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Attachement # 03 to General Specification Vol.

2 of Tender Contract Documents related



1
Attachement # 03 to General Specification Vol. 2 of
Tender Contract Documents related
SOFT LANDSCAPE
PART 1 GENERAL

1.01 SCOPE

A. This Section of the Specification for Landscape Works includes the
maintenance of all planted areas for the project after the Final Handing Over.
This includes:

1 The supply, installation and replacements of specified planting material
(plants), planting soil, supply and use of fertilisers, plant protection chemicals,
additives.

2 The supply, installation and replacement of associated ancillary horticultural
proprietary items.

3 All maintenance works for the upkeep of healthy plants including palms,
trees, shrubs, ground covers, accent plants, succulents, cacti, climbing
ornamentals, lawn grasses etc. in the project.

4 Maintenance of a clean and healthy surroundings and environment.

5 Maintenance of safety of working personnel

6 Any related additional works required by the Engineer during the maintenance
period.

7 This Section shall be read in conjunction with all other relevant Sections of the
Specification including Irrigation and Hard Landscape Manuals.






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1.02 STANDARDS

A All activities relating to this Section of the Specification shall comply with the
following international standards, unless noted otherwise in this Specification.

BS 3936 - 1: 1992 Nursery stock Specifications for trees and shrubs
BS 3936 - 7: 1989 Nursery stock Specification for bedding plants
BS 3936 - 9: 1998 Nursery stock Specification for bulbs, corms & tubers
BS 3936 -10:1990 Nursery stock Specification for Ground Cover plants
BS 3998:1989 Recommendations for tree work
BS 4043:1989 Transplanting root-balled trees
BS 4428:1989 Code for general landscape operations
ISO 9000 Quality management systems


1.03 DEFINITIONS

A Refer to the definitions in the General Conditions of Contract for Civil Works
Contracts. The definitions apply to this general Specification for Landscape
Works. Also:

1.04 QUALITY CONTROL

A General

1 Under no circumstances shall the Contractor perform any work not confirming
to specifications or as instructed by the Engineer. The Contractor shall follow
only those works approved by the Engineer.

B Qualified Personnel

1 Perform work only with personnel experienced in the work required of this
Section under direction of a skilled foreman.

C Substitutions:

1 When plants of the specified species are not available, substitution may be
made only with the written approval of the Engineer.
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2 The Contractor will not be allowed to use different techniques or quality
criteria without Engineers approval.

3 No plant materials, planting soil or other materials specified for the project
shall be accepted installed or planted without the Engineers approval.

D Hold & Witness points

1 Do not proceed to complete further works until the following has been
inspected and approved in writing by the Engineer or approved representative.

(a) Submission of works construction programme.
(b) Monthly progress reports.
(c) Approval of all samples & materials.
(d) Evidence of plant material availability.
(e) Plant importation program.
(f) Excavated landscape areas.
(g) Filled, compacted and graded sweet soil fill to landscape areas prior to
mixing of amendments.
(h) Setting out of planting areas and pits prior to excavation.
(i) Excavated pits and percolation tests prior to planting.
(j) All Plant stock approved in the nursery prior to transportation.
(k) All Plant stock approved at the site prior to planting.
(l) Staking, guying and tying of Shrubs, Trees and Palms.
(m) Irrigation dipper lines working and tensioned and aligned correctly
prior to shrub and Ground cover planting.
(n) Excavation of ornamental stone/mulch areas prior to laying geo-textile
and any edging or placing stone.
(o) Any Irrigation approvals
(p) Detailed Maintenance Manual.
(q) As Built drawings prior to PAC.

2 Do not proceed to complete further works until the following has been
inspected and approved in writing by the Engineer or approved representative
for maintenance work.

(a) Endorsed or modified maintenance manuals
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(b) Endorsed As Built drawings from Construction Contractor.
(c) Monthly maintenance schedules.
(d) Monthly maintenance records sheets.
(e) Weekly maintenance schedules.
(f) Weekly maintenance records sheets.

3 The contractor shall notify the Engineer 48 hours prior to the inspection of the
above. Such notification shall be given by a written inspection request (in a
format acceptable to the Engineer) each and every time various areas of the
work are to be carried out or covered up so as to prevent subsequent
inspection.

4 These activities shall be identified as hold points in the Contractors program
and inspection and test plans.

5 If the Contractor does not notify the Engineer in sufficient time to allow for
his inspection prior to covering up or completing installations governed by a
hold point, the Contractor shall remove all such materials/equipment as
deemed necessary by the Engineer to verify compliance of the work.

6 Any delays, additional work or additional costs attributed to the above shall be
at the Contractors expense.

PART 2 NEW INSTALLATIONS

2.01 SCOPE

This section relates to installation of new items and construction or
components according to the changes made in the landscape. New works will
form an extension or variation to the maintenance contract and will be dealt
with in accordance to regulations for installation of new items. The operation
and maintenance contractor is not necessarily the selected Contractor for
installing new items.








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2.02 SUBMITTALS

A General

1 Submit samples of the following for the Engineers approval in accordance
with Section 01000 General Submittals, in the General Specification for
Civil Works (GSCW). Provide two sets of the following:

(a) Agricultural soil (Prior to amending): 1 Kg. along with soil analysis
report
(b) Planting medium (after amendment); 1 Kg of each specified with
analysis report.
(c) Fertilisers, manures & other additives; Manufacturers documentation.
(d) Irrigation water if not used from municipal or previously known source
with water analysis report.
(e) Natural stones/Drainage stone: 0.25 cubic metres.
(f) Geo textile fabric & other drainage materials: 1 square meter.
(g) Staking & Guying materials and methods: As per project requirements.
(h) Samples of all plants to be used in this contract prior to delivery:
Arrange nursery visits as necessary, with majority stock in one
location.

B Shop Drawings as Built Drawings

1 Additional works or modifications during Maintenance require design
drawings with details called shop drawings. These drawings shall comply with
the International Standard EN ISO 11091: 1999 Construction Drawings
Landscape Drawing Practice and its Annexure B.

2 The contractor shall maintain one set of As Built drawings. All approved
changes and all completed and approved work shall be recorded on these
drawings. The contractor shall maintain this on a daily basis. At the time of
substantial completion the contractor shall submit to the Engineer the complete
As Built set of drawings for approval and final approved set shall be
submitted within 14 days of final hand over.

3 Once the drawings have been approved the contractor shall prepare and submit
(within 5-days) 3nos. sets of fully book bound drawings and 1nos. soft PDF
copy on CD with scanned literature.

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C Manuals

1 The contractor shall obtain, if available, from the Engineer one set of
Maintenance Manuals which were submitted by the construction
contractor(s) to WRM at their final handing over. The Manual(s) shall have 3
parts:

1. - Soft Landscape Maintenance.
2. - Irrigation System Operation and Maintenance.
3. - Hard Landscape Maintenance.

Note: This may vary depending on the project scope of works.

2 The Maintenance Manuals shall then be collated and modified by the
maintenance contractor into one manual to suit his scope of work. I.e. some
areas or tasks may not be included or the maintenance contact may cover
several areas. The new Maintenance manual shall be submitted to the engineer
within 14-days after receiving the original manuals.

3 The final contents of the new Maintenance Manual shall be approved with the
Engineer.

4 Once the manuals are approved the contractor shall prepare and submit (within
5-days) 3nos. sets of fully book bound manuals with original manufacturers
technical catalogues, literature etc. and 1nos. Soft PDF copy on CD with
scanned literature.

5 14-days prior to final completion handing over of the Maintenance Contract
the above documents shall be again updated and submitted again as outlined
above.

D Manufacturer's Literature

1 Manufacturer's literature and labels for the following materials shall be
submitted prior to use or installation:

(a) Fertiliser
(b) Pesticides and all plant protection chemicals
(c) Compost and Manure
(d) Any other specific products not listed above.
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2 The above information shall be maintained by the Contractor and available to
the Engineer and Client at short notice.


E Test Reports

1 Tests shall be based on a representative sample of material to be used.

2 Submit Test reports to the Engineer before sample submittals.

3 Do not use materials until reviewed by the Engineer.

4 Material used in construction shall be the same as that reviewed in testing.

5 An authorised testing laboratory accepted by the Engineer shall perform the
testing and all costs for this work shall be at the expense of the Contractor.

6 The following test reports shall be submitted:

(a) Manufacturers certified analysis of all standard products, including
fertilisers and manures.
(b) Certificates confirming the origin, size of all standard products,
including fertilisers and manures.
(c) Health certificates for all imported plant material.


7 The following information is required for each of below.

(a) Agricultural soil.

1. pH value:
2. Electrical conductivity:
3. Free carbonates:
4. Chlorides:
5. Sulphates:
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6. Exchangeable sodium:
7. Boron:
8. Sodium
9. Magnesium
10. Sieve analysis.
11. Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR)

(b) For planting medium (after amendment)

1. pH.
2. Electrical Conductivity (EC)

(c) Irrigation water

1. Electrical Conductivity (EC)
2. pH
3. Chlorides (Cl)
4. Nitrate (NO
3
)
5. Bicarbonate (HCO
3
)
6. Sulphates (SO
4
)
7. Calcium (Ca)
8. Sodium (Na)
9. Magnesium (Mg)
10. Potassium (K)
11. Boron (B)

Note: If municipal supply water or other known source of irrigation water is
not used, test certificate must be produced along with submittal of sample.


F Certificates of Inspection:

1 Certificates of inspection shall accompany the invoice for each shipment of
plants as may be required by law for transportation.

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2 File certificates are to be transferred to the Engineer prior to acceptance of the
material.

G Approvals of materials

1 It is conditional to the contract that written approval must be obtained for all
products and materials prior to use in the works. Approval of products or
materials does not in any way relieve the contractor of his full responsibilities
under the Contract.

2 The Contractor is to carry out all tests directed by the Engineer to ensure that
the materials and workmanship are in accordance with the specified Standards
and Codes of Practice mentioned in the document.


2.03 WARRANTY

A Provide 12-month warranty from any alteration works from the Date of
Substantial Completion (PAC) under provisions of General Conditions of
Contract.

B All plant materials furnished under this section shall be guaranteed as to the
species, hybrid, flower colour, and/or variety specified herein or on the
Drawings. If any guaranteed plant material proves to be of a different species,
hybrid, flower colour and /or variety not initially determinable, the Contractor
shall replace that plant with a new plant of the originally specified species,
hybrid, flower colour and/or variety

C The Contractor shall replace all plants found in an unhealthy growing
condition during the Maintenance Period.

D Replacements shall be with new healthy plant(s) of same species /variety/
hybrid/ flower colour and size at the time of replacement.


2.04 COMPLIANCES

1 Comply with safety standards and governing regulations for cleaning
operations. Do not burn waste materials at site, or bury debris or excess
materials on site, or discharge volatile or other harmful dangerous materials
into irrigation or drainage systems; remove waste materials from site on a day-
to-day basis and dispose of in a lawful manner.
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PART 3 MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS

3.01 AGRICULTURAL SOILS

A Composition

1 Soil shall be sweet sand or marine washed sand free of calcium carbonate,
subsoil, refuse, roots, noxious weeds, phytotoxic materials, rocks, sticks,
brush, litter, construction debris or any other deleterious materials. The soil
shall be approved by the Engineer before its use. It shall be free draining, non-
toxic and capable of sustaining healthy plant growth. It should have good
water holding capacity and minimal runoff or erosion characteristics.

B Chemical Criteria

1 The agricultural soil shall comply with the following:

pH value: not less than 6.5 or not more than 8
Electrical conductivity: less than 2500 micromhos /cm
(2.5 dS / m) saturated extract at 25C
Free carbonates: less than 0.5% air dried
Chlorides: less than 200 ppm in saturated extract
Sulphates: less than 200 ppm in saturated extract
Exchangeable sodium: less than 15% in neutral
normal ammonium acetate
Boron: less than 1.5 ppm, hot water soluble
Sodium less than 250 ppm
Magnesium less than 100 ppm
Nitrates less than 75 ppm








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C Grading Criteria

Sieve Size (mm) % by Mass Passing
5.000
2.380
1.180
0.600
0.300
0.150
0.075
100
65 to 100
45 to 100
35 to 80
5 to 48
0 to 15
0 to 3

D Soil Samples

1 At least 7 days before schedule use, the Contractor shall submit in writing to
the Engineer the proposed source or sources of agricultural soil (sweet sand)
for approval. The Contractor shall ensure that representative samples of sweet
sand are taken from each source for testing purposes. Each sample shall be
tested and analysed by a qualified agricultural Soil testing laboratory, and the
results submitted in writing to the Engineer. All testing procedures for
agricultural soil shall be deemed to be included in the Contractors rates. Use
of soil shall be permitted only after approval of the Engineer.

E Storage

1 Soil shall be stored in heaps no greater than one and a half meters high. Soil
heaps shall be protected from undue compaction and no construction or waste
materials shall be stored on or mixed with the soil. Soil heaps not intended for
immediate use must be kept covered to prevent wind drifts and other public
nuisance.






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3.02 COMPOST & ORGANIC MANURE
A. Compost and organic manure should conform to following standards

B. Compost and manure of cattle, sheep, chicken etc. shall be from an approved
company. It shall be pasteurized and free from weed and disease. It shall be
composted fully so that it may be used in direct contact with plant roots, at the
quantities specified, without harmful effects to the root system or the plants
overall health and appearance. It must be free from any viable seed that may
germinate at a later stage. The particle size and moisture content of compost
should be ideal for easy mixing with soil.

C Organic manure in the form of fishmeal that is premixed with a suitable
Nitrogen fixing and Phosphate dissolving micro organism based product. The
micro-organism -based product has to be mixed well with fishmeal at the rate
of one litre per 50 kg. of fishmeal. This mixture has to be thoroughly
incorporated to soil or planting medium.

3.03 FERTILISER
A Fertiliser shall be organic, slow release compound fertiliser equivalent to NPK
8-8-16 for palms or 16-8-8 for other plants. In addition to NPK elements, it
should also contain minimum 25% sulphur, 2% MgO and 1.5% trace elements.

B Fertiliser shall be furnished in standard containers with the name, weight and
guaranteed analysis of the contents clearly marked. Production and expiry
dates must be clearly printed on the fertiliser bags.

C When a mixed fertiliser is specified, the first number shall represent the
minimum percentage of soluble nitrogen, the second number shall represent
the minimum percentage of available phosphoric acid and the third number
shall represent the minimum percentage of water soluble potash.

D Kind and quantity of application of manures and fertilisers are subjected to
changes in different projects and it must be followed as approved by the
Engineer.

3.03 STANDARDS FOR ORGANIC FERTILISERS & CONDITIONERS
A Fertilisers of various categories for use in landscape projects must conform to
the following Standards and specifications.
B Slow release organic fertilisers (Non-biological) should conform to following
specifications

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1. The fertiliser should be heat treated and fermented.
2. The organic matter content should not be less than 40%.
3. Moisture content should not exceed 25%.
4. EC should not exceed 10 millimhos / Cm in an extract from 1:5.
5. The pH should not exceed 7.5 in an extract of 1:5.
6. The C/N ratio should not exceed 20:1.
7. The Sodium chloride (NaCl) percentage should not exceed 2% and
soluble sodium should not be more than 0.8%.
8. It should be free of soil, sand and other impurities.
9. It should be free from harmful weed seeds, disease causing pathogens,
nematodes, insect pests etc.

C In addition to above, based on recommendations of the Engineer (wherever
needed) other soil additives are to be used. Those products should conform to
specifications provided herewith.

D Fish/ Bone/ Sea Weed/ Blood Based Fertilisers

1 The content of Organic matter and plant nutrient elements of this fertiliser
should not be less than 50%. Primary and secondary elements as percentages
and trace elements as ppm should be indicated on the packing.

E Biological Organic Fertilisers with beneficial micro- organisms

1 The specification should comply to those of Non-biological organic fertilisers
mentioned above with an exception /addition of the following.

(a) The moisture content should not exceed 30%
(b) Names of biological microbes added in the fertiliser must be indicated
in the Certificate of Analysis.
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F Liquid Organic Fertilisers

1 In cases where the below mentioned liquid organic fertilisers are to be used,
the following aspects should be considered.

G Sea Weed / Fish / Bone/ Blood Based Fertilisers

1 The content of organic matter and plant nutrient elements should not be less
than 25% (from fresh weigh or total volume- W / W or W / V-).

(a) Fertilisers of which the main contents are humic or fulvic acid:

The percentage of both Humic and Fulvic acid should not be less than
12%.

(b) Fertilisers which contain organic matter + humic or fulvic acid + NPK:

The percentage of all these contents together should not be less than
50% (from fresh weigh or total volume- W/W or W/V-).

(c) Soil Conditioners

Wherever Soil Conditioners are recommended for use it should
conform to the following specifications.

1. Organic Conditioners

Organic conditioners like Peat moss and Coco Peat must conform to
the following standards.

a Peat Moss
It should be free from natural soils & sands
The percentage of Organic matter should not be less than
95%
Should be free of diseases, animal or plant pests especially
nematodes
The EC should not exceed 3 milli mohs / Cm in an extract
of 1:5
The pH should not exceed 4 in an extract of 1:5
Sodium chloride should not exceed 0.2%
The moisture content should not exceed 60 %

b Coco Peat (Coconut coir peat)
It should be free from natural soils, sands and other plant
parts
The percentage of Organic matter should not be less than
85%
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Should be free of diseases, animal or plant pests especially
nematodes
The EC should not exceed 3 mille mohs/Cm in an extract of
1:5
The pH should be between 5 and 7.5 in an extract of 1:5
Sodium chloride should not exceed 0.2%
The moisture content should not exceed 60 %
2. Non Organic Conditioners

The product should be supplied in tightly packed bags or containers
with proper labelling. The technical leaflet of product should contain:

Chemical name
Effective material and proportion
Application methods for achieving best result as well as its
impact on soil and the type of soil it suits.

Products should be with following specifications:
a Agricultural Gypsum
The Calcium Sulphate should not be less than
80%.
Sodium Chloride should not exceed 3%.

b Agricultural Sulphur
The percentage of Sulphur element should not be
less than 8.5%.

c Polymers
The water holding capacity should be clearly
indicated.

d Bentonite
Sodium chloride should not exceed 2%.

e Perlite
Saturation Capacity should not be less than
300%.
PH should not exceed 7.5.
It should be odourless, free of any disease or pest
organism.

3.04 STANDARDS OF NON - ORGANIC FERTILISERS
A Fertilisers of pure chemical nature must conform to the product specifications
and label details. Packing should clearly mention the brand name, nutrient
content in percentages and any other additives present. Products must be
packed in such a way that it doesnt contaminate environment and should
avoid any spillage. For granular fertilisers it must be of uniform granular size
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for easy spreading. It must be without any moisture contamination and free of
caking and impurities. For liquid chemical fertiliser, it must be clear liquids
without crystallisation and settlements. For suspension fertiliser, particles must
easily dissolve when diluted. An ISO certified companys product must be
used in all projects. Those chemical fertilisers approved by the Engineer only
must be used according to project needs.

3.05 IRRIGATION WATER

A Irrigation water should be from a known source and it shall conform to the
following standards of which the an ions and shall be within the below
mentioned levels.

Anions:
1. Chlorides (Cl) - 200 ppm
2. Bicarbonate (HCO
3
) - 115 ppm
3. Sulphates (SO
4
) - 390 ppm
4. Nitrate (NO
3
) - 10 ppm
Cat-ions:
1. Calcium (Ca) - 120 ppm
2. Sodium (Na) - 130 ppm
3. Magnesium (Mg) - 45 ppm
4. Potassium (K) - 18 ppm
5. Boron (B) - 2 ppm

B In cases where any leaching of salts is required, water used shall be less than 1
millimhos / Cm at 25
0
C.


3.06 PLANTING MEDIUM
A An ideal planting medium must provide a condition in which the root system
of the new plant can resume easy growth and develop new root hairs to absorb
water and nutrients. It should have the following qualities:

1. Loamy texture
2. Good drainage
3. Suitable pH
4. Balanced nutrients
5. Low salinity level

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B These conditions should be attained by carefully blending ingredients such as
agricultural soil, organic manure, compost and fertilisers. The pH of the
amended planting medium should be within the range of a pH value 6.5 to 7.5
and the contractor has to do necessary treatments and amendments to bring the
pH to required level in case it differs. Wherever there is a need to retain
excessive moisture under very dry conditions peat moss or other soil
conditioners shall be added as approved by the Engineer.

C Planting medium shall consist of a homogeneous mixture of soil, compost and
fertilisers as specified, and in the following proportions:

D Organic Manure / Compost shall be provided at the following rates:

Location Rate
Palm pit
Note: Apply after 3 months for Palms 25 kg per pit
Tree pit (Depends on tree size/age) 20 kg per pit
Large shrubs 15 kg per pit
Small Shrubs & Ground cover beds 10 kg per m
2

Lawn Areas 10 kg per m
2

Note: 25kg = 1 Bag of Organic Manure (normally)

E NPK slow release organic fertiliser shall be provided at the following rates:

Location N.P.K Rate per pit
Palm pit (depending on age & size)
Note: Apply after 3 months for Palms
8.8.16 400 to 500 gm / pit
Tree pit 16.8.8 300 gm per pit
Large shrub 16.8.8 200 gm per pit
Small Shrubs & Ground cover beds 16.8.8 200 gm per m
2

Lawn Areas 16.8.8 200 gm per m
2



Special Notes:

1. Application rates and kind of fertilisers mentioned above shall
be for planting medium preparations and first application only.
Application rates and methods for maintenance are explained in
the following Planting Medium Mixtures and Method of
applications.
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2. Maintenance and further application shall be scheduled in
accordance with the Engineers instruction depending upon the
season, type of plant, health conditions.

3. For palms, manure and fertiliser inputs can be added to palm pits
after planting at a later stage as approved by the Engineer.

4. The planting medium for lawn areas should be prepared one
week before sowing seeds or the grass stolons are planted.

3.07 PLANTING MEDIUM MIXTURES AND METHOD OF
APPLICATIONS

A In the following pages, mixing ratios of planting medium and their mixing
methods are detailed in tables. The contractor has to ensure that these methods
are strictly followed when planting medium mixes are made unless otherwise
instructed by the Engineer. The contractor shall add any additional
amendments to planting medium in case the pH of the made up medium does
not comply with the specification. (i.e. between 6.5 and 7.5).


B These tables are for initial application of mixtures to planting medium or first
application (in case of palms). The tables and does not include maintenance
program fertilizing, this is shown in the next section. The method and time of
application should be maintained for each type of plants as given below.

C Rates of application of fertilisers shall vary with palm variety, size and age and
necessary changes in the kind of fertilisers and rate of application shall be
carried out as instructed by the Engineer.

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1 Date Palm - Phoenix dactylifera




Sl


Kind of
Fertilisers


Per
Palm
After planting
or establishment



Remarks
3-4
months
6-7
months

1

Organic
matter based

25 Kgs

25 Kgs.

nil

Apply uniformly in trenches
made of 200 mm. width and 150
mm. depth 0.75 to 1 metre away
from trunk within the individual
palm basins;

Mix well with soil in trench
working with hand shovel
(spade), backfill scooped out soil
above trench to level, irrigation to
follow immediately.


2

Slow release
Organo-
chemical
fertiliser
(NPK
8.8.16)


400
Grams


200
Grams


200
Grams



As above

3

Fishmeal
pellets or
granules @
20 Gr./ Kg.
of Organic
manure


500
Grams


500
Grams



nil



As above

4

Micro
organism
based ( as
Microfert)
@ 1 litre per
50 Kg. of
Fish meal

1 liter
per 100
palms

1 liter
per 100
palms

nil

Mix Fishmeal & Microfert
thoroughly and spread in trench
of palm basin uniformly; mix
well with soil and other inputs.
Irrigate as explained above.




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2 Tree pits



Sl

Kind of
Fertilisers

Per
Tree


Remarks

1

Organic
matter based

20 Kgs

Spread fertiliser in basins of tree pits prior to
planting. Soil to be filled in such a manner to get a
perfect final level considering settling down of loose
soil after irrigation and to accommodate root ball area
of plants after planting. Thoroughly mix the fertiliser
with soil and pre-irrigate well to moisten the entire
medium uniformly before planting to field capacity.
Plant as per specifications. Irrigate plant basins well
after planting.


2

Slow release
Organo-
chemical
fertiliser
(NPK
16.8.8)


300
Grams

As above

3

Fishmeal
pellets or
granules @
20 Gr./ Kg.
of Organic
manure


400
Grams


As above

4

Micro
organism
based (as
Microfert)
@ 1 litre per
50 Kg. of
Fish meal


1 liter
per 125
tree
pits

Mix Fishmeal & Microfert thoroughly and spread in
trench of plant basin uniformly; mix well with soil
and other inputs. Irrigate as explained above.




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3 Large Shrub pits



Sl

Kind of
Fertilisers

Per
Shrub


Remarks

1

Organic
matter based

15 Kgs

Spread fertiliser in basins of shrub pits prior to
planting. Soil to be filled in such a manner to get a
perfect final level considering settling down of loose
soil after irrigation and to accommodate root ball
area of plants after planting. Thoroughly mix the
fertiliser with soil and pre-irrigate well to moisten
the entire medium uniformly before planting to field
capacity at planting. Plant as per specifications.
Irrigate plant basins well after planting.


2

Slow release
Organo-
chemical
fertiliser
(NPK
16.8.8)


200
Grams

As above

3

Fishmeal
pellets or
granules @
20 Gr./ Kg.
of Organic
manure



300
Grams



As above

4

Micro
organism
based ( as
Microfert)
@ 1 litre per
50 Kg. of
Fish meal


1 liter
per 166
shrubs

Mix Fishmeal & Microfert thoroughly and spread in
trench of plant basin uniformly; mix well with soil
and other inputs. Irrigate as explained above.




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4 Small Shrubs, Ground Cover beds, Feature plants and Lawn areas



Sl

Kind of
Fertilisers

Per Sq.
Metre.


Remarks

1

Organic
matter based

10 Kgs

Thoroughly mix the fertiliser with soil and pre-
irrigate well to moisten the entire medium uniformly
before planting. Moisten the entire medium to field
capacity. Watch for any soil settlement, and grade to
finish level before planting. Plant as per
specifications. Irrigate well after planting.


2

Slow release
Organo-
chemical
fertiliser
(NPK
16.8.8)


200
Grams

As above

3

Fishmeal
pellets or
granules @
20 Gr./ Kg.
of Organic
manure


300
Grams

As above

4

Micro
organism
based ( as
Microfert)
@ 1 litre per
50 Kg. of
Fish meal


1 liter
per 166
Sq. m.

Mix Fishmeal & Microfert thoroughly and spread
uniformly on soil / planting medium; mix well with
soil and other inputs. Irrigate as explained above.



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5 Seasonal Flowers



Sl

Kind of
Fertilisers

Per Sq.
Metre.


Remarks

1

Organic
matter based

10 Kgs

Thoroughly mix the fertiliser with soil and pre-
irrigate well to moisten the entire medium uniformly
before planting. Moisten the entire medium to field
capacity. Watch for any soil settlement, and grade to
finish level before planting. Plant as per
specifications. Irrigate well after planting.


2

Granular
fertiliser
N.P.K
20.10.10 +
MgO


50
Grams

As above


6 Fertiliser program given above is subjected to modifications depending on the
project needs, soil test reports, planting types, seasons etc. and the contractor
shall follow the approved program specified by the Engineer for each project.

3.08 MAINTENANCE FERTILISER APPLICATION
A These are general recommendations required per annum. Specific
recommendations shall have to be followed depending up on the soil analysis
for each project or area. Time of application, rate per application and methods
shall be as per the approved Method Statement for each project.

Plant
Organic
Manure
Slow
Release
Organic
N.P.K +
T.E.

Nitrogeno
us (Urea /
Am.
Sulphate)
Chelated
Micro
Nutrient
Soil
Cond-
itioner


Timing

Once a
year

Once a
year

Twice a
year


As shown
per year

As shown
per year

Once
a year

Measurement

Kg

As
Shown

As
Shown


Grams

Grams

Kg

Palm

10

2.5 to 3

1 to 2

250-500

100-200

2
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(per palm) Kg. Kg. twice twice


Trees
(per tree)

5


500
Grams


0.5-1
Kg.


100-250
once


100-200
once


1

Shrub
(per shrub)


2.5


200-250
Grams


200-250
Grams

100-150
twice


50-100
once


0.5

Ground cover
(per m2)

5


100-200
Grams


100-200
Grams

50 three
times

25-50
twice


0.25

Lawn areas
(per m2)


5


100-200
Grams


100-200
Grams

25-50 six
times

25-50
twice

0.25


Seasonal Flowers (During growing period)



Sl

Kind of
Fertilisers

Per Sq.
Metre.

Frequency


Remarks


1

Granular
fertiliser N.P.K
12-24-12 +
MgO



50 Grams



Monthly

Spread around plants in planting
beds, mix well with planting
medium, irrigate to field capacity
immediately after application.

2

Micronutrient
fertiliser


0.3 Grams

Fortnightly
Soil application by fertigation or
by foliar spray (0.3 grams per litre
of water). Conduct foliar test spray
in small area to establish safety for
concentration before spraying
large areas.


B Changes to above fertiliser kinds, quantity, time of application etc. shall be
considered according to soil analysis data, seasons, type of plants and project
needs and shall be followed as per the instruction of the Engineer.

3.09 PLANT PROTECTION CHEMICALS
A All pesticides, fungicides, herbicides, nematicides, miticides, tree sealants etc.
fall under the Plant Protection Chemicals.

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B These plant protection chemicals whether in the form of solutions, Granules,
Emulsifiable Concentrates, Pellets or Fumigants must conform to all legal
safety standards.

C The product must be with a low mammalian toxicity and a high LD
50
value
and should cause only a minimal damage to the environment. The contractor
should educate the persons involved in carrying out plant protection measures
about all safety precautions for storage and handling of the product. It should
be useful and effective against the target pests.

D Product label must carry details of products ingredients, formulations,
toxicity, and rates of application, pests controlled and proper means of safe
handling. The contractor must be able to provide the MSDS (Material Safety
Data Sheet) of product as instructed by the Engineer and use only approved
products.

E While using a plant protection chemical, the following safety guidelines
should always be followed.

1 Use only products tested and recommended by the state authorities.

2 Follow the manufacturers directions for rate and safety of application of the
product.

3 Use the lowest recommended concentration whenever it is possible and apply
only on diseased plants.

4 Do not apply on a windy or cloudy (sign of rain) day.

5 Do not prepare excess amount of chemical and dispose balance quantity
elsewhere.

6 Do not spray near pet cages, beehives, water pools etc.

7 Spray chemicals during early morning or late evening especially during
summer to avoid plant injury.
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3.10 PLANTING MATERIAL

A General

1. All planting material shall be of the size specified and obtained from an
approved source. All plants shall be supplied as specified and the Contractor is
expected to obtain stock from outside the UAE if it is not available locally.

2. Plants to be obtained outside the UAE should be identified at the time of
bidding and accompanied by a draft programme for importation of such plants,
indicating supplier or source and delivery times required.

3. Plants shall be true to type and supplied under botanical names. Synonyms
must be checked with the Engineer.

4. Imported plants must be acclimatised for a period of six (6) weeks minimum
prior to planting.

5. All planting stock shall be well-balanced and well formed, sound, vigorous,
healthy and free from disease, sun-scald, abrasion, harmful insects or insect
eggs and with a healthy, unbroken root system filling their containers but not
root-bound. Unless otherwise specified, only nursery grown plants will be
used. All plants shall be container grown (balled plants) except as otherwise
specifically stated in the Contact Documents.

6. Plants will only be given final approval based on their condition at site at the
end of the warranty (365-days Maintenance) period.

B Substitutions

1. The Bid must be based upon plants that are available. If plants are
unobtainable, alternatives may be submitted with the Bid, stating how they
differ from the Specification. Such substitutions may not be acceptable and
submission of further alternatives may be required. Approval shall be obtained
from the Engineer prior to any substitution.

2. After the Bid period, no substitutions will be considered and specified plants
will have to be procured by whatever means are necessary in order to meet the
completion date set.

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C Nomenclature

1 The nomenclature of plants shall conform to the scientific names given in:

(a) L.H. Bailey Hortorium, Cornell University. 1976. Hortus Third, A
concise dictionary of plants cultivated in the United States and Canada.
Macmillan, NY.

(b) Note: Alternative names (synonyms) shall be checked in this book. All
plants must agree with the botanical description in this reference.

3.11 TREES

A. All trees supplied for new works must meet the following criteria:

1. They must have a clear straight stem, healthy look and good shape.

2. They must have a well balanced crown with the terminal leader intact,

3. They must possess at least four main branches

4. All saw cuts are to be clean and free from any ripping or splitting and shall be
trimmed smooth after cutting.

5. All trees and palms are to be purchased and stored in suitable nursery
conditions within 6 weeks of the start of the contract.

6. All dimensions shown with tolerances (i.e. 120-150mm) refer to maximum
and minimum dimensions that will be accepted. Measurement of all plants of
one species shall, as a minimum, average between the upper and lower figures
(i.e. in the above case 135mm).

7. Trees are to be sprayed with an approved anti-desiccant 48 hours prior to
transport.
B. Avenue and feature trees are nursery-grown standard form trees with clear,
substantially straight stems. The head shall be developed for its type and
evenly balanced, with no main branches crossing the crown. The tree shall
have a central leader or a branch head according to the species or cultivar.
Unless otherwise specified in the Bill of Quantities, standard form trees shall
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be 10-15mm calliper when measured 200mm from ground level a minimum
overall height of 1.5m at time of planting.

C. Boundary trees shall be feathered form with a defined, upright central leader
and stem furnished with evenly spread and balance lateral shoots down to near
ground level, according to its species. They shall have a minimum overall
height of 1.5m at time of planting.

3.12 PALMS
A All palms supplied for new works shall be balled and bur lapped unless
container grown specimens are available. Offshoots will not be acceptable.
When palms grown in sandy soil are removed for planting, where retention of
ball of earth or bur lapping around root ball is not possible due to its soil
texture, extreme care should be taken to minimize the root damage.

B Excavation has to be made at sufficient distance away from trunk so that
feeder roots are not cut or bruised. Care must be taken to avoid any kind of
root damage while transporting or off loading.

C Palm leaves or fronds are to be Hessian wrapped from below the lower most
frond base to upwards in such a manner that the growing point is securely
protected. This has to be done before the palm is removed from its original
growing place and should be retained during transport and subsequent
planting. Hessian wraps should be removed only after ensuring the emergence
of new leaves.

D All palms shall have a vigorous root system, crown of new leaves, proper
colour of leaves of an adult palm and sufficient hardiness.

3.13 SHRUBS, HERBACEOUS PLANTS & GROUND COVERS

A Shrubs

1 All shrubs supplied for new works are woody perennials of generally multi-
stemmed and bushy habit ranging from 3 to 4.5m in height down to 500mm
height when mature. Shrubs shall meet the requirements for spread and height
indicated in the drawing and/or specified in this contract. Measurement of
height for shrubs shall be taken from the ground level to the average height of
the shrubs and not the longest branch or stem. Shrubs shall have at least three
main stems, and shall be well balanced and bushy with strongly developed
root system, free from pest and disease.

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B Herbaceous Plants
1 All herbaceous plants supplied for new works are non-woody perennials of
clump forming habit. Such plants shall have well developed stems and a
healthy root system, free from pest and disease. Clumps of herbaceous plants
shall include rhizomes, corms, tubers or roots and soil undisturbed by lifting,
with evidence of growing shoots emerging above soil level. All shrubs and
herbaceous plants shall be cultivated in containers of appropriated dimensions
corresponding to the size of the plants and the requirements of the species.
C Ground Covers

1 All Ground cover plants supplied for new works are low growing, 500mm or
less, or prostrate shrubs or herbaceous plants whose habit is to totally cover the
soil. All ground cover species shall be evenly balanced to allow equal growth
in all directions. Plants shall have fully developed root system and leaves.
Unless otherwise specified, rooted cuttings will not be accepted. All plants
shall be container grown.
3.14 ANCILLARY ITEMS
A Tree Stakes
1 All trees shall be double staked. Stakes shall be of timber, straight, free of
projections and pointed at one end. The stakes shall be pressure impregnated
with non-injurious wood preservative such as TANALITH E to be applied at
least two weeks before use. Stakes shall also be painted with 2 no. coats of
matt green water resistant exterior paint.

Type Size

Tree Stakes
Large Shrub Stakes


2400 x 50 x 50 mm
1800 x 50 x 50 mm


2 When installed the length of the stake shall be minimum one third below
ground level unless otherwise detailed or approved by the Engineer. Erect in a
straight manner not leaning toward or away in any direction from the plants
main stem.
B Tree Ties
1 Tree ties shall be high-density polyethylene (HDPE) chain-lock type.
2 Ties fabricated from string, packing materials, fabric webbing or galvanised
wire and guard hose will not be accepted. The contractor shall provide an on
site sample erection of a tree stake and tie prior to approval.


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C Guying & Anchoring

1 Where guying and anchoring of large plant material is required the contractor
shall submit a method statement for the Engineers approval. Durable high
strength rubber strapping is preferred over steel cable and turnbuckle
arrangements.

D Temporary Planting Screens

1 Whenever planting is in an exposed position, liable to strong or excessively
hot wind conditions, windbreaks shall be provided until such time as the
planting is firmly established.

2 Screens shall be typically 1750mm tall using high density polyethylene
monofilament shade net of approx. 75% density supported by tree stakes as
described above.

3 The shade net configuration can be altered to suit the size of the planted
specimen. Variations from the above typical sizing shall be approved by the
engineer.

E Hessian

1 Hessian bands shall be 750mm wide to lengths necessary for wrapping tree
trunks and main branches.

F Anti-Desiccant

1 Anti-desiccant shall be an emulsion type, film-forming agent designed to
permit transpiration but retard excessive loss of water form plants. Trees or
shrubs shall be sprayed 48 hours prior to moving.

G Gravel Mulch & Natural Stone

1 Gravel shall be free from additional organic and waste material, of a consistent
beige colour or as specified in the BOQ.

2 Gravel shall be spread evenly over areas as indicated with final spreading
finished with a rake. In areas of abutment with other landscape materials (e.g.
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lawn, planting,) the finish line of the gravel must be a clean sharp edge or held
with proprietary edging as indicated in the drawings and the BOQ.

H Temporary Shade Structure

1 For plant species requiring shade during establishment on site, temporary
shade structures shall be erected and maintained by the contractor to the
Engineers discretion.

I Root Control Barrier

1 Root Control Barriers shall be used to protect adjacent structures from damage
as shown on the drawings and as directed by the Engineer. The barrier shall be
HDPE, minimum 600mm wide in continuous rolls and manufactured for
purpose.

2 Do not fully enclose or encircle the plants roots system. Locate at the interface
between the plant and the objects being protected


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PART 4 EXECUTION

4.01 PRELIMINARIES

A Site Investigations

1 Prior to any operations the contractor shall undertake site investigations to
ensure full awareness of all the site conditions. The site conditions shall
include but not be limited to:

(a) The site boundary and/or extent of works.
(b) Location of all existing services on the site.
(c) The existing drainage conditions and infrastructure.
(d) Existing vegetation including that to be retained.
(e) Ground conditions such as existing subsurface rock, ground water level
etc.

B Site Enclosures

1 The Contractor shall erect temporary fencing to the boundaries of the site as
required for the protection of the public and/or to the Contractors site
infrastructure and storage areas.

C Existing Vegetation

1 The contractor shall erect temporary fencing to protect existing vegetation to
be retained. The area shall enclose the outer drip line and root zone of all trees.
Storage of building materials, construction refuses or any other deleterious
material is not permitted in the fenced area.

2 Protect all existing vegetation to be retained with maximum care at all times
during construction and possession of the site. The contractor will be required
to replace any damaged or destroyed vegetation to the full value of the said
vegetation and at the discretion of the Engineer.

D Existing Planting Soil

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1 Where the drawings indicate storage or reuse of existing topsoil, carefully strip
and stockpile to avoid unnecessary compaction, contamination or any damage
to the topsoil.

2 Do not pile higher than 3m and cover in windblown areas to protect from
drying out. Do not store longer than 12-months. If this is required seek
additional approval for alternative methods.

E Demolition

1 As per the demolition plans or as noted on the drawings, clear and remove
from site all items not required to be retained, protected or preserved. Refer to
the General Specification for Civil Works, Section 02100, Demolition and
Site Clearing for further guidelines.

4.02 CONSTRUCTION WORKS PROGRAM

1 Prepare a construction schedule for approval in accordance with the General
Specification for Civil Works, Division 1 - General Requirements and submit
to the Engineer for approval.

2 Include the actual dates for all witness and hold points. Submit within 7- days
of gaining possession of the site.


4.03 PLANTING SEASON & CONDITIONS

A No planting shall be carried out during periods of heavy rain, sandstorms,
heavy winds, or during intense daytime heat.

B Plants and trees shall only be moved or planted in the cooler winter months
between mid September and mid May.

C Palms and lawns can be installed in the more humid months late May to early
September.

1 When special conditions warrant a variance to the planting times above, a
proposed planting schedule shall be submitted to the Engineer for review and
approval. In such cases, the planting will be installed at no additional cost and
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all conditions and obligations such as maintenance and warranty remain the
responsibility of the contractor.

D Planting of trees and shrubs will occur prior to lawn planting.

E All planting should be carried out only after the irrigation system is fully
operational.


4.04 ON-SITE ACCLIMATISATION STORAGE

A Where possible, prior to planting, all plant materials shall be acclimatised on
site for a minimum of one week and protected against drying at all times. This
is only possible if facilities are available on site to do so. Otherwise immediate
planting is recommended. In such cases required acclimatisation shall have
been fulfilled in the nursery to overcome any transplanting shock later. Under
any circumstances, the Contractor shall provide facilities for on-site
acclimatisation of all plants.

B Palm trees shall be planted immediately upon arrival on site. If palms have to
be held for longer than twelve hours before planting they should be heeled-in
in trenches which are kept moist at all times.

4.05 HANDLING AND TRANSPORTATION OF PLANTS

A General

1 Plant material shall be lifted or moved in such a manner that the roots are not
disturbed. Plant materials shall be lifted by handling the container and not the
above ground portion of the plant. Root systems of all plants shall not be
allowed to dry out at any time and shall not be exposed to excessive or
artificial heat or to freezing temperatures. During transportation all plants
shall be packed adequately to ensure protection for climatic or physical
injuries. Tarpaulins or other covers shall be placed over plants when they are
transported by open trucks or freight cars. Plants are not to be piled on top of
one another. All plants shall be treated with anti-desiccant prior to
transportation.




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B Palms

1 Prior to transporting to site, and immediately upon lifting all suckers,
flowering and fruiting parts and approximately thirty percent of fronds shall be
removed. The remaining fronds shall:

(a) be sprayed with approved anti-desiccant 48 hours prior to
transplanting,

(b) lifted to enclose and protect the growing tip,

(c) wrapped in hessian and securely tied in position,

2 The roots of non- container grown palms shall be pruned and the root ball shall
be protected with tied hessian bands. Hessian bands shall be 750mm wide and
to lengths necessary for the additional wrapping tree trunks and main fronds.

3 When planted in their final location palms shall be set and maintained plumb
to Engineers approval.

4 Imported palms shall have been acclimatised for at least six months before
removal from the nursery.

4.06 PLANTING MEDIUM

A Mix the soil additives with agricultural soil at the rates specified. The planting
medium shall be mixed mechanically by an approved method to create a
homogeneous mixture. For individual pits of tree and shrub planting, planting
medium shall be prepared in situ by mixing the specified quantity of each
ingredient for each pit. The pH of the amended planting medium should be
within the range of a pH value 6.5 to 7.5. A one-kilogram sample of each
batch shall be submitted to the Engineer for approval prior to spreading.
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4.07 PLANTING DEPTHS & PITS
A Unless otherwise specified, planting beds and pits are to be the following
minimum dimensions:

Location Size / depth
Palm pits 2000 x 2000 x 2000 mm
Tree pits 1500 x 1500 x 1500 mm
Large Shrub pits 1000 x 1000 x 1000 mm
Small Shrub pits 750 x 750 x 750 mm
Shrub beds 500 mm depth
Ground cover beds 300 mm depth
Lawn areas 300 mm depth

B Paving may cover a small percentage of the planting pits area. The planting pit
however is to be maintained at the minimum dimensions shown above.

C The planting medium depth from top level of pit must be 1.5 times or more
than the total root ball depth and in no cases should it be less than 1/3
rd
of the
pit depth.

4.08 PERCOLATION TESTS

A Percolation tests shall be carried out at a minimum rate of 1 test per 50 plants
with respect to individual species or as directed by the Engineer at a higher
frequency. The test shall be carried out using the following procedure:

1. Fill the plant pit with irrigation water and mark the level reached.

2. Monitor the rate of percolation over a period of one hour. If the water level
drops by more than 20mm then the pit has passed the test.

3. If the plant pit fails the test, bore holes shall be augured at the bottom of the pit
to achieve proper percolation to the approval of the Engineer.

4.09 PLANTING SEQUENCE

A General

1 Planting shall be done only once the installation of irrigation system has been
completed in all respects, planting area have been prepared properly and the
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work approved by the Engineer. The Contractor shall proceed with complete
planting operations as per the approved construction program and as portions
of the site become available, working within seasonal limitations for each type
of landscape work required.

B Bed Preparation

1 Prior to spreading of any planting medium, the sub-grade shall be filled or
excavated to the appropriate levels. The sub-grade shall then be raked level
and cleared of all debris and rock to reveal a smooth clean sub-base at levels
required to accommodate the specified depths of planting medium and mulch.

C Grading

1 Agricultural soil shall be installed to achieve tolerances specified for finished
level of planting medium, and when reasonably dry and workable, graded to
smooth, flowing contours with all minor hollows and ridges removed.

2 Planting medium to be spread at levels to accommodate mulch where
specified. Final grades should not deviate more than +/- 25mm from the finish
grade specified.

3 Finished ground level adjoining building shall be kept 150mm below the level
of the damp-proof course.

D Setting out

1 Stake out the outline of planting areas, Ground cover beds and individual tree
and shrub locations and for approval by the Engineer prior to plants being
installed.

E Excavation for Planting

1 At the time of planting, a hole shall be made into the pit/bed large enough to
take the plants root ball. Refer to the previous section on standard planting
depths and pits. The planting hole shall be thoroughly moistened prior to
planting.



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F Back filling

1 After passing the percolation tests, backfill with approved planting medium in
layers not exceeding 300 mm. Each layer shall be separately firmed and
watered in to eliminate all air pockets until final soil level is reached. Allow
for compaction/subsidence by overfilling by 100 mm. Once placed the
growing medium shall be covered with plastic sheeting or fenced and clearly
marked to prevent disturbance until planting commences.

G Stakes

1 Stakes shall be driven into the tree pits at least one third of their specified
length. Stakes are required for any new plantings with respect to the size and
individual plant condition and location as directed by the Engineer. If these are
required for improvement of the growing conditions of the plant temporarily
then they can be requested by the Engineer at anytime.

H Planting

1 Plants shall be carefully removed from containers. The plants shall be
removed with all the potting soil moistened and intact around the roots. Care
shall be taken not to damage the roots of the plants. The plant shall be placed
upright in the centre of the hole. Planting should be avoided in extreme
weather conditions.

2 Care shall be taken to set the plant in such a way to ensure that the collar line
(line of contact between soil and stem) is at the same level as the surrounding
ground. Fill around the plant root ball with planting medium in layers of 150-
300 mm.

3 The Engineer shall finally decide the relative positioning of all plants, and any
relocation if needed shall be carried out by the contractor as part of the
contract.

I Watering

1 Watering should be carried out through the approved irrigation system only.
Under emergency situations when watering could not be carried out through
irrigation system, plants should be irrigated with water tanker using hosepipe
fitted with fine spray heads and under controlled pressure. Watering should not
adversely affect the plant or ground conditions. i.e. If pressure is too high or
shower nozzles absent or water temperature is too high.
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2 For palms, trees and shrubs a circular watering basin slightly larger than the
planting hole shall be formed. Immediately after planting, all plants shall be
thoroughly watered in. Ensure that soil from the watering basin does not
migrate so as to cover the root ball top or around the collar of the plant as this
can cause damage or death of the plant.

J Levelling and cleaning
1 After planting, the area surrounding the plant shall be restored to 25mm below
finish. Excess soils and rubbish shall be disposed of properly and final layer of
mulch shall be applied.

K Pruning
1 Immediately after planting, all plants are to be pruned in accordance with
accepted horticultural practices or as directed by the Engineer. Pruning shall
consist of carefully cutting back any damaged, dead or diseased branches and
the removal of any weak or malformed growth, with the aim of forming each
type of stock to the standard shape for its species.

2 The above horticultural care and arboriculture practices shall be applied to
existing trees retained within the project area. If requested, a method statement
of proposed arboricultural works to existing trees shall be submitted to the
Engineer for approval.

L Identification
1 A plastic label clearly engraved with the species and variety shall be attached
to each plant or to each group of plants (1 tag/10 plants minimum). In some
cases this may not be required. Approval may be sought from the Engineer not
to label particular plants.

2 Monitoring plants; check all plants one week after planting for signs of wind
shake and loosening due to soil subsidence. Do corrections as needed.

4.10 LAWN AREAS
A Lawn grass areas are to be installed using either:

1 Sprigging (stolons)
2 Sodding (Laying rolled or rectangular turf)
3 Seeding.

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B Refer to the drawings for nomination of the selected method.

C Before planting lawn areas the ground must be prepared. Soil must be mixed
with organic manure and fertilisers to enrich the planting medium. To retain
soil moisture or to adjust soil pH, peat moss may be required. It shall be added
as per the Engineers instructions. Planting medium after amendments should
be within a pH range of 6.5 to 7.5.

D The ground level should also be prepared in such a way to avoid any water
logging, surface run-off or soil erosion. Levels shall be graded toward
drainage inlets or subsoil drainage lines if available. Always form slopes away
from buildings and structures.

E Ensure the following before actual planting starts.

1 Prior to beginning planting operations the irrigation system must be
completely operational ensuring 100% coverage.

2. Bring the water content of the area to attain field capacity by allowing water to
percolate until standing water disappears.

3. Apply fertiliser quantities and kinds as approved by the Engineer.

4. Cultivate to a depth of 300 mm.

5. Level the ground to finish levels with suitable garden tools and machinery. All
sticks, stones larger than 10 mm diameter, weeds, debris and other extraneous
material shall be removed. Area shall be rolled and raked to true lines free
from unsightly variations, bumps, ridges or depressions.

6 For Sprigging (stolons) use Paspalum vaginatum grass stolons unless other is
specified by the Engineer.

F Sprig Installation:

1. Keep dry dormant stolons refrigerated 0-3C, until the area to be planted is
prepared. Do not exceed two weeks of refrigeration. Soak stolons in water
after removing from cold storage and prior to planting.

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2. Do not exceed two days of storage on job site. Stolons are to be kept moist,
shaded and ventilated during such storage.

3. Sow at 6 bushels (One Bushel = 36.5 litres) per 100 square Metres.

4. Plant utilising a disc to cut in stolons and followed by culti-packer roller or
other technique approved by the Engineer.

5. Water as necessary to keep the stolon bed moist until germination. Once grass
is up begin lengthening intervals between irrigation.

6. Planting shall not occur when day temperature is extremely high or night
temperature is extremely low.

G Sodding (Rolled or rectangular Turf)

1 Unless otherwise specified use Paspalum vaginatum turf sods. While
selecting sods, the following should be noted.

(a) Sods must be healthy looking and not exhibiting any symptoms of
prolonged storage, yellowing or drying
(b) Sods should preferably be of equal size.
(c) Planting soil should be well adhered to the root system (not less than
50mm thickness)
(d) Sods must be free of weeds, pests and diseases
(e) Sod planting soil should contain sufficient moisture at the time of
delivery at site

2 Transporting of sods must be in covered trucks on wooden pallets to avoid any
damage while in transit. Off loading from trucks at site must be done using
proper unloading machinery such as forklifts or by means of slings and
supports.

3 Sods shall be laid on cultivated soil within 24 hours of stripping. From the
point of unloading, sods shall be taken to the actual location of its lay by the
use of flat-bedded wheelbarrows thus minimising potential damage what so
ever. Careful handling is of prime importance during laying. Under no
circumstances sods should be thrown on the ground. The sods shall be laid to
form a solid mass with tightly fitted joints. The ends of the sods shall be
butted. Strips shall be staggered to offset joints in adjacent courses.

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4 The lawn shall be tamped or rolled to ensure contact with the planting
medium. Planting medium shall be worked into minor spaces between pieces
of sods and excess planting medium be removed.

5 The perimeter of the lawn area shall be flagged off to stop foot traffic until
after the third mowing or as directed by the Engineer.

6 Immediately after laying, lawn shall be hand watered abundantly using water
hose so that water percolates down as quickly as possible to enable root mass
to be in contact with the planting medium. Watering should be continued in
this manner for about a week by which time rooting will have started. Care
should be taken not to over water so as to cause water logging. Normal
sprinkler irrigation programme shall be commenced once root establishment is
ensured.

H Seeding

1 Grass seed to be used must be free from any kind of obnoxious weed seeds. It
must be true to its type with a minimum purity of 95% and germination rate of
80%. Analysis certificate or test reports by the producer mentioning the purity
and germination percentage of grass seed, percentage of other grass seeds and
weed seeds with names and inert materials must be submitted. Each bag or
packing must bear these details besides the Common and Scientific name of
the species and approval of the Engineer must be obtained before using.

2 Seeding shall be spread over a fine levelled, cultivated soil bed by hand or
mechanical seeder.

3 After final levelling, work a hand rake mildly on soil surface to make shallow
groves for seeds to fall in which shall be later covered by irrigation water so
that seeds shall not be blown off by subsequent wind.

4 Since grass seed is very tiny and free flowing, it may be mixed with coarse
sand up to two times of its quantity to get a uniform sowing coverage while
hand spreading. Half of the specified rate shall be applied twice in
perpendicular directions so as to achieve an even seed distribution rate.

5 Following seeding, the bed shall be raked or harrowed or to cover the seed
with soil to a maximum depth of 25mm

6 Water shall be applied lightly and frequently until one week or 50%
germination and then gradually increase duration and period between watering
until normal irrigation programme is met.
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I Protection

1 The perimeter of seeded, sprigged or rolled turf areas shall be flagged off to
restrain foot traffic until after the second mowing (followed by complete grass
coverage) or as directed by the Engineer.

4.11 HEAVY MACHINERY

1 Heavy machinery, which would excessively consolidate the subsoil, shall not
be used during any operations nor shall heavy machinery be taken over on
areas prepared for planting or grassing.

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PART 5 MAINTENANCE OF SOFT LANDSCAPE


5.01 SOFT LANDSCAPE MAINTENANCE OPERATIONS

A General

1 During the maintenance contract period the Contractor shall carry out
maintenance of the planting strictly in accordance with the Maintenance
Manual approved by the Engineer.

2 The Contractor shall be responsible for carrying out all necessary measures to
ensure that the plant material thrives and in a healthy established status and
that the landscape areas are kept in a clean and tidy condition.

3 The extent of the landscape to be maintained by the Contractor shall be
deemed to cover and include all soft landscape areas and irrigation systems
within the overall project boundaries as shown on the drawings within that
manual.

4 The Contractor shall provide all necessary measures and materials Fertilizers,
nutrients, soil, compos, manure, water, pesticides, mulching materials etc.)_to
ensure that all plants including ground covers are maintained green and in
healthy condition,

B The Soft Landscape Maintenance Contractor shall

1 Provide sufficient personal and equipment to perform all work in a
professional manner to the satisfaction of the Engineer and in keeping with
generally accepted horticultural practices and techniques.

2 Check each area daily and take remedial measures as necessary. Any changes
to the agreed maintenance regime need specific approval by the Engineer in
writing. The cost of which will be calculated from the schedule of rates in the
contract.

3 Take responsibility for the Landscape maintenance and works and areas of site
implemented and shall take all necessary steps to co-ordinate his works with
those of other contractors.

4 If different contractors maintain soft landscape and irrigation systems, ensure
that failure of the work does not cause the failure of another Contractors
works.

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5 Co-ordinate with the Irrigation Maintenance Contractor, if different, to ensure
the planting areas are watered as necessary at an approved rate and time,
preferably at night, or early in the day (i.e. 12 pm to 10 am). In adequate or
excessive irrigation applications are to be avoided so that all plants receive
optimum watering for plant development.

C In general the Contractor shall also

1 Monitor the automatic irrigation system assuring that all irrigation
emitters/bubblers are not clogged, broken or missing, and that all landscape
planting areas are receiving ample irrigation.

2 Verbally notify the Engineer and the Irrigation Contractor, if different, in the
event of irrigation malfunction and confirm in writing.

3 Monitor irrigation application by keeping soil moisture records on a daily
basis for each planting zone, as directed by the Engineer. A Tensiometer, with
the probe placed adjacent to the root zone in planted areas, shall be used to
measure soil moisture. All tests are to be executed prior to irrigation cycle
starting. Testing requirements shall be based on the irrigation needs and as
determined by the Engineer.

4 Notify the Engineer and Irrigation Contractor when additional water is
required, setting out times and application rates, to enable co-ordination of
time clocks and schedules.

5 Notify the Engineer in writing immediately if emergency hand irrigation is
needed and, if approved by the Engineer, shall water each plant by hand, either
by using hose pipes connected to the main irrigation / bore-hole system, if
available, or by importing water. While hand watering the contractor shall use
hoses fitted with suitable hose end nozzle attachments (e.g.: shower heads) to
avoid damages to plants or soil surface. Ensure the pressure is appropriate for
this.

6 Notify the Engineer in writing immediately if any malicious damage to the
works is cause by others. i.e. vandalism or car accident damage. Where
approved by the Engineer, the Contractor shall submit a quotation to repair
any damage and, if instructed, carry out the repairs within 7 days of instruction
where season allows. Planting seasons shall be adhered to unless otherwise
approved by the Engineer.

7 Undertake all necessary maintenance operations necessary for healthy plant
growth.

D Qualification & Work Experience of Supervisors

1 The Contractor shall ensure that a senior qualified supervisor is made available
for organising and running the maintenance program. The contractor shall
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also have available an experienced foreman who can supervise the workers on
a day-to-day basis.

E Qualification & Work Experience of Supervisor and Forman.

1. The Supervisor shall be a graduate in Horticulture or Agricultural Science with
minimum 6-years exposure to landscape projects in the Middle East.

2. The Foreman shall be a degree or diploma holder in Horticulture / Agriculture
Science with not less than 4 years of field experience in landscape projects.

3. They should be able to recognise field problems and to carry out remedial
measures time to time.

4. They must be able to organise the work force and manage works to keep the
plants in premium condition.

5.02 BASIC MAINTENANCE PRACTICES

A General

1 The entire landscape area shall be kept weed and litter free. The disposal of
unwanted objects shall be made on a daily basis to keep the project area and
surroundings clean and presentable. The contractor has responsibility to
maintain any fence or boundary in a sound manner to protect the landscape
area from stray animals and intrusions. Any rodent burrows, rat holes, animal
encroachments etc. should be repaired as it appears.

B Plant Nutrition

1 The contractor shall monitor under-nourishment of plant materials at all times
including anything that could affect the general health of plants or invite
invading pests and diseases. Some common deficiency symptoms are listed
below for general guidance.

Element Deficiency symptoms exhibited
Nitrogen Pale green older leaves, stunted plant growth
Phosphorous Poor root growth, Purplish discoloration of leaves
Potassium Brown leaf edges, curled leaves, poor flowering
Calcium Die-back of leaf tips, flower stalk dropping
Magnesium Marginal or inter-veinal yellowing of older leaves
Sulphur Yellowing of younger leaves and stunted growth
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2 If symptoms appear, soil or tissue analysis shall have to be carried out by the
contractor before treatments or remedial measures are carried out.

C Fertilisers

1 The most commonly used fertilisers are in granular, crystal or pelletized form.
These are applied to the soil, mixed well with soil and watered thoroughly.
Fertilizers should always be applied evenly over at a distance away from the
stem.

2 Another method of applying the necessary plant nutrients is by the use of
liquid feeds. These have the advantage of reducing the risk of burning the
plant when applied as per manufacturer's instructions and the nutrients are
immediately available, as the liquid is easily absorbed.

3 Due to their lower concentrations used, liquid fertilizers are to be repeated
frequently according to plant needs.

4 Also fertilizers can be applied by foliar feeding. For enhancing efficiency,
before foliar fertilizer spraying, green foliage of plants shall be washed with
clean water to remove dust etc.

D Compost / Organic Manure

1 Application shall be in moderate temperatures before the onset of summer and
should consist of a layer of approved compost or organic manure, being
worked well into the top 50 -100mm of the soil surface, taking care not to
damage the roots around the base of the plant. This will help to improve the
structure of the soil allowing easy passage of air and water to the root zone.

E Trace elements

1 These are needed in small quantities to enhance healthy growth of plants in
general.

F Method Statement

1 The Contractor shall follow the Method Statement approved by the Engineer
for carrying out any plant nutrition operations.

G Maintenance Fertilising

1 A maintenance-fertilising schedule is illustrated below in tabulated form.
These are general recommendations required per annum. Specific
recommendations shall have to be followed depending on the soil analysis for
each project or area. Time of application, rate per application, quantity and
methods shall be as per the approved Method Statement for each project or
as instructed by the Engineer.
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Plant Organic
Manure
/
Comp-
ost
Slow
Release
Organic
N.P.K
+ T.E.
Nitrogenous
(Urea / Am.
Sulphate)
Chelated
Micro
Nutrient
Soil
Cond-
itioner


Timing

Once a
year

Once a
year

Twice a
year



As shown


As shown


Per year

Measurement

Kg

As
Shown

As
Shown

Grams

Grams

Kg

Palm
(per palm)

10

2.5-3
Kg.

1 to 2
Kg.

250-500
twice

100-200
twice


2

Trees
(per tree)

5


500 Gr.


0.5-1
Kg.


100-250 once


100-200
once


1

Shrub
(per shrub)


2.5


200-250
Gr


200-
250 Gr.


100-150
twice


50-100
once


0.5

Ground cover
(per m2)

5


100-200
Gr


100-
200 Gr


50 three
times

25-50
twice


0.25

Lawn areas
(per m2)


5


100-200
Gr


100-
200 Gr


25-50 six
times

25-50
twice

0.25


H Plant Protection

1 Plant protection includes insect, disease and weed control measures to keep
plants in a sound condition. This protection is mainly carried out by chemical
application measures. The chemicals selected shall be effective against
specific target pests. For concealed pests systemic chemicals shall be used. If
satisfactory biological control measures are available against any targeted pest,
this should be preferred over a chemical control.

2 If herbicides are to be used, it shall be selective or non-selective, pre-emergent
or post emergent type depending upon the plants grown, weeds present, time
of application, place of application etc. The contractor shall use only
recommended application equipments & methods so that the weeds are killed
without harming other plants.

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3 The Contractor shall follow the Method Statement approved by the Engineer
for carrying out any plant protection measures. Storage and handling safety
shall be the sole responsibility of the Contractor, and all necessary safety
requirements shall be in accordance with the Manufacturers
recommendations.

I Maintenance works

1 During the maintenance period the contractor shall keep all plants in a clean
and healthy condition. He shall carry out the following:

Palm crown and fronds must be kept clean and tidy
Pruning of plants according to plant types and season
Stakes and ties maintenance and adjustments
Disease and pest control measures
Weed control measures
Rodent, reptile control
Fertiliser applications as needed and approved
Irrigation schedules
Plant basin maintenance
Topiary works
Trimming and Edging
Lawn mowing at correct intervals
Lawn aeration, dethatching etc.
Gap filling and weak plant replacements.
Removal of dead and diseased plants
Foliage washing
Mulch maintenance


5.03 SPECIFIC MAINTENANCE PRACTICES

A General

1 The contractor shall follow Specific maintenance practices relevant to each
project considering the plant types, application time, and prevailing deficiency
symptoms. Details of such works shall be explained in the Weekly Schedule
for the following weeks works.

2 The Contractor must carry out the maintenance practices described below.
These items shall be read in conjunction with the Basic Maintenance Practices.
It is the responsibility of the contractor to carry out all such works to maintain
healthy presentable plants to the satisfaction and approval of the Engineer.

B Replanting
1 When replanting any plant it is essential to ensure both the planting soil and
root ball are moist but not saturated. A hole should be dug large enough as
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specified to easily accommodate the root ball without crowding, and the depth
should be such to ensure that the plant is only settled as deeply as it was in the
container. Remove any roots, rocks or refuse from the hole. In cases where
planting medium lost its quality due to any unsuitable factors, it shall be
removed and replaced with specified planting medium.

2 Remove the plant from its container taking care not to disturb the root ball,
any roots which are too long or damaged should be removed. Then position
the plant in the hole in such a way that it is placed to best advantage for the
onlooker.

3 If planting bare root plants, the stake should be placed before backfilling,
carefully threading it through the root system to avoid any damage. If using
container grown plants, the stake can be inserted after backfilling. When
backfilling is completed firm down soil and form a basin around the trunk,
once planting completed, fill the basin with water.

C Replacement of Plants
1 The Contractor shall be responsible for replacing any plants that fail to survive
during maintenance period, whether as a result of inadequate maintenance
operations, poor workmanship or poor quality of plant material.

2 If during the course of the maintenance period trees or shrubs or other plants
die because of a fault by the Contractor, the Contractor shall replace the plant
at no cost to the Department. All questions related to responsibility for the
replacement planting will be subjected to site inspection and agreement by the
Engineer.

3 The Final Completion Certificate will not be issued until all plants scheduled
on the Drawings and Schedule of Work are successfully maintained in a
healthy condition in the manner specified and as approved by the Engineer.

D Soil Analysis
1 The contractor shall arrange analysis of soil samples from locations within the
project at every 6 monthly intervals during maintenance period or as directed
by the Engineer. The required number of samples shall be decided as
instructed by the Engineer depending on the soil adversity, size of the project
and other planting features.

2 Test results must comply with the specified standards of ph levels of planting
medium and adequate plant nutrients. The contractor shall take necessary
corrective measures if it does not comply.

E Site Cleaning
1 The Contractor shall keep the landscape areas clean and tidy at all times and
dispose of all waste materials arising from the cleaning. This shall include all
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pathways and hard landscape areas within the scope of works. If any large
items are dumped on the site the contractor shall either remove or contact the
owner or responsible authority to remove the items as quickly as possible.

F Palms
1 Care of replacement palms
(a) Six to eight weeks after planting, remove palm wrapping, separate
fronds and check for terminal bud growth. If terminal bud shows
signs of growth leave palm unwrapped to allow the heart to receive
sunlight. If no sign of regrowth is evident, it can be safely assumed
that the palm had died and therefore should be replaced.

2 Pruning & Cleaning

(a) Phoenix dactylifera and Washingtonia filifera and most other palms,
(If not self cleaning) require the oldest fronds being removed in
November, but periodic removal of dead fronds should be carried out
as and when necessary. The fronds should be removed using a sharp
disinfected saw cutting on the underside of the petiole as close to the
trunk as possible. To assist in the cutting, the frond should be
tensioned by pushing it upward.

(b) Any dead, dry leaves or stalks hanging must be removed;
Inflorescence must be tied and kept clean. Pollination shall be carried
out at right time with viable pollens collected from healthy palms.
Only workers experienced in pollination techniques shall be engaged
for this work. Excessive male inflorescence must be cut and removed.
Trunk shall be maintained with a uniform girth as the leaf sheaths are
to be cut clean.

(c) After an established period of one growing season the Contractor
shall clean palms by having all bases of old fronds saw back close to
stem at a downward sloping angle, leaving no cavities which might
harbor larval pests. Leaf axils shall be periodically checked for
inhabitance of rats or other reptiles and control measures shall be
taken urgently. Off shoots should be removed to keep only the main
single palm to give the best landscape appearance unless other wise
instructed by the Engineer.

3 Watering of Palms

(a) The Contractor shall co-ordinate with the irrigation contractor to
ensure that the palms receive adequate amount of water as per
application rates specified unless otherwise directed by the Engineer.

4 Fertiliser application

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(a) The Contractor shall start the regular maintenance Fertiliser
application programme from 3 months after planting or as directed by
the Engineer. Approved granulated Fertiliser with micronutrients
shall be applied at the rates specified in the Method Statement
approved by the Engineer prior to usage. Also note the general
maintenance fertiliser schedule table for guidance. Soil should be
moist at the time of fertilizing and irrigation should be followed
immediately after fertilizing.

5 Pest and Disease Control:

(a) The Contractor shall maintain proper controls by spraying at such
frequencies and in such amounts as to prevent insect and disease
problems. The Contractor shall carry out specific checks every month
to identify any causative organisms and treatments shall be target
oriented.

(b) Palms shall be inspected for signs of boreholes in their trunk. If these
are present both stem and head shall be treated twice with insecticide,
in mid May and again in mid June or as approved by the Engineer.
Control measures shall be timely addressed for major pests like Red
Palm Weevil, Root Knot Nematodes, Mealy Bugs, Fruit Stalk Borer,
Termites etc.

(c) Red Palm Weevil being the most dangerous pest of Date Palm has to
be controlled as per an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program.
IPM involves use of suitable pesticides and Sex Aggregation
Pheromone Traps. Mating and Egg laying of adult insects usually
takes place from November to April during low temperature and high
humidity. Pesticide sprays shall be carried out before pest population
multiply. Affected palms shall be immediately removed and disposed
from the site before infection spreads to other palms.

(d) Laying of bait or traps to control rodents shall be carried out in
problematic areas. All pest control measures shall be conducted as per
the Method Statement approved by the Engineer.

6 Maintaining Palm basins:

(a) Maintain palm-planting basins by removing all debris and weeds.
Care should be taken to protect bubblers and other irrigation
accessories while doing cleaning works.
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G Trees and Shrubs

1. Pruning

(a) All plants, in general, shall be maintained in a well-pruned condition
to improve their appearance and to keep them healthy. Remove from
time-to-time dead, dry, diseased and broken branches. While pruning,
care has to be taken for using proper pruning tools so that ragged and
split ends are avoided. Cuts should always be made on a slant/angle
so that they shed water easily. Also locate the cut end just above a
branch junction, bud or leaf node, pointing in the direction that it is
desired the new branch should grow. Stubs of branches left beyond
the bud will dieback to the bud, making entry of disease easier.

(b) For flowering trees and shrubs pruning should be carried out in a
manner that does not affect the forthcoming blossoms. The contractor
has to adopt the right pruning techniques to encourage foliage plants
to develop dense canopies and give the best appearance. Light
pruning to shape a plant or remove dead branches can be done all year
round. However, heavy pruning should be done during the dormant
season (December-February) only when leaves have fallen.

(c) For topiary plants, shape and structure must represent an attractive
figure. All cuts shall be clean leaving no stubs. Cut ends shall be
applied with a fungicide to prevent entry of disease causing
organisms.

2. Stakes & Tree ties

(a) Stakes for all ornamental trees should be inspected on a monthly basis
to prevent girdling of trunks or branches, and to prevent rubbing that
causes bark wounds. Any lean from natural causes should re
straighten. Stakes loosened or broken shall be repaired or replaced
using pressure treated 50mm square stakes as specified. Similarly tree
ties also shall be inspected at monthly intervals. Loosen ties when
necessary to avoid constricting the growth of limbs and the trunk.
Where necessary stakes and ties shall be replaced using the equivalent
material being removed. Tree stakes and supports should be removed
only once the plants are anchored strongly by its own root system and
the tree is capable of standing vertical and able to resist normal
summer high winds and winter storms.

(b) At completion of the maintenance contract the Contractor shall
obtain approval from the Engineer to remove all stakes and ties,
excepting those trees requiring continued support.

3 Watering:

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(a) The amount of water needed for healthy growth will vary depending
on plant size, wind and sun exposure, season and soil type. Therefore,
an optimum average water flow should be established for each season
or major change in weather as specified by the Engineer.

4 Fertiliser application:

(a) The Contractor shall start the regular maintenance fertiliser
application programme from 3 months after planting. The contractor
shall refer to the list of approved Fertilisers and micronutrients for
any of his fertiliser programme. These shall be applied at the rates
specified in the Method Statement approved by the Engineer.
5 Pest and Disease Control:
(a) Maintain proper controls by spraying at such frequencies and in such
amounts as to prevent insect and disease problems on trees and
shrubs. He shall undertake timely control measures preventing sap-
sucking, leaf-eating and stem-boring type insects.
(b) Sap-sucking pests include aphids, scale insects, mealy bugs, thrips,
and leaf or tree hoppers. Aphids, are carriers of virus diseases, and
some like scale insects, leaf hoppers and aphids, secrete a sticky
substance on stems and branches which induces growth of a
disfiguring black fungus called sooty mould. Tiny dark thrips suck
plant sap to cause malformation of leaves and flowers with white
streaks and marks that are particularly noticeable on darker blooms;
and phyllids or leaf miners cause swellings or discolored patches on
leaf surfaces or distortion of whole leaf.
(c) Leaf diseases, fungal, bacterial and viral, can also be responsible for
abnormities of the leaves of trees. Powdery mildew is one of the most
common and coats leave with a white, ash-like deposit causing them
to curl and drop off. Whenever needed a contact, systemic or
fumigant chemical shall be used to control these insects and diseases.
Control measures shall be conducted as per the Method Statement
approved by the Engineer.
6 Weed Control:
(a) Control the weeds by removing all undesirable plant material around
the base of trees on a regular basis. For trees planted in grass areas
approximately 80-100 cm diameters should be maintained around the
base of the tree free from grass and other plant material especially
when still staked or install HDPE trunk guards if powered nylon
string trimmers are used to clean the base of the tree.
(b) Trees in gravel and other planted areas should be kept clear of all
undesirable plant materials. The best method to maintain planting
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basins free from weeds is to remove them by hand digging. Due to the
tendency for the roots of most shrubs to be near the surface, it is
recommended that weeds in close vicinity of the plants stem i.e.
approximately 50cm are removed by hand and not dug out. Chemicals
can be used only in places away from other plants.

H Ground covers

1 Trimming and Edging

(a) The growth pattern of ground cover should be maintained in such a
way that within the same type, canopy level should be equally
maintained without growth differences unless otherwise instructed by
the Engineer. The top growth should be cut back to promote lower
growth and horizontal growth. Edging should be carried out when
plants have reached the edge of boundary. All pruning should be
carried out using hand shears or a powered edge trimmer. After
cutting, all clippings should be removed immediately to avoid any
problems of disease transmission from the dead leaves.

2 Fertiliser application

(a) The contractor shall apply fertilisers as per the approved Method
Statement, which is subjected to review every 3 months depending
upon the season, health of plants, horticultural practices and after the
soil test reports.

3 Pest and disease control:

(a) The contractor shall undertake control measures as per the approved
Method Statement, which is subjected to revisions monthly
according to pest and disease problems. The contractor shall gain
approval from the Engineer before every chemical application and it
shall be done in strict accordance with the Manufacturers
instructions.

4 Weed control

(a) Only hand weeding shall be permitted in order to avoid chemical
injury to ground covers. It is not easy to isolate weeds growing within
a ground cover area. If a weed needs chemical control measures, the
contractor shall use a selective chemical that kills only the weed
without harming the ground covers.

I Climbers & Vines

1 Pruning

(a) Pruning should start whilst the plant is small, so it will grow
gradually and increase evenly in size. Pruning of vines and climbers
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helps to maintain shape as well as induce vigor to plants. All pruning
cuts should be neat and clean and made 1 cm above a well-developed
healthy bud or sound out wards growing side shoot, at an angle of
about 45 degrees to the growing point. Light pruning to shape a plant
or remove dead twigs can be done all year, whereas heavy pruning is
best done in the dormant season. Vines should be pruned so that
stems are generally of equal length to help avoid them going "leggy".
Pruning just above outward-pointing branches will also help to train
them to spread laterally.

2 Watering

(a) The amount of water needed for healthy growth will vary dependent
on size, wind and sun exposure, growth rate and soil type. Therefore
an optimum average water flow must be established for each season,
or a major change in the weather.

3 Fertilising

(a) Fertiliser shall be applied as per the approved Method Statement

4 Tying

(a) Vines should be tied and trained to grow along the walls and against
trellis work, using expandable wire reinforced plastic ribbon twine.
The material should not harm the twigs or branches on tying or
require supports or stakes. The contractor shall obtain prior approval
of the Engineer for this material.

5. Weed Control:

(a) Weed control should consist of removing all undesirable plant
material around the plants. The best method is hand weeding,
although herbicides can be used cautiously to avoid any injury to
plants. Their use is not recommended due to the risk of damage to the
climber or vine. Regularly cultivating the soil surface to a depth of 50
mm can prevent weeds from establishing.

I Lawn Areas

(a) The contractor shall carry out all maintenance practices in a
systematic manner so as to give the best conditions of lawn. In areas
of extreme trespass or movement of people, extra management care
shall be required. Such areas should be brought under frequent
aeration using proper aerating equipments to break down the hard soil
pan formed by trespassing. Care should also be taken to replant dead
spots as it is appears. To achieve a healthy lawn the contractor shall
undertake the following maintenance operations.

1. Mowing:
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To exhibit attractive lush growth the frequency of mowing shall
be determined by the grass variety grown, climatic conditions
and other microclimatic factors. Mowing frequency shall vary
from twice weekly to once fortnightly in summer and cooler
months respectively depending upon the speed of growth and
species or as per the need according to growing conditions.
Grass shall be mowed at a height of 25 mm generally, but not
less than 1/3
rd
of total length of grass blade as this can cause
physiological shock. Under no circumstances shall grass be
mowed immediately after irrigation or a rain. Mowing shall be
followed at right angles to previous cutting direction.
Machinery for mowing (a mechanized mower) shall be fitted
with grass collecting boxes. Equipment shall be in optimum
operating condition prior to use. Faulty or un- serviced
equipment is not accepted for use. Cutting blades of mower
should be inspected before each cutting and should be
sharpened if required. Any broken or bent blades shall be
replaced immediately. Spillage of clippings should be manually
removed immediately after mowing before next irrigation. The
Contractor shall alternatively use a modern mower that can cut
grass in to fine pieces and spread grass clippings on the land. In
such case care shall be taken not to delay between mowing.

2. Trimming & Edging:

Trimming grass against the base of walls, fences, curbstones
and in places where access for mowers is not possible shall be
done regularly by hand with grass shears or with a powered
nylon string trimmer. Edging, that refers to the cutting of
horizontal growing grass against pavements, flower beds, plant
basins etc. shall be best carried out using a motorized edging
machine or long handled shears. Edging and trimming should
be practiced at a frequency of not less than once a week during
summer months (March-October) and as required during
dormant winter months (November-February).


3. Irrigation:

The Contractor shall ensure that the grass be given sufficient
amount of water through the irrigation system to maintain the
grass in a green healthy condition. Necessary changes in rate of
watering during different months of year shall be in accordance
with the instruction of the Engineer. For maximum effect to be
gained, watering should be carried out in early mornings, to
avoid excessive moisture loss due to evaporation. The
Contractor shall follow the Irrigation Manual to get guidance
for irrigation rates and methodology.

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4. Fertiliser application:

For best results fertilisers should be applied to the grass while
ground is dry and followed by thorough watering after
application, to reduce the risk of scorching. Fertiliser can be
applied either using applicators, which can be tractor mounted
for large areas or broadcast by hand in small areas. Whichever
method of application is used, it is important to obtain a good
even coverage to avoid 'patching' in the grass. The fertiliser
should be applied at half rate in two directions at right angles to
each other to ensure a complete spread. Prior to fertiliser
application, the contractor shall obtain approval of the Engineer
for the Method Statement and follow the rates and types of
fertilisers set out therein.

5. Weed Control:

Troublesome weeds coming up in lawn area can be controlled
either by manual removal or by using suitable selective
herbicide. While using herbicides care must be taken to choose
the right chemicals, as non-selective herbicides shall kill the
lawn grass. The contractor shall obtain the approval of the
Engineer after submitting the literature of the product and by
doing test applications. Broadleaf herbicides should be applied
whilst the target weed is actively growing and are best applied
late in the day to avoid excessive evaporation that would
prevent the plant from absorbing sufficient chemical. If
broadleaf weed infestation is severe, it may be necessary for
several applications at approximately two-week intervals to
achieve acceptable control. Herbicides can be applied using
powered spraying machines or a knapsack sprayer. When
using any chemical it is important to follow the manufacturers
instructions.

6. Dethatching:

Thatch is the build up of dead-looking material, old grass and
stolons between the soil surface and the leaf blades.
Dethatching is the process of removing this to allow proper
penetration of water, fertiliser and air to the soil surface and
root zone. The contractor has to dethatch the lawn once a year
or as necessary during the active growing period of lawn.
Proper equipments are to be used. After dethatching, all dead
materials shall be removed manually or with a mower having
box collectors. Follow fertiliser and irrigation application
immediately.
7. Aerating:
Contractor has to undertake aeration of lawn area as to break
down the hard pan of topsoil yearly once or twice, or as
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instructed by the Engineer. Proper aerating tools should be
used that shall remove small cores of earth, thus allowing
water, fertiliser and air through the soil surface down to the root
zone. Aeration shall be carried out more frequently for
playgrounds or heavily trafficked areas, or as instructed by the
Engineer.
8. Gap filling & Patch works:

The contractor shall repair dry or damaged patches or gaps in
lawn area with the same variety grass during a suitable season.
An appropriate planting method shall be followed to undertake
this work in accordance with Document 2900 Landscape Soft
works.
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9. Topdressing:

Topdressing is the application of fine planting soil to lawn
areas to remove minor hollows, settlement or unevenness of
damaged areas.

The lawn shall be cut prior to top dressing. Do not fully cover
the grass blades; prevent smothering by raking to work soil
down to ground level. Top dressing may be carried out in
several stages for more uneven areas. Topdressing should be
undertaken in the dormant period prior to summer. Apply
fertiliser after levels are obtained and irrigate the area.

10. Manure Topping:

Top dressing with manure shall also be practiced as per the
maintenance application Fertiliser, section 2.09 or as per the
approved Method Statement. When using manure care must
be taken to use well-decomposed manure in powder form free
from lumps or other impurities. Manure shall be applied during
moderate weather conditions and either hand spread or using a
manure spreader for large lawn areas. On no occasion should
manure be allowed to fall in heaps on lawn surface. Manure
application shall be avoided immediately before dethatching or
mowing. The best time is just after mowing before first
irrigation. Lawn area shall be thoroughly watered after manure
spreading. Always keep the ground moist until the manure
particles are properly incorporated with soil.

5.04 SUBMISSION OF REPORTS

A. Operations and Maintenance Schedule:

1 Within 7 days of accepting the contract, the contractor shall submit to the
Engineer for approval a comprehensive Operations and Maintenance Schedule
that includes methodology for addressing all horticultural and other issues
explained in this section. This shall include any other aspects the contractor
determines appropriate for the betterment of maintenance of landscape.

2 The schedule shall be broken into sectors covering the site. The sectors shall
not exceed 4000 m2 or as determined by the Engineer and the boundaries shall
be established by clear and obvious changes in landscape type treatment or
topography.

B Daily Records:

1 The contractor shall keep records of daily operations done in relation to
maintenance works. He shall include activities and procedures carried out on a
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day-to-day basis and submit the same along with the Monthly Report of
corresponding month. (See below)

C Weekly Maintenance Schedule:

1 The Contractors Site Supervisor/Foreman shall inspect the site at least once
per week during the maintenance period and shall prepare a brief schedule of
operations required for the coming week. The format for the schedule of
operations will cover each sector of the site as mentioned above.

2 The schedule shall describe the operations the contractor intends to carry out
in the coming week to cover the items listed in the specification and to ensure
that the current weather conditions and growing performance, insect attack,
etc. is taken into account.

3 A copy of this schedule is to be submitted to the Engineer every week so that a
running record of proposed operations can be checked at the maintenance
inspections each month.

D Monthly Maintenance Schedule:

1 The contractor shall prepare a Monthly Maintenance Schedule forecasting the
required maintenance operations for the coming month. This should be
submitted for approval to the Engineer before the 25
th
of the preceding month.

2 Maintenance activities shall not be limited to those listed in this Schedule and
submission or approval of this schedule in no way relieves the contractor from
the responsibilities of carrying out any additional maintenance works required
to maintain the landscape in good condition.

E Monthly Report:

1 The contractor shall prepare and submit a monthly report detailing all
activities and practices adopted during the previous month to the Engineer for
review. Photographs or drawings shall be included in the report wherever
progress evidences or proofs are needed. The Engineer shall review and
comment on the works done based on weekly and monthly forecasted work
schedules and daily reports.

F Payment:

1 If in the opinion of the Engineer the maintenance works have not been
satisfactorily carried out according to site conditions and the specifications,
part of the monthly payment shall be withheld until the works have been
satisfactorily carried out.

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5.05 MONTHLY INSPECTIONS

A All landscape areas will be inspected monthly by the Engineer using
maintenance checklists and the schedules submitted by the contractor. All
items on the previous months snags lists are to be carried out by the time of
the next inspection that is within that particular month unless agreed and/or
required more urgently.

B A list of snags outlining specific works that require completion will be issued
after each inspection to the contractor.


5.06 SOFT LANDSCAPE MAINTENANCE MANUAL

A The Contractor shall compile and prepare a comprehensive Soft Landscape
Maintenance Manual based on the project manual for post contract, if
available, use that will include all details of the following in compliance with
the requirements stipulated in the Contract Document;:

1. Pesticide/herbicide/fungicide applications including safety, application rates
and procedure, schedules of pesticides/herbicides/fungicides.

2. Irrigation including water application rates maintenance procedure.

3. Landscape maintenance including fertiliser descriptions, application rates
and programs.

4. Method Statements for each maintenance practices.

5. Maintenance practises detailed under Basic and Specific headings.

6. Equipment inventory, maintenance procedures and full manufacturers
maintenance manuals.

7. Personnel requirements.

B This manual has to be submitted 21 days before the expiry of maintenance
contract.

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5.07 FINAL COMPLETION HANDING OVER

A 14-days before the end of the maintenance contract, a joint inspection shall be
held with the Contractor and the Engineer to review the requirements for any
alteration or replacement in order to gain approval for final Handover. To
ensure satisfactory handover procedures, the site meetings held each month
between the Contractor, Engineer and Departments Representative will be
used to inspect and approve the maintenance works which will be reviewed to
ensure adequate work has been done.

B At the time of final inspection, all areas under this contract shall be free of
weeds, neatly cultivated and raked, and all plants in good order. No bare
patches of earth shall be visible in turf or ground cover planting areas.

C If, after the inspection, the Department and the Engineer are of the opinion that
all Works have been performed in accordance with the Drawings and
Specifications, the Engineer will give written approval of acceptance and
completion of the Maintenance contract period. If all or certain portions of the
Works are not acceptable under the terms and intent of the Drawings and
Specifications, the formal Maintenance Period for all the work shall be
extended at no cost to the Department, until the defects in the Works have
been corrected and the Works are accepted by the Department and the
Engineer.