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Lecia 2:


Pentru ca un substantiv sa capete nteles ntr-o propozitie oarecare,
acesta trebuie sa fie nsotit de un determinant substantival. Cel mai
des folosit determinant substantival este articolul. Articolele se pot
clasifica dupa cum urmeaza:
Articolul hotart - the
Articolul nehotart - a / an
Articolul zero (forma implicita sau neexprimata
Articolele sunt forme invariabile, adica nu se schimba n functie de
numarul sau !enul substantivului si se aseaza n fata substantivului
2.1. Articolul hotart (the)
Articolul hotart se foloseste:
"naintea unui substantiv care a mai fost mentionat n
contextul respectiv
#x.: An elephant and a mouse fell in love. The mouse loved
the elephant's long trunk, and the elephant loved the
mouse's tiny nose.
Atunci cnd att vorbitorul ct si ascultatorul cunosc
notiunea exprimata de substantiv, desi nu a mai fost
mentionat n context.
#x.: - Where's the bathroom? - It's on the first floor.
"n propozitii sau fraze n care definim sau identificam
anumite persoane sau obiecte:
#x.: The man we met yesterday at the bus station. The girl
in red is her neighbor.
$eferitor la obiecte pe care le consideram unice:
#x.: the earth, the sun, the moon, the stars
Ann is in the garden the garden of this house!.
"naintea superlativului sau numeralelor ordinale first,
se"ond, thirds, etc si only:
#x.: the best day, the first week, the last "hapter, the only
"naintea unor ad%ective pentru a te referi n !eneral la un
!rup de oameni care au n comun o anumita nsusire (sunt
frumosi, tineri, batrni, %aponezi, etc:
#x.: the young, the beautiful, the old, the best, the
#apanese, the $ritish
&ume de locuri !eo!rafice, oceane, ruri, mari, deserturi,
munti, re!iuni:
#x.: the %aribbean, the &ahara, the Atlanti"
'e foloseste naintea unor nume proprii (muzee, institutii
celebre, hoteluri, ziare, orchestre, !rupuri muzicale,
vapoare, nume de famili la plural,etc:
#x.: the 'ational (allery, the )oyal &hakespeare, the
&avoy, the $eatles, the &pi"e (irls, the (uardian, the
Telegraph, the *aily, the Titani", the Tower of +ondon, the
,ouse of -arliament, the &miths
(ecade, secole, !rupe de ani:
#x.: .y parents went to /niversity in the seventies.
2.2. Articolul nehotart (a / an)
'e foloseste a naintea substantivelor care ncep cu o consoana si
an naintea substantivelor care ncep cu o vocala (a, e, i, o, u
#x.: a boy, an apple, a "ar, an orange, a house, an opera
An nainte de un h mut - an hour, an honor.
A nainte de u sau eu atunci cnd se pronunta ca you: a
0uropean, a university, a unit
Articolul nehotart se foloseste:
Pentru a te referi la ceva pentru prima data:
#x.: Would you like a drink? I've finally got a good 1ob.
Pentru a te referi la un anume membru al unui !rup sau
o cu nume de profesii: #ohn is an engineer. .ary is
training to be a nurse.
o cu nationalitati si reli!ii: #ohn is an 0nglishman. 2ate
is a %atholi".
o cu instrumente muzicale: &herlo"k ,olmes was
playing a violin when the visitor arrived.
o cu numele zilelor: I was born on a Thursday.
o pentru a desemna un fel de, sau un exemplu de: The
mouse had a tiny nose. It was a very strange "ar
o cu substantice la sin!ular, dupa cuvinte cum ar fi
what si su"h: What a bluff3 ,e is su"h a prodigious
young man.
o atunci cnd te referi la un sin!ur obiect sau
persoana, echivaleaza cu one: I'd like an orange and
two lemons please. The burglar took a diamond
ne"kla"e and a valuable painting.
$etineti ca se spune a hundred, a thousand, a million.
2.3. a / an si one
Atunci cnd numeri sau masori timpul, distanta, !reutatea,
etc. se poate folosi fie a/an fie one pentru sin!ular:
#x.: a 4 one pound, a 4 one million pounds
5ou "an take an4 one hour for lun"h.
(ar a4an si one nu nseamna ntotdeauna acelasi lucru:
#x.: A bo6 is no good. We need a "rate not a bo6!.
7ne bo6 is no good, we need two bo6es.
2.4. Articolul zero
&u se foloseste articol n urmatoarele cazuri:
Cu nume de tari (la sin!ular
#x.: (ermany is an important e"onomi" power.
,e's 1ust returned from Argentina.
("nsa: I'm visiting the /nited &tates ne6t week.
Cu numele limbilor:
#x.: 8ren"h is spoken in Tahiti.
0nglish uses many words of +atin origin.
Cu numele meselor:
#x.: +un"h is at midday.
*inner is in the evening.
$reakfast is the first meal of the day.
Cu numele persoanelor (la sin!ular:
#x.: #ohn's "oming to the party.
(eorge 2ing is my un"le.
("nsa: We're having lun"h with the .organs tomorrow.
Cu titluri si nume:
#x.: -rin"e %harles is 9ueen 0li:abeth's son.
-resident 2ennedy was assassinated in *allas.
*r. Watson was &herlo"k ,olmes' friend.
("nsa: the 9ueen of 0ngland, the -ope.
(upa cazul posesiv format cu 's:
#x.: ,is sister's "ar.
+aura's basket.
Cu numele profesiilor:
06.; 0ngineering is a useful "areer.
,e'll probably go into medi"ine.
Cu nume de ma!azine:
#x.: I'll get the "ard at &mith's.
%an you go to $oots for me?
Cu ani:
#x.: <=>? was a wonderful year.
*o you remember <==@?
Cu substantive unice (uncountable nouns:
#x.: .ilk is often added to tea in 0ngland.
War is destru"tive.
Cu numele unor munti, lacuri si insule:
#x.: .ount ."2inley is the highest mountain in Alaska.
&he lives near +ake Windermere.
,ave you visited +ong Island?
Cu ma%oritatea numelor de strazi , orase, statii pentru
mi%loacele de transport si aeroporturi:
#x.: Ai"toria &tation is in the "entre of +ondon.
%an you dire"t me to $ond &treet?
&he lives in 8loren"e.
They're flying from ,eathrow.
"n unele expresii invariabile:
#x.: by "ar, at s"hool, at work, at /niversity, in "hur"h, in
prison, in bed, by train, by air, on foot, on holiday, on air in

1. Completeaza cu a sau an acolo unde
este cazul:
$ill is BanBBB author. ,e writes BBB travel
books. ,e makes aBBBB lot of money. We
had BBBB lun"h with him yesterday. It was BBBanB e6"ellent
lun"h. The meal "ost him BaBBB hundred and BBBB fifty
pounds. What BaBBB e6pensive restaurant3 ,e gave the
waiter BBBB twenty pounds. That was BBaBB good tip.
2. Ale!e a sau the:
7ne day we set out to "limb the highest hill in the area. The
"ampers in the ne6t tent lent us their map. They told us to
follow one of the routes marked on the map. $ut Tom said
that he was sure that there was C! a better way. the way
that we "hose was so steep that we had to stop for C! a
long rest on the way up. $ut we got to the top in the end.
3. Completeaza cu the acolo unde este cazul:
We have BBBB soup for BtheBBBsupper. After BtheBBB meal
Tom and I play BBBB "hess. $ill prefers BBBB "ards.
BTheBBB game he likes best is bridge. ,e says that BtheBBB
"hess reDuires BBBB patien"e and he is not patient. ,e also
says that BBBBlife is too short to waste in this way.