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UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
KAMPUS SERI ISKANDAR


FINAL PROJECT
ROAD AND PAVEMENT REPORT


SITE LOCATION
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI PETRONAS (UTP)
and
BANDAR UNIVERSITI SERI ISKANDAR (BUSI)


TEAM MEMBERS:
NUR RIDZUWAN BIN KAMARUDIN 2011 551 303
FAIZ
AHNAF







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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We, semester 04, students of Bachelor of Science (Architecture) AP213 were given a task to complete a
report on Road and Pavement for subject Construction Technology III AAR551 this semester. We have
completed this report within the due date, 12 November 2013
For this, we would like to express our deepest appreciation to all those who provided us the possibility
to complete this report. A special gratitude we give to our lecturer, Mr Jamaludin bin Hj. Muhamad,
whose contribution in giving us guide and encouragement to coordinate our project especially in writing
this report.
Furthermore, we would also like to acknowledge with much appreciation the crucial role of our lecturer
of subject Design III AAR500, En Azhan Abdul Aziz, Ar Raja Azman Shah Raja Umardin, Fazidah Hanim
Husain who helped us to find a case study for this project, thus completed this report.
Also, a special thanks to our seniors for the guidance and suggestions given in completing this report.
GENERAL OVERVIEW
The site is located in Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP) and Bandar Universiti Seri Iskandar, Mukim
Bota, Perak Tengah, Perak Darul Ridzuan. Seri Iskandar built with the basic lifestyles that consist of
harmony, nature and development. The town consists of residential homes, natural landscapes, leisures
and entertainment facilities, institute of higher learning, renowned universities and state-of-the-art
medical centers.
SITE LOCATION











SITE 1 UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI PETRONAS
(UTP)
SITE 2 BANDAR
UNIVERSITI SERI
ISKANDAR (BUSI)
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Function of road
Functional classification is the process by which streets and highways are grouped into classes, or
systems, according to the character of traffic service that they are intended to provide. There are three
highway functional classifications: arterial, collector, and local roads. All streets and highways are
grouped into one of these classes, depending on the character of the traffic and the degree of land
access that they allow. These classifications are described in Table1.


Functional
System
Services Provided
Arterial Provides the highest level of service at the greatest speed
for the longest uninterrupted distance, with some degree
of access control.
Collector Provides a less highly developed level of service at a lower
speed for shorter distances by collecting traffic from local
roads and connecting them with arterials.
Local Consists of all roads not defined as arterials or collectors;
primarily provides access to land with little or no through
movement.

Table 1
Functional
Classification
Systems
Typically, travelers will use a combination of arterial, collector, and local roads for their trips. Each
type of road has a specific purpose or function. Some provide land access to serve each end of the
trip. Others provide travel mobility at varying levels, which is needed en route.
There is a basic relationship between functionally classified highway systems in serving traffic
mobility and land access, as illustrated in Figure 1. Arterials provide a high level of mobility and a
greater degree of access control, while local facilities provide a high level of access to adjacent
properties but a low level of mobility. Collector roadways provide a balance between mobility and
land access.





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Road - Type 1


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Road - Type 2


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Road - Type 2

Function of Pavement
The primary functions of a pavement are to:
PROVIDE A REASONABLY SMOOTH RIDING SURFACE: A smooth riding surface (Low Roughness) is
essential for riding comfort, and over the years it has become the measure of how road users perceive a
road. Roughness can arise from a number of causes, most often however it is from pavement distress
due to structural deformation. Roughness is the distress parameter used by the vehicle operating cost
sub-models of a pavement management system, to estimate the timing, type and cost of maintenance
needs.
PROVIDE ADEQUATE SURFACE FRICTION (SKID RESISTANCE): In addition to a riding comfort, the other
road user requirement is that of safety. Safety, especially during wet conditions can be linked to a loss of
surface friction between the tyre and the pavement surface. A pavement must therefore provide
sufficient surface friction and texture to ensure road user safety under all conditions.
PROTECT THE SUBGRADE: The supporting soil beneath the pavement is commonly referred to as the
subgrade, should it be over-stressed by the applied axle loads it will deform and lose its ability to
properly support these axle loads. Therefore, the pavement must have sufficient structural capacity
(strength and thickness) to adequately reduce the actual stresses so that they do not exceed the
strength of the subgrade. The strength and thickness requirements of a pavement can vary greatly
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depending on the combination of subgrade type and loading condition (magnitude and number of axle
loads).
PROVIDE WATERPROOFING: The pavement surfacing acts as a waterproofing surface that prevent the
underlaying support layers including the subgrade from becoming saturated through moisture ingress.
When saturated, soil loses its ability to adequately support the applied axle loads, which will lead to
premature failure of the pavement.
Pavement - Type 1









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Pavement Type 2


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Pavement Type 3

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Pavement Type 4







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Pavement Type 5
\












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Pavement Type 6







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Pavement Type 7