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60 Ton/hr @ 31 bar operation Advance

Empire Boiler

1. Setting Operation Pressure with UT 35 A FD Fan & Fuel Feed Controller
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

31 BAR Operation
Parameters FD FAN Fuel Feed Controller Remarks
-------------- -------------- ------------------------------- ------------------------------
SP 31 bar 31 bar Operation Pressure Set pt.
AL 1 - 29.5 bar Cut off autogate 2
AL 2 - 30.0 bar Cut off autogate 3


22 BAR Operation
Parameters FD Fan Fuel Feeder Controller Remarks
---------------- --------------- ---------------------------------- ----------------------------
SP 22 bar 22 bar Operation Pressure Set pt.
AL 1 - 21.5 bar Cut off autogate 2
AL 2 - 22.0 bar Cut off autogate 3


2. Check Safety Systems before entering fuel to boiler
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Blow water cooling chamber of level gage /water level transmitter =check safety alarm
Hi,Normal,Low & LowLow sirens and alarms is working , cut off ID , FD fan ,Augur Conveyor
1,2,3,&4 upon lowlow water level alarm signal.

High alarm = 75% Yellow Spinning Light + Alarm Bell
Normal = In between 40.0 + to 75.0- %
Low = 40.0% Yellow Spinning Light + Alarm Bell
LowLow = 25.00% Cut Off ID.Fan,FD Fan , Fuel Feed Augur Conveyor 1,2,3 & 4 and
Cut Off Auto Fuel Gate 1 , 2 ,3 & 4 upon signal of 25% Low Low Water Level sign
signal.
LOW LOW Siren & RED Spinning Alarm Light.


3. Fuel Feeding
On Fuel Feeder Fan. On Fuel Feeder Augur Conveyor 1,2,3 & 4 .
Open Auto Fuel Gate 1,2,3, & 4 in Manual Mode .
On the other Fuel Feed Conveyor systems.
Start fuel feed until you sufficient fuel in the furnace.Start the fire with a bit of diesel.
Warming up the boiler for 1 or 2 hours before raising pressure.


4. When ready to raise pressure,On the moving grate system.
Timer can be adjusted :
Fast = Timer 1 = 0 sec , Timer 2 = 0 sec Emptying Ash when stopping boiler
Med = Timer 1 = 1 sec , Timer 2 = 1 sec
Slow = Timer 1 = 2 sec , Timer 2 = 2 sec Not much fuel coming
Very Slow Timer 1 = 3 sec , Timer 2 = 3 sec etc



5. Using one ID Fan & 50% of FD Fan

Open Top Damper ID FAN no.1 =100% Open Close Top Damper ID FAN no.2 =100% Close
Open 3-set Damper below ID FAN no.1 = 10% Close 3-set Damper ID FAN no.2 = 100% Close

Open FD FAN Damper 50 % Open

Boiler is ready for One ID Fan & 50% FD Fan Operation.
On ID FAN no.1 at 35% minimum Frequency as set in parameter.

While adjusting ve draft of Furnace Controller at ve 10mm to ve 12ve mm H2O during
Steam load & Fuel Feeding operation, you may need to open more the I.D. 3 set-damper to
30% ,40% ,50% ,60% ,70% , 80% , 90% or up to 100% open to adjust the ve draft as
the requirement of ve 10 mm to 12 mm H2O Draft. When switching the ID Fan & FD Fan to
AUTOMATIC CONTROL MODE from MANUAL CONTROL MODE.

When the OPERATING PRESSURE & ve Draft of the Furnace can not be achieved with
One ID FAN / 50% FD FAN , start the 2
nd
ID Fan . Slowly open TOP damper of 2
nd
ID FAN
to check the ve Draft of Furnace. IF cannot achieve , slowly increase 2
nd
ID Fan 3-set Damper
to 10 % , 20 % , 30 % , 40 % etc etc .

While trying to achieve the ve Furnace Draft , you also need to increase the FD Fan Damper
To 60 % , 70 % , 80% , 90% or 100 % to achieve the necessary Forced Draft to raise pressure
and keeping in check the ve Draft of Furnace around ve 10 to 12 mm H2O.

Photo 1 & 2 shows Main Damper Closed . Only the small damper 100% open.
The control of draft controlled by Manual signal or auto signal from steam pressure and
-ve draft of furnace for ID Fan.


6. Stop Boiler
Stop boiler ,just off the Auto Fuel Feeding Gates.
Off FD Fan. OFF ID FAN 1 & 2. Off Fuel Feeder Fan & Sec. Air Fan.
Keep MOVING GRATE on until the fire has gone down.Then Off
Moving Grate and all the Deashing conveyors after 90% of the ashes have been extracted.

Rolling water = changing water in the boiler by blowdown and refilling for for 10 minutes .
Then off the boiler. This is to prevent high concentration of TDS crystallising onto the
tube,s surface when cooling further.

Do not blow off steam pressure through the Air Vent Valves at the steam Drum or SuperHeater
Header when stopping the boiler.As the boiler cools down further , air & oxygen will be sucked
into the Boiler through the air Vent valves.Any parts & Drum Plates above the water level mark
will be under corrosion pitting by sucked in air through the air vents .

Just keep the drain valve of superheater crack a little open for releasing steam slowly through
the superheater tubes when stopping Boiler.



Note :- 1. Chemical Pumps and chemical dosage for the boiler.
2. Boiler Blow down 5% to 10% per hour calculated from steam flow /hr .






Steam Load & Fuel Consumption of Boiler Estimation
==========================================

1000 Kw Back pressure at 3.5 bar Steam turbine at 30 bar
Steam consumption :
= 1250 Kva @ 0.8 pf x 14 kg/KVA = 17,500 kg of Steam/hr + -

Balance of 60,000 17,500 kg = 42,500 kg @ 30 bar goes to the 5 Megawatt turbine.

5000 Kw GE 3 stages 100% Condensing Turbine with input steam pressure at 30 bar@350 C.

If Anticipated steam consumption = 8 kg /KVA at 30 bar steam pressure

42,500 kg steam/hr
--------------------------- = 5312.5 KVA
8 kg/KVA

5312.5 KVA x 0.8 pf = 4250 Kw without Capacitor Bank to raise power factor.

If the GE turbine consumption rate is =14 kg/kva at 30 bar steam pressure

42,500 kg steam /hr
-------------------------------- = 3036 kva
14 kg/kva

If power factor achieved is 0.8 pf , then consumed kw = 3036 kva x 0.8 pf = 2,428.8 kw
If power factorachieved is 0.9 pf , then consumed kw = 3036 x 0.9 pf = 2,732.4 kw
Fuel Consumption of 60 ton/hr Boiler at 30 bar :

60,000 kg/hr x ( 669Kcal/kg steam + 2 Kcal/kg raising from 98 C to 100 C )
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
0.82 Eff of Heat Transfer x 3200 Kcal/kg Gross Heat Calory of Fuel Mixture



40,260,000 kcal
= ------------------------------
2624 Kcal/kg fuel mix

= 15,343 kg of fuel mix / hr + -


Fuel from Mill Process :

4 % Shell / ton FFB processed
13.5 % Fibre / ton FFB Processed
22% shredded EFB/ Ton FFB Processed


Fuel Mix :

4 % Shell + 13.5% Fibre + 10 % Shredded EFB fibre = 27.5 %
(17.5 x157.2 %) / 100% = 27.51 % from a total 39.5 % fuel available / ton FFB processed.


Mill Process required / hr to produce enough fuel to run boiler at 60 Ton/hr capacity

15,343 kg/hr fuel steam flow at 60T/hr
= -----------------------------------------------------------------
0.2751 fuel factor useable

= 55,773 Kg FFB / hr Mill Process to maintain the boiler .


FUEL MIX
----------------
Shell = 55773 kg FFB/hr x 0.04 = 2230 kg /hr
Fibre= 55773 kg FFB/hr x 0.135 = 7529 kg/hr
Shredded EFB = 55773 kg FFB/hr x 0.10 = 5579 kg/hr
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total Fuel Feed = 15,338 kg /hr + -

Excess EFB shredded fibre = 6691 kg/hr accumulated for next day start up from 60 T/hr Process.



60 Ton/hr DEAERATOR
===================

60 ton /hr of water raised from 70 C to 103 C requires 33 Kcal/kg of water

Total Kcal/hr = 60,000 kg of water/hr x 33 Kcal/kg of water
= 1,980,000 Kcal/hr
Total Steam required to Heat up the water = 1,980,000 kcal / 535.74 kcal/kg steam side at 0.23 bar
= 3695.8 kg/hr
= 3.696 Ton/hr

Set Pressure of PRV or Modulating Valve Steam supply to Deaerator is 0.23 minimum to 0.35 Bar Max.
The higher the set pressure , more steam is required but the rate of superheating the water droplets
is faster due to higher temperature of the steam.

Steam Pressure Steam Temperature Kcal in Water/kg Kcal in Steam/kg
-------------------- -------------------------- ---------------------- ----------------------
0.12 bar 103.148 C 103.32 537.48
0.23 bar 105.7 C 106 535.74
0.24 bar 106.0 C 106.27 535.59
0.25 bar 106.245 C 106.5 535.44
0.26 bar 106.474 C 106.73 535.29
0.27 bar 106.703 C 106.96 535.14
0.28 bar 106.932 C 107.19 535.0
0.29 bar 107.161 C 107.41 534.85
0.30 bar 107.39 C 107.64 534.70
0.35 bar 108.47 C 108.76 534.0

At 0.23 bar the Heat of 535.74 Kcal/kg of steam side is given out to deaerate the soft water in the
small capsule by superheating the sprinkled tiny droplets of water ,thereby releasing oxygen at
a critical temperature of 103 C.

As the pressure setting goes higher , less heat energy is present in the steam side for heating
release.


Palm Fibre/shell Fuel Heating Calorific Values at 3% to 5% moisture
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
A. 1 kg of fibre @ 5% moisture = Heat CV 3600 kcal C. Heat CV 3200 kcal@30% moisture

B. 1 kg of shell @ 5% moisture =Heat CV 4600 kcal D. Heat CV 4500 kcal@30% moisture

Fuel mixtures of 97/3 at 5 % moisture
------------------------------------------------------- :
A 1) HCV fibre 0.97 x 3600 kcal/kg = 3492 kcal 5% moisture
HCV shell 0.03 x 4600 kcal/kg = 138 kcal 5 % moisture
--------------
gross H.C.V. = 3630 kcal/kg of fuel mixture

A2) Fuel mixture of fibre 100 % at 30% moisture
--------------------------------------------------------------------
HCV fibre 100% x 3200 kcal/kg = 3200 kcal
HCV shell 0% x 4500 kcal/kg = 0 kcal
--------------------
Gross HCV = 3200 kcal/kg of fuel mixture

B1) Fuel mixture of 90/10 at 30% moisture
-----------------------------------------------------------------
HCV fibre 90% x 3200 kcal/kg = 2880 kcal
HCV shell 10% x 4500 kcal/kg = 450 kcal
------------------------
Gross HCV = 3330 kcal/kg fuel mixtures

B2) Fuel mixture of 98/2 at 30% moisture
------------------------------------------------------------
HCV fibre 98% x 3200 kcal/kg = 3136 kcal
HCV shell 2% x 4500 kcal/kg = 90 kcal
----------------------
Gross HCV = 3226 kcal/kg of fuel mixture.




2. Theoretical Air Required & Combustion Flue Gases
==========================================

a) Theoretical Air Required = Lt
= 1 / 0.21 x ( 1.867 x C + 5.6 x H + 0.7 x S - 0.7 x O )


( i ) Low Calory Fuel = Lt low = 4.761904762 x ( 1.867 x 0.3334 + 5.6 x 0.0396 + 0.7 x 0
- 0.7 x 0.2904 )

= 4.761904762 x ( 0.6224578 + 0.22176 + 0 - 0.20328 )

= 4.761904762 x 0.6409378

= 3.052084762

= 3.05 Nm3 of air / kg of fuel stoichiometrically


( ii ) Medium Calory Fuel = Lt Med = 1 / 0.21 x{ ( 1.867 x 0.35) + ( 5.6 x 0.05 ) +
( 0.7 x 0.02 ) - ( 0.7 x 0.21 ) }





= 1 / 0.21 x ( 0.65345 + 0.28 + 0.014 - 0.147 )

= 1 / 0.21 x 0.80045

= 3.8116666667

= 3.81 Nm3 of air / kg of fuel stoichiometrically



( iii ) High Calory Fuel = Lt high = 1 / 0.21 x ( 1.867 x 0.355 + 5.6 x 0.055 + 0.7 x 0.02 -
0.7 x 0.21 )

= 1 / 0.21 x ( 0.662785 + 0.308 + 0.014 - 0.147 )

= 1 / 0.21 x 0.823785

= 3.922786 Nm3

= 3.92 Nm3 of air / kg of fuel stoichiometrically




3. Stoichiometric air required per main constituents of molecular fuel in Chemical Combustion Process.
=============================================================================

a) During combustion the fuel always react with Oxygen and liberates heat energy.A knowlegde of the
constituents of air therefore is required to find the amount of Oxygen in a given air bulk.

Natural air contains many gases such as oxygen,nitrogen,argon , helium , neon , krypton , xenon , carbon
dioxide , and traces contamination by carbon monoxide and sulphur dioxide together with some
vapour moistures.

For combustion calculation purposes it is assumed that the air consist entirely of 21 % Oxygen and
79 % Nitrogen by Volume or 23.2 % Oxygen and 76.8 % Nitrogen by Mass .

Nitrogen is an inert gas and does not take part directly in the combustion but it will slow down the
combustion and lower the temperature of the combustion by Oxygen.Whatever amount of Nitrogen
introduced in the no react combustion , the exhaust flue gases will contain the same amount of
Nitrogen as introduced before.



Table of Molecular Masses of fuel constituents
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Elements Unit Relative atomic mass Relative molecular mass

carbon = C = 12 -

Hydrogen = H2 = 1 2

Oxygen = O2 = 16 32

Nitrogen = N 2 = 14 28

Sulphur = S = 32 -



Compounds

Carbon monoxide = CO = - 28

Carbon dioxide = CO2 = - 44

Water = H2O - 18

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----

( i ) C + O2 = CO2
( ii ) 2 H2 + O2 = 2 H2O
( iii ) CH4 + 2 O2 = CO2 + 2 H2O ( Methane natural gas )
( iv ) C6 H14 + 9.5 O2 = 6 C O2 + 7 H2O ( Hexane , parafin )



Combustion Analysis by weight/mass/gravimetric with relative atomic weight of Hydrogen = 1
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------

( i ) C + O2 = CO2
1x12 + ( 2 x 16 ) O2 = CO2

= 12 + 32 = 44

divide through by 12 = 12 / 12 + 32 / 12 = 44 /12


8 8
= 1 + 2 ----- = 3 --------
12 12
= 1 + 2 & 2/3 = 3 & 2/3

that is >> 1 kg C + 2 & 2/3 kg Oxygen = 3 & 2/3 kg of CO2





thus : 2 & 2/3 kg O2 = stoichiometric mass of O2

2 & 2/3 kg O2 are contained in natural air of weight = 2 & 2/3 div. by .232 by mass

stoichiometric mass of natural air = 11.5 kg. of air

But : Natural air will contain 11.5 kg - 2.66 kg of Oxygen
= 8.84 kg of Nitrogen N2.


then : 1 kg pure Carbon + 11.5 kg of air ( 2.66 kg O2 + 8.84 kg of N2 )
= 3 & 2/3 CO2 + 8.84 Kg N2 Flue
= 3.6667 CO2 x 44 kg + 8.84 kg of N2
= 170.1748 kg of flue gas

Flue gas analysis by Volume
-------------------------------------
a) 100 % combustion

1 m 3 of O2 when 100 % combusted with C will produce 1 m3 of CO2

1 m3 of CO2 is contained in natural air of volume = 1 m3/ 0.21 m3 = 4.76 M3 of air

Out of 4.76 M3 - 1 m3 Oxygen = 3.76 m3 of Nitogen N2

Conclusion is that : 4.76 m3 of air 100 % combusted with C will produce 1 m3 of CO2 and
3.76 m3 of N2


b) Incomplete combustion ( Carbon monoxide ) Over feeding the boiler.

2 C + O2 = 2 CO


Analysis by mass
=============

(2 x 12) + ( 2 x 16 ) = 2 ( 12 + 16 )

24 + 32 = 56

divde through by 24 : 1 + 1 & 1/3 = 2 & 1/3

in weight : 1 kg C + 1 & 1/3 kg O2 = 2 & 1/3 kg of CO

Hence : 1 & 1/3 kg O2 = stoichiometric Mass of O2


Now 1 & 1/3 kg of O2 are contained in air of weight = 1 & 1/3 div. by 0.232 = 5.75 kg of air
= stoichiometric mass of air

This amount of air will contain 5.75 kg - 1.33 kg O2 = 4.42 kg of N2

Hence 1 kg C + 5.75 kg of air = 2 & 1/3 kg of CO + 4.42 kg of N2




Analysis by volume of air
===================

1 m3 of O 2 reacted with 1 C during incomplete combustion will produce 2 m3 of of CO .

1 m3 of O2 is contained in air of volume 1 / 0.21 = 4.76 m3 of air and will contain 3.76 m3
of N2 also.

Hence : 4.76 m3 of air reacted incomplete combustion with C will produce 2 m3 of CO
together with 3.76 m3 N2.

A total volume increase of 2 + 3.76 = 5.76 m3 - 4.76 m3 = 1 m3

******* sudden increase in volume = puffing and cooling down of furnace.









4) Complete combustion of CO carbon monoxide to CO2
=========================================



Analysis by mass
=============

2 CO + O2 = 2 CO2

2 ( 12 + 16 ) + ( 2 x 16 ) = 2 { 12 + ( 2 x 16 ) }

56 + 32 = 88

divide . through by 56 : 1 + 4 / 7 = 1 & 4 / 7

In weight : 1 kg of CO + 4 / 7 kg of O2 = 1 & 4/7 kg of CO2


Hence 4/7 kg of Oxygen O2 = stoichiometric mass of O2 in the combustion.




4
Now 4/7 kg of O2 is contained in natural air of weight = ----------------------------- = 2.46 kg of air
7 x 0.232
= stoichiometric mass of air

this air will contain also (2.46 kg Air - 4/7 kg O2) = 1.89 kg of Nitogen N2

lastly therefore : 1 kg of CO + 2.46 kg of air ( 0.57 kg O2 + 1.89 kg N2 )
= 1.57 kg of CO2 + 1.89 kg of N2



Analysis by Volume of air
====================


2 CO + O2 = 2 CO2

Proportion by Volume : 2 + 1 = 2

divide. through by 2 : 1 + 0.5 = 1

Then : 1 m3 of CO + 0.5 m3 of O2 = 1 m3 of CO2

****** A sudden contraction of 0.5 m3 in Volume of combustible gases = implosion

Hence : 0.5 m3 O2 = stoichiometric volume of O2 in the combustion

Now : 0.5 m3 of O2 is contained in air of volume = 0.5 m3 / 0.21 = 2.38 m3 of
natural air = stoichiometric volume of air in the combustion

This air will contain also N2 of ( 2.38 m3 - 0.5 m3 of O2 ) = 1.88 m3 of N2

Lastly therefore : 1 m3 of CO + 2.38 m3 of air = 1 m3 of CO2 + 1.88 m3 of N2 with
a sudden contraction in volume of 1 m3. = implosion !



In between incomplete combustion and complete combustion of CO gases there
will be profound sudden implosion and expansion of furnace combustion gases
causing movements of boiler furnace walls.

Thereby causing ocasional puffing of flames at manual feed doors and also cooling
down combustion in the furnace.


Black smoke and unburnt particles will be noticed at the chimney emmisions if the
multi-cyclones are overloaded by their capacities.


Therefore in Tuning of Solid Fuel boilers , it is always advised to have excess combustion air
of 10% to 30 % more than the actual required to prevent incomplete combustion due to lack of
air and furnace being too cold if too much air is supplied especially the Under Fire Forced Draft air.

The trick of balancing act is in keeping the variables in operation more constant and use the secondary air
draft damper adjustments to make up for excess air although most % comes from fuel feeder air.When the
secondary air fans are under size , then the question of difficulties adjustments for sufficient 10 % to 20 %
excess air will arise. Correct it by pulley sizing.

A high capacity I.D. can be solved at site very easily to run at the correct capacity.A high capacity F.D . Fan
can also be solved easily at site to run at the correct capacity by pulley sizing.

The capacity of over fire fan with higher capacity can be corrected with an additional damper.As for a low
capacity over fire fan,the whole unit have to be changed to get the right capacity for excess combustion
air.The correct maximum static pressure is 8 to 12 inch W.C. for all secondary air fan static pressure at
positive side when the damper is adjusted.The Secondary air is for reducing combustion black smoke , while
the Forced Draft air is to accelerates the combustion for more heat when pressure drop.



As the analysis by weight will not show the increase or decrease in air volume amount , but the
densities and volume analysis will show very apparently the implosion/expansion of gases under
conditions of incomplete/complete carbon monoxide combustion and cooling down of furnace
creating black smoke and particles emmission at the chimney.

These situation will occur more frequently on manual feeding and during pressure drops because
of increased steam loading on the steam turbine affecting sudden surge of steam flow on the boiler ,thereby
requiring more feed water at minimum 70 to maximum 98 deg .C to be heated up to 100 deg. C, From and At
100 deg C & at whatever pressure in the boiler ,where it can maintain during irregular manual fuel feeding to
boost the dropping boiler pressure.The higher the feed water temperature the better up to a maximum 98 C.


Don`t forget this is done on calculation basis with a lot of assumptions not taking into account of ashes ,
clinker waste ,intermittent blow down exercise, soot blowing exercise , drawing cleaning the furnace per
4 hourly , irregular manual feeding for pressure drop , fluctuating feed water temperatures , controlling
the feed water modulating valve for optimum minute constant trickle feed as maintaining the maximising
of the fuel ,steam flow and to withstand pressure drops.

Setting the safety valves to blow at higher ranges within design also helps in the maximisation of fuel
over steam flow as a higher steam pressure will reduce the steam consumption rate of Turbine .

The actual perfomance still depends a lot on site datas , site work , solid hands on boiler operation
experiences and technics by the boiler chargeman and the settings and advices from the boiler
manufacturer.







5.Analysis by mass of air and fuel of 80 % fibre/ 20 % shell from FFB process of 33 t/hr
=================================================================

Total fuel available is 6150 kg/hr just nice for a 25 ton per hour boiler.

F.D.Fan in take air pressure are 101.5KN/m2 @ Absolute and at 30 deg C. and respectively, (R for air
= 0.287 KJ/kg K )
100 kN = 1 kg /cm2 = 14.22 psi
1 psi = 27.91 inches W.C.
.
101.5 kN /m2 = (14.43psi -14.22psi ) x 27.91 in. W.C.
= 0.21 x 27.91 inch. W.C.
= 5.86 inches W.C. at positive side
Palm fibre and shell mixture 80/20 fuel
Carbon C = 35 %
Hydrogen = 5 %
Oxygen = 21 %
moisture = 30 %
Ash = 9 %

1 kg of C + 2 & 2/3 kg of O2 = 3 & 2/3 kg of CO2 stoichiometric of Oxygen required.

For 1 kg of Fuel

0.35 kg of carbon require 0.35 x 2 &2/3 kg of O2 = 0.93 kg of O2
0.05 kg of H2 require 0.05 x 8 kg of O2 = 0.4 kg of O2
-------------------------
total = 1.33 kg of O2

But there are 21 % Oxygen in the fuel.
Actual O2 required = 1.33 kg - 0.21 kg = 1.12 kg of O2 per kg of Fuel

Theoretical combustion air = 1.12 kg / 0.232 = 4.82 kg of air per kg of fuel

Based on 30 % Excess Air = 1.3 x 4.82 kg of air = 6.26 kg of Air/kg of fuel
= the actual amount of natural air feed to the boiler/kg of fuel.

The boiler use 6150 kg of fuel / hr to raise 25 tph of steam.
Fuel reflected in kg / sec = 6150 kg / 3600 secs
= 1.70 kg / sec

Actual Air required for 1.7 kg of fuel / sec = 1.7 x 6.26 kg of air / sec
m = 10.64 kg of air / sec for 1.7 kg/sec of fuel on mechanical feed.


Now PV = mRT and T = 30 K + 273K = 303 K and P = 101.5 kN/m2 ; R=0.287 Kj
/kgK

mRT 10.64 x 0.287 x 303
Volume of Air intake = V = ------------------------- = ---------------------------------
for 1.7 kg of fuel /sec P 101.5

= 9.11 m3/sec at an average pressure of 0.3 in. W.C. after deduct
the friction loss etc across the pin hole fire grates, fuel bed and with
help of I.D. Fan suction neutralising the under draft.

F.D. Air in take reflected in m3 / min = 9.11 m3 / sec x 60 sec = 546.60 m3 /min

F.D. Fan = say 550 m3/min rounding it up.





Analysis of Flue Exhaust
===================

0.35 kg Carbon of the fuel will produce = 0.35 x 3 & 2/3 kg of O2 = 1.28 kg of CO2 stoichiometric

The 30 % excess of the 1.12 kg of O2 = 0.33 kg of O2

Theoretical air supplied based on 30 % excess 6.26 kg of air contains 76.8 % of N2
= 4.80 kg of N2

So the dry flue gas per kg of fuel @ 295 deg C will be :

CO2 = 1.28 kg = 20 %
O2 = 0.33 kg = 5 %
N2 = 4.80 kg = 75 %
---------------------------------------
Total = 6.41 kg = 100 %

VP =F/hr x mRT where T = 295 K + 273K = 568 K ; F/hr = 6150 kg /hr ; R=0.287 KJ/kg K
m = 6.41 kg of Exhaust gases / kg of fuel/hr ; P = 100 kN/m2 = 1 kg/cm2


V = 6150 kg/hr ( 6.41 x 0.287 x 568 ) / 100 kN/m2 ( @ 1 atmosphere)
= 64263.35244 m3/hr ( actual amount of flue gases / hr )

Reflected in m3 / min = 64263.35 m3 /60min
= 1071 m3 / min
= 17.85 m3/sec

Rounding up = 1100 m3/min = 18.33 m3/sec

Plus another 10 % Allowance for moisture load and mechanical efficiency = 1100 + 100 m3/min
Actual sizing of I.D. Fan = 1200 m3 / min dry flue gas

or equivalent to = 20 m3 / sec of dry flue gas

The density of this flue gas per m3 = 6150 kg of fuel x 6.41 kg of flue /kg of fuel
--------------------------------------------------------
64263.35244 m3 of flue

= 0.61346717 kg/m3

Density, rounding up = 0.6135 kg/m3 at 295 deg C