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I n tro d u cto ry L e v e l
C U R R I C U L U M A S S O C I AT E S

, I n c.
R e a d i n g
S tra te g i e s
fo r
L i te ra tu re
F o r th e S tu d e n t
Do you like to play games or sports? Games and sports
are fun, but you need to learn now to play them. You
need to know the rules.
The things you do in a game or sport are called
stra te g i e s. You use strategies to help you do your best
when you play.
You can also use strategies to help you become a good
reader. The strategies in this book will help you to do
your best in reading and writing. You can use the
strategies when you read new stories and books of all
kinds!
Developed by: Learning Unlimited, Oak Park, Illinois
Writer: Shirley Consodine Granahan
Editor: Karen Herzoff
Project Manager: Ellen Sternhell
Designer and Illustrator: Pat Lucas
ISBN 0-0000-0000-0
1997Curriculum Associates, Inc.
North Billerica, MA 01862
No part of this book may be reproduced by any means
without written permission from the publisher.
All Rights Reserved. Printed in USA.
15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
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- - - - - - - - - - - -
T a b le o f C o n te n ts
P a g e
L e sso n 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Strategy: Use Pictures
Reading: Mikey Goes Fishing picture story by Tom Tucker
L e sso n 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Strategy: Find Who Said It
Reading: High Flyers by Mike Carter
L e sso n 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Strategy: Make Good Guesses
Reading: The Magic Stork retold by Karen Herzoff
L e sso n 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Strategy: Retell the Story
Reading: Rachels Lap by Harriett Diller
L e sso n 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Strategy: Figure Out What Happened
Reading: Lots of Boxes by Roberta Baxter
L e sso n 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Strategy: Pick Out Real and Make-Believe
Reading: Boots and Umbrellas by Edith Hope Fine
L e sso n 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Strategy: Put Things in Order
Reading: Luckys Birthday by Lynne E. Piotrowski
L e sso n 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Strategy: Decide Why It Happened
Reading: Hectors Balloon by Bernice Rappoport
L e sso n 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Strategy: Sort Out Same and Different
Reading: My Sister by Jo Carol Hebert
L e sso n 1 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Strategy: Spin a Character Web
Reading: The Monkey and the Crocodiles retold by Marilyn Bolchunos
L e sso n 1 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Strategy: Make a Story Map
Reading: The Wishing Well from Mouse Tales by Arnold Lobel
L e sso n 9
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Strategy:
Sort Out
Same
and
Different
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3 4
Lots of things are the same in some
ways and different in others. How are a
pencil and paintbrush the same? How are
they different?
You hold both a pencil and a paintbrush.
But you write with a pencil. You paint with
a paintbrush.
Yo u ca n te ll h o w tw o th i n g s a re th e
sa m e a n d h o w th e y a re d i ffe re n t. Yo u
ca n sh o w th e se th i n g s o n a ch a rt.
RRead the chart. Then finish it.
P e n ci l P a i n tb ru sh
S a m e Hold in hand
S a m e Long tool
D i ffe re n t Write with it
D i ffe re n t Point at end
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
3 5
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
E x p lo ri n g th e S tra te g y
RYou can find same and different things in
stories, too. Read the story.
T w o F ri e n d s
Paco and Carla both go to Park School.
They both like to read.
Do you and Paco like everything the
same? asked Carlas teacher.
No, answered Carla. I like to dance.
But Paco likes to sing. So he sings when I dance!
RHow are Paco and Carla the same?
How are they different? Finish the chart.
P a co C a rla
S a m e Goes to Park School Goes to Park School
S a m e Likes to read
D i ffe re n t Likes to sing
S tu d y i n g th e S tra te g y
RRead the story. See how the sisters are more
different than the same.
M y S i ste r
by Jo Carol Hebert
My sister can do almost everything
better than me.
At school, my sister always colors
inside the lines. (I dont.)
At home, my sister always hangs up
her clothes and makes her bed. (I dont.)
Mom says, Look at your sister. Isnt
she a good helper?
My sister can do almost everything
better than meexcept whistle. She tries
and she tries. But she cant whistle even
one little note.
But I CAN! So I whistle all the time.
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3 7
Mom says, Listen to your sister.
Doesnt she whistle well? (I just
love my mom!)
My sister can do almost everything
better than me. But she cant whistle
like me.
And I like it that way!
U si n g th e S tra te g y
RWhat can you tell about the sisters? Read the
chart. Then finish it.
O ld e r S i ste r Yo u n g e r S i ste r
S a m e Is a girl Is a girl
S a m e Goes to school Goes to school
D i ffe re n t Colors inside the lines Doesnt color inside the lines
D i ffe re n t Hangs up clothes,
makes bed
D i ffe re n t Can whistle very well
fo r
I n tro d u cto ry
L e v e l
Teacher
Guide
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C U R R I C U L U M A S S O C I AT E S

, I n c.
R e a d i n g
S tra te g i e s
L i te ra tu re
T a b le o f C o n te n ts
Page
I n tro d u cti o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Using Strategies to Read Literature
How to Use This Program
L e sso n N o te s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Lessons 111
A n sw e r K e y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Lessons 111
T a k e -H o m e L e tte r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Letter to Parents or Guardians
Suggested Reading List
E v a lu a ti o n T o o ls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Student Reading Log
Teacher Response Log
Class Reading Record
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I N T R O D U C T I O N
Using Strategies to Read Literature
One of the best outcomes of the whole-language
approach is that it exposes young children to high-
quality, authentic literature. The proliferation of
quality childrens literature is a rich resource for
teachers and parents alike.
The popularity of using authentic literature has
been accompanied by efforts to help children develop
the cognitive strategies essential to applying critical-
thinking skills to the stories, poems, and plays that
they read.
Reading Strategies for Literature presents
children with eleven key strategies that they can use
whenever they read literature, whether in school or
at home.
The first seven strategies are metacognitive
approaches that help children think about their
own thought processes. These strategies provide
tools children need to become strong, indepen-
dent readers
The last four strategies are built around graphic
organizers. Children learn that visual tools can
help them organize what they read so that it
makes sense. Graphic organizers are beneficial,
not only for developing reading and thinking
skills, but for organizing ideas for writing.
How to Use This Program
The Reading Strategies for Literature program
consists of student books and teacher guides for the
Introductory Level and Levels 2 through 8.
Each of the eleven student book lessons has four
main components:
Introduction of the strategy in a familiar con-
text; accompanied by a definition
Guided practice with the strategy
A high-interest selection taken from quality
childrens literature
An exercise to apply the skill to the literature
selection
In addition, this teacher guide provides you with
lesson notes to help you introduce each strategy,
discuss aspects of the strategy as applied to the
practice examples and reading selection, and
extend the strategy with a variety of activities not
found in the student book.
an answer key to check childrens work.
reproducible masters of a letter that introduces
at-home reading activities to parents and
guardians and provides a send-home suggested
reading list of high-interest, high-quality
children's books.
reproducible masters for student self-evaluation,
teacher feedback, and classroom management.
In My Reading Log, children evaluate the
reading selections.
In the Teacher Response Log, teachers evaluate
childrens work and respond to their Reading Log
entries.
The Class Record helps teachers to keep track of
childrens work on a lesson-by-lesson basis.
The readings and the activities in this program
can help stimulate your childrens critical-thinking
skills and their love for reading good stories.
3. Discuss multiple causes, as in the domino effect.
Ask children to imagine a baseball crashing
through a window and into a house. The ball hits
a lamp and the lamp falls over onto the floor. As
Mom runs in to see what happened, she trips over
the lamp cord and falls! Ask, What caused the
window to break? The lamp to fall? Mom to trip?
Help children understand that the first cause was
the person who hit the ball, but that the ball and
the lamp also caused other things to happen.
L E S S O N 9
S tra te g y : S o rt O u t S a m e a n d D i ffe re n t
About the Strategy
In this lesson, children will sort the ways in
which things are the same or different and then list
the similarities and differences on a chart.
Children will learn that knowing how things
are the same or different can help them sort
information and better understand what they
read.
Introducing the Strategy
1. Hold up a winter glove and a mitten (or two other
comparable items). Encourage volunteers to tell
how they are alike, or the same, and how they are
different. Help children as necessary to realize
that the mitten and glove are the same in that you
wear them on your hands and they keep your
hands dry and warm. Then help children as
necessary to realize that the glove and mitten are
different in shape and how they cover the fingers.
You can see each finger in a glove, but you can
only see the thumb of a mitten because the rest of
the mitten holds the other fingers.
2. Challenge each child to find two things in the
classroom that are the same in some ways and
different in others. Allow children time to find
their two things, present them to the class, and
explain how they are the same and different.
Clarify any misconceptions before children begin
reading.
Tell children that they can sort same and different
things in stories and that knowing how things
are the same of different can help them better
understand story characters and events. Add that
they will practice this strategy in Lesson 9.
Using the Strategy
In addition to the instructional text in the lesson,
here are suggestions for exploring the strategy
further in the examples and reading selection.
1. On page 34, display a real pencil and paintbrush
and allow children to hold them to see for
themselves in what ways the two are the same
and in what ways they are different. Have
children read the answers on the chart with you,
then trace the last answer.
2. On page 35, have children reread the story and
point out how Paco and Carla are the same and
different. Then let children finish the chart at the
bottom of the page.
3. On pages 36 and 37, read the first sentence with
children, then ask, Do you think the two girls are
the same in some ways and different in others?
Read the rest of the story, then discuss how the
two girls are alike and how they are different.
Have children finish the comparison chart on
page 37.
Extending the Strategy
You can use the following ideas to extend
childrens experience with the strategy.
1. Have children work in small groups to make
charts showing likenesses and differences
between a dog and cat. Discuss the animals
before the groups start the charts by pointing out
the number of legs, ears, and eyes on each animal
and then asking questions such as, Do both have
teeth? Do both bark? Do both chew bones?
Allow time for each group to make its chart.
Assist as necessary, and then let the groups share
their results. Ask, Are dogs and cats more alike or
more different?
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2. Read each sentence and ask children to tell
whether it tells how two things are the same or
how they are different.
a. My hair is darker than yours. (different)
b. I have a blue bike, too! (same)
c. My new house is bigger. (different)
d. We had hot dogs again today. (same)
e. Mark and Jan are swimmers. (same)
3. Invite children to make comparison charts at
home, with adult help, for two of their toys. Let
children share their charts with classmates.
L E S S O N 1 0
S tra te g y : S p i n a C h a ra cte r We b
About the Strategy
In this lesson, children will learn how to create a
character web to help them describe and remember
a character in a story. Children will focus on a
characters physical looks, actions, feelings, and
own words.
Children will learn that by creating character
webs they can better understand characters in a
story and how they act.
Introducing the Strategy
1. Write the name of a book character, such as
Winnie the Pooh, on the board and draw a circle
around it. Write things about Pooh in smaller
circles surrounding the center circle, such as a
bear, likes honey, Piglets friend, sings songs,
belongs to Christopher Robin, and lives in a tree.
Draw lines between the circles to create a word
web. Explain to children that creating a web helps
a reader describe and remember a story character.
Encourage volunteers to suggest something to
add to the character web. Add their suggestions to
the web.
2. Recite the rhyme Little Boy Blue for children.
Then challenge them to help you create a character
web for Little Boy Blue. Items might include
little, looks after sheep, is asleep, plays the horn,
and sleeps under a haystack.
Explain that children can spin a web about any
character in a story they read. Add that they will
practice this strategy in Lesson 10.
Using the Strategy
In addition to the instructional text in the lesson,
here are suggestions for exploring the strategy
further in the examples and reading selection.
1. On page 38, help children understand that words
in stories tell about or describe the characters
what they look like, do, say, and think. Have
children recite Little Miss Muffet with you
before tracing the word in the character web at
the bottom of the page. Let children suggest other
character traits, if any, to add to the web.
2. On page 39, read the story and let children choose
two words from the box to add to Leons
character web. Ask, Are there other things we
could add? Explain that there may be many
words to describe a character, but usually just a
few are enough to tell who he or she is. List other
traits that children suggest for Leon, such as
brother, baby-sitter, happy, etc.
3. On pages 40 and 41, read the story with children
and then discuss it. Ask children to reread the
story and underline words that describe the
monkey, starting with little. Let children
complete the character web with four words from
the box.
Extending the Strategy
You can use the following ideas to extend
childrens experience with the strategy.
1. Remind children of the story Luckys Birthday
(pages 2829 of the student book). Then as a
group, create a character web for Lucky.
2. Invite children to work at home with parents or
guardians to make character webs for their
favorite TV characters. Have children bring in
their webs and share them with classmates.
Discuss each web and allow class members who
also watch the shows to suggest other traits that
could be used to describe a character.
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Dear Parent or Guardian:
In class, your child is working with a book called Reading Strategies for Literature. This
book shows your child how to use different ideas and strategies to understand stories,
novels, poems, and plays. These strategies will help your child to do well with homework
assignments, book reports, and tests that are based on literature. The strategies will also help
your child to enjoy reading for pleasure.
But there is one key strategy that your child cannot get out of a textbook. That strategy is
to READ, READ, and READ some more. In the Reading Strategies for Literature lessons,
your child is reading excerpts from stories. I hope these stories will encourage a love of read-
ing in your child. On the other side of this letter is a list of books that your child might enjoy
reading. Most of these are available at the public library. Many of them may also be
available at your school library.
Here are some ideas you can try at home to help your child develop a love of reading
good literature.
1. Ask to see the Reading Log that your child is filling out as he or she works
through Reading Strategies for Literature. Ask your child to tell you about
stories on the log that he or she enjoyed reading.
2. Establish 15 minutes of DEAR (Drop Everything And Read) Time every day. This
is time you can set aside for each individual to pick something of his or her own
choosing and spend time togetherjust reading.
3. If your child is a reader, you should still read to him or her. Children who love to
read still enjoy adults reading to them.
4. Ask your child to read to you. You can also ask the child to elaborate on a story
by choosing a new ending or making up the next chapter. You could also ask your
child to make a picture based on the story and hang it up on the refrigerator door.
Happy reading,
_________________________________________
Curriculum Associates, Inc. Reading Strategies for Literature, Introductory Level
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Aliki Im Growing!
Asch, Frank Moongame
Barton, Byron Dinosaurs, Dinosaurs
Blaine, Marge The Terrible Thing That Happened at Our House
Bonsall, Crosby And I Mean It, Stanley
Brown, Margaret Wise Goodnight Moon
Caines, Jeannette I Need a Lunch Box
Carle, Eric Do You Want to Be My Friend?
Cebulash, Mel Willies Wonderful Pet
Clark, Margaret The Best of Aesops Fables
Cole, Joanna Its Too Noisy
Cooper, Helen The Bear Under the Stairs
Cushman, Doug The ABC Mystery
Giff, Patricia Watch Out, Ronald Morgan
Graham, Margaret Bloy Be Nice to Spiders
Hoban, Julia Amy Loves the Snow
Hoff, Syd The Lighthouse Children
Hurd, Edith Thacher I Dance in My Red Pajamas
Krauss, Ruth Bears
Lobel, Arnold Small Pig
Minarik, Else Holmelund A Kiss for Little Bear
Numeroff, Laura Joffe If You Give a Moose a Muffin
Packard, David The Ball Game
Quackenbush, Robert First Grade Jitters
Robins, Joan Addie Meets Max
Schmidt, Karen The Gingerbread Man
Schwartz, Alvin There Is a Carrot in My Ear and Other Noodle Tales
Shecter, Ben When Will the Snow Trees Grow?
Siracusa, Catherine Bingo, The Best Dog in the World
Stadler, John The Adventures of Snail at School
Steig, William Grown-ups Get to Do All the Driving
Wiseman, B. Morris Goes to School
S U G G E S T E D R E A D I N G L I S T
Curriculum Associates, Inc. Reading Strategies for Literature, Introductory Level
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Lesson 1
Use Pictures
Mikey Goes Fishing
Lesson 2
Find Who Said It
High Flyers
Lesson 3
Make Good Guesses
The Magic Stork
Lesson 4
Retell the Story
Rachels Lap
Lesson 5
Figure Out What Happens
Lots of Boxes
Lesson 6
Pick Out Real and Make-Believe
Boots and Umbrellas
Lesson 7
Put Things in Order
Luckys Birthday
Lesson 8
Decide Why It Happened
Hectors Balloon
Lesson 9
Sort Out Same and Different
My Sister
Lesson 10
Spin a Character Web
The Monkey and the Crocodiles
Lesson 11
Make a Story Map
The Wishing Well from Mouse Tales
M Y R E A D I N G L O G
N A M E __________________________________________________
L e sso n a n d R e a d i n g S e le cti o n
H o w I R a te th e
R e a d i n g S e le cti o n
Wh a t I Wi ll R e m e m b e r
A b o u t th e R e a d i n g S e le cti o n
Curriculum Associates, Inc. Reading Strategies for Literature, Introductory Level
Great OK
Not
Good
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Curriculum Associates, Inc. Reading Strategies for Literature, Introductory Level
Lesson 1
Use Pictures
Mikey Goes Fishing
Lesson 2
Find Who Said It
High Flyers
Lesson 3
Make Good Guesses
The Magic Stork
Lesson 4
Retell the Story
Rachels Lap
Lesson 5
Figure Out What Happens
Lots of Boxes
Lesson 6
Pick Out Real and Make-Believe
Boots and Umbrellas
Lesson 7
Put Things in Order
Luckys Birthday
Lesson 8
Decide Why It Happened
Hectors Balloon
Lesson 9
Sort Out Same and Different
My Sister
Lesson 10
Spin a Character Web
The Monkey and the Crocodiles
Lesson 11
Make a Story Map
The Wishing Well from Mouse Tales
L e sso n a n d R e a d i n g S e le cti o n
H o w I R a te Yo u r
Wo rk o n th e L e sso n
M y R e sp o n se to Yo u r
R e a d i n g L o g E n try
T E A C H E R R E S P O N S E L O G
S T U D E N T __________________________________________________
Great OK
Improvement
Needed
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R e a d i n g
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L e v e l 2
C U R R I C U L U M A S S O C I AT E S

, I n c.
L i te ra tu re
F o r th e S tu d e n t
Do you like to play games or sports? To have fun and to be
good at a game or a sport, you need to learn how to play it. The
rules you use and the things you do as you play the game or sport
are called stra te g i e s. You use strategies to help you do your best
to win a game or play a sport well.
You can also use strategies to become a better reader. The
strategies that you will learn in this book will help you enjoy reading
stories, poems, and plays. You can practice the strategies in
the lessons. You can also use the strategies when you read other
stories and books of all kinds!
Dont forget to try the activity at the end of each lesson. Look
for the box with the title B e y o n d th e S to ry .
Developed by: Learning Unlimited, Oak Park, Illinois
Writer: Shirley Consodine Granahan
Editor: Karen Herzoff
Project Manager: Ellen Sternhell
Designer and Illustrator: Pat Lucas
ISBN 0-7609-0280-1
1998Curriculum Associates, Inc.
North Billerica, MA 01862
No part of this book may be reproduced by any means
without written permission from the publisher.
All Rights Reserved. Printed in USA.
15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
D D D D D D D D D D D D D D
T a b le o f C o n te n ts
P a g e
L e sso n 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Strategy: Paint Pictures with Words
Reading: Jack Rabbit by Marilyn Sabata
L e sso n 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Strategy: Put Yourself in My Shoes
Reading: First Grades Forever by Robin Johnson
L e sso n 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Strategy: Make Good Guesses
Reading: The Fast-Slow Race by Richard Hohl
L e sso n 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Strategy: Become a Storyteller
Reading: The Lion and the Mouse by Aesop
L e sso n 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Strategy: Figure Out What Happens
Reading: Where Did Lisa Go? by Ann Devendorf
L e sso n 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Strategy: Use Good Judgment
Reading: Epaminondas retold by Eve Merriam
L e sso n 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Strategy: Put Things in Order
Reading: Shopping by Sandy Lanton
L e sso n 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Strategy: Determine What Happens and Why
Reading: One Morning by Clare Mishica
L e sso n 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Strategy: Sort Out Same and Different
Reading: Gloria Who Might Be My Best Friend from
The Stories Julian Tells by Ann Cameron
L e sso n 1 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Strategy: Spin a Character Web
Reading: Yoko by Karen Herzoff
L e sso n 1 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Strategy: Make a Story Map
Reading: Strange Bumps from Owl at Homeby Arnold Lobel
D D D D D D D D D D D D D D
Did you ever fall and skin your knee? It really
hurt, didnt it? You remember how it felt.
You see your friend fall and skin her knee. Do
you know how she feels? If you do, you are
p u tti n g y o u rse lf i n h e r sh o e s.
Wh e n y o u put yourself in someones elses
shoes, y o u try to fe e l w h a t th a t p e rso n
fe e ls.
D Put yourself in the shoes of this character.
M a x cre e p s clo se r to th e sp o o k y , o ld
h o u se . S u d d e n ly , h e h e a rs a lo u d b a n g !
M a x h o ld s h i s b re a th . H i s h e a rt b e a ts fa ste r.
M a x tri e s to ru n a w a y . H e b u m p s i n to
so m e th i n g ta ll a n d h a i ry !
D Who feels frightened? Circle the answer.
M a x M e B o th o f u s
The scary thing isnt happening to you. But you
can remember how it feels to be frightened. You
can p u t y o u rse lf i n M a x s sh o e s.
D D D D D D D D D D D D
D D D D D D D D D D D D D D
6
L e sso n 2
DDDDDD
Strategy:
Put
Yourself in
My Shoes
7
D D D D D D D D D D D D D D
E x p lo ri n g th e S tra te g y
D Read about Jo below. Has the same thing ever
happened to you? See if you can feel what Jo
feels.
J o sta n d s w i th th e se co n d g ra d e rs. T h e
tw o te a m ca p ta i n s b e g i n ch o o si n g p e o p le
fo r th e b a ll g a m e . Fi n a lly , th e re a re tw o
p e o p le le ft, a n d J o i s o n e o f th e m . S h e k i ck s
th e d i rt w i th h e r sh o e . S h e w a n ts to ru n a n d
h i d e . J o i s p i ck e d la st. S h e w a lk s slo w ly o v e r
to jo i n h e r te a m .
D Write your answers below. They will help you
feel what Jo feels.
1. Remember a time when you were picked
last. How did you feel?
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
2. Now put yourself in Jos shoes. Write a
sentence about how she feels.
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
D D D D D D D D D D D D
D D D D D D D D D D D D
D D D D D D D D D D D D D D
S tu d y i n g th e S tra te g y
D Read this story. Put yourself in the characters
shoes. Try to understand how they feel.
esley just stood there, looking down at his
shoes. Youre a little sad about leaving first grade,
arent you, Wesley? asked Miss Bottomley. I can
understand why.
You can? asked Wesley in the same small,
quiet voice that he had used when hed read his
book about spiders to the class.
Sure I can. Do you know why we call this year
first grade, Wesley? Wesley shook his head.
Its because in first grade you do so many
things for the first time. Its the first time you read
a book all by yourself. Its the first time you count
past one hundred. And its the first time you write
a story without any help, Miss Bottomley said.
No wonder youre a little sad, Wesleyits a very
special year.
She took Wesleys
hand and walked
toward the classroom
door. They headed
quietly down the
empty hall and then
outside to the bus line.
8
F i rst
G ra d e s
F o re v e r
by Robin Johnson
It is the last day of
school. Wesley is sad
about leaving first grade.
His teacher helps him
understand why first
grade is so special.
W
Reprinted by permission of Spider
magazine, May 1994, Vol. 1, No. 5
1994 by Robin Johnson.
D D D D D D D D D D D D
D D D D D D D D D D D D D D
You know, Wesley, youll never forget this
year. From now on youll think of first grade
every time you read or count or write, promised
Miss Bottomley.
Wesley smiled. He liked knowing that he
would remember first grade always, maybe even
for infinity.
U si n g th e S tra te g y
D Put yourself in the place of the characters in
the story. Answer the questions below.
1. Remember when you were in first grade.
How did you feel about leaving your
teacher and class?
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
2. Pretend you are Wesley, the boy in the
story. How do you feel about leaving first
grade?
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
3. Now pretend you are Miss Bottomley.
How do you feel about the last day with
your first graders?
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
9
B e y o n d th e
S to ry
C h o o se a p a rtn e r.
P re te n d th a t o n e o f
y o u i s We sle y a n d
th e o th e r i s M i ss
B o tto m le y . A ct o u t
so m e th i n g s th a t
e a ch o f y o u w o u ld
sa y a b o u t fi rst g ra d e .
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
R e a d i n g
S tra te g i e s
fo r
L e v e l 2
C U R R I C U L U M A S S O C I AT E S

, I n c.
L i te ra tu re
Teacher
Guide
T a b le o f C o n te n ts
Page
I n tro d u cti o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Using Strategies to Read Literature
How to Use This Program
L e sso n N o te s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Lessons 111
A n sw e r K e y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Lessons 111
T a k e -H o m e L e tte r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Letter to Parents or Guardians
Suggested Reading List
E v a lu a ti o n T o o ls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Student Reading Log
Teacher Response Log
Class Reading Record
D D D D D D D D D D D D
D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D
D D D D D D D D D
D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D
D D D D D D D D D
2
I N T R O D U C T I O N
Using Strategies to Read Literature
One of the most powerful aspects of the whole
language approach is the exposure of young
children to high quality, authentic literature. The
proliferation of quality childrens literature is a rich
resource for teachers and parents alike.
This growth in the popularity of authentic literature
has been accompanied by efforts to help children
to develop the cognitive strategies essential to
applying critical-thinking skills to the stories,
poems, and plays that they read.
Reading Strategies for Literature presents
children with eleven key strategies they can use
whenever they read literature, whether for school
assignments or for pleasure reading.
The first six strategies consist of metacognitive
approaches which encourage children to think
about their own thought processes. These
strategies give children tools they need to help
them become strong, independent critical
thinkers.
The last five strategies are built around graphic
organizers. Children can use these visual tools to
help them organize what they read in ways that
make sense to them. Graphic organizers are
beneficial, not only for developing reading and
thinking skills, but also for organizing ideas for
writing.
How to Use This Program
The Reading Strategies for Literature program
consists of a student book and a teacher guide for
levels 28.
Each of the eleven student book lessons has five
main components:
Introduction of the strategy in an everyday,
familiar context; accompanied by a definition
Guided practice using the strategy
A high-interest selection taken from quality
childrens literature
An exercise that requires children to apply the
skill to the literature selection
A Beyond the Story extension of the strategy
or the theme of the story through writing,
discussion, role-playing, or art activities
In addition, this teacher guide provides you with
lesson notes to help you introduce each strategy
and extend it with a variety of activities not found
in the student book.
an answer key to check childrens work.
reproducible masters of a letter introducing
at-home reading activities to parents and
guardians and a suggested reading list of high-
interest, high-quality childrens books.
reproducible masters for student self-evaluation,
teacher feedback, and classroom management.
In My Reading Log, students evaluate each
reading selection.
In the Teacher Response Log, teachers evaluate
childrens work and respond to Reading Log
entries.
The Class Record helps teachers track childrens
work on a lesson-by-lesson basis.
The readings and activities in this program will
help stimulate childrens critical-thinking skills and
their love for reading good stories.
L E S S O N 2
S tra te g y : P u t Yo u rse lf i n M y S h o e s
About the Strategy
In Lesson 2, children will learn to put themselves
in the place of story characters to understand
feelings/emotions in various situations (empathize).
Children will learn to relate to a characters
feelings by using the steps of remembering a similar
experience and how they felt, and pretending to be
the character in order to understand how the
character feels.
Children will learn how putting themselves in a
characters shoes can help them better understand
a story characters experiences and behavior.
Introducing the Strategy
1. Write these words on the board: sad, happy,
worried, surprised, angry, confused (or puzzled).
Ask children to suggest a situation that might
cause someone to have each of these feelings.
2. Ask a few children to use facial expressions and
body language (body movements) to show that
they are feeling sad, happy, worried, surprised,
angry, or confused. Let other children comment
on the role-playing. Can they identify the
emotion being shown?
3. Invite volunteers to tell about a situation in which
they felt one of the feelings listed on the board.
After each speaker, ask if the class understands
why the child felt that way. Say, You may not
have felt the same way, but by putting yourself in
his or her shoes, you can understand why he or
she did feel that way.
Tell children that by putting themselves in the
shoes of story characters, they will be able to
better understand the characters. Add that they
will practice this strategy in Lesson 2.
Note: This lessons reading selection First Grades
Forever, contains the word infinity. You may
want to introduce the word and its meaning
(an amount of time for which there is no end;
forever) before students begin reading.
Extending the Strategy
The Beyond the Story activity asks children to
role-play Wesley and Miss Bottomley talking about
how they feel about children leaving first grade.
Discuss with children how it felt to be Wesley or
Miss Bottomley.
Here are other ideas for extending the strategy.
1. Present situations for pairs to role-play, such as
one child who accidentally broke or lost a toy
belonging to the other child. Remind children to
put themselves in the shoes of their characters
and say what they think the characters would say.
2. Discuss characters in familiar stories, such as
those in childrens readers or in stories youve
read to the class. Ask, What kinds of feelings
did the characters have? Why did they feel or act
as they did?
3. Have children imagine that they are pioneers
riding in a covered wagon or astronauts riding in
a space shuttle in outer space and write a diary
entry describing their emotions. For example,
March 1: There was a big storm this morning.
I was scared. So were the horses. The rain made
them and everything in our covered wagon wet.
The sun came out in the afternoon. We were so
happy to see the sun!
L E S S O N 3
S tra te g y : M a k e G o o d G u e sse s
About the Strategy
In Lesson 3, children will learn how to use
prior knowledge and story clues to make guesses
(predictions) about story events. Children will also
learn to check the accuracy of their predictions.
Children will discover how making predictions
can help them better understand and enjoy what
they read.
D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D
D D D D D D D D D
4
D D D D D D D D D
A N S WE R K E Y
L E S S O N 1
Paint Pictures with Words
Page 2
Note: Most answers are filled in as a model for
children.
Taste
sour
Page 3
Note: The first answer in brackets is filled in as a
model for children. Children may not list all
the words. Review the story with children to
help them find words they have not listed.
See Hear Smell Taste Touch
[blue flags] Boom! hot dogs salty sticky
drums Roar!
lions
hot dogs
peanuts
cotton candy
Page 5
Note 1: Some answers have been filled in as a model
for children. Most children will not list all
the words. Review the story with children to
help them find words they have not listed.
Note 2: The words shiver and quiver are sensory
words, but these feeling words are not
as concrete as those related to the sense of
touch focused on in this lesson. You might
review the story and ask questions such as,
How did Jack feel when he heard the
noise and hid? (nervous, scared) What
words in the story help you know this?
(shiver, quiver)
See Hear Touch
[carrot patch] [crunch] leafy
leafy lettuce noise
cabbages munch
gardener scrunch
radishes tromp
rabbit hopping chomp
Rabbit, STOP!
L E S S O N 2
Put Yourself in My Shoes
Page 6
The words Both of us should be circled.
Note: Many children will circle Both of us, but
some may answer literally, Max. Review the
last paragraph on page 6 to reinforce the
correct answer.
Page 7
1. Children might say that they were unhappy or felt
bad.
2. Possible answers include: Jo feels bad. Jo wishes
someone would choose her.
Page 9
1. Possible answers include: I was sad. I didnt want
to leave my teacher or my class. I was a little
scared about second grade.
2. Possible answers include: I am sad. I dont want
to leave. I will miss my teacher.
3. Possible answers include: I feel sad. I dont want
the children to leave. Im proud of everyone in
the class.
L E S S O N 3
Make Good Guesses
Page 10
Most children will guess that Dana will spell the
word correctly.
Page 11
1. Possible prediction: a kid who just moved to a
new town
2. Possible prediction: He will catch the ball. He
will throw it back.
3. Possible prediction: They will ask him to play.
4. Possible prediction: He will say, Yes.
Page 12
Note: Encourage children to explain why they made
the predictions they did.
D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D
D D D D D D D D D
1 2
D D D D D D D D D
D D D D D D D D D
D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D
D D D D D D D D D
1 6
Dear Parent or Guardian:
In class, your child is working with a book called Reading Strategies for Literature. This
book shows your child how to use different ideas and strategies to understand stories,
novels, poems, and plays. These strategies will help your child to do well with homework
assignments, book reports, and tests that are based on literature. The strategies will also help
your child to enjoy reading for pleasure.
But there is one key strategy that your child cannot get out of a textbook. That strategy
is to READ, READ, and READ some more. In the Reading Strategies for Literature
lessons, your child is reading excerpts from stories. I hope these stories will encourage a love
of reading in your child. On the other side of this letter is a list of books that your child might
enjoy reading. Most of these are available at the public library. Many of them may also be
available at your school library.
Here are some ideas you can try at home to help your child develop a love of reading
good literature.
1. Ask to see the Reading Log that your child is filling out as he or she works
through Reading Strategies for Literature. Ask your child to tell you about
stories on the log that he or she enjoyed reading.
2. Establish 15 minutes of DEAR (Drop Everything And Read) Time every day.
This is time you can set aside for each individual to pick something of his or her
own choosing and spend time togetherjust reading.
3. If your child is a reader, you should still read to him or her. Children who love to
read still enjoy adults reading to them.
4. Ask your child to read to you. You can also ask the child to elaborate on a story
by choosing a new ending or making up the next chapter. You might also suggest
to your child that he or she draw illustrations based on the story.
Happy reading,
_________________________________________
Curriculum Associates, Inc. Reading Strategies for Literature, Level 2
D D D D D D D D D
D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D
D D D D D D D D D
1 7
Babbit, Natalie Nellie: A Cat on Her Own
Bate, Lucy Little Rabbits Loose Tooth
Blaine, Marge The Terrible Thing That Happened at Our House
Bogart, Jo Ellen Daniels Dog
Bourgeois, Paulette Franklin Wants a Pet
Carle, Eric Have You Seen My Cat?
Carlstrom, Nancy W. Im Not Moving, Mama!
Cebulash, Mel Willies Wonderful Pet
Clark, Margaret The Best of Aesops Fables
Cole, Joanna Its Too Noisy
Cooper, Helen The Bear Under the Stairs
Dowling, Paul Meg & Jack Are Moving
Gag, Wanda Millions of Cats
Giff, Patricia Watch Out, Ronald Morgan
Hallinan, P. K. My Very Best Rainy Day
Hoban, Lillian Arthurs Loose Tooth
Johnson, Dolores What Kind of Baby-Sitter Is This?
Kessler, Leonard Old Turtles Soccer Team
Levine, Ellen I Hate English!
McCully, Emily Grandmas at Bat
Noble, Trinka Hakes The Day Jimmys Boa Ate the Wash
Rocklin, Joanne How Much Is that Guinea Pig in the Window?
Rylant, Cynthia The Relatives Came
Schwartz, Alvin In a Dark, Dark Room
Sharmat, Mitchell Gregory, the Terrible Eater
Slater, Teddy Whos Afraid of the Big Bad Bully?
Ward, Cindy Cookies Week
Wood, Audrey Little Penguins Tale
S U G G E S T E D R E A D I N G L I S T
Curriculum Associates, Inc. Reading Strategies for Literature, Level 2
D D D D D D D D D
D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D
D D D D D D D D D
1 8
Lesson 1
Paint Pictures with Words
Jack Rabbit
Lesson 2
Put Yourself in My Shoes
First Grades Forever
Lesson 3
Make Good Guesses
The Fast-Slow Race
Lesson 4
Become a Storyteller
The Lion and the Mouse
Lesson 5
Figure Out What Happens
Where Did Lisa Go?
Lesson 6
Use Good Judgment
Epaminondas
Lesson 7
Put Things in Order
Shopping
Lesson 8
Determine What Happens
and Why
One Morning
Lesson 9
Sort Out Same and Different
Gloria Who Might Be My Best Friend
from The Stories Julian Tells
Lesson 10
Spin a Character Web
Yoko
Lesson 11
Make a Story Map
Strange Bumps from Owl at Home
M Y R E A D I N G L O G
N A M E __________________________________________________
L e sso n a n d R e a d i n g S e le cti o n
H o w I R a te th e
R e a d i n g S e le cti o n
Wh a t I Wi ll R e m e m b e r
A b o u t th e R e a d i n g S e le cti o n
Curriculum Associates, Inc. Reading Strategies for Literature, Level 2
Great OK
Not
Good
D D D D D D D D D
D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D
D D D D D D D D D
1 9
Curriculum Associates, Inc. Reading Strategies for Literature, Level 2
Lesson 1
Paint Pictures with Words
Jack Rabbit
Lesson 2
Put Yourself in My Shoes
First Grades Forever
Lesson 3
Make Good Guesses
The Fast-Slow Race
Lesson 4
Become a Storyteller
The Lion and the Mouse
Lesson 5
Figure Out What Happens
Where Did Lisa Go?
Lesson 6
Use Good Judgment
Epaminondas
Lesson 7
Put Things in Order
Shopping
Lesson 8
Determine What Happens
and Why
One Morning
Lesson 9
Sort Out Same and Different
Gloria Who Might Be My Best Friend
from The Stories Julian Tells
Lesson 10
Spin a Character Web
Yoko
Lesson 11
Make a Story Map
Strange Bumps from Owl at Home
L e sso n a n d R e a d i n g S e le cti o n
H o w I R a te Yo u r
Wo rk o n th e L e sso n
M y R e sp o n se to Yo u r
R e a d i n g L o g E n try
T E A C H E R R E S P O N S E L O G
S T U D E N T __________________________________________________
Great OK
Improvement
Needed

R e a d i n g
S tra te g i e s
fo r
L e v e l 3
C U R R I C U L U M A S S O C I AT E S

, I n c.
L i te ra tu re
T a b le o f C o n te n ts
P a g e
L e sso n 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Strategy: Paint a Picture
Reading: Pink Paper Swans by Virginia Kroll
L e sso n 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Strategy: Put Yourself in My Shoes
Reading: Through Grandpas Eyes by Patricia MacLachlan
L e sso n 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Strategy: Make Good Guesses
Reading: Xangs Treasure by Jay H. Lucas
L e sso n 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Strategy: Become a Storyteller
Reading: The Trade by Christine Baseleon
L e sso n 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Strategy: Figure Out What Happens
Reading: The Frogs and the Well and The Crab and the Fox by Aesop
L e sso n 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Strategy: Use Good Judgment
Reading: Just Collecting by Diana R. Jenkins
L e sso n 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Strategy: Put Things in Order
Reading: Coyote Makes the Constellations by Gretchen Will Mayo
L e sso n 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Strategy: Determine What Happens and Why
Reading: How the Camel Got His Hump by Rudyard Kipling
L e sso n 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Strategy: Sort Out Likenesses and Differences
Reading: Frog Friends by Sandy Fox
L e sso n 1 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Strategy: Spin a Character Web
Reading: Wheels by Kelly Musselman
L e sso n 1 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Strategy: Make a Story Map
Reading: But What Can I Bring? by Donna Freedman

Have you ever gone ice skating on a pond or lake? What
happens to the ice if it suddenly gets warm? You know that the
warm air ca u se s the ice to melt. The ice melting is the e ffe ct, or
the result.
Wh e n o n e th i n g ca u se s a n o th e r th i n g to h a p p e n , i t i s
ca lle d cause and effect. T h e cause i s th e re a so n w h y
so m e th i n g h a p p e n s, a n d th e effect i s w h a t h a p p e n s.
You can find examples of causes and effects in stories. Writers
sometimes even give clues to help you see causes and effects.
The clues are words such as becauseand so.
Think about cause and effect as you read this story.
Then you can show the cause and effect on a chart.
L a to y a d i d n t p u sh th e sco o p o f i ce cre a m ti g h tly i n to
th e co n e . Wh e n sh e tu rn e d fro m th e co u n te r, th e i ce
cre a m fe ll o n th e flo o r. H e r b ro th e r J e rry a cci d e n ta lly
ste p p e d o n th e i ce cre a m a n d sli d a cro ss th e flo o r.
On the chart, fill in the last effect from the story.
When you read a story, look carefully for the effect (what
happens) and the cause (why it happened).
L e sso n 8

Strategy:
Determine
What
Happens
and Why


3 0
Latoya didnt push the
scoop tightly.

C a u se
Wh y I t H a p p e n e d
E ffe ct
Wh a t H a p p e n e d
The ice cream fell on the
floor.
Jerry didnt see the ice
cream.

3 1

E x p lo ri n g th e S tra te g y
Find the causes and effects in this story. Remember to look for
clue words such as becauseand so to help you find a cause and
an effect.
D a n n y s fri e n d s w e re a n g ry b e ca u se h e w a s a lw a y s
p la y i n g tri ck s o n th e m . O n e ti m e D a n n y y e lle d , H e lp ! M y
fo o t i s ca u g h t i n m y b i k e w h e e l. E v e ry o n e ra n to h e lp
D a n n y . H e la u g h e d a s h e ro d e a w a y . H i s fri e n d s d i d n t
th i n k i t w a s fu n n y . T h e y d i d n t la u g h .
O n ce D a n n y w a s sw i m m i n g i n th e p a rk d i stri ct p o o l.
S u d d e n ly tw o o f h i s fri e n d s d o v e i n to h e lp h i m b e ca u se
h e y e lle d , H e lp ! I m d ro w n i n g ! B u t D a n n y la u g h e d a n d
sw a m a w a y . T h e ch i ld re n d i d n t li k e D a n n y s tri ck s. S o o n
h e d i d n t h a v e m a n y fri e n d s le ft.
Fill in the missing cause or effect on the chart.

Danny always played tricks
on his friends.
C a u se
Wh y I t H a p p e n e d
E ffe ct
Wh a t H a p p e n e d
Danny yelled, Help! My
foot is caught in my bike
wheel.

Two friends dived in to


help him.
The children didnt like
Dannys tricks.

S tu d y i n g th e S tra te g y
When you read this section of a longer story, remember to
look for what caused things to happen. When you know the
causes and the effects, you can better understand the story.
y long and bubbling friend, said the Djinn, whats this
I hear of your doing no work, with the world so new-and-all?
Humph! said the Camel.
The Djinn sat down, with his chin in his hand, and began to
think a Great Magic, while the Camel looked at his own reflection
in the pool of water.
Youve given the Three Animals extra work ever since
Monday morning, all on account of your scruciating idleness,
said the Djinn.
Humph! said the Camel.
I shouldnt say that again if I were you, said the Djinn. You
might say it once too often. Bubbles, I want you to work.
And the Camel said Humph! again. But no sooner had he
said it than he saw his back, that he was so proud of, puffing up
and puffing up into a great big lolloping humph.
Do you see that? said the Djinn. Thats your very own
humph that youve brought upon your very own self by not
working. Today is Thursday, and youve done no work since
Monday, when the work began. Now you are going to work.
How can I, said
the Camel, with this
humph on my back?
Thats made a
purpose, said the
Djinn, all because you
missed those three
days. You will be able
to work now for three
days without eating,
because you can live
on your humph; and
dont you ever say


3 2
H o w th e
C a m e l G o t
H i s H u m p
by Rudyard Kipling
Many years ago, Rudyard
Kipling wrote a collection of
stories to tell how all sorts of
things in nature came to be.
This collection of stories is called
Just So Stories. Perhaps you
have read some of them.
In this story, Kipling tells
about the beginning of the
world. All the Animals worked
hard to build the world, except
the Camel. He lived in the
middle of the Desert and did
nothing but eat. Three Animals
who worked hardthe Horse,
the Dog, and the Oxwere
very upset because the Camel
just laughed at them and said
Humph! The Three finally told
the Djinn about the Camel and
his ways. So the Djinn, a kind of
boss of the Desert, went to see
the Camel.


I never did anything for you. Come out of the Desert and go to
the Three, and behave. Humph yourself!
And the Camel humphed himself, humph and all, and went
away to join the Three. And from that day to this the Camel
always wears a humph (we call it hump now, not to hurt his
feelings). But he has never yet caught up with the three days that
he missed at the beginning of the world, and he has never yet
learned how to behave.
U si n g th e S tra te g y
Fill in the chart to show the causes and effects that appear in
the story excerpt you just read. Sometimes a cause is missing,
and sometimes an effect is missing.
3 3
B e y o n d th e
S to ry
C h o o se a p a rtn e r. T e ll
y o u r p a rtn e r a b o u t
so m e th i n g th a t h a p p e n e d
to y o u th i s w e e k .
T o g e th e r fi g u re o u t th e
ca u se o f th e e v e n t th a t
h a p p e n e d to y o u . F i ll
o u t a ch a rt sh o w i n g th e
ca u se a n d th e e ffe ct.
T h e n cre a te a ch a rt fo r
so m e th i n g th a t h a p p e n e d
to y o u r p a rtn e r.
Camel laughed and didnt
work.

C a u se
Wh y I t H a p p e n e d
E ffe ct
Wh a t H a p p e n e d

Three Animals had to work


harder.
Camel kept saying Humph!
and didnt work.

Camel can work three days


without eating.

R e a d i n g
S tra te g i e s
fo r
L e v e l 3
C U R R I C U L U M A S S O C I AT E S

, I n c.
L i te ra tu re
Teacher
Guide

2
I N T R O D U C T I O N
Using Strategies to Read Literature
One of the most powerful aspects of the whole
language approach is the exposure of young
children to high quality, authentic literature. The
proliferation of quality childrens literature is a rich
resource for teachers and parents alike.
This growth in the popularity of authentic literature
has been accompanied by efforts to help
students develop the cognitive strategies essential to
applying critical-thinking skills to the stories,
poems, and plays that they read.
Reading Strategies for Literature presents
students with eleven key strategies that they can use
whenever they read literature, whether for school
assignments or for pleasure reading.
The first six strategies consist of metacognitive
approaches which encourage children to think
about their own thought processes. These
strategies give students the tools to help them
become strong, independent critical thinkers.
The last five strategies are based on graphic
organizers. Students can use these visual tools to
organize what they read in a way that makes
sense to them. Graphic organizers are beneficial,
not only for developing reading and thinking
skills, but also for organizing ideas for writing.
How to Use This Program
The Reading Strategies for Literature program
consists of a student book and a teacher guide for
levels 3, 4, 5, and 6.
Each of the eleven student book lessons has five
main components:
Introduction of the strategy in an everyday,
familiar context; accompanied by a definition
Guided practice with the strategy
A high-interest selection taken from quality
childrens literature
An exercise to apply the skill to the literature
selection
A Beyond the Story extension of the strategy
or the theme of the story through writing,
discussion, role-playing, or art activities
In addition, this teacher guide provides you with
lesson notes to help you introduce each strategy
and extend it with a variety of activities not found
in the student book.
an answer key to check students work.
reproducible masters of a letter that introduces
at-home reading activities to parents and
guardians and provides a suggested reading list
of high-interest, high-quality childrens books.
reproducible masters for student self-evaluation,
teacher feedback, and classroom management.
In My Reading Log, students evaluate the read-
ing selections.
In the Teacher Response Log, teachers evaluate
student work and respond to Reading Log entries.
The Class Record helps teachers to keep track of
student work on a lesson-by-lesson basis.
The readings and the activities in this program
will help stimulate your students critical-thinking
skills and their love for reading good stories.
Review the sentences with students and ask them
if they are in the right order. Invite a volunteer to
tell what the correct order is and how they know.
Ask the volunteer to number the sentences to
show the correct order.
2. Point out that another word for order is sequence,
and that telling things in the correct sequence
is telling things in the order in which they
happen. Add the words first, next, and last to each
appropriate sentence that you wrote on the board.
Explain that sometimes words that tell about
order are clue to a sequence of events.
3. Suggest some activities, and call on volunteers
to give examples using clue words of first, next,
and last.
For example, you might ask, What three things
do you do when you set a clock or watch?
Tell students that they can put things in order
when they read a story and that they will practice
this strategy in Lesson 7.
Extending the Strategy
The Beyond the Story activity directs students to
ask a grandparent or other older person to relate a
story from his or her past and then to write down
those events on a sequence chart. Have students
bring their charts into class and use it to tell
classmates the story.
The following are other ideas you can use to
extend the strategy.
1. Have students work with a partner or in small
groups to create a giant sequence chart of
Coyote Makes the Constellations. Students can
use a large sheet of drawing paper to draw
pictures to go with each event.
2. Invite students to make a sequence chart of a
familiar story and then cut out each event and mix
up the order. Students can exchange their cut out
strips with a partner and put them back in the
correct sequence to tell the story.
3. In the lesson, students worked with a vertical
sequence chart. You may want to introduce them
to a horizontal sequence chart, as shown below.
Students might use the horizontal chart to tell
another tale they have read.
L E S S O N 8
S tra te g y : D e te rm i n e Wh a t H a p p e n s
a n d Wh y
About the Strategy
In this lesson, students will learn to recognize the
relationship between cause and effect. They are
shown that in order to understand something that
happens, they can look for the reason why it
happens. The reason why something happens is the
cause; what happens is the effect, or result.
Students will learn how recognizing and charting
causes and effects in a story will help them better
understand story events.
Introducing the Strategy
1. Ask students if they have ever seen someone with
a bad sunburn. Then ask why this happened.
Students should realize that for fair-skinned
people, being out in the hot sun too long without
sun block can cause the skin to burn badly.
2. Explain that when something happens, we can
usually look forand finda reason why it
happens. The reason why is called the cause, and
what happens is called the effect, or result.


8

E v e n t 1 E v e n t 2 E v e n t 3
E v e n t 4 E v e n t 5 E v e n t 6
3. On the board write the heads Cause and Effect.
Under Effect write the sentence The person got a
bad sunburn. Under Cause write the sentence
The person stayed out in the sun too long
without sun block. Mention that we can show
a cause and effect by organizing the information
on a chart. In order to do this, we first look at
what happened, and then look for the reason
why it happened.
Tell students that they can look for causes and
effects when they read a story and that they will
practice this strategy in Lesson 8.
Extending the Strategy
The Beyond the Story activity asks students
to work with a partner to discuss an event that
happened to them, to figure out the cause, and then
to create a chart showing the cause and effect.
The following are other ideas you can use to
extend the strategy.
1. Invite students to draw a picture of a scene from
How the Camel Got His Hump to show a cause
for his hump. Students can explain their picture
as they display it to classmates.
2. Suggest that students read another story about an
animal from Rudyard Kiplings Just So stories
and to create a chart to show the causes and
effects in that story. Or students might want to
create a cause-and-effect chart for one of the
popular tales about Anansi the Spider.
3. Different kinds of weather conditions cause good
and bad things to happen. Ask students to choose
a particular kind of weather and then to list and
draw different effects of the weather. Students
can make a poster to display their ideas.
L E S S O N 9
S tra te g y : S o rt O u t L i k e n e sse s a n d
D i ffe re n ce s
About the Strategy
In this lesson, students will learn how to sort
things according to the ways in which they are alike
(comparing) and the ways in which they are
different (contrasting), and to organize that
information on charts. Students will read about two
items and details about them, and then compare and
contrast.
Students will come to understand that comparing
and contrasting information on charts is a quick
and easy way to organize a lot of details.
Introducing the Strategy
1. Hold up two books for students to look at. Be
sure the books are different sizes and different
colors.
2. Have volunteers identify the ways in which the
books you are holding are alike. List those ways
on the board under the heads Book 1 and Book 2:
How Alike? Students might mention that they
both have front and back covers. Then have
volunteers identify the ways in which the books
are different. List the differences under the heads
Book 1 and Book 2: How Different. For example,
Book 1 might have a red cover while Book 2
might have a blue cover.
3. Mention to students that when we sort out things
that are alike, we are comparing them. When we
sort out things that are different, we are contrasting
them. We compare and contrast things to better
understand them, and we can organize this
information on charts.
Tell students that they can compare and contrast
things when they read a story and that they will
practice this strategy in Lesson 9.
Extending the Strategy
The Beyond the Story activity asks students to
compare and contrast two people, two animals,
or two items, and to make compare and contrast
charts. Students then write a paragraph to reflect the
information on each chart.
The following are other ways you can use to
extend the strategy.
1. Ask students to get together with a partner and
to discuss their likes and dislikes about foods,
sports, TV, movies, or board games. Students can
make a chart to compare and contrast their
preferences.


9

Dear Parent or Guardian:
In class, your child is working with a book called Reading Strategies for Literature. This
book shows your child how to use different ideas and strategies to understand stories,
novels, poems, and plays. These strategies will help your child to do well with homework
assignments, book reports, and tests that are based on literature. The strategies will also help
your child to enjoy reading for pleasure.
But there is one key strategy that your child cannot get out of a textbook. That strategy
is to READ, READ, and READ some more. In the Reading Strategies for Literature
lessons, your child is reading excerpts from stories. I hope these stories will encourage a love
of reading in your child. On the other side of this letter is a list of books that your child might
enjoy reading. Most of these are available at the public library. Many of them may also be
available at your school library.
Here are some ideas you can try at home to help your child develop a love of reading
good literature.
1. Ask to see the Reading Log that your child is filling out as he or she works
through Reading Strategies for Literature. Ask your child to tell you about
stories on the log that he or she enjoyed reading.
2. Establish 15 minutes of DEAR (Drop Everything And Read) Time every day.
This is time you can set aside for each individual to pick something of his or her
own choosing and spend time togetherjust reading.
3. If your child is a reader, you should still read to him or her. Children who love to
read still enjoy adults reading to them.
4. Ask your child to read to you. You can also ask the child to elaborate on a story
by choosing a new ending or making up the next chapter. You could also ask your
child to make a picture based on the story and hang it up on the refrigerator door.
Happy reading,
_________________________________________

1 6
Curriculum Associates, Inc. Reading Strategies for Literature, Level 3
Adoff, Arnold All the Colors of the Race
Aesop Aesops Fables
Alexander, Lloyd The Fortune-Tellers
Bemelmans, Ludwig Madeline series
Bulla, Clyde A Lion to Guard Us
Bunting, Eve How Many Days to America: A Thanksgiving Story
Cameron, Ann Julian, Secret Agent
Carle, Eric Eric Carles Animals, Animals
Christopher, Matt Dirt Bike Racer
Cleary, Beverly Emilys Runaway Imagination
Dalgliesh, Alice The Courage of Sarah Noble
Gannett, Ruth My Fathers Dragon
Greenfield, Eloise Honey, I Love and Other Love Poems
Griffin, Judith Phoebe the Spy
Kellogg, Steven The Island of the Skog
Kipling, Rudyard Just So Stories
Landon, Lucinda Meg MacKintosh and the Mystery at the Medieval Castle
Levy, Elizabeth Something Queer at the Library
Lindgren, Astrid Pippi Longstocking
MacLachlan, Patricia Arthur, for the Very First Time
McDermott, Gerald Arrow to the Sun: A Pueblo Indian Tale
Merriam, Eve Blackberry Ink
Moss, Jeffrey The Butterfly Jar
Paterson, Katherine The Kings Equal
Polacco, Patricia The Keeping Quilt
Prelutsky, Jack The New Kid on the Block
Provensen, Alice The Buck Stops Here: The Presidents of the United States
San Souci, Robert Talking Egg: A Folktale from the American South
Scieszka, Jon The Stinky Cheese Man and Other Fairly Stupid Tales
Sharmat, Marjorie Nate the Great
Silverstein, Shel Where the Sidewalk Ends
Steptoe, John The Story of Jumping Mouse


1 7

S U G G E S T E D R E A D I N G L I S T
Curriculum Associates, Inc. Reading Strategies for Literature, Level 3
Lesson 1
Paint a Picture
Pink Paper Swans
Lesson 2
Put Yourself in My Shoes
Through Grandpas Eyes
Lesson 3
Make Good Guesses
Xangs Treasure
Lesson 4
Become a Storyteller
The Trade
Lesson 5
Figure Out What Happens
The Frogs and the Well
The Crab and the Fox
Lesson 6
Good Judgment
Just Collecting
Lesson 7
Put Things in Order
Coyote Makes the Constellations
Lesson 8
Determine What Happens
and Why
How the Camel Got His Hump
Lesson 9
Sort Out Likenesses and Differences
Frog Friends
Lesson 10
Spin a Character Web
Wheels
Lesson 11
Make a Story Map
But What Can I Bring?

1 8
M Y R E A D I N G L O G
N A M E __________________________________________________
L e sso n a n d R e a d i n g S e le cti o n
H o w I R a te th e
R e a d i n g S e le cti o n
Wh a t I Wi ll R e m e m b e r
A b o u t th e R e a d i n g S e le cti o n
Curriculum Associates, Inc. Reading Strategies for Literature, Level 3
Great OK
Not
Good

1 9
Curriculum Associates, Inc. Reading Strategies for Literature, Level 3
Lesson 1
Paint a Picture
Pink Paper Swans
Lesson 2
Put Yourself in My Shoes
Through Grandpas Eyes
Lesson 3
Make Good Guesses
Xangs Treasure
Lesson 4
Become a Storyteller
The Trade
Lesson 5
Figure Out What Happens
The Frogs and the Well
The Crab and the Fox
Lesson 6
Good Judgment
Just Collecting
Lesson 7
Put Things in Order
Coyote Makes the Constellations
Lesson 8
Determine What Happens
and Why
How the Camel Got His Hump
Lesson 9
Sort Out Likenesses and Differences
Frog Friends
Lesson 10
Spin a Character Web
Wheels
Lesson 11
Make a Story Map
But What Can I Bring?
L e sso n a n d R e a d i n g S e le cti o n
H o w I R a te Yo u r
Wo rk o n th e L e sso n
M y R e sp o n se to Yo u r
R e a d i n g L o g E n try
T E A C H E R R E S P O N S E L O G
S T U D E N T __________________________________________________
Great OK
Improvement
Needed

R e a d i n g
S tra te g i e s
fo r
L e v e l 4
C U R R I C U L U M A S S O C I AT E S

, I n c.
L i te ra tu re
T a b le o f C o n te n ts
P a g e
L e sso n 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Strategy: Paint a Picture
Reading: Summer Song by Jamake Highwater
L e sso n 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Strategy: Put Yourself in My Shoes
Reading: How to Eat Fried Worms by Thomas Rockwell
L e sso n 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Strategy: Make Good Guesses
Reading: Peter Pan by J. M. Barrie
L e sso n 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Strategy: Become a Storyteller
Reading: The Princess and the Pea by Hans Christian Andersen
L e sso n 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Strategy: Figure Out What Happens
Reading: A Bundle of Sticks by Aesop
L e sso n 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Strategy: Use Good Judgment
Reading: The Tallest Tale retold by Lillian Hammer Ross
L e sso n 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Strategy: Put Things in Order
Reading: Noche de Paz, or The Day the Hurricane Came by Jonathan London
L e sso n 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Strategy: Determine What Happens and Why
Reading: The All Jahdu Storybook by Virginia Hamilton
L e sso n 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Strategy: Sort Out Likenesses and Differences
Reading: The Marvelous Land of Oz by L. Frank Baum
L e sso n 1 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Strategy: Spin a Character Web
Reading: The Noblest of the Lilies by JoLynne Ricker Whalen
L e sso n 1 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Strategy: Make a Story Map
Reading: The Royal Sleep Project by Diana Logue

Have you ever had two friends each tell you their side of an
argument and then ask you to decide who is right? Or, have you
ever played a game with someone who does not play fairly? We
all have a sense of what is right or wrong, good or bad, smart or
foolish, and fair or unfair. When you have to make a decision
about what is right, smart, or fair, you are m a k i n g a ju d g m e n t.
A judgment i s a d e ci si o n th a t i s m a d e a fte r y o u th i n k v e ry
ca re fu lly a b o u t a si tu a ti o n . Yo u b a se y o u r ju d g m e n t o n
w h a t y o u th i n k i s th e ri g h t, sm a rt, o r fa i r w a y to b e h a v e i n
th a t si tu a ti o n .
Read about two boys. Then you can see how to make a
judgment about their situation.
R o la n d o a n d B ra d a re w a i ti n g fo r th e i r fri e n d N i ck i n h i s
b e d ro o m . T h e y a re re a d i n g so m e o f N i ck s n e w co m i c
b o o k s. R o la n d o a n d B ra d fi g h t o v e r o n e co m i c b o o k th a t
th e y e a ch w a n t to re a d a t th e sa m e ti m e , a n d th e y te a r th e
co m i c b o o k .
B ra d su g g e sts th a t th e y te ll N i ck th a t th e co m i c b o o k w a s
a lre a d y to rn w h e n th e y ca m e i n to h i s ro o m . R o la n d o
k n o w s th a t w o u ld b e ly i n g to h i s fri e n d . H e d e ci d e s th e y
sh o u ld te ll N i ck th e tru th a n d o ffe r to p a y fo r th e co m i c
b o o k .
First think about the facts. Answer the questions.
1. Whom did the comic book belong to?_______________
2. Who tore the comic book?_________________________
3. Is lying a right or fair thing to do? __________________
Now you can make a judgment. Do you think Rolando made
the right decision? Why or why not? __________________
_____________________________________________________
When you make a judgment about a situation that occurs in a
story, first think about the facts. Then make your judgment based
on what you know is right, smart, or fair.
L e sso n 6

Strategy:
Use Good
J udgment


2 2
2 3

E x p lo ri n g th e S tra te g y
Read about Danida and Kimberly. Then, make a judgment
about what would be the right thing to do.
D a n i d a a n d K i m b e rly w e re w a lk i n g th ro u g h th e m a ll
to w a rd th e i r fa v o ri te m u si c sto re . N o t fa r fro m th e sto re ,
K i m b e rly sp o tte d a sm a ll p a p e r b a g ly i n g u n d e rn e a th a
b e n ch i n th e re st a re a . Wh e n sh e lo o k e d i n si d e , sh e w a s
e x ci te d to fi n d th e la te st h i t C D b y h e r fa v o ri te g ro u p .
T h e re w a s a lso a sa le s sli p fro m th e sh o p .
B o th g i rls lo o k e d a ro u n d . N o o n e w a s si tti n g o n th e b e n ch e s
n e a rb y . Wh a t sh o u ld w e d o ? D a n i d a a sk e d K i m b e rly .
K i m b e rly su g g e ste d th a t th e y w a i t fo r te n m i n u te s to se e
i f a n y o n e ca m e lo o k i n g fo r th e b a g . T h e y w a i te d , b u t n o
o n e sh o w e d u p to cla i m th e C D . I f w e le a v e th e C D h e re ,
so m e o n e e lse m i g h t ta k e i t, D a n i d a fi n a lly sa i d . We
co u ld k e e p i t. Yo u k n o w , fi n d e rs k e e p e rs.
I d o n t th i n k w e sh o u ld k e e p i t, re p li e d D a n i d a . T h e
p e rso n w h o b o u g h t i t m i g h t n o t re m e m b e r w h e re sh e
le ft th e p a ck a g e . S h e m i g h t g o b a ck to th e sto re . We a re
g o i n g to b ri n g th e C D b a ck to th e sto re b e ca u se th a t s th e
ri g h t th i n g to d o . K i m b e rly u n d e rsto o d a n d n o d d e d h e r
h e a d i n a g re e m e n t.
You can make a judgment about what the girls should do. First
think about the facts.
1. What are two possible things that the girls could do?
a. _______________________________________________
b. _______________________________________________
2. Why dont the girls leave the CD where they found it?
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
3. Do you think the girls made the right decision? Write a
sentence about your judgment.
__________________________________________________



S tu d y i n g th e S tra te g y
Here is a story for you to read on your own. As you read, think
how Mr. Sanh answered Mr. Kinh at the end of the story. Then
make a judgment about Mr. Sanh.
r. Kinh returned to his native village after many years of
travel. He had changed. He was older.
The village had changed. It was older. Mr. Kinhs friend, Mr. Sanh,
had changed, too.
The two men greeted each other. Mr. Sanh said, You have been
away from Vietnam a long time, old friend. What were your
adventures? What did you see?
Mr. Kinh thought and thought and then spoke. I sailed on a great
ship. The ship was so long, I could not measure it. A young boy of seven
years began to walk from the bow of the ship. He walked and he
walked and he walked until he reached the giant mast. It took so many
years to walk that great ship, his hair turned white and his beard grew
long. Before he could reach the stern, he died of old age.
Mr. Sanh listened. He nodded in quiet thought.
Mr. Kinh bowed. He asked, Old friend, while I was on the great ship,
what did you see? What were your adventures?
Mr. Sanh smiled. While you were on that great ship, I walked
through a vast forest. The trees were so tall that if you stood beneath
them you would not see the sky. The birds
that wished to nest in those tall, tall
trees flew higher and higher and
higher. After they had flown for
ten years, the birds reached
the tops of the trees.
That is a terrible lie!
shouted Mr. Kinh. How can
such trees be possible?
Mr. Sanh bowed. After several
minutes, he spoke. Please, my friend,
if it is not the truth, where would one
find a giant mast for the great ship that
you sailed upon?
2 4
T h e T a lle st
T a le
retold by
Lillian Hammer Ross
Folktales are stories that have
been passed down from generation
to generation. They can be found
in every culture. The stories often
concern peoples everyday lives
and offer lessons about certain
ways of acting and living. This
folktale from Vietnam is about
how one man teaches another a
lesson.
M
The Tallest Tale retold by Lillian Hammer
Ross, Highlights for Children, September
1993. Copyright 1993 by Highlights for
Children, Inc. Columbus, Ohio. Reprinted by
permission.


U si n g th e S tra te g y
You can make a judgment about the way Mr. Sanh let Mr. Kinh
know that he wasnt fooled. First, think about the facts. Then
make your judgment about Mr. Sanh. Last, explain why you
made that judgment.
1. What facts made Mr. Sanh not believe Mr. Kinhs story
about the ship?
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
2. Mr. Sanh could have just said he didnt believe Mr.
Kinh. What did Mr. Sanh do instead to let Mr. Kinh
know that he didnt believe his story?
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
3. Do you think Mr. Sanh found a good way of letting
Mr. Kinh know he didnt believe him? Explain.
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
2 5
B e y o n d th e
S to ry
Yo u h a v e p ro b a b ly re a d
a sto ry i n w h i ch a ch a ra cte r
d i d so m e th i n g th a t y o u fe lt
w a s w ro n g . A s y o u re a d ,
y o u m a d e a ju d g m e n t
b a se d o n w h a t y o u th i n k
i s sm a rt, ri g h t, a n d fa i r.
Wi th a p a rtn e r, d i scu ss th i s
ch a ra cte r s a cti o n s a n d
y o u r ju d g m e n t a b o u t th e m .
T h e n a ct o u t th e si tu a ti o n
w i th y o u r p a rtn e r.

R e a d i n g
S tra te g i e s
fo r
L e v e l 4
C U R R I C U L U M A S S O C I AT E S

, I n c.
L i te ra tu re
Teacher
Guide

2
I N T R O D U C T I O N
Using Strategies to Read Literature
One of the most powerful aspects of the whole
language approach is the exposure of young
children to high quality, authentic literature. The
proliferation of quality childrens literature is a rich
resource for teachers and parents alike.
This growth in the popularity of authentic literature
has been accompanied by efforts to help
students develop the cognitive strategies essential to
applying critical-thinking skills to the stories,
poems, and plays that they read.
Reading Strategies for Literature presents
students with eleven key strategies that they can use
whenever they read literature, whether for school
assignments or for pleasure reading.
The first six strategies consist of metacognitive
approaches which encourage children to think
about their own thought processes. These
strategies give students the tools to help them
become strong, independent critical thinkers.
The last five strategies are based on graphic
organizers. Students can use these visual tools to
organize what they read in a way that makes
sense to them. Graphic organizers are beneficial,
not only for developing reading and thinking
skills, but also for organizing ideas for writing.
How to Use This Program
The Reading Strategies for Literature program
consists of a student book and a teacher guide for
levels 3, 4, 5, and 6.
Each of the eleven student book lessons has five
main components:
Introduction of the strategy in an everyday,
familiar context; accompanied by a definition
Guided practice with the strategy
A high-interest selection taken from quality
childrens literature
An exercise to apply the skill to the literature
selection
A Beyond the Story extension of the strategy
or the theme of the story through writing,
discussion, role-playing, or art activities
In addition, this teacher guide provides you with
lesson notes to help you introduce each strategy
and extend it with a variety of activities not found
in the student book.
an answer key to check students work.
reproducible masters of a letter that introduces
at-home reading activities to parents and
guardians and provides a suggested reading list
of high-interest, high-quality childrens books.
reproducible masters for student self-evaluation,
teacher feedback, and classroom management.
In My Reading Log, students evaluate the
reading selections.
In the Teacher Response Log, teachers evaluate
student work and respond to Reading Log entries.
The Class Record helps teachers to keep track of
student work on a lesson-by-lesson basis.
The readings and the activities in this program
will help stimulate your students critical-thinking
skills and their love for reading good stories.
L E S S O N 6
S tra te g y : U se G o o d J u d g m e n t
About the Strategy
In this lesson, students will learn that a judgment
is a decision a person makes after thinking carefully
about a situation. Students will learn how to make a
judgment about someone or something in their
reading by basing it on facts and on what they know
is right, fair, or smart.
Students will learn how making judgments can
help them better understand a characters
situation and behavior.
Introducing the Strategy
1. Tell students that if two friends ask you to decide
who is right or wrong in an argument then you are
being asked to make a judgment.
2. Ask students what they do when they try to
decide who is right or wrong in an argument. Ask
students if they listen to other peoples opinions
about the argument or if they consider what
they know to be right and wrong in making their
decision.
3. Ask students to discuss other kinds of judgments
that are made. Prompt them to also think about
what is the fair or smart thing to do in a situation.
Tell students that they can make judgments when
they read a story and that they will practice this
strategy in Lesson 6.
Extending the Strategy
The Beyond the Story activity asks students to
discuss stories in which characters did something
students felt to be wrong. Students were asked to act
out the situation with a partner.
The following are other ideas you can use to
extend the strategy.
1. Ask partners to act out the situation for the entire
class and have the class debate the judgment.
2. Have students who read the same story but made
different judgments present their ideas to the
class. Have the class discuss which judgment
seems best and why.
3. Ask students to make a judgment about a
characters action in a popular childrens movie.
For example, in The Lion King was Simba right
to run away after his father was killed? Why or
why not? Have the students discuss their
judgments and their reasons.
L E S S O N 7
S tra te g y : P u t T h i n g s i n O rd e r
About the Strategy
In this lesson, students will learn to put things in
order (sequence) to reflect the order in which things
happen and to organize that information on a
sequence chart. Students will learn to recognize clue
words to a sequence of events, such as first, next,
then, last, before, and after.
Students will learn how to put a series of events
in the proper order and record that order on a
sequence chart.
Introducing the Strategy
1. Ask a student volunteer what he or she did at 7:00
that morning. Make a timeline like the one below,
on the chalkboard. Write the students answer
next to 7:00 A.M. on the timeline.

7
7:00 A.M.
10:00 A.M.
12:00 P.M.
3:00 P.M.
6:00 P.M.
9:00 P.M.
M y D a y
Dear Parent or Guardian:
In class, your child is working with a book called Reading Strategies for Literature. This
book shows your child how to use different ideas and strategies to understand stories,
novels, poems, and plays. These strategies will help your child to do well with homework
assignments, book reports, and tests that are based on literature. The strategies will also help
your child to enjoy reading for pleasure.
But there is one key strategy that your child cannot get out of a textbook. That strategy
is to READ, READ, and READ some more. In the Reading Strategies for Literature
lessons, your child is reading excerpts from stories. I hope these stories will encourage a love
of reading in your child. On the other side of this letter is a list of books that your child might
enjoy reading. Most of these are available at the public library. Many of them may also be
available at your school library.
Here are some ideas you can try at home to help your child develop a love of reading
good literature.
1. Ask to see the Reading Log that your child is filling out as he or she works
through Reading Strategies for Literature. Ask your child to tell you about
stories on the log that he or she enjoyed reading.
2. Establish 15 minutes of DEAR (Drop Everything And Read) Time every day.
This is time you can set aside for each individual to pick something of his or her
own choosing and spend time togetherjust reading.
3. If your child is a reader, you should still read to him or her. Children who love to
read still enjoy adults reading to them.
4. Ask your child to read to you. You can also ask the child to elaborate on a story
by choosing a new ending or making up the next chapter. You could also ask your
child to make a picture based on the story and hang it up on the refrigerator door.
Happy reading,
_________________________________________

1 6
Curriculum Associates, Inc. Reading Strategies for Literature, Level 4
Adler, David The Fourth Floor Twins series
Aesop Aesops Fables
Baylor, Byrd Hawk, Im Your Brother
Blume, Judy Tales of a Fourth Grade Nothing
Brink, Carol R. Caddie Woodlawn
Butterworth, Oliver The Enormous Egg
Clifford, Eth. The Remembering Box
Clymer, Eleanor My Brother Stevie
Courlander, Harold The Cow-Tail Switch and Other West African Stories
Estes, Eleanor The Moffats
Goble, Paul Buffalo Woman
Hamilton, Virginia The People Could Fly
Henry, Marguerite Justin Morgan Had a Horse
Howe, James The Celery Stalks at Midnight; Howliday Inn
Hurwitz, Johanna Hurray for Ali Baba Bernstein
Konigsberg, E. L. Altogether One at a Time; Jennifer, Hecate, Macbeth,
William McKinley and Me, Elizabeth
Lowry, Lois Anastasia Krupnik; The One Hundredth Thing about Caroline
Miles, Miska Annie and the Old One
Norton, Mary The Borrowers series
Paterson, Katherine Bridge to Terabithia
Rockwell, Thomas How to Eat Fried Worms
Selden, George The Cricket in Times Square
Silverstein, Shel A Light in the Attic; Where the Sidewalk Ends
Singer, Isaac B. Zlateh the Goat and Other Stories
Smith, Doris A Taste of Blackberries
Steig, William Abels Island
Van Allsburg, Chris The Two Figs; The Wreck of the Zephyr
White, E. B. Charlottes Web; Stuart Little
Wilder, Laura Ingalls Little House in the Big Woods
Winter, Jeanette Follow the Drinking Gourd
Yolen, Jane The Emperor and the Kite

1 7
S U G G E S T E D R E A D I N G L I S T
Curriculum Associates, Inc. Reading Strategies for Literature, Level 4
Lesson 1
Paint a Picture
Summer Song
Lesson 2
Put Yourself in My Shoes
How to Eat Fried Worms
Lesson 3
Make Good Guesses
Peter Pan
Lesson 4
Become a Storyteller
The Princess and the Pea
Lesson 5
Figure Out What Happens
A Bundle of Sticks
Lesson 6
Use Good Judgment
The Tallest Tale
Lesson 7
Put Things in Order
Noche de Paz, or The Day the
Hurricane Came
Lesson 8
Determine What Happens
and Why
The All Jahdu Storybook
Lesson 9
Sort Out Likenesses and Differences
The Marvelous Land of Oz
Lesson 10
Spin a Character Web
The Noblest of the Lilies
Lesson 11
Make a Story Map
The Royal Sleep Project

1 8
M Y R E A D I N G L O G
N A M E __________________________________________________
L e sso n a n d R e a d i n g S e le cti o n
H o w I R a te th e
R e a d i n g S e le cti o n
Wh a t I Wi ll R e m e m b e r
A b o u t th e R e a d i n g S e le cti o n
Curriculum Associates, Inc. Reading Strategies for Literature, Level 4
Great OK
Not
Good

1 9
Curriculum Associates, Inc. Reading Strategies for Literature, Level 4
Lesson 1
Paint a Picture
Summer Song
Lesson 2
Put Yourself in My Shoes
How to Eat Fried Worms
Lesson 3
Make Good Guesses
Peter Pan
Lesson 4
Become a Storyteller
The Princess and the Pea
Lesson 5
Figure Out What Happens
A Bundle of Sticks
Lesson 6
Use Good Judgment
The Tallest Tale
Lesson 7
Put Things in Order
Noche de Paz, or The Day the
Hurricane Came
Lesson 8
Determine What Happens
and Why
The All Jahdu Storybook
Lesson 9
Sort Out Likenesses and Differences
The Marvelous Land of Oz
Lesson 10
Spin a Character Web
The Noblest of the Lilies
Lesson 11
Make a Story Map
The Royal Sleep Project
L e sso n a n d R e a d i n g S e le cti o n
H o w I R a te Yo u r
Wo rk o n th e L e sso n
M y R e sp o n se to Yo u r
R e a d i n g L o g E n try
T E A C H E R R E S P O N S E L O G
S T U D E N T __________________________________________________
Great OK
Improvement
Needed

R e a d i n g
S tra te g i e s
fo r
L e v e l 5
C U R R I C U L U M A S S O C I AT E S

, I n c.
L i te ra tu re
T a b le o f C o n te n ts
P a g e
L e sso n 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Strategy: Paint a Picture
Reading: Koki, Birdman of Old Japan by K. C. Tessendorf
L e sso n 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Strategy: Put Yourself in My Shoes
Reading: Want to Be on My Team? by Cherryl Janisse
L e sso n 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Strategy: Make Good Guesses
Reading: Fortune and the Beggar by Ivan Kriloff
L e sso n 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Strategy: Become a Storyteller
Reading: The Crab Da Trang by Beatrice Tanaka
L e sso n 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Strategy: Figure Out What Happens
Reading: Wings on the Snow, an Ojibwa Legend retold by Cris Peterson
L e sso n 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Strategy: Use Good Judgment
Reading: Grizzly! by Rosemary Laughlin
L e sso n 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Strategy: Put Things in Order
Reading: Ol Suicide Sled Run No. 1 by Jack Boyd
L e sso n 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Strategy: Determine What Happens and Why
Reading: The Fable of Three Brothers by Aileen Fisher
L e sso n 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Strategy: Sort Out Likenesses and Differences
Reading: Water Sky by Jean Craighead George
L e sso n 1 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Strategy: Spin a Character Web
Reading: Roxannes Surprise by Bernice Rappaport
L e sso n 1 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Strategy: Make a Story Map
Reading: The Miller, His Son, and Their Mule by Aesop,
translated by V. S. Vernon Jones

Do you ever read a story and think to yourself, I know what will
happen next?Do you continue to read to find out if your guess was
right? Do you ever p re d i ct how the story will end?
How do you make predictions? You base your predictions on
what has already happened in the story as well as your own
experience. As you continue to read, you ch e ck , or confirm, your
predictions to see how close they are to what really happens.
Based on what you read, you can change, or revise, your predictions
and make new ones.
Wh e n y o u predict y o u m a k e g u e sse s a b o u t w h a t w i ll
h a p p e n b a se d o n fa cts i n th e sto ry a n d y o u r o w n
k n o w le d g e . Wh e n y o u check y o u re a d o n to d i sco v e r i f
y o u r p re d i cti o n s w e re co rre ct. Wh e n y o u ch e ck y o u r
p re d i cti o n s, y o u ca n co n fi rm th a t y o u w e re ri g h t o r re v i se
y o u r p re d i cti o n s b a se d o n n e w i n fo rm a ti o n .
Read the paragraph below. As you read, try to predict what will
happen. Then answer the question.
L e o n a rd fo llo w e d th e m a p ca re fu lly . H e fi n a lly lo ca te d
th e tre a su re ! Wh a t h e d i d n t k n o w w a s th a t th e v i lla i n
R a tfa ce w a s ri g h t b e h i n d , d e te rm i n e d to g e t th e tre a su re ,
to o . J u st a s L e o n a rd fi n i sh e d p u tti n g th e v a lu a b le co i n s i n
a sa ck , R a tfa ce a p p e a re d w i th a lo n g ro p e i n h i s h a n d s.
Yo u re n o t g o i n g a n y w h e re w i th th a t tre a su re , R a tfa ce
to ld L e o n a rd .
What do you think will happen next?
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
Did you predict that Ratface would tie up Leonard and escape
with the treasure? That certainly would be a good prediction!
Predicting and checking keeps you involved with a story. As you
read, remember to use story clues and your own knowledge and
experience to make, confirm, and revise your predictions.
L e sso n 3

Strategy:
Make
Good
Guesses


1 0
1 1

E x p lo ri n g th e S tra te g y
You can make predictions about the story below. Before you
read it, look at the title and predict what the story will be
about. As you read it, check your prediction and make a new
one. Also think about the clues that helped you.
1. From the title, what do you predict the story will be
about?
__________________________________________________
M a x , th e T e st, a n d th e S n o w
H a v e y o u stu d i e d fo r y o u r te st? M a x s m o th e r a sk e d .
I w i ll, M o m , M a x re p li e d . H e w a s w o rk i n g o n o n e o f h i s ca r
m o d e ls a n d d i d n t w a n t to sto p u n ti l h e h a d o n e p a rt co m p le te ly
fi n i sh e d . H e w a sn t w o rri e d a b o u t th e te st. H e h a d h e a rd o n th e
T V n e w s th a t a sn o w sto rm w a s e x p e cte d o v e rn i g h t. T h a t w o u ld
m e a n sch o o l w o u ld b e clo se d to m o rro w . S o , h e h a d n o p la n s to
w a ste h i s ti m e stu d y i n g .
A fte r M a x w e n t to b e d , th e w i n d su d d e n ly b e g a n to ch a n g e
d i re cti o n . T h e a i r b e ca m e w a rm e r. T h e clo u d s b e g a n to b re a k u p .
2. Do you want to change your original prediction? _______
If so, what new prediction do you want to make?
__________________________________________________
3. What clues helped you make this prediction?
__________________________________________________
M a x w a s su rp ri se d w h e n h i s m o m w o k e h i m e a rly th e n e x t
m o rn i n g . H e w a lk e d to th e w i n d o w a n d lo o k e d o u t. H i s h e a rt
sa n k . T h e re w a sn t a b i t o f sn o w o n th e g ro u n d . H e w a s g o i n g
to h a v e to g o to sch o o l. That will teach me to trust the weather
reports! M a x th o u g h t to h i m se lf.
4. Was your prediction confirmed? _______ If not, what
was different? ____________________________________
5. In a sentence, predict the final outcome of the story.
__________________________________________________



S tu d y i n g th e S tra te g y
You are about to read part of a story that has a moral, or
lesson, to think about. Read the title and the introduction in
the left-hand column. Predict what you think will happen.
Then make other predictions as you read.
1 . ________________________________________________
________________________________________________
s for me, if I had only enough to eat and to wear I would not
want anything more.
Just at that moment Fortune came down the street. She saw the
beggar and stopped. She said to him: Listen! I have long wished to help
you. Hold your wallet and I will pour this gold into it. But I will pour only
on this condition: All that falls into the wallet shall be pure gold; but
every piece that falls upon the ground shall become dust. Do you
understand?
Oh, yes, I understand, said the beggar.
Then have a care, said Fortune. Your wallet is old; so do not load
it too heavily.
2 . Wh a t d o y o u p re d i ct th e b e g g a r w i ll d o ?
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
1 2
F o rtu n e
a n d th e
B e g g a r
by Ivan Kriloff
In this tale about greed, a
beggar grumbles about his
situation and wonders why people
who have so much money are
never satisfied and always want
more. In the end, he points out that
wealth vanishes as a result of
greed.
A


The beggar was so glad that he could hardly wait. He quickly
opened his wallet, and a stream of yellow dollars was poured into it.
The wallet soon began to grow heavy.
Is that enough? asked Fortune.
Not yet.
Isnt it cracking?
Never fear.
The beggars hands began to tremble. Ah, if the golden stream
would only pour forever!
You are the richest man in the world now!
Just a little more, said the beggar; add just a handful or two.
There, its full. The wallet will burst.
But it will hold a little more, just a little more!
3 . Wh a t d o y o u th i n k w i ll h a p p e n to th e b e g g a r s w a lle t?
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
Another piece was added, and the wallet split. The treasure fell upon
the ground and was turned to dust. Fortune had vanished. The beggar
had now nothing but his empty wallet, and it was torn from top to
bottom. He was as poor as before.
4 . C h e ck th e p re d i cti o n y o u w ro te b e fo re re a d i n g th e
e x ce rp t. Wa s y o u r p re d i cti o n co rre ct? ___________
I f n o t, w h a t n e w i n fo rm a ti o n d i d y o u le a rn i n th e
sto ry th a t h e lp e d y o u m a k e a n e w p re d i cti o n ?
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
5 . H o w clo se w e re y o u r p re d i cti o n s to w h a t re a lly
h a p p e n e d ?
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
1 3
B e y o n d th e
S to ry
Wri te a o n e -p a g e sto ry
o r d ra w a fo u r- o r fi v e -
p a n e l ca rto o n th a t te lls a
sto ry . S h o w a p a rtn e r th e
fi rst p a rt o f th e sto ry o r th e
fi rst o n e o r tw o p a n e ls o f th e
ca rto o n . A sk y o u r p a rtn e r
to p re d i ct w h a t w i ll h a p p e n
n e x t. H e o r sh e ca n ch e ck
th e p re d i cti o n b y re a d i n g
th e re st o f y o u r sto ry o r
ca rto o n . T h e n lo o k a t th e
b e g i n n i n g o f y o u r p a rtn e r s
ca rto o n o r sto ry . P re d i ct
w h a t w i ll h a p p e n n e x t a n d
ch e ck y o u r p re d i cti o n b y
re a d i n g th e re st o f th e sto ry
o r ca rto o n .

R e a d i n g
S tra te g i e s
fo r
L e v e l 5
C U R R I C U L U M A S S O C I AT E S

, I n c.
L i te ra tu re
Teacher
Guide

2
I N T R O D U C T I O N
Using Strategies to Read Literature
One of the most powerful aspects of the whole
language approach is the exposure of young
children to high quality, authentic literature. The
proliferation of quality childrens literature is a rich
resource for teachers and parents alike.
This growth in the popularity of authentic literature
has been accompanied by efforts to help
students develop the cognitive strategies essential to
applying critical-thinking skills to the stories,
poems, and plays that they read.
Reading Strategies for Literature presents
students with eleven key strategies that they can use
whenever they read literature, whether for school
assignments or for pleasure reading.
The first six strategies consist of metacognitive
approaches which encourage children to think
about their own thought processes. These
strategies give students the tools to help them
become strong, independent critical thinkers.
The last five strategies are based on graphic
organizers. Students can use these visual tools to
organize what they read in a way that makes
sense to them. Graphic organizers are beneficial,
not only for developing reading and thinking
skills, but also for organizing ideas for writing.
How to Use This Program
The Reading Strategies for Literature program
consists of a student book and a teacher guide for
levels 3, 4, 5, and 6.
Each of the eleven student book lessons has five
main components:
Introduction of the strategy in an everyday,
familiar context; accompanied by a definition
Guided practice with the strategy
A high-interest selection taken from quality
childrens literature
An exercise to apply the skill to the literature
selection
A Beyond the Story extension of the strategy
or the theme of the story through writing,
discussion, role-playing, or art activities
In addition, this teacher guide provides you with
lesson notes to help you introduce each strategy
and extend it with a variety of activities not found
in the student book.
an answer key to check students work.
reproducible masters of a letter that introduces
at-home reading activities to parents and
guardians and provides a suggested reading list
of high-interest, high-quality childrens books.
reproducible masters for student self-evaluation,
teacher feedback, and classroom management.
In My Reading Log, students evaluate the
reading selections.
In the Teacher Response Log, teachers evaluate
student work and respond to Reading Log entries.
The Class Record helps teachers to keep track of
student work on a lesson-by-lesson basis.
The readings and the activities in this program
will help stimulate your students critical-thinking
skills and their love for reading good stories.
Introducing the Strategy
1. On the board, draw the chart shown below. In the
top oval, write a brief description of a situation,
such as: first day in a new school.
2. Ask if students remember their first day in
school. Have them describe their memories.
Some students also may be able to share a more
recent experience of moving to a new school.
Then ask students to use words that describe how
they felt. Write these words in the first oval
labeled Similar Experience.
3. Next, invite students to pretend they are new to
their school today. Call on volunteers to describe
how they might feel. Write these words in the
second or middle oval labeled Pretend. You
might model an example by writing the word
excited under the middle oval.
4. Finally, call on other students to describe how
they think or imagine the new students must feel.
Write these words in the right or third oval
labeled Imagine.
Tell students that they can better understand
characters in stories by remembering, pretending,
and imagining. Explain that they will practice
this strategy in Lesson 2.
Extending the Strategy
The Beyond the Story activity asks students to
interview a partner about playing on a sports team.
The following are other ideas you can use to
extend the strategy.
1. Set up a class talk-show in which one or two
hosts interview students playing the parts of
sports team members. The host(s) interviews the
team members by asking questions, while the rest
of the class plays the part of the studio audience.
Afterwards, ask volunteers from all three groups
to describe how they felt playing their roles.
2. Have students write a description of what they
think it would be like to be a famous actor,
musician, or writer. Suggest they draw on any
similar experiences, such as acting in a school
play, being in a talent show, or writing for a
school publication to help them write their
descriptions.
3. Call on volunteers to share their descriptions with
the class. Ask the class to name any different
feelings they would have if they were the person
described.
L E S S O N 3
S tra te g y : M a k e G o o d G u e sse s
About the Strategy
In this lesson, students learn to make, check, and
revise predictions while reading a story. This strategy
teaches students to combine story clues with their
prior knowledge of people, places, and situations in
order to predict what will happen next or how the
story will end. Students learn to check the accuracy
of their predictions as they read and to revise their
predictions as needed.
Students will learn how making predictions can
help them better understand and enjoy what they
read.
Introducing the Strategy
1. On the board, draw the chart shown below.
2. Ask students to describe the weather when they
came to school. Then ask them to guess or predict
what they think the weather will be when they
go home. Record students responses in the first
column of the chart.

4
Similar
Experience
Pretend
Imagine
Prediction What I Know Clues
3. Discuss how students made their predictions.
Some students may say they know from experience
what the weather will be like. They may also cite
weather reports they heard or read. Write students
responses in the second and third columns on the
chart. Talk about how students could observe the
weather after school to check their predictions.
4. Explain to students they can use a similar strategy
for predicting what will happen in a story. Ask
students if they have ever read a scary story or seen
a scary movie. Ask them what they would expect
to happen if a character in a scary story goes into
a dark, damp basement alone. (Most students
will predict that something bad will happen. Perhaps
a ghost or a monster will appear.) Discuss why this
prediction is a good guess. (Things like this have
happened in scary stories and movies.) Then dis-
cuss how the prediction could be checked.
Tell students they will practice making and checking
predictions in Lesson 3.
Extending the Strategy
The Beyond the Story activity asks students to
show a partner the first part of a short story or
cartoon they have written or drawn. The partner
predicts what will happen next, then checks the
prediction with the rest of the story or cartoon.
The following are other ideas you can use to
extend the strategy.
1. Have partners extend each others stories or cartoons
by writing or drawing what will happen next.
2. Encourage small groups to work together to write
or draw the first part of a story or cartoon. Have
them exchange papers with another group. The
second group should write or draw the next part
of the story to show what they think will happen
next. The first group tells whether or not that was
what they thought would happen.
3. Distribute copies of the prediction chart on page 4,
or have each student draw a chart. Read a short
story aloud or retell the plot of a television
program. Pause at critical points to allow students
to write a prediction on the chart. Encourage
them to write the basis for their prediction. Then
continue reading so that students can check their
predictions.
L E S S O N 4
S tra te g y : B e co m e a S to ry te lle r
About the Strategy
In this lesson, students will learn how to retell a
story in order to check their understanding. They
will learn to identify the most important ideas in
order to tell the beginning, middle, and end of a
story in a few sentences.
Students will learn how retelling a story can help
them better understand what they have read.
Introducing the Strategy
1. On the board, draw the chart shown below.
2. Ask students to recall a story they recently
watched on television or read in a book. Try to
select a story that you are familiar with and that
at least three students have seen or read. Then
have one student tell the class what happened in
the beginning. Write this information in the first
column of the chart.
If the description is lengthy, help the student pare
it down to one or two sentences. For example,
ask What was the most important thing that
happened in the beginning of the story? Tell me
in one sentence.
3. Call on a second student to relate what happened
in the middle of the story. Record these sentences
in the middle column.
4. Invite the third student to tell what happened in the
end. Record this information in the third column.
5. Review the story. Ask students what they might
do if they realized they had missed an important

5
Beginning Middle End

1 7
Dear Parent or Guardian:
In class, your child is working with a book called Reading Strategies for Literature. This
book shows your child how to use different ideas and strategies to understand stories,
novels, poems, and plays. These strategies will help your child to do well with homework
assignments, book reports, and tests that are based on literature. The strategies will also help
your child to enjoy reading for pleasure.
But there is one key strategy that your child cannot get out of a textbook. That strategy
is to READ, READ, and READ some more. In the Reading Strategies for Literature
lessons, your child is reading excerpts from stories. I hope these stories will encourage a love
of reading in your child. On the other side of this letter is a list of books that your child might
enjoy reading. Most of these are available at the public library. Many of them may also be
available at your school library.
Here are some ideas you can try at home to help your child develop a love of reading
good literature.
1. Ask to see the Reading Log that your child is filling out as he or she works
through Reading Strategies for Literature. Ask your child to tell you about
stories on the log that he or she enjoyed reading.
2. Establish 15 minutes of DEAR (Drop Everything And Read) Time every day.
This is time you can set aside for each individual to pick something of his or her
own choosing and spend time togetherjust reading.
3. If your child is a reader, you should still read to him or her. Children who love to
read still enjoy adults reading to them.
4. Ask your child to read to you. You can also ask the child to elaborate on a story
by choosing a new ending or making up the next chapter. You could also ask your
child to make a picture based on the story and hang it up on the refrigerator door.
Happy reading,
_________________________________________
Curriculum Associates, Inc. Reading Strategies for Literature, Level 5

1 8
Banks, Lynne Reid The Indian in the Cupboard
Blume, Judy Its Not the End of the World;
Starring Sally J. Freedman As Herself
Burnett, Frances A Little Princess
Byars, Betsy The Cybil War; Summer of the Swans
Cleaver, Vera and Bill Cleaver Where the Lilies Bloom
Clifford, Eth. Help! Im a Prisoner in the Library
Dahl, Roald Matilda
DeClements, Barthe. Nothings Fair in Fifth Grade
Fitzhugh, Louise Harriet the Spy
Fleishman, Sid The Whipping Boy
Greene, Bette Philip Hall Likes Me, I Reckon, Maybe
Hamilton, Virginia Zeely
Key, Alexander Escape to Witch Mountain; The Forgotten Door
Klein, Norma Mom, the Wolfman, and Me
Lowry, Lois Anastasia Krupnik
Myers, Walter Hoops; Me, Mop, and the Moondance Kid
North, Sterling Rascal
Norton, Mary The Borrowers
Paterson, Katherine Lyddie
Peck, Robert N. Soup
Rodgers, Mary Freaky Friday
Sachs, Marilyn Amy and Laura
Selden, George The Cricket in Times Square
Sharmat, Marjorie Maggie Marmelstein for President
Sobol, Donald J. Encyclopedia Brown series
Twain, Mark The Prince and the Pauper
White, E. B. The Trumpet of the Swan
Williams, Jay and Raymond Abrashkin Danny Dunn and the Voice from Space
S U G G E S T E D R E A D I N G L I S T
Curriculum Associates, Inc. Reading Strategies for Literature, Level 5

1 9
Lesson 1
Paint a Picture
Koki, Birdman of Old Japan
Lesson 2
Put Yourself in My Shoes
Want to Be on My Team?
Lesson 3
Make Good Guesses
Fortune and the Beggar
Lesson 4
Become a Storyteller
The Crab Da Trang
Lesson 5
Figure Out What Happens
Wings on the Snow, an Ojibwa Legend
Lesson 6
Use Good Judgment
Grizzly!
Lesson 7
Put Things in Order
Ol Suicide Sled Run No. 1
Lesson 8
Determine What Happens
and Why
The Fable of Three Brothers
Lesson 9
Sort Out Likenesses and Differences
Water Sky
Lesson 10
Spin a Character Web
Roxannes Surprise
Lesson 11
Make a Story Map
The Miller, His Son, and Their Mule
M Y R E A D I N G L O G
N A M E __________________________________________________
L e sso n a n d R e a d i n g S e le cti o n
H o w I R a te th e
R e a d i n g S e le cti o n
Wh a t I Wi ll R e m e m b e r
A b o u t th e R e a d i n g S e le cti o n
Curriculum Associates, Inc. Reading Strategies for Literature, Level 5
Great OK
Not
Good

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Curriculum Associates, Inc. Reading Strategies for Literature, Level 5
Lesson 1
Paint a Picture
Koki, Birdman of Old Japan
Lesson 2
Put Yourself in My Shoes
Want to Be on My Team?
Lesson 3
Make Good Guesses
Fortune and the Beggar
Lesson 4
Become a Storyteller
The Crab Da Trang
Lesson 5
Figure Out What Happens
Wings on the Snow, an Ojibwa Legend
Lesson 6
Use Good Judgment
Grizzly!
Lesson 7
Put Things in Order
Ol Suicide Sled Run No. 1
Lesson 8
Determine What Happens
and Why
The Fable of Three Brothers
Lesson 9
Sort Out Likenesses and Differences
Water Sky
Lesson 10
Spin a Character Web
Roxannes Surprise
Lesson 11
Make a Story Map
The Miller, His Son, and Their Mule
L e sso n a n d R e a d i n g S e le cti o n
H o w I R a te Yo u r
Wo rk o n th e L e sso n
M y R e sp o n se to Yo u r
R e a d i n g L o g E n try
T E A C H E R R E S P O N S E L O G
S T U D E N T __________________________________________________
Great OK
Improvement
Needed
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R e a d i n g
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L e v e l 6
C U R R I C U L U M A S S O C I AT E S

, I n c.
L i te ra tu re
T a b le o f C o n te n ts
P a g e
L e sso n 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Strategy: Paint a Picture
Reading: The Secret Garden by Frances Hodgson Burnett
L e sso n 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Strategy: Put Yourself in My Shoes
Reading: The Last Ride by Michelle Gooch
L e sso n 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Strategy: Make Good Guesses
Reading: All Things Are Linked by Harold Courlander
L e sso n 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Strategy: Become a Storyteller
Reading: Coyote Cry by Byrd Baylor
L e sso n 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Strategy: Figure Out What Happens
Reading: Julie of the Wolves by Jean Craighead George
L e sso n 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Strategy: Use Good Judgment
Reading: Strider by Beverly Cleary
L e sso n 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Strategy: Put Things in Order
Reading: Hatchet by Gary Paulsen
L e sso n 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Strategy: Determine What Happens and Why
Reading: How the Water Spirit Got Her Power and How the Water Spirit
Carved the Mountains by Carol Traub
L e sso n 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Strategy: Sort Out Likenesses and Differences
Reading: From the Diary of Yeddo Ski-Kredo by Caroline D. Henry
L e sso n 1 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Strategy: Spin a Character Web
Reading: Gabe the Great by Barbara Briggs Ward
L e sso n 1 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Strategy: Make a Story Map
Reading: Why the Monsoon Comes Each Year retold by Dorothy Lewis Robertson
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Do you like stories with illustrations? When we look at pictures that
accompany a story, the pictures help us to see the people, places, and
events that are being described. Pictures can even help us understand
story characters actions and emotions.
However, good writers do not depend on illustrations to help readers
get to know story characters and events. Good writers use words that
appeal to our sense of sight, sound, smell, taste, and touch (or
feeling). These words help us to p a i n t a p i ctu re in our minds of what the
characters are like and what is happening to them. Writers use these
words so that we can understand what is taking place and what a
character is seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, and touching.
T o h e lp u s paint a picture i n o u r m i n d s, w ri te rs u se w o rd s th a t
a p p e a l to o u r se n se o f si g h t, so u n d , sm e ll, ta ste , a n d to u ch .
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As you read the paragraph below, notice the words that help you
see, hear, and feel the scene.
T h e b u s d ri v e r lu rch e d to a su d d e n sto p , a n d a d o ze n m o re
p e o p le p u sh e d th e i r w a y o n to th e a lre a d y cro w d e d b u s. T o n y a
h a d b a re ly e n o u g h ro o m to sta n d a n d h o ld o n to th e b a ck o f a
se a t. N o w sh e w a s sq u a sh e d fro m a ll d i re cti o n s. A h e a v y -se t
m a n w i th g re e n co w b o y b o o ts ste p p e d o n To n y a s to e . O u ch !
A ta ll w o m a n w i th p u rp le p a rro ts o n h e r d re ss b lo ck e d To n y a s
v i e w o f th e stre e t. H o w w o u ld sh e k n o w w h e n sh e re a ch e d
R o ck la n d R o a d ? T w o se a ts b a ck , a b a b y w a s w a i li n g , a n d a
ra d i o w a s b la ri n g . I f th e d ri v e r w a s ca lli n g o u t th e sto p s, T o n y a
co u ld n t h e a r h i m .
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Here are some words from the paragraph that can help you to paint
a picture in your mind of Tonyas experience. Write in words that
help you hear the sounds that she heard.
S i g h t: crowded bus, people pushing, heavy-set man, green cowboy
boots, tall woman, dress with purple parrots, wailing baby
F e e li n g : people pushed, was squashed, man stepped on toe, Ouch
S o u n d : _____________________________________________________
As you read, remember to look for words that describe shapes,
colors, textures, sounds, smells, and tastes. This will help you to paint a
picture of what is taking place in a story.
L e sso n 1
$$$$$$
Strategy:
Paint a
Picture
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E x p lo ri n g th e S tra te g y
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The passage below is about a boys bicycling experience in the
mountains. As you read, look for words that describe objects,
weather conditions, and sounds. Pay attention to words that help
you feel what it is like to be out on the mountain road.
J a y sta re d fo rlo rn ly a t h i s b i cy cle ti re . H e h a d b e e n w h i zzi n g
d o w n th e h i ll so fa st h e h a d n t se e n th e b ro k e n b o ttle s. N o w h e
h a d tw o fla t ti re s. H e h a d p a sse d a g a s sta ti o n tw o m i le s b a ck .
S h o u ld h e w a lk b a ck th e re ? N o , b e tte r to w a lk o n to U n cle
M a lco lm s.
T h e J a n u a ry su n w a s se tti n g fa st. A w i n d w h i stle d d o w n th e
h i llsi d e a n d cu t th ro u g h J a y s ja ck e t. T h e co ld a i r sm a ck e d h i m
i n th e fa ce a n d stu n g h i s ch e e k s. J a y sh i v e re d . H a w ! H a w ! T w o
cro w s i n a n o ld p i n e tre e w e re la u g h i n g a t h i s p re d i ca m e n t.
J a y tru d g e d u p th e n e x t h i ll a n d d o w n th e o th e r si d e . J u st a s
i t tu rn e d co m p le te ly d a rk , sn o w b e g a n to fa ll i n e a rn e st. Wh y
h a d b i cy cli n g o v e r th e m o u n ta i n s to U n cle M a lco lm s se e m e d
li k e su ch a g o o d i d e a ?
A p a i r o f b ri g h t h e a d li g h ts sw e p t o v e r th e h i llto p , a n d th re e
lo u d h o n k s b ro k e th e d a rk n e ss. T h e n J a y h e a rd th e d e e p ,
g ra v e lly v o i ce o f h i s U n cle M a lco lm ca ll o u t, T h o u g h t y o u
m i g h t h a v e h a d a p ro b le m . T h e si g h t o f h i s u n cle s o ld p i ck u p
tru ck m a d e J a y fe e l a w h o le lo t b e tte r. Wi th a si g h o f re li e f, J a y
li fte d th e b i k e o n to th e b a ck o f th e tru ck a n d th e n cli m b e d i n to
th e ca b w i th h i s u n cle . U n cle M a lco lm s o ld p i ck u p h a d n e v e r
lo o k e d so g o o d .
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Can you picture the events from the authors descriptions? On the
lines, write in some of the words that helped you see, hear, and feel
what Jay felt. Some words have been filled in to get you started.
1. I see a hilly mountain road, broken bottles, bicycle with
two flat tires,_______________________________________
__________________________________________________
2. I hear ______________________________________________
__________________________________________________
3. I feel _______________________________________________
__________________________________________________
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As you read the following scene from The Secret Garden, look for
words the author uses to describe objects, colors, sounds, smells,
and the feeling of the sun. Use those words to help you paint a
mental picture of Marys experience.
n that first morning when the sky was blue again Mary wakened
very early. The sun was pouring in slanting rays through the blinds and
there was something so joyous in the sight of it that she jumped out of bed
and ran to the window. She drew up the blinds and opened the window
itself and a great waft of fresh, scented air blew in upon her. The moor was
blue and the whole world looked as if something Magic had happened
to it. There were tender little fluting sounds here and there and every-
where, as if scores of birds were beginning to tune up for a concert.
Mary put her hand out of the window and held it in the sun.
Its warmwarm! she said. It will make the green points push up
and up and up, and it will make the bulbs and roots work and struggle
with all their might under the earth.
She kneeled down and leaned out of the window as far as she
could, breathing big breaths and sniffing the air until she laughed
because she remembered what Dickons mother had said about the end
of his nose quivering like a rabbits.
It must be very early, she said. The little clouds are all pink and
Ive never seen the sky look like this. No one is up. I dont even hear the
stable boys.
A sudden thought made her scramble to her feet.
I cant wait! I am going to see the garden!
She knew a small side door which she could unbolt herself and she
flew downstairs in her stocking feet and put on her shoes in the hall.
She unchained and unbolted and unlocked and when the door was
open she sprang across the step with one bound, and there she was
standing on the grass, which seemed to have turned green, and with
the sun pouring down on her and warm sweet wafts about her and the
fluting and twittering and singing coming from every bush and tree. She
clasped her hands for pure joy and looked up in the sky and it was so
blue and pink and pearly and white and flooded with springtime light
that she felt as if she must flute and sing aloud herself and knew that
thrushes and robins and skylarks could not possibly help it. She ran
around the shrubs and paths towards the secret garden.
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T h e S e cre t
G a rd e n
by Frances Hodgson
Burnett
The Secret Garden tells the
story of Mary Lennox, a young
English girl who moves to her
uncles country estate when her
parents die. At first Mary is not well.
Her health, however, improves as
she learns about nature and
uncovers the secret of a long-closed
garden.
O
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U si n g th e S tra te g y
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Can you picture the scene? Think about some of the words that the
author uses that appeal to your senseswords that help you see,
hear, smell, and feel what Mary does. On the lines, write words and
phrases that help you to paint a picture in your mind.
1. In a sentence, describe where Mary is standing and what
she is doing.
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
2. I see
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
3. I hear
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
4. I smell
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
5. I feel (or touch)
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
6. On a separate sheet of paper, draw a picture of the scene
from The Secret Garden that the author describes.
5
B e y o n d th e
S to ry
Wri te a d e scri p ti o n o f a
p la ce th a t y o u lo v e to v i si t.
I n clu d e d e ta i ls th a t w i ll
h e lp y o u r re a d e rs p a i n t a
p i ctu re o f th e p la ce i n
th e i r m i n d s. T e ll w h a t
so m e o n e m i g h t se e , h e a r,
sm e ll, o r to u ch a t th i s p la ce .
I n v i te tw o cla ssm a te s to
re a d y o u r d e scri p ti o n a n d
to d ra w a p i ctu re o f y o u r
p la ce .
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R e a d i n g
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L e v e l 6
C U R R I C U L U M A S S O C I AT E S

, I n c.
L i te ra tu re
Teacher
Guide
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I N T R O D U C T I O N
Using Strategies to Read Literature
One of the most powerful aspects of the whole
language approach is the exposure of young
children to high quality, authentic literature. The
proliferation of quality childrens literature is a rich
resource for teachers and parents alike.
This growth in the popularity of authentic literature
has been accompanied by efforts to help
students develop the cognitive strategies essential to
applying critical-thinking skills to the stories,
poems, and plays that they read.
Reading Strategies for Literature presents
students with eleven key strategies that they can use
whenever they read literature, whether for school
assignments or for pleasure reading.
The first six strategies consist of metacognitive
approaches which encourage children to think
about their own thought processes. These
strategies give students the tools to help them
become strong, independent critical thinkers.
The last five strategies are based on graphic
organizers. Students can use these visual tools to
organize what they read in a way that makes
sense to them. Graphic organizers are beneficial,
not only for developing reading and thinking
skills, but also for organizing ideas for writing.
How to Use This Program
The Reading Strategies for Literature program
consists of a student book and a teacher guide for
levels 3, 4, 5, and 6.
Each of the eleven student book lessons has five
main components:
Introduction of the strategy in an everyday,
familiar context; accompanied by a definition
Guided practice with the strategy
A high-interest selection taken from quality
childrens literature
An exercise to apply the skill to the literature
selection
A Beyond the Story extension of the strategy
or the theme of the story through writing,
discussion, role-playing, or art activities
In addition, this teacher guide provides you with
lesson notes to help you introduce each strategy
and extend it with a variety of activities not found
in the student book.
an answer key to check students work.
reproducible masters of a letter that introduces
at-home reading activities to parents and
guardians and provides a suggested reading list
of high-interest, high-quality childrens books.
reproducible masters for student self-evaluation,
teacher feedback, and classroom management.
In My Reading Log, students evaluate the
reading selections.
In the Teacher Response Log, teachers evaluate
student work and respond to Reading Log entries.
The Class Record helps teachers to keep track of
student work on a lesson-by-lesson basis.
The readings and the activities in this program
will help stimulate your students critical-thinking
skills and their love for reading good stories.
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L E S S O N N O T E S
L E S S O N 1
S tra te g y : P a i n t a P i ctu re
About the Strategy
In this lesson, students will practice picturing
story characters, settings, and plot events. To develop
this ability to imagine, they will look especially for
images that appeal to their five senses and note their
sensory perceptions.
Students will learn how imagining can help them
better understand and enjoy what they read.
Introducing the Strategy
1. On the board make a drawing of a hand as shown
below.
2. Lead students to understand that the five senses,
like the five fingers of the hand, work together to
help readers understand the people, places, and
events in a story. Ask students to suggest some
places in their community that might be good
settings for a story. For each suggestion, have
students suggest some details about the way
things look, sound, smell, feel, or taste there.
Write the various sensory words and images next
to the appropriate finger of the hand.
3. Ask students to draw their own hands on a sheet
of paper, think about their classroom as a story
setting, and list different sensory details that they
experience there.
Tell students that they can paint a picture in their
minds when they read a story and that they will
practice this strategy in Lesson 1.
Extending the Strategy
The Beyond the Story activity asks students to
describe a place that they love to visit.
The following are other ideas you can use to
extend the strategy.
1. Ask students to use a family snapshot to prompt
memories and sense impressions that they have
experienced on a memorable holiday, trip, or
vacation. Tell them to draw a picture of their
hand and list those elements on the hand.
2. Ask students to list their Most Favorite Tastes
and Smells and Least Favorite Tastes and
Smells on a chart. Suggest that they find vivid
adjectives and nouns to describe these sensory
impressions.
3. Ask students to describe a place using the sounds
they typically hear there without giving the name
of the place. Have student volunteers read their
descriptions aloud while classmates guess the
location.
L E S S O N 2
S tra te g y : P u t Yo u rse lf i n M y S h o e s
About the Strategy
In this lesson students will learn to empathize
with the characters in a story. To do this, they
will practice remembering their own experiences,
pretending they are in a characters place, and
imagining how a character feels.
Students will learn how empathizing can help
them better understand story characters
experiences and behavior.
Introducing the Strategy
1. On the board, write a list of adjectives that
describe emotions; for example, proud, frightened,
encouraged, sad, confused.
2. Ask for a student volunteer to describe a situation
or event that left him or her feeling one of these
ways.
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See
Hear
Smell
Touch
Taste
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Dear Parent or Guardian:
In class, your child is working with a book called Reading Strategies for Literature. This
book shows your child how to use different ideas and strategies to understand stories,
novels, poems, and plays. These strategies will help your child to do well with homework
assignments, book reports, and tests that are based on literature. The strategies will also help
your child to enjoy reading for pleasure.
But there is one key strategy that your child cannot get out of a textbook. That strategy
is to READ, READ, and READ some more. In the Reading Strategies for Literature
lessons, your child is reading excerpts from stories. I hope these stories will encourage a love
of reading in your child. On the other side of this letter is a list of books that your child might
enjoy reading. Most of these are available at the public library. Many of them may also be
available at your school library.
Here are some ideas you can try at home to help your child develop a love of reading
good literature.
1. Ask to see the Reading Log that your child is filling out as he or she works
through Reading Strategies for Literature. Ask your child to tell you about
stories on the log that he or she enjoyed reading.
2. Establish 15 minutes of DEAR (Drop Everything And Read) Time every day.
This is time you can set aside for each individual to pick something of his or her
own choosing and spend time togetherjust reading.
3. If your child is a reader, you should still read to him or her. Children who love to
read still enjoy adults reading to them.
4. Ask your child to read to you. You can also ask the child to elaborate on a story
by choosing a new ending or making up the next chapter. You could also ask your
child to make a picture based on the story and hang it up on the refrigerator door.
Happy reading,
_________________________________________
Curriculum Associates, Inc. Reading Strategies for Literature, Level 6
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Adams, Douglas The Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy
Alcott, Louisa May Little Men; Little Women
Avi The True Confessions of Charlotte Doyle
Bradbury, Ray The Martian Chronicles
Burnett, Frances H. The Secret Garden
Byars, Betsy After the Goat Man; The Not-Just-Anybody Family
Cleary, Beverly Fifteen; Jean and Johnny
Conford, Ellen Dear Lovey Hart: I Am Desperate
Danziger, Paula Can You Sue Your Parents for Malpractice?
Fast, Howard Freedom Road
George, Jean Craighead Julie of the Wolves; My Side of the Mountain
Gipson, Fred Old Yeller
Greene, Bette Summer of My German Soldier
Hamilton, Virginia M. C. Higgins, the Great; The Planet of Junior Brown
Howe, James The Day the Teacher Went Bananas
Klein, Norma Confessions of an Only Child
Konigsburg, E. L. A Proud Taste for Scarlet and Miniver
Lowry, Lois The Giver; Number the Stars; A Summer to Die
MacLachlan, Patricia Journey
Naylor, Phyllis Shiloh
OBrien, Robert C. Mrs. Frisby and the Rats of NIMH
ODell, Scott The Black Pearl; Island of the Blue Dolphins; Zia
Paulsen, Gary Hatchet; Woodsong
Sperry, Armstrong Call It Courage
Tolkein, J. R. The Hobbit
Voigt, Cynthia The Callender Papers; Izzy, Willy-Nilly
Yep, Laurence Dragons Gate; The Rainbow People
Yolen, Jane The Devils Arithmetic
S U G G E S T E D R E A D I N G L I S T
Curriculum Associates, Inc. Reading Strategies for Literature, Level 6
$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $
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1 9
Lesson 1
Paint a Picture
The Secret Garden
Lesson 2
Put Yourself in My Shoes
The Last Ride
Lesson 3
Make Good Guesses
All Things Are Linked
Lesson 4
Become a Storyteller
Coyote Cry
Lesson 5
Figure Out What Happens
Julie of the Wolves
Lesson 6
Use Good Judgment
Strider
Lesson 7
Put Things in Order
Hatchet
Lesson 8
Determine What Happens
and Why
How the Water Spirit Got Her Power
and How the Water Spirit Carved the
Mountains
Lesson 9
Sort Out Likenesses and Differences
From the Diary of Yeddo Ski-Kredo
Lesson 10
Spin a Character Web
Gabe the Great
Lesson 11
Make a Story Map
Why the Monsoon Comes Each Year
M Y R E A D I N G L O G
N A M E __________________________________________________
L e sso n a n d R e a d i n g S e le cti o n
H o w I R a te th e
R e a d i n g S e le cti o n
Wh a t I Wi ll R e m e m b e r
A b o u t th e R e a d i n g S e le cti o n
Curriculum Associates, Inc. Reading Strategies for Literature, Level 6
Great OK
Not
Good
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Curriculum Associates, Inc. Reading Strategies for Literature, Level 6
Lesson 1
Paint a Picture
The Secret Garden
Lesson 2
Put Yourself in My Shoes
The Last Ride
Lesson 3
Make Good Guesses
All Things Are Linked
Lesson 4
Become a Storyteller
Coyote Cry
Lesson 5
Figure Out What Happens
Julie of the Wolves
Lesson 6
Use Good Judgment
Strider
Lesson 7
Put Things in Order
Hatchet
Lesson 8
Determine What Happens
and Why
How the Water Spirit Got Her Power
and How the Water Spirit Carved the
Mountains
Lesson 9
Sort Out Likenesses and Differences
From the Diary of Yeddo Ski-Kredo
Lesson 10
Spin a Character Web
Gabe the Great
Lesson 11
Make a Story Map
Why the Monsoon Comes Each Year
L e sso n a n d R e a d i n g S e le cti o n
H o w I R a te Yo u r
Wo rk o n th e L e sso n
M y R e sp o n se to Yo u r
R e a d i n g L o g E n try
T E A C H E R R E S P O N S E L O G
S T U D E N T __________________________________________________
Great OK
Improvement
Needed
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R e a d i n g
S tra te g i e s
fo r
L e v e l 7
C U R R I C U L U M A S S O C I AT E S

, I n c.
L i te ra tu re
F o r th e S tu d e n t
Do you like to play games or sports? To enjoy yourself and to be really good at
a game or a sport, you need to learn winning strategies. You learn strategies to
make the best of every situation. When you use a strategy, you know from the
beginning that you can do your best job.
You can also use strategies to get the most out of reading. The strategies that
you will learn in this book will help you enjoy reading stories, poems, and plays.
The strategies will give you the ideas that will help you to make the most of your
reading experiencesin school or just for fun.
Reading Strategies for Literature introduces many different kinds of strategies.
You can practice the strategies in the lessons, but most importantly, try them out
when you read a new story or book. Use the strategies on tests, book reports, or
just whenever you want to understand a story better.
Be sure to try the B e y o n d th e S to ry activities at the end of each lesson. These|
will give you a chance to draw, discuss, act out, and write about different ideas.
Developed by: Learning Unlimited, Oak Park, Illinois
Writer: Laura Southwick
Editor: Karen Bender
Project Manager: Ellen Sternhell
Designer and Illustrator: Pat Lucas
ISBN 0-7609-0392-1
1998Curriculum Associates, Inc.
North Billerica, MA 01862
No part of this book may be reproduced by any means
without written permission from the publisher.
All Rights Reserved. Printed in USA.
15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
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T a b le o f C o n te n ts
P a g e
L e sso n 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Strategy: Paint a Picture
Reading: Yoshiko and the Snow Cranes by Judy Cox
L e sso n 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Strategy: Put Yourself in My Shoes
Reading: I, Earthling by Bruce Coville
L e sso n 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Strategy: Make Good Guesses
Reading: Tails of the Bronx by Jill Pinkwater
L e sso n 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Strategy: Become a Storyteller
Reading: Tell Me a Story: Thor
L e sso n 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Strategy: Figure Out What Happens
Reading: The Fox and the Stork by Aesop
L e sso n 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Strategy: Use Good Judgment
Reading: Nathans Dilemma by K.T. Lund
L e sso n 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Strategy: Put Things in Order
Reading: Alices Adventures in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll
L e sso n 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Strategy: Determine What Happens and Why
Reading: How the Rhinoceros Got His Skin by Rudyard Kipling
L e sso n 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Strategy: Sort Out Likenesses and Differences
Reading: Going Homeby Nicholasa Mohr
L e sso n 1 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Strategy: Spin a Character Web
Reading: The Talking Earth by Jean Craighead George
L e sso n 1 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Strategy: Make a Story Map
Reading: The Gorgons Head by Nathaniel Hawthorne
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Every day of our lives, we do things in a certain order. We wake up,
get dressed, and leave our homes. During the day, we have a schedule
of things we do first, second, and so on. When we tell about the order
in which things happen, we relate a se q u e n ce o f e v e n ts.
Sometimes one event leads to another. For example, suppose you
are at the supermarket buying some fresh, juicy oranges. After you grab
an orange from the bottom of the pile, an avalanche of oranges begins
tumbling down and rolling across the floor. Just then, a store manager
setting up a display steps on one of the oranges. He falls onto the
display, sending boxes of cookies into the cart of a passing shopper.
You can show the order of events by putting them in a sequence chart.
Sequence i s th e o rd e r i n w h i ch th i n g s h a p p e n . A se q u e n ce i s
o fte n a ch a i n o f re la te d e v e n ts. Yo u ca n u se a sequence chart to
sh o w th e o rd e r o f e v e n ts.
=
Look at the sequence chart below. It shows some of the events
described above. Write the last event that happened.
When you read, you can make a sequence chart to remember the
sequence of events. When you make a sequence chart
recall the events that happened.
think about the order in which they happened.
list them on the chart, showing how one event led
to another.
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2 6
E v e n t 1 You pick out oranges at the supermarket.
E v e n t 2 You start an avalanche of oranges tumbling and
rolling across the floor.
E v e n t 3 The store manager setting up a display steps on one
of the oranges.
E v e n t 4

L e sso n 7
======
Strategy:
Put Things
in Order
2 7
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E x p lo ri n g th e S tra te g y
=
Writers sometimes use certain time words or time phrases as clues
to a sequence of events. Some of these words and phrases are first,
next, then, finally, all of a sudden, before long, and after a while. Look for
clue words and phrases like these in the paragraph below.
O n e d a y a ra th e r p e a ce fu l v a ca ti o n w i th m y u n cle i n
C o lo ra d o tu rn e d i n to a w i ld a d v e n tu re . I t w a s th e d a y m y u n cle ,
si ste r, a n d I w e n t o n a ra fti n g tri p .
T h e p e o p le a t th e R o ck y M o u n ta i n R a fti n g C o m p a n y p ro v i d e d
u s w i th a ll th e n e ce ssa ry e q u i p m e n t. A fte r p u tti n g o n o u r li fe
ja ck e ts a n d g e tti n g i n to th e ra ft, w e sta rte d p a d d li n g d o w n th e
ri v e r. B e fo re lo n g , th e ri v e r sta rte d to g e t ro u g h . T h e stro n g
cu rre n ts to sse d o u r ra ft a ro u n d fo r se v e ra l m i n u te s. A ll o f a
su d d e n , w e h e a rd a stra n g e h i ssi n g n o i se a n d re a li ze d th a t o u r
ra ft w a s lo si n g a i r. We co u ld n t fi n d w h e re th e p ro b le m w a s, so
w e sta rte d p a d d li n g fra n ti ca lly . S o o n w e w e re i n ca lm w a te r
a g a i n , a n d w e w e re a b le to p a d d le to th e ri v e rb a n k . We fi n a lly
w e re re scu e d b y so m e p e o p le i n a n o th e r ra ft.
=
Recall the events that happened. Now use what you know about
sequence to fill in the chart below.
Think about the order in which the events happened.
Look for clue words to help you figure out the order of events.
List the events on the chart, showing how one event led
to another.
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E v e n t 1 The three people put on their life jackets, got into the
raft, and started paddling down the river.
E v e n t 2
E v e n t 3
E v e n t 4

E v e n t 5

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S tu d y i n g th e S tra te g y
=
Here is an excerpt from Alices Adventures in Wonderland. When you
read this selection, think about the sequence of events that author
Lewis Carroll describes.
hat a curious feeling! said Alice. I must be shutting up like
a telescope!
And so it was indeed: she was now only ten inches high, and her
face brightened up at the thought that she was now the right size for
going through the little door into that lovely garden. First, however, she
waited for a few minutes to see if she was going to shrink any further:
she felt a little nervous about this; for it might end, you know, said
Alice to herself, in my going out altogether, like a candle. I wonder
what I should be like then? And she tried to fancy what the flame of
a candle looks like after the candle is blown out, for she could not
remember ever having seen such a thing.
After a while, finding that nothing more happened, she decided on
going into the garden at once; but, alas for poor Alice! When she got to
the door, she found she had forgotten the little golden key, and when
she went back to the table for it, she found she could not possibly reach
it: she could see it quite plainly through the glass, and she tried her best
to climb up one of the legs of the table, but it was too slippery; and
when she had tired herself out with trying, the poor little thing sat down
and cried.
Come, theres no use in crying like that! said Alice to herself, rather
sharply. I advise you to leave off this minute! She generally gave
herself very good advice (though she very seldom followed it) . . . .
Soon her eye fell on a little glass box that was lying under the table:
she opened it, and found in it a very small cake, on which the words
EAT ME were beautifully marked in currants. Well, Ill eat it, said Alice,
and if it makes me grow larger, I can
reach the key; and if it makes me
grow smaller, I can creep under
the door: so either way Ill get
into the garden, and I dont
care which happens!
She ate a little bit, and said
anxiously to herself, Which
way? Which way?, holding
her hand on the top of her
head to feel which way it was
2 8
A li ce s
A d v e n tu re s
i n
Wo n d e rla n d
by Lewis Carroll
In this classic fantasy, a young
girl named Alice follows a talking
White Rabbit, who is carrying a
pocket watch, down a rabbit hole.
When she finally reaches the
bottom, she finds herself in the
middle of a long hall lit by a row
of lamps. She finds a tiny golden
key that fits a little door hidden
behind a curtain. She opens the
door and sees beyond it a
wonderful garden. She wishes she
were small enough to fit through
the tiny door that leads into the
garden. When she finds a bottle
labeled DRINK ME and drinks
the contents, something odd
happens.
W
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growing; and she was quite surprised to find that she remained the
same size. To be sure, this is what generally happens when one eats
cake; but Alice had got so much into the way of expecting nothing but
out-of-the-way things to happen, that it seemed quite dull and stupid for
life to go on in the common way.
So she set to work, and very soon finished off the cake.
U si n g th e S tra te g y
=
Use the sequence chart below to record what happened to Alice.
Show the events in the order in which they happened. The first
event has been recorded for you.
2 9
B e y o n d th e
S to ry
T h i n k o f a d a y th a t
tu rn e d i n to a n a d v e n tu re
fo r y o u . P e rh a p s y o u g o t
lo st i n a n u n fa m i li a r p la ce
o r w e n t to a sca ry m o v i e
w i th a g ro u p o f fri e n d s.
C h o o se a n e x p e ri e n ce
th a t h a s fi v e o r m o re
e v e n ts i n i t. T h e n m a k e a
se q u e n ce ch a rt to re co rd
th e e v e n ts. U se th e
se q u e n ce ch a rt a s a g u i d e
to w ri te a sh o rt sto ry
a b o u t y o u r a d v e n tu re .
E v e n t 1 Alice shrank to the height of ten inches.
E v e n t 2
E v e n t 3
E v e n t 4

E v e n t 5

E v e n t 6
E v e n t 7

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S tra te g i e s
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L e v e l 7
C U R R I C U L U M A S S O C I AT E S

, I n c.
L i te ra tu re
Teacher
Guide
T a b le o f C o n te n ts
Page
I n tro d u cti o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Using Strategies to Read Literature
How to Use This Program
L e sso n N o te s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Lessons 111
A n sw e r K e y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Lessons 111
T a k e -H o m e L e tte r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Letter to Parents or Guardians
Suggested Reading List
E v a lu a ti o n T o o ls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Student Reading Log
Teacher Response Log
Class Reading Record
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2
I N T R O D U C T I O N
Using Strategies to Read Literature
One of the most powerful aspects of the whole
language approach is the exposure of students to
high-quality, authentic literature. The proliferation
of quality literature is a rich resource for teachers
and parents alike.
This growth in the popularity of authentic literature
has been accompanied by efforts to help students
develop the cognitive strategies essential to applying
critical-thinking skills to the stories, poems, and
plays that they read.
Reading Strategies for Literature presents
students with eleven key strategies that they can use
whenever they read literature, whether for school
assignments or for pleasure reading.
The first six strategies consist of metacognitive
approaches which encourage children to think
about their own thought processes. These
strategies give students the tools to help them
become strong, independent critical thinkers.
The last five strategies are based on graphic
organizers. Students can use these visual tools to
organize what they read in a way that makes
sense to them. Graphic organizers are beneficial,
not only for developing reading and thinking
skills, but also for organizing ideas for writing.
How to Use This Program
The Reading Strategies for Literature program
consists of a student book and a teacher guide for
levels 28.
Each of the eleven student book lessons has five
main components:
Introduction of the strategy in an everyday,
familiar context; accompanied by a definition
Guided practice with the strategy
A high-interest selection taken from works of
high literary merit.
An exercise to apply the skill to the literature
selection
A Beyond the Story extension of the strategy
or the theme of the story through writing,
discussion, role-playing, or art activities
In addition, this teacher guide provides you with
lesson notes to help you introduce each strategy
and extend it with a variety of activities not found
in the student book.
an answer key to check students work.
reproducible masters of a letter that introduces
at-home reading activities to parents and
guardians and provides a suggested reading list
of high-interest, high-quality books.
reproducible masters for student self-evaluation,
teacher feedback, and classroom management.
In My Reading Log, students evaluate the
reading selections.
In the Teacher Response Log, teachers evaluate
student work and respond to Reading Log entries.
The Class Record helps teachers to keep track of
student work on a lesson-by-lesson basis.
The readings and the activities in this program
will help stimulate your students critical-thinking
skills and their love for reading good stories.
Tell students that they can make judgments about
the characters and events in the stories they read.
Making judgments will often help them better
appreciate and understand the story. Explain that
they will practice this strategy in Lesson 6.
E x te n d i n g th e S tra te g y
The Beyond the Story activity asks students to
locate a newspaper or magazine story about a person
who has been in a situation that required him or her
to make a judgment. Students are to read the article,
decide whether the person exercised good judgment,
and discuss their opinions with the class.
The following are other ideas you can use to
extend the strategy.
1. Ask students to suggest how one of the individuals
in the news might have shown better judgment and
done something differently.
2. Have students dramatize situations in which good
or bad judgment was used. As a class discuss
whether the decision the person made in the
dramatization was right, fair, and smart, and why.
3. Invite students to make judgments about actions
by political leaders who have influenced our
countrys history or world history. Ask students to
decide whether what these individuals did was
right, fair, and smart.
L E S S O N 7
S tra te g y : P u t T h i n g s i n O rd e r
About the Strategy
In this lesson, students will learn to recognize a
sequence of events and to organize that information
on a chart.
Students will learn how recognizing the order in
a chain of events in a story will help them better
understand the story.
Introducing the Strategy
1. On the board, write a sentence such as the
following: People emerged from their houses and
crowded onto the sidewalk. Tell students that this
is the last sentence in a paragraph. Ask them to
use their imaginations to come up with a
sequence, or series, of three events that might
lead up to this sentence.
2. Write the numbers 1, 2, and 3 in a column and
write one volunteers suggested sentences. Point
out that the sentences are like a chain, each leading
to the next. Here is one possible chain of events.
Smoke poured out of the windows of the house,
and flames leaped into the air.
Loud sirens from a fire truck filled the street.
The shouts of firefighters woke the sleeping
neighborhood.
People emerged from their houses and crowded
onto the sidewalk.
Tell students that noticing and remembering the
order, or sequence, of events in a story will help
them understand the story better. Explain that
they will practice this strategy in Lesson 7.
Extending the Strategy
The Beyond the Story activity asks students to
make a sequence chart to record the events of a day
that turned into an adventure. Students refer to their
charts to write a short story about their adventure.
The following are other ideas you can use to
extend the strategy.
1. Have groups of students choose a favorite story
or movie with a chain of events and turn it into a
board game with a Start and a Finish.
Students can include some mishaps and include
boxes that direct the player to lose a turn or go
back two spaces, and so on.
2. Ask student volunteers to recount actual chains of
events from their personal experiences. Have
them explain how each event led to the next.
3. Have students come up with a humorous chain of
events explaining how one minor misstep led to
greater consequences. Have students read the
chain of events to the class and have the class
vote for the funniest chain of events.
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1 3
2. Tommy loves his job.
Story Details: He is there all of the time; he feels
alive listening to the sounds; Sunday is his
favorite day because then he can play the games.
What I Know: Video arcades are fun. Someone
who has a job in one and spends even free time in
the same place where he or she works must love
the job.
Page 21
1. Students should conclude that the Storks long
bill, or beak, was not designed to sip soup from a
dish.
How do you know? Students should say that
they knew from the story details that the dish was
shallow and the Stork could only wet the tip of
his bill. Students should also know that a storks
bill is designed for picking and tearing at food.
2. Students should conclude that the Fox has a short
face that was not designed to eat from a tall jar
with a narrow neck.
How do you know? Students should say that
they knew from the story details that the Stork
purposely chose a container that would prevent
the Fox from eating the food. Students should
also say that since a foxs face is short and wide,
it couldnt possibly fit in a jar with a narrow neck.
L E S S O N 6
Use Good Judgment
Page 22
1. She had twisted her ankle. She didnt tell her
coach and went on the court.
2. She might injure her ankle more.
3. She might reduce her teams chance of winning.
Students should say, No. Kelly didnt make the
right decision, because she prevented the coach
from doing her job. The coach is the one to decide
whether a player is healthy enough to participate in
a game.
Page 23
1. Andy wanted to buy a skateboard, but he didnt
have enough money for it.
2. Andy found a wallet.
3. He turned in the wallet because he realized that it
belonged to someone else; it would have been
wrong to keep it.
4. Yes, Andy made the right decision because it would
be wrong to use stolen money to buy a skateboard.
Page 25
1. Ben has cerebral palsy. Since he couldnt play
baseball, he felt left-out, hurt, and angry that
Nathan would go and play. Ben stopped talking to
Nathan.
2. Nathan realized he would feel miserable watching
the other boys play baseball and knew that they
wouldnt ask him a second time.
3. Nathan liked watching the Cubs on TV with Ben
and listening to all the facts that Ben knew
about the Cubs. Nathan also remembered the
good day they spent at Wrigley Field.
4. Nathan asked his baseball team captain to make
Ben the umpire.
5. Yes. Ben and Nathan have been good friends.
By making Ben the umpire, the boys made it
possible for him to participate. This action
respected Bens feelings and allowed Ben and
Nathan to continue their friendship.
L E S S O N 7
P u t T h i n g s i n O rd e r
Page 26
Note: The first three events have been filled in on
the chart as a model for students.
Event 4
The store manager falls into the display, sending
boxes of cookies flying into the cart of a passing
shopper.
Page 27
Note: The first event has been filled in on the chart
as a model for students. Students charts may
be similar to this.
Event 2
Strong currents tossed the raft around.
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Event 3
The threesome heard a hissing noise and realized
that the raft was losing air.
Event 4
They paddled to calm water and then to the
riverbank.
Event 5
They were rescued by some people in another raft.
Page 29
Note: The first event has been filled in as a model
for students.
Event 2
Alice went to the door that led to the garden but
realized that she didnt have the little golden key.
Event 3
She went back to the table to get the key but found
that she was too short to reach it.
Event 4
She tried to climb up one of the table legs, but it was
too slippery. She sat down and cried.
Event 5
She opened a little glass box that she found lying
under the table and found a cake with the words
EAT ME on it.
Event 6
She ate a little bit of the cake and waited to see if
she would grow larger or smaller.
Event 7
She remained the same size, so she ate the rest of the
cake.
L E S S O N 8
D e te rm i n e Wh a t H a p p e n s a n d Wh y
Page 30
Note: Some causes and effects have been filled in as
models for students.
Cause You left the container of frozen yogurt at
room temperature for too long.
Effect The plant died.
Cause You left some bread in the toaster, and it
burned. (Accept all other reasonable
answers.)
Effect By midmorning youre starving, and you
cant concentrate. (Accept all other
reasonable answers.)
Cause You got caught in the rain without a jacket
or umbrella. (Accept all other reasonable
answers.)
Page 31
Note: Some causes and effects have been filled in as
models for students.
1. Effect The narrator spilled coffee on the
drawings.
2. Effect The narrator answered the phone.
3. Cause The coffee blurred the drawings, so the
narrator guessed the color.
4. Cause The head designer loved the shoes.
Page 33
Note: The first effect has been filled in on the chart
to get students started.
1. Effect The characters took off all their clothes.
The Parsee took off his hat, and the
Rhinoceros took off his skin.
2. Effect The Parsee picked up the skin and filled
it with cake crumbs in order to get
revenge for the Rhinoceross stealing the
Parsees cake.
3. Cause The Rhinoceros put on his skin after his
swim, and it itched and tickled him.
4. Effect The Rhinoceros rubbed his skin into
great folds over his shoulders and his
legs.
5. Cause The Rhinoceros went home very angry
and scratchy, with the cake crumbs inside
his skin.
L E S S O N 9
S o rt O u t L i k e n e sse s a n d D i ffe re n ce s
Page 34
Note: Most of the Venn diagram has been filled in as
a model for students.
1 4
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1 7
Dear Parent or Guardian:
In class, your child is working with a book called Reading Strategies for Literature. This
book shows your child how to use different ideas and strategies to understand stories,
novels, poems, and plays. These strategies will help your child to do well with homework
assignments, book reports, and tests that are based on literature. The strategies will also help
your child to enjoy reading for pleasure.
But there is one key strategy that your child cannot get out of a textbook. That strategy
is to READ, READ, and READ some more. In the Reading Strategies for Literature
lessons, your child is reading excerpts from stories. I hope these stories will encourage a love
of reading in your child. On the other side of this letter is a list of books that your child might
enjoy reading. Most of these are available at the public library. Many of them may also be
available at your school library.
Here are some ideas you can try at home to help your child develop a love of reading
good literature.
1. Ask to see the Reading Log that your child is filling out as he or she works
through Reading Strategies for Literature. Ask your child to tell you about
stories on the log that he or she enjoyed reading.
2. Establish 15 minutes of DEAR (Drop Everything And Read) Time every day.
This is time you can set aside for each individual to pick something of his or her
own choosing and spend time togetherjust reading.
3. Your child may still enjoy being read to. Many students enjoy hearing their
favorite young adult books read on audio tapes. Check out your local librarys
collection of books on tape.
4. Ask your child to read to you. You can also ask the child to elaborate on a story
by choosing a new ending or making up the next chapter. You might also suggest
to your child that he or she draw illustrations based on the story.
Happy reading,
_________________________________________
Curriculum Associates, Inc. Reading Strategies for Literature, Level 7
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1 8
Avi Nothing but the Truth
Brooks, Bruce The Moves Make the Man
Bruchac, Joseph Dawn Land
Cleaver, Vera and Bill Where the Lilies Bloom
Cross, Gillian The Great American Elephant Chase
Dahl, Roald Boy: Tales of Childhood
Dygard, Thomas J. The Rebounder
Fritz, Jean Homesick: My Own Story
Guy, Rosa The Friends
Herriot, James All Creatures Great and Small
Ho, Minfong The Clay Marble
Huynh, Quang Nhuong The Land I Lost
Jacques, Brian Redwall
Konigsburg, E.L. From the Mixed-Up Files of Mrs. Basil E. Frankweiler
Le Guin, Ursula K. A Wizard of Earthsea
Osborne, Mary Pope Favorite Greek Myths
Raskin, Ellen The Westing Game
Rawlings, Marjorie Kinnan The Yearling
Richter, Conrad The Light in the Forest
Rylant, Cynthia A Couple of Kooks
Soto, Gary Local News
Sutcliff, Rosemary Tristan and Iseult
Taylor, Mildred D. Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry
Twain, Mark The Adventures of Tom Sawyer
Voigt, Cynthia Diceys Song
Wilson, Budge The Dandelion Garden
S U G G E S T E D R E A D I N G L I S T
Curriculum Associates, Inc. Reading Strategies for Literature, Level 7
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1 9
Lesson 1
Paint a Picture
Yoshiko and the Snow Cranes
Lesson 2
Put Yourself in My Shoes
I, Earthling
Lesson 3
Make Good Guesses
Tails of the Bronx
Lesson 4
Become a Storyteller
Tell Me a Story: Thor
Lesson 5
Figure Out What Happens
The Fox and the Stork
Lesson 6
Use Good Judgment
Nathans Dilemma
Lesson 7
Put Things in Order
Alices Adventures in Wonderland
Lesson 8
Determine What Happens
and Why
How the Rhinoceros Got His Skin
Lesson 9
Sort Out Likenesses and Differences
Going Home
Lesson 10
Spin a Character Web
The Talking Earth
Lesson 11
Make a Story Map
The Gorgons Head
M Y R E A D I N G L O G
N A M E __________________________________________________
L e sso n a n d R e a d i n g S e le cti o n
H o w I R a te th e
R e a d i n g S e le cti o n
Wh a t I Wi ll R e m e m b e r
A b o u t th e R e a d i n g S e le cti o n
Curriculum Associates, Inc. Reading Strategies for Literature, Level 7
Great OK
Not
Good
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2 0
Curriculum Associates, Inc. Reading Strategies for Literature, Level 7
Lesson 1
Paint a Picture
Yoshiko and the Snow Cranes
Lesson 2
Put Yourself in My Shoes
I, Earthling
Lesson 3
Make Good Guesses
Tails of the Bronx
Lesson 4
Become a Storyteller
Tell Me a Story: Thor
Lesson 5
Figure Out What Happens
The Fox and the Stork
Lesson 6
Use Good Judgment
Nathans Dilemma
Lesson 7
Put Things in Order
Alices Adventures in Wonderland
Lesson 8
Determine What Happens
and Why
How the Rhinoceros Got His Skin
Lesson 9
Sort Out Likenesses and Differences
Going Home
Lesson 10
Spin a Character Web
The Talking Earth
Lesson 11
Make a Story Map
The Gorgons Head
L e sso n a n d R e a d i n g S e le cti o n
H o w I R a te Yo u r
Wo rk o n th e L e sso n
M y R e sp o n se to Yo u r
R e a d i n g L o g E n try
T E A C H E R R E S P O N S E L O G
S T U D E N T __________________________________________________
Great OK
Improvement
Needed
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
R e a d i n g
S tra te g i e s
fo r
L e v e l 8
C U R R I C U L U M A S S O C I AT E S

, I n c.
L i te ra tu re
F o r th e S tu d e n t
Do you like to play games or sports? To enjoy yourself and to be really good at
a game or a sport, you need to learn winning strategies. You learn strategies to
make the best of every situation. When you use a strategy, you know from the
beginning that you can do your best job.
You can also use strategies to get the most out of reading. The strategies that
you will learn in this book will help you enjoy reading stories, poems, and plays.
The strategies will give you the ideas that will help you to make the most of your
reading experiencesin school or just for fun.
Reading Strategies for Literature introduces many different kinds of strategies.
You can practice the strategies in the lessons, but most importantly, try them out
when you read a new story or book. Use the strategies on tests, book reports, or
just whenever you want to understand a story better.
Be sure to try the B e y o n d th e S to ry activities at the end of each lesson. These
will give you a chance to draw, discuss, act out, and write about different ideas.
Developed by: Learning Unlimited, Oak Park, Illinois
Writer: Duncan Searl
Editor: Mary MacEwen
Project Manager: Ellen Sternhell
Designer and Illustrator: Pat Lucas
ISBN 0-7609-0394-8
1998Curriculum Associates, Inc.
North Billerica, MA 01862
No part of this book may be reproduced by any means
without written permission from the publisher.
All Rights Reserved. Printed in USA.
15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
T a b le o f C o n te n ts
P a g e
L e sso n 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Strategy: Paint a Picture
Reading: The Cylinder Opens from The War of the Worlds by H. G. Wells
L e sso n 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Strategy: Put Yourself in My Shoes
Reading: Protecting Marieby Kevin Henkes
L e sso n 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Strategy: Make Good Guesses
Reading: The Legend of Sleepy Hollow by Washington Irving
L e sso n 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Strategy: Become a Storyteller
Reading: Friends by Shannon Jone
L e sso n 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Strategy: Figure Out What Happens
Reading: Wolf Pup by Jill Rubalcaba
L e sso n 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Strategy: Use Good Judgment
Reading: The Sword of Damocles retold by Connie Nordhielm Wooldridge
L e sso n 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Strategy: Put Things in Order
Reading: The First Lowering from Moby Dick by Herman Melville
L e sso n 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Strategy: Determine What Happens and Why
Reading: For the Love of a Man from The Call of the Wild by Jack London
L e sso n 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Strategy: Sort Out Likenesses and Differences
Reading: The Mouse Rap by Walter Dean Myers
L e sso n 1 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Strategy: Spin a Character Web
Reading: The Diving Bell by Todd Strasser
L e sso n 1 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Strategy: Make a Story Map
Reading: The Cliffs of Hyperborea by Teresa Bateman
5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
When something happens, you probably often ask, Why? As you try to
answer why, you are looking for the cause of what happened. Suppose you are
driving down the highway with your family, and the car suddenly lurches to
a stop. Why? you ask. You look at the gas gauge and the arrow is pointing
at E. You should have stopped at that last filling station! The car has stopped
running because the gas tank is empty. This is a ca u se -a n d -e ffe ct re la ti o n sh i p .
The empty tank is the ca u se . The stopped car is the e ffe ct, or result.
Wh e n o n e th i n g ca u se s a n o th e r th i n g to h a p p e n , th e p ro ce ss
i s ca lle d cause and effect. A ca u se i s a n e v e n t th a t m a k e s
so m e th i n g h a p p e n , a n d a n e ffe ct i s w h a t h a p p e n s.
5
Think about each situation below. On the lines, write a possible cause for
each effect that is given and a possible effect for each cause that is given.
You can look for causes and effects in stories that you read. You look for
these relationships to better understand what happens, the effect, and why it
happens, the cause.
L e sso n 8
555555
Strategy:
Determine
What
Happens
and Why
5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
3 0

C a u se
Wh y I t H a p p e n e d
E ffe ct
Wh a t H a p p e n e d
The batch of cookies burned
to a crisp in the oven.

A huge pyramid of soup cans


in the supermarket tumbled
down all over the floor.
The quart jar of pickles slipped
from the mans hands.

No one watered the plants


during the familys month-
long vacation trip.

3 1
5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
E x p lo ri n g th e S tra te g y
5
Authors sometimes use words such as because, that is why, and as a result as
clues to a cause-and-effect relationship. As you read the fable below, look
for clue words to help you recognize cause-and-effect relationships. When
there are no clue words, ask yourself, What happened? Why did it happen?
T h e B e lly a n d th e B o d y P a rts
L o n g , lo n g a g o th e d i ffe re n t p a rts o f th e b o d y d i d n t w o rk to g e th e r
a s a g re e a b ly a s th e y d o to d a y . I n p a rti cu la r, H e a d , A rm s, a n d L e g s h a d
a p ro b le m w i th B e lly . T h e y re se n te d th e fa ct th a t th e y w o rk e d h a rd
w h i le th e y sa w h i m d o n o th i n g b u t e n jo y h i s fo o d .
B e ca u se h e w a n te d to te a ch B e lly a le sso n , H e a d d e ci d e d n o t to
th i n k u p w a y s to fi n d fo o d .
A n d I m n o t w a lk i n g o v e r to a n y fo o d , sa i d L e g s.
A n d I m n o t p i ck i n g a n y u p , sa i d A rm s.
S o th e b o d y p a rts d i d n t g i v e B e lly a b i te to e a t fo r o v e r th re e
w e e k s. A s a re su lt, co n d i ti o n s b e g a n to d e te ri o ra te a ll o v e r th e b o d y .
H e a d fe lt d i zzy a ll th e ti m e . A rm s g o t so re s o n th e m a n d sh o o k , a n d
L e g s g o t to o sk i n n y a n d w e a k to w a lk .
C le a rly th e re w a s a p ro b le m , so th e b o d y p a rts ca lle d a m e e ti n g . A s
u se le ss a s B e lly se e m s, sa i d H e a d , h e m u st h a v e a p u rp o se .
F o r so m e re a so n , w e se e m to n e e d h i m a s m u ch a s h e n e e d s u s,
sa i d A rm s. L e g s h a d to a g re e . S o a ll th e b o d y p a rts d e ci d e d to w o rk
to g e th e r fo r th e co m m o n g o o d .
5
Use the events from the fable to complete the cause-and-effect chart below.
5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
C a u se
Wh y I t H a p p e n e d
E ffe ct
Wh a t H a p p e n e d
4.

3.
All the body parts decided
to work together for the
common good.
Head felt dizzy; Arms got
sores and shook; Legs got
skinny and weak.
2.
Head wanted to teach
Belly a lesson.
1.
Belly seemed to do nothing
but enjoy his food.
5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
S tu d y i n g th e S tra te g y
5
As you read this excerpt from a moving story about survival, think about
the cause-and-effect relationships. Look for clue words and phrases. Also
ask yourself, What happened? and Why did it happen?
or a long time after his rescue, Buck did not like Thornton to get out of
his sight. From the moment he left the tent to when he entered it again, Buck
would follow at his heels. His transient masters since he had come into the
Northland had bred in him a fear that no master could be permanent. He was
afraid that Thornton would pass out of his life as Perrault and Franois and the
Scotch half-breed had passed out. Even in the night, in his dreams, he was
haunted by this fear. At such times he would shake off sleep and creep through
the chill to the flap of the tent, where he would stand and listen to the sound
of his masters breathing.
But in spite of this great love he bore John Thornton, which seemed to
bespeak the soft civilizing influence, the strain of the primitive, which the
Northland had aroused in him, remained alive and active. Faithfulness and
devotion, things born of fire and roof, were his; yet he retained his wildness
and wiliness. He was a thing of the wild, come in from the wild to sit by John
Thorntons fire, rather than a dog of the soft Southland stamped with the marks
of generations of civilization. Because of his very great love, he could not steal
from this man but from any other man, in any other camp, he did not hesitate
an instant; while the cunning with which he stole enabled him to escape
detection.
His face and body were scored by
the teeth of many dogs, and he
fought as fiercely as ever and more
shrewdly. Skeet and Nig were too
good-natured for quarrelingbesides,
they belonged to John Thornton; but
the strange dog, no matter what the
breed or valor, swiftly acknowledged
Bucks supremacy or found himself
struggling for life with a terrible
antagonist. And Buck was merciless.
He had learned well the law of club
and fang, and he never forewent an
advantage or drew back from a foe
he had started on the way to Death.
He had lessoned from Spitz, and from
the chief fighting dogs of the police
and mail, and knew there was no
middle course. He must master or be
mastered; while to show mercy was a
3 2
F o r th e
L o v e o f a
M a n
from
The Call of
the Wild
by Jack London
Set during the Klondike Gold Rush
of 1897, The Call of the Wild tells the
adventures of Buck, a powerful sled
dog who turns wild after he is brutally
beaten and mistreated. Kidnapped
from a comfortable home in the
Southland and savagely abused, Buck
survives only by using his great
strength and intelligence. Buck has
several cruel masters before he is
rescued by the kindhearted prospector
John Thornton.
F
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weakness. Mercy did not exist in the primordial life. It was misunderstood for
fear, and such misunderstandings made for death. Kill or be killed, eat or be
eaten, was the law; and this mandate, down out of the depths of Time, he
obeyed.
U si n g th e S tra te g y
5
Show the cause-and-effect relationships in the selection you just read. On
the lines, write the effect for each cause or the cause for each effect. Check
the story when you arent sure of a cause or effect.
3 3
B e y o n d th e
S to ry
Wh a t h a p p e n s to B u ck
a n d to J o h n T h o rn to n ? I f
y o u h a v e n o t re a d The Call
of the Wild, lo ca te th e b o o k
a n d re a d i t. Yo u w i ll
d i sco v e r a p o w e rfu l sto ry
a n d u n d e rsta n d w h y i t i s
co n si d e re d a cla ssi c. Wh e th e r
o r n o t y o u re a d The Call of the
Wild, w ri te a sh o rt fi cti o n a l
a cco u n t o f a re la ti o n sh i p
b e tw e e n a n a n i m a l a n d a
h u m a n . U se ca u se -a n d -e ffe ct
to e x p la i n th e re la ti o n sh i p .
S h a re y o u r a cco u n t w i th
cla ssm a te s.

C a u se
Wh y I t H a p p e n e d
E ffe ct
Wh a t H a p p e n e d

5.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Buck was afraid his master,
John Thornton, would not be
permanent.
Buck never showed any mercy
when fighting, lest it be
mistaken for fear.
Bucks body was scored by the
teeth of many dogs.
Buck would readily steal from
other men in the camp.
Buck had great love for the
man John Thornton.
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R e a d i n g
S tra te g i e s
fo r
L e v e l 8
C U R R I C U L U M A S S O C I AT E S

, I n c.
L i te ra tu re
Teacher
Guide
T a b le o f C o n te n ts
Page
I n tro d u cti o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Using Strategies to Read Literature
How to Use This Program
L e sso n N o te s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Lessons 111
A n sw e r K e y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Lessons 111
T a k e -H o m e L e tte r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Letter to Parents or Guardians
Suggested Reading List
E v a lu a ti o n T o o ls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Student Reading Log
Teacher Response Log
Class Reading Record
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2
I N T R O D U C T I O N
Using Strategies to Read Literature
One of the most powerful aspects of the whole
language approach is the exposure of students to
high-quality, authentic literature. The proliferation
of quality literature is a rich resource for teachers
and parents alike.
This growth in the popularity of authentic literature
has been accompanied by efforts to help
students develop the cognitive strategies essential to
applying critical-thinking skills to the stories,
poems, and plays that they read.
Reading Strategies for Literature presents
students with eleven key strategies that they can use
whenever they read literature, whether for school
assignments or for pleasure reading.
The first six strategies consist of metacognitive
approaches which encourage children to think
about their own thought processes. These
strategies give students the tools to help them
become strong, independent critical thinkers.
The last five strategies are based on graphic
organizers. Students can use these visual tools to
organize what they read in a way that makes
sense to them. Graphic organizers are beneficial,
not only for developing reading and thinking
skills, but also for organizing ideas for writing.
How to Use This Program
The Reading Strategies for Literature program
consists of a student book and a teacher guide for
levels 28.
Each of the eleven student book lessons has five
main components:
Introduction of the strategy in an everyday,
familiar context; accompanied by a definition
Guided practice with the strategy
A high-interest selection taken from quality
childrens literature
An exercise to apply the skill to the literature
selection
A Beyond the Story extension of the strategy
or the theme of the story through writing,
discussion, role-playing, or art activities
In addition, this teacher guide provides you with
lesson notes to help you introduce each strategy
and extend it with a variety of activities not found
in the student book.
an answer key to check students work.
reproducible masters of a letter that introduces
at-home reading activities to parents and
guardians and provides a suggested reading list
of high-interest, high-quality childrens books.
reproducible masters for student self-evaluation,
teacher feedback, and classroom management.
In My Reading Log, students evaluate the
reading selections.
In the Teacher Response Log, teachers evaluate
student work and respond to Reading Log entries.
The Class Record helps teachers to keep track of
student work on a lesson-by-lesson basis.
The readings and the activities in this program
will help stimulate your students critical-thinking
skills and their love for reading good stories.
1. Have students suggest how a well-known
character in a novel or story might have acted
differently and thus have shown better judgment.
2. Ask students to name a major figure in our
nations history and judge whether this person
acted in a way that was right, fair, and smart.
3. Encourage interested students to hold a group
discussion about how people acquire good
judgment.
L E S S O N 7
S tra te g y : P u t T h i n g s i n O rd e r
About the Strategy
In this lesson, students will learn to recognize a
sequence of events and to organize that information
on a chart.
Students will learn how recognizing the chain of
events will help them better understand the story.
Introducing the Strategy
1. Write a sentence such as the following on the
board: The worst hurricane in 25 years hit town
yesterday. Suggest to students that this is the first
sentence in a paragraph. Ask them to use their
imagination to complete the paragraph by
creating a sequence, or series, of three events that
might follow from this sentence.
2. Write the numeral 1 next to the first sentence and
the numerals 2, 3, and 4 in order below it. Then
write one volunteers suggested sentences after
the numbers. Point out that the sentences are like
a chain, each leading to the next.
Here is an example:
1. The worst hurricane in 25 years hit town
yesterday.
2. High winds toppled trees and blew down
utility wires.
3. Soon even emergency vehicles could not make
their way through the wreckage-strewn streets.
4. Eventually, the governor called in the National
Guard to help restore order.
3. Invite volunteers to recount chains of events from
their personal experiences. Have them explain
how each event led to the next.
Tell students that noticing and remembering the
order, or sequence, of events in a story will help
them understand the story better. Explain that
they will practice this strategy in Lesson 7.
Extending the Strategy
The Beyond the Story activity asks students to
create a sequence chart and use it to explain how to
accomplish a particular task.
The following are other ideas you can use to
extend the strategy.
1. Suggest that students prepare a sequence chart for
the major events in a story or novel they have
recently completed.
2. Ask students to prepare a sequence chart that
shows the steps for how to teach a child
something, such as how to tie shoes or throw a
ball. Later, partners can exchange charts and try
out each others steps.
3. Have students use a sequence chart to analyze
a complicated current event or historical
development. The chart can show the date or time
of each aspect of the event.
L E S S O N 8
S tra te g y : D e te rm i n e Wh a t H a p p e n s
a n d Wh y
About the Strategy
In this lesson, students will learn to recognize
cause and effect. The cause is a condition or event
that makes something happen; the effect is what
happened.
Students will learn that recognizing cause-and-
effect relationships will help them better understand
story events.
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7
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Introducing the Strategy
1. Write the following sentence starters on the board
and ask students to complete each in several
ways:
Since I did not feel well, __________________
Because our family was moving out of state,
______________________________________
As a result of studying so hard, ____________
The following examples show how these sentences
might be completed:
Since I did not feel well, I stayed home.
Because our family was moving out of state,
I didnt try out for the baseball team.
As a result of studying so hard, I got an A on
the test.
Lead students to realize that the sentence starters
are causeswhy something happenedand the
students suggestions are effectswhat happened.
2. Ask students to suggest some everyday cause-and-
effect relationships that occur in and around the
school. Write their responses on the board under the
headings What Happens and Why It Happens.
Tell students that understanding cause and effect
in the stories they read will lead to a more
complete understanding of the story. Explain that
they will practice this strategy in Lesson 8.
Extending the Strategy
The Beyond the Story activity asks students to
write an account that explains something about
animal behavior.
Here are some other ideas you can use to extend
the strategy.
1. While we are all familiar with the effects of
natural disasters, such as earthquakes, tornadoes,
and floods; the causes of these events are less
well known. Encourage students to write a
science essay that explains the causes and effects
of one type of natural disaster.
2. Invite students to choose a serious problem
facing the country today, such as homelessness or
violence. In chart form, ask them to list the main
causes of the problem as well as some of its
short-term and long-term effects.
3. Ask students to list clue words, such as since,
because, due to, and therefore, that signal cause-
and-effect relationships. Then ask them to circle
these words in a newspaper or magazine article
and decide whether they signal a cause-and-
effect relationship. Have students identify the
relationships and tell which is the cause and
which is the effect.
L E S S O N 9
S tra te g y : S o rt O u t L i k e n e sse s a n d
D i ffe re n ce s
About the Strategy
In this lesson, students will compare two or
more items or events to determine likenesses. They
will also contrast two or more items or events
to determine differences. Students will also identify
words and phrases that signal comparisons. In
addition, they will use Venn diagrams to compare
and contrast.
Students will learn how noting similarities and
differences will help them better understand what
they read.
Introducing the Strategy
1. Have students compare a store they like shopping
in with one they rarely patronize. Do they like the
merchandise or displays better in one store than
another? Which has more helpful clerks or better
prices? How does either cater to the interests
of young people? Ask students to point out
similarities and differences between the two stores.
2. Ask volunteers to suggest three ways in which
these pairs of objects are similar:
a watermelon and a cantaloupe
a dictionary and a comic book
a human hand and a human foot
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Event 6
The whaleonly grazed by the harpoonescapes
while the sailors swim around, pick up the floating
oars, and climb back into their swamped boat.
L E S S O N 8
D e te rm i n e Wh a t H a p p e n s a n d Wh y
Page 30
Note: Some causes and effects have been filled in as
models for students.
Cause Someone forgot to set the oven timer.
(Accept all other reasonable answers.)
Cause Someone pulled out a can from the
bottom row. (Accept all other reasonable
answers.)
Effect Glass, pickles, and pickle juice sprayed
out everywhere. (Accept all other
reasonable answers.)
Effect When the family returned, the houseplants
were brown and dead. (Accept all
other reasonable answers.)
Page 31
Note: Some causes and effects have been filled in to
guide students.
1. Effect Head, Arms, and Legs thought Belly was
lazy.
2. Effect Head refused to think of ways to find
food.
3. Cause The body parts didnt give Belly any
food.
4. Cause Head, Arms, and Legs decide Belly must
have some purpose after all.
Page 33
Note: Some causes and effects have been filled in to
guide students.
1. Effect Buck followed Thornton everywhere and
did not like to let him out of his sight.
2. Effect Buck would not steal from Thornton.
3. Cause Buck had no love for other men in the
same camp or any other camp.
4. Cause Buck had fought fiercely and readily
with many dogs.
5. Effect For Buck, every fight was a fight to the
death.
L E S S O N 9
S o rt O u t L i k e n e sse s a n d D i ffe re n ce s
Page 34
Note: Most of the Venn diagram has been filled in as
a model for students.
Both
fingerboards and frets; strummed with the fingers
Page 35
McNally House
side door unlocked; smaller kitchen table; armor in
hall; smelled of cigars; thicker carpet; double bed
Both
side door; kitchen table by window; stairs had six
steps, a landing, and four more steps; bedroom door
and window in same place
Fuller House
side door locked; larger kitchen table; rubber tree in
hall; smelled of air freshener; thinner carpet; bunk
beds
Page 37
Styx
six foot three inches; doesnt love basketball; into
art, photography, music, chess
Both
fourteen years old; excellent basketball players;
wonders in their own way; play basketball in the
neighborhood
Mouse
five foot three and three-quarter inches tall; loves
basketball; claims he is better-looking and more
charming
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Dear Parent or Guardian:
In class, your child is working with a book called Reading Strategies for Literature. This
book shows students how to use different ideas and strategies to understand stories,
novels, poems, and plays. These strategies help students to do well with homework
assignments, book reports, and tests that are based on literature. The strategies will also help
your child to enjoy reading for pleasure.
But there is one key strategy that your child cannot get out of a textbook. That strategy
is to READ, READ, and READ some more. In the Reading Strategies for Literature
lessons, students are reading excerpts from stories. I hope these stories will encourage a love
of reading in your child. On the other side of this letter is a list of books that your child might
enjoy reading. Most of these are available at the public library. Many of them may also be
available at your school library.
Here are some ideas you can try at home to help your child develop a love of reading
good literature.
1. Ask to see the Reading Log that your child is filling out as he or she works
through Reading Strategies for Literature. Ask your child to tell you about
stories on the log that he or she enjoyed reading.
2. Establish 15 minutes of family reading time every day. This is time you can set
aside for each individual to pick something of his or her own choosing and spend
time togetherjust reading.
3. Your child may still enjoy being read to. Many students enjoy hearing
their favorite young adult books read on audio tapes. Check your local librarys
collection of books on tape.
4. Ask your child to read to you. You can also ask him or her to elaborate on a story
by choosing a new ending or making up the next chapter.
Happy reading,
_________________________________________
Curriculum Associates, Inc. Reading Strategies for Literature, Level 8
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1 8
Angelou, Maya I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings
Brooks, Gwendolyn Maud Martha
Cleaver, Vera and Bill Where the Lilies Bloom
Frank, Anne Diary of a Young Girl
Galarza, Ernesto Barrio Boy
Hamilton, Virginia The People Could Fly
Hemingway, Ernest The Old Man and the Sea
Hobbs, Will Bearstone
Keyes, Daniel Flowers for Algernon
Lipsyte, Robbert The Contender
Little, Jean Little by Little: A Writers Education
Lord, Walter A Night to Remember
Myers, Walter Dean Scorpions
ODell, Scott Sarah Bishop
Petry, Ann Harriet Tubman: Conductor on the Underground Railroad
Rawlings, Marjorie K. The Yearling
Roosevelt, Eleanor This I Remember
Rylant, Cynthia But Ill Be Back Again
Soto, Gary Baseball in April and Other Stories
Speare, Elizabeth G. The Witch of Blackbird Pond
Steinbeck, John The Pearl, The Red Pony
Uchida, Yoshiko The Invisible Thread
Voigt, Cynthia Homecoming
Yolen, Jane The Dragons Boy
S U G G E S T E D R E A D I N G L I S T
Curriculum Associates, Inc. Reading Strategies for Literature, Level 8
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1 9
Lesson 1
Paint a Picture
The Cylinder Opens
from The War of the Worlds
Lesson 2
Put Yourself in My Shoes
Protecting Marie
Lesson 3
Make Good Guesses
The Legend of Sleepy Hollow
Lesson 4
Become a Storyteller
Friends
Lesson 5
Figure Out What Happens
Wolf Pup
Lesson 6
Use Good Judgment
The Sword of Damocles
Lesson 7
Put Things in Order
The First Lowering
from Moby Dick
Lesson 8
Determine What Happens
and Why
For the Love of a Man
from The Call of the Wild
Lesson 9
Sort Out Likenesses and Differences
The Mouse Rap
Lesson 10
Spin a Character Web
The Diving Bell
Lesson 11
Make a Story Map
The Cliffs of Hyperborea
M Y R E A D I N G L O G
N A M E __________________________________________________
L e sso n a n d R e a d i n g S e le cti o n
H o w I R a te th e
R e a d i n g S e le cti o n
Wh a t I Wi ll R e m e m b e r
A b o u t th e R e a d i n g S e le cti o n
Curriculum Associates, Inc. Reading Strategies for Literature, Level 8
Great OK
Not
Good
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2 0
Curriculum Associates, Inc. Reading Strategies for Literature, Level 8
T E A C H E R R E S P O N S E L O G
S T U D E N T __________________________________________________
Lesson 1
Paint a Picture
The Cylinder Opens
from The War of the Worlds
Lesson 2
Put Yourself in My Shoes
Protecting Marie
Lesson 3
Make Good Guesses
The Legend of Sleepy Hollow
Lesson 4
Become a Storyteller
Friends
Lesson 5
Figure Out What Happens
Wolf Pup
Lesson 6
Use Good Judgment
The Sword of Damocles
Lesson 7
Put Things in Order
The First Lowering
from Moby Dick
Lesson 8
Determine What Happens
and Why
For the Love of a Man
from The Call of the Wild
Lesson 9
Sort Out Likenesses and Differences
The Mouse Rap
Lesson 10
Spin a Character Web
The Diving Bell
Lesson 11
Make a Story Map
The Cliffs of Hyperborea
L e sso n a n d R e a d i n g S e le cti o n
H o w I R a te Yo u r Wo rk
o n th e L e sso n
M y R e sp o n se to Yo u r
R e a d i n g L o g E n try
Great OK
Improvement
Needed