!8
8
RESERVOIR Uanu/W SO^ StKfl~OChk U b y n Kekikhik Kuparuk? ~ u ~ h u k i
flaxman B
I
,Nonuinuk Sagwanirtdok Eocene? Eocene?
TEMPERATURE 45-100
< .
GAS CAP N
API GRAVITY s-n/i7-26
% SULFUR 1.56
GOR
7t saturates ss.06
% aromaIica 55.12
BIODEGRADED Y
P?: :/,,
Y
Data from:
Uoqoon and Cl<we. 1982
Camion and Hardwick 1903
Ahrka 011 and Gas~~rnarvotl on 1983 Cornmis~ionStatistical Report,
W- . 1985
Curiak 3905 1987
Sedivyand' others, 1987
Banet. IS92
Table 2
Cheochemical data from wells along Barrow Arch Uplift and foothills
(modified from Hughes and Hoba, 1986)
Type sample wellname
U 80
U 105
U 108
M AYZ
M GGN
M DZG
M 76
P/M CGN
M BHW
P CGM
P DZF
P GGK
P 75
P BCY
U 79
P GGM
P GGL
P 77
P GGJ
P DZE
P OZC
P ASN
DP/M 81
Seabee #1
Well A
Umiat #4
Hemi Spgs #1
Gwydyr Bay S #1
M i kkelesen Bay S t #1
S Barrow 20
W Kuparuk St #1
Hemi Spgs #1
Sag R St #1
N Kuparuk St #1
N Kuparuk St #I
Put R D-3
Kuparuk R 1Y-2
Simpson core t est
Foggy I s Bay St #1
Mikkelesen Bay S t #l
S Barrow 19
Kavearak Pt #1
Pt Thomson #1
Well B
Mukluk OCS-Y-0334
J.W. Dal ton #1
res. depth
f t .
5366-5394
14126-14144
299
7196-7245
10053-10105
10468- 10550
1629- 1639
8880 - 8924
9538-9582
8890- 9008
8890 - 8984
3708
1041 7- 10536
7638- 801 2
near sur f ace
10092-10209
11870- 12200
2200- 2245
3794-3845
12063-13050
not 1 i sted
7360- 7385
8568-8665
Reservoi r
Torok
not listed
Nanushuk
Kuparuk
Sadlerochit
Col vi 1 l e
Pebble Sh
Shubl i k
Sadlerochit
Sadlerochit
Sadlerochit
Col vi l l e ss
Sadlerochit
Kuparuk
Nanushuk
L i sburne
L i sburne
Sag R. ss
Ugnu ss
Thomson ss
not 1 i sted
Kuparuk R
L i sburne
AGE
K
K
K
K
T r
K
K
T r
T r
T r
T r
KT
T r
K
K
MI'S
Mis
Jur
T
K
K
K
Mis
V/V+Ni Sats
%
0.50 90.7
1.10 64.7
0.10 69.3
0.27 51.8
0.32 55.9
0.45 48.1
0.53 64.8
0.68 46.3
0.28 57.1
0.69 40.0
0.66 42.3
0.67 32.7
0.66 43.5
0.73 38.9
0.64 58.0
0.78 38.1
0.70 35.1
0.50 48.1
0.71 39.0
0.71 36.0
0.74 29.3
- 28.3
0.76 23.5
U Umiat
P Prudhoe
M Mixed
D Dal ton
235
Table 3
GeochemicaldatafromMackenzieDeltawells
IMI raaw& dpt temp AH !is PrW "COT "~alph " ~ t e t QOR 2V M
-------- ---- --------
------ ---- ---- ---- ---..-- ----- ------- ------- --- ---- ..-..-
Adgo F28 fads ReIndeer 5680 116 16.5 0.1 25.86 26.32
kYg5 Fie bdo 4090 85 18 0.1
A ~ Q OFie tang sees
Atkinsm HZ5 beta Breakup 5700 118 24 1. 0 26.49 27.49 284
l vl kJ26
IvJ26
I vi k J26
I vi k426
I vi k J26
I vi kJZ6 - - - -
t vi k 426 end 8797 122 43 0.1
I vi k J26 dad Brookaan
a080 SB 23 0.2 25.97 27.09
i v i k J26 BOB0 8. 3
I vi k426 Br&lan 9122 126 33 0. 1 3,9 26.116 27.09
NlgllntOk 119 bdg 5234 9. 6 26.21 27.38
Ni gtl ntak N19 hda Kugmttl-t 4547 26.64 27.82
Nigtan-fcakHi9 Wg ReIndecr 6560 9.0 26.86 27.23
Ni gl l ntak M19 M g 5730 26.85 27.36
Ul gl l nt akN19 Ma 5647 0.06 26.04 27.12 26.13
UI@lantakt419 We 4345 26.31 29.16
Ntgl l ntak N19 con/bdg 6910 5.3 0.53 0.15
6. a 56.42 28.34
N!SLinta H19-----=il------: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Parsons D20 cnd 11300 3.7
Parsons D20 end 11798 3. 4
Parsons D20 end 12168 3.5
ParsonsN17 end 9762 4. 0 24.9 24.54
Si k uCll
Si k uCll
SikuC l l
T ~ Q ~ U C42
TagluC42
TwIuC42
bt*9
con
con
con
con
conbdg
conv*
Table 4
Geochemicaldataforselectedoffshorewells (US.)
BURGER KLONDIKE SEAL ISLAND HAMMERHEAD BELCHER AURORA BADAMI * KUVLUM
Y- 1413 Y- 1482 Y-0181 Y- 0849 Y-0917 Y-0943 Y-0866
OI L cut t i ngs cut t i ngs 01L O I L
HC zone 5300-5500 2214-3970 2380- 15930
TOTAL DEPTH 8034 13150 18325 8500
Reservoir Sadlerachit Sadlerochi t Sagavanir ktok Oruktal ik
Dep Sequence Breakup Mi dEl l es Mid El l es U Brook U/M Brook M Brook M Brook U Brook
A P I ~
range 27- 28 34
Sul f ur (%I
Saturates (%)
range
Aromatics
range
Pr istane/phytane
range
Pr istane/nC- 17
range
del C-13
whole
aromati cs
saturates
Metals (ppm)
Nl
v
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