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Social Networking has become very popular during the past few years, and it plays an
important role in our life nowadays. It helps us in the every fields of life such as political
field, economic field and educational field. This paper will summarize some of problems and
opportunities to use social networking.
Social networking is built on the idea of how people know should know and interact with
each other. It gives people the power to share, making the world more open and connected.
Nowadays, social networking has a vital influence on our live as it helps a lot in every field
of life such as political field, economic field and educational field. However, this paper tries
to highlight on the use of social networking in education and explain the advantages and
disadvantages of using social networking of educational purpose.
Social networking has never been as crucial and beneficial to companies. In our technical
world your next business prospect could only be a mouse-click away.
We all know that by participating in local organizations and being active in our communities
we are often greeted with the perk of new business opportunities. However, you may not be
aware of the business communities that are being developed and thriving online. These
networks allow you to locate business opportunities as well as find companies that may be
able to serve your business-to-business needs.

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A social networking service is a platform to build social networks or social relations among
people who share interests, activities, backgrounds or real-life connections. A social network
service consists of a representation of each user (often a profile), his or her social links, and a
variety of additional services. Social networks are web-based services that allow individuals
to create a public profile, to create a list of users with whom to share connections, and view
and cross the connections within the system. Most social network services are web-based and
provide means for users to interact over the Internet, such as e-mail and instant messaging.
Social network sites are varied and they incorporate new information and communication
tools such as mobile connectivity, photo/video/sharing and blogging. Online
community services are sometimes considered as a social network service, though in a
broader sense, social network service usually means an individual-centered service
whereas online community services are group-centered. Social networking sites allow users
to share ideas, pictures, posts, activities, events, interests with people in their network.
The main types of social networking services are those that contain category places (such as
former school year or classmates), means to connect with friends (usually with self-
description pages), and a recommendation system linked to trust. Popular methods now
combine many of these, with American-based services such as Facebook, Google+,
YouTube, LinkedIn, Instagram, Pinterest, Tumblr and Twitter widely used worldwide;
There have been attempts to standardize these services to avoid the need to duplicate entries
of friends and interests (see the FOAF standard and the Open Source Initiative A study
reveals that India has recorded world's largest growth in terms of Social Media users in
2013. A 2013 survey found that 73% of U.S adults use social networking sites.

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A web application or web app is any application software that runs in a web browser and is
created in a browser-supported programming language (such as the combination
of JavaScript, HTML and CSS) and relies on a web browser to render the application.
Web applications are popular due to the ubiquity of web browsers, and the convenience of
using a web browser as a client, sometimes called a thin client. The ability to update and
maintain web applications without distributing and installing software on potentially
thousands of client computers is a key reason for their popularity, as is the inherent support
for cross-platform compatibility. Common web applications include webmail, online retail
sales, online auctions, wikis and many other functions.
An online community is a virtual community whose members interact with each other
primarily via the Internet. Those who wish to be a part of an online community usually have
to become a member via a specific site. An online community can also act as an information
system where members can post, comment on discussions, give advice or collaborate. Online
communities have become a very popular way for people to interact, who have either known
each other in real life or met online. The most common forms people communicate through
are chat rooms, forums, e-mail lists or discussion boards. Most people rely on social
networking sites to communicate with one another but there are many other examples of
online communities. People also join online communities through video
games, blogs and virtual worlds.
A social networking service is a platform to build social networks or social relations among
people who share interests, activities, backgrounds or real-life connections. A social network
service consists of a representation of each user (often a profile), his or her social links, and a
variety of additional services. Social networks are web-based services that allow individuals

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to create a public profile, to create a list of users with whom to share connections, and view
and cross the connections within the system. Most social network services are web-based and
provide means for users to interact over the Internet, such as e-mail and instant messaging.
Social network sites are varied and they incorporate new information and communication
tools such as mobile connectivity, photo/video/sharing and blogging. Online
community services are sometimes considered as a social network service, though in a
broader sense, social network service usually means an individual-centered service
whereas online community services are group-centered. Social networking sites allow users
to share ideas, pictures, posts, activities, events, interests with people in their network.

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Advantages of social Networking Sites:-
Social networking helps people stay in touch that might not do it otherwise.
Social networking can be used to help advertise goods and services.
Social networking can provide an extremely accessible medium for self expression to
those with access to computer technology.
Social networking can help families torn apart by war, divorce, etc. stay in touch
easier and quicker than by some other means.
Social networking can be a powerful engine for job searches.
Social networking can leverage political power for groups that might not otherwise
have access.
Social networking can be used to counteract terrorism and organized crime.
Social networking can be used to find dating partners in a fractured society where
healthy meeting places are limited.
Social networking can be used to memorialize and honor dead persons to keep
memories and history that would otherwise fade alive.
Social networking can be used to get difficult personal issues out of the closet in
front of others so they can be examined and evaluated, and people in trouble can
garner support from their friends.
The main advantage of social networking site is that it helps in establishing
connection with people, friends and relatives. It helps in sharing ones view, share
pictures and lots of other stuffs.

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It helps students in interacting with one another and share ideas. This helps in
improving students creativity.
The social networking websites can be accessed from any part of the globe. This
helps the students to establish communication with their teachers and friends through
which they can improve their knowledge.
Social networking sites are not only used by the students for sharing pictures, videos
or it is not only meant for fun and entertainment. Through social networking sites
like Facebook, LinkedIn one can become a member and can also post relevant
information about campus drive.
Through these sites the students can establish contact with entrepreneurs, corporate
people and can gain valuable information from them.
Social networking sites have taken a new dimension called marketing. Certain
websites offer advertisements to its subscribers.

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Disadvantages of social Networking Sites:-
One of the major disadvantages of using social networking websites are the students
get addicted to it. They used to spend hours in those social networking sites which
can obviously degrade the students academic performance.
Some students may tend to use to these social networking sites till mid night or even
more which can obviously lead to health related problems.
Some students may spend time in Facebook through which they lack to spend time
with their family members. This can also be a disadvantage also.
Some students may provide detailed information like phone numbers, address which
is very dangerous because they can easily tracked down by strangers.
Social networking takes time away from other activities and can take over from real
time interaction.
Social networking formats set up expectations of importance for certain types of
communication at the expense of other types. Pictures and phrases on a wall can take
the place of phone calls and face to face time with family and friends.
Social networking magnifies the gap between people who have access to computer
technology and those that don't, exacerbating other social inequities.
Social networking can compromise privacy in a big way.
Social networking can force changes in public policy which can either be a good
thing or a bad thing depending on whose ox is gored. Employers can now make
access to private social networking history a condition of hiring. Lawmakers may
want to change that to prevent discrimination.

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Social networking can be used to destabilize governments and to advance terrorism.
Social networking can be used to promote organized crime.
Social networking can become a venue for bullying.
Social networking can be a vector for simplifying language, thereby limiting
concept development and expression.
Social networking can leave an indelible personal history that keeps a person who
has grown past a bad time from moving on freely.


1.1. Objectives of study
Social Networking is an online community designed to make your social life more
active and stimulating. Social network can help you maintain existing relationships
with pictures and cantos, and establish new ones by reaching out to people youve
never met before.
The Social Networking sites are helpful to find any one like friends, classmates and
Main Objective of Social Networking sites are to connect people
Provide Customer services
Online Branding
The main objective of a social networking site is to bring people together and get
them to stay connected to each other. This happens through members posting status
updates, sharing photos, and generally conversing with their network.
Social media networking is a more practical approach for dealing with the consumers.
It may be for improving the products listening to the customers views with critical
It may also help improving the ways of dealing with buyers using them as ears and
the eye of the organizations. All the big companies are quite optimistic about the
positive impact of Social media networking and gone into developing fully integrated
processed with a holistic touch. Take the example of activities the companies like
IBM, Microsoft and Google performs to strengthen their networking platforms via
social networks like Twitter and Facebook.


1.2. Scope of study
Social networking sites are not only for you to communicate or interact with
other people globally but, this is also one effective way for business promotion.
A lot of business minded people these days are now doing business online and
use these social networking sites to respond to customer queries. It isn't just a
social media site used to socialize with your friends but also, represents a huge
pool of information from day to day living.
This is the age of contacts for interaction between people to people through
social platforms in the web. The tremendous popularity of using the social media
networking could never have been realized before. In fact, social media have
become an important tool of marketing in true sense of customer orientation.
The scope of social networking is widening, and today it offers a strong support
to the companies in providing the much desired touch of concern.
Future of social media networking brings exciting promises as expected from the
experience of limited users from a few companies in the top bracket.
This is the beginning of interweaving social media networking as a positive
business process bringing two people together than merely two organizational


1.3. Methodology
Methodology is the systematic, theoretical analysis of the methods applied to a field of
study. It comprises the theoretical analysis of the body of methods and principles associated
with a branch of knowledge. Typically, it encompasses concepts such as paradigm,
theoretical model, phases and quantitative or qualitative techniques.
A methodology does not set out to provide solutions - it is, therefore, not the same thing as a
method. Instead, it offers the theoretical underpinning for understanding which method, set
of methods or so called best practices can be applied to specific case, for example, to
calculate a specific result.

Figure 1: Data Collection Methods


It has been defined also as follows:
1. "the analysis of the principles of methods, rules, and postulates employed by a
2. "the systematic study of methods that are, can be, or have been applied within a
3. "the study or description of methods"
1.4.1 Secondary analysis
Secondary analysis is when you analyze data which was collected by another researcher. It
allows the researcher to explore areas of interest without having to go through the process of
collecting data themselves in the field. The problem with using fieldwork methods in an
undergraduate dissertation, however, is that they are costly in terms of time (which is
relatively scarce in your final year!) and possibly your own financial resources too. You may
choose, therefore, to undertake secondary research, analyzing existing data.

There are some advantages of doing secondary analysis, particularly if you are doing a
quantitative study. You will be able to work with much larger datasets than you could have
collected yourself.
They allow you to discuss trends and social changes.

The data are often collected through a random sample, which allows you to generalize
to the population under consideration.
They may also allow you to make comparisons over time, as some datasets are
products of longitudinal studies. Examples of large datasets include the British Crime
Survey, and the Youth Cohort Study. Smaller, more targeted datasets may also be
Secondary analysis has disadvantages also: the data were collected for a purpose
different from yours.
You have to find out something about that purpose, as well as the methods of
collection, in order to justify your use of a secondary dataset.
1.4.2 Primary research
Primary research consists of a collection of original primary data collected by the
researcher. It is often undertaken after the researcher has gained some insight into the issue
by reviewing secondary research or by analyzing previously collected primary data. It can be
accomplished through various methods, including questionnaires and telephone interviews in
market research, or experiments and direct observations in the physical sciences, amongst
The term primary research is widely used in academic research, market research and
competitive intelligence.
There are advantages and disadvantages to primary research.
Researcher can focus on both qualitative and quantitative issues.

Addresses specific research issues as the researcher controls the search design to fit
their needs
Great control; not only does primary research enable the marketer to focus on specific
subjects; it also enables the researcher to have a higher control over how the
information is collected. Taking this into account, the researcher can decide on such
requirements as size of project, time frame and goal.
Compared to secondary research, primary data may be very expensive in preparing
and carrying out the research. Costs can be incurred in producing the paper for
questionnaires or the equipment for an experiment of some sort.
In order to be done properly, primary data collection requires the development and
execution of a research plan. It takes longer to undertake primary research than to
acquire secondary data.
Some research projects, while potentially offering information that could prove quite
valuable, may not be within the reach of a researcher.
By the time the research is complete it may be out of date.
Low response rate has to be expected.
The method you choose will affect your results and how you conclude the findings. Most
scientists are interested in getting reliable observations that can help the understanding of a
There are two main approaches to a research problem: Quantitative data

Quantitative data may also result from non-participant observations or other measurements
(e.g. in an experimental design). Also, sometimes data that are collected through qualitative
processes (participant observation, interviews) are coded and quantified. Your research
methods tutor can give you further information on these types of data, but here are some
common quantitative data collection methods and their definitions:

A series of questions that the respondent answers on their own. Self-
completion questionnaires are good for collecting data on relatively
simple topics, and for gaining a general overview of an issue.
Questionnaires need to have clear questions, an easy to follow design,
and not be too long.
Similar to a self-completion questionnaire, except that the questions that
are asked by an interviewer to the interviewee. The same questions are
read out in the same way to all respondents. There will typically be a
fixed choice of answers for the respondents.
Watching people and recording systematically their behavior. Prior to the
observation, an observation schedule will be produced which details
what exactly the researcher should look for and how those observations
should be recorded.
Table 1: Primary analysis (Quantitative analysis)
Quantitative research design is the standard experimental method of most scientific
These experiments are sometimes referred to as true science, and use traditional
mathematical and statistical means to measure results conclusively.

They are most commonly used by physical scientists, although social sciences,
education and economics have been known to use this type of research. It is the
opposite of qualitative research.
Quantitative experiments all use a standard format, with a few minor inter-
disciplinary differences, of generating a hypothesis to be proved or disproved. This
hypothesis must be provable by mathematical and statistical means, and is the basis
around which the whole experiment is designed.
Randomization of any study groups is essential, and a control group should be
included, wherever possible. A sound quantitative design should only manipulate one
variable at a time, or statistical analysis becomes cumbersome and open to question.
Ideally, the research should be constructed in a manner that allows others to repeat
the experiment and obtain similar results.
When to perform the quantitative research design.

Quantitative research design is an excellent way of finalizing results and proving or
disproving a hypothesis. The structure has not changed for centuries, so is standard
across many scientific fields and disciplines.
After statistical analysis of the results, a comprehensive answer is reached, and the
results can be legitimately discussed and published. Quantitative experiments also
filter out external factors, if properly designed, and so the results gained can be seen
as real and unbiased.

Quantitative experiments are useful for testing the results gained by a series of
qualitative experiments, leading to a final answer, and a narrowing down of possible
directions for follow up research to take.

Quantitative experiments can be difficult and expensive and require a lot of time to
perform. They must be carefully planned to ensure that there is complete
randomization and correct designation of control groups.
Quantitative studies usually require extensive statistical analysis, which can be
difficult, due to most scientists not being statisticians. The field of statistical study is a
whole scientific discipline and can be difficult for non-mathematicians
In addition, the requirements for the successful statistical confirmation of results are
very stringent, with very few experiments comprehensively proving a hypothesis;
there is usually some ambiguity, which requires retesting and refinement to the
design. This means another investment of time and resources must be committed to
fine-tune the results.
Quantitative research design also tends to generate only proved or unproven results,
with there being very little room for grey areas and uncertainty. For the social
sciences, education, anthropology and psychology, human nature is a lot more
complex than just a simple yes or no response.

19 Qualitative analysis
If you are conducting a qualitative analysis you are likely to wish to use at least some
original material. This may be collected through in-depth interviews, participant observation
recordings and field notes, non-participant observation, or some combination of these. Below
are some data collections methods that you might want to use for your dissertation:

A way of asking questions which allows the interviewee to have more
control of the interview. The interview could be semi-structured, which uses
an interview schedule to keep some control of the interview, but also allows
for some flexibility in terms of the interviewees responses. The interview
could be unstructured, here the aim is to explore the interviewees feelings
about the issue being explored and the style of questioning is very informal.
Or the interview could be a life history where the interviewer tries to find out
about the whole life, or a portion of the persons life.
Focus groups A form of interviewing where there are several participants; there is an
emphasis in the questioning on a tightly defined topic; the accent is on
interaction within the group and the joint construction of meaning. The
moderator tries to provide a relatively free rein to the discussion.

This involves studying people in naturally occurring settings. The researcher
participates directly in the setting and collects data in a systematic manner.
The researcher will observe behavior, listen to conversations, and ask
Table 2: Primary Analysis (qualitative analysis )
Spend some time looking at general books about research - they will give you an overview of
the data collection methods available and help you to make the best choice for your project.
Bryman (2004) would be a useful starting point.
For any piece of research you conduct, be it empirically based (quantitative or qualitative) or
library based, its methods must be justified. You need to show in the final dissertation how
you have given consideration to different methods, and why you have chosen and eliminated
Qualitative research design is a research method used extensively by scientists and
researchers studying human behavior and habits.
It is also very useful for product designers who want to make a product that will sell.
For example, a designer generating some ideas for a new product might want to study
peoples habits and preferences, to make sure that the product is commercially
viable. Quantitative research is then used to assess whether the completed design is
popular or not.
Qualitative research is often regarded as a precursor to quantitative research, in that it
is often used to generate possible leads and ideas which can be used to formulate a
realistic and testable hypothesis. This hypothesis can then be comprehensively tested
and mathematically analyzed, with standard quantitative research methods.

For these reasons, these qualitative methods are often closely allied with interviews,
survey design techniques and individual case studies, as a way to reinforce and
evaluate findings over a broader scale.
A study completed before the experiment was performed would reveal which of the
multitude of brands were the most popular. The quantitative experiment could then be
constructed around only these brands, saving a lot of time, money and resources.
Qualitative methods are probably the oldest of all scientific techniques, with Ancient
Greek philosophers qualitatively observing the world around them and trying to come
up with answers which explained what they saw.

The design of qualitative research is probably the most flexible of the various
experimental techniques, encompassing a variety of accepted methods and structures.
From an individual case study to an extensive interview, this type of study still needs
to be carefully constructed and designed, but there is no standardized structure.
Case studies, interviews and survey designs are the most commonly used methods.
When to use the Qualitative Research Design


Qualitative techniques are extremely useful when a subject is too complex be
answered by a simple yes or no hypothesis. These types of designs are much easier to
plan and carry out. They are also useful when budgetary decisions have to be taken
into account.
The broader scope covered by these designs ensures that some useful data is always
generated, whereas an unproved hypothesis in a quantitative experiment can mean
that a lot of time has been wasted. Qualitative research methods are not as dependent
upon sample sizes as quantitative methods; a case study, for example, can generate
meaningful results with a small sample group.
Whilst not as time or resource consuming as quantitative experiments, qualitative
methods still require a lot of careful thought and planning, to ensure that the results
obtained are as accurate as possible.
Qualitative data cannot be mathematically analyzed in the same comprehensive way
as quantitative results, so can only give a guide to general trends. It is a lot more open
to personal opinion and judgment, and so can only ever give observations rather than
Any qualitative research design is usually unique and cannot be exactly recreated,
meaning that they do lack the ability to be replicated.


Qualitative research focuses on gathering of mainly verbal data rather than measurements.
Gathered information is then analyzed in an interpretative manner, subjective, impressionistic
or even diagnostic.

1.4.3 Qualitative research of social networking
A number of the qualitative research solutions discussed in earlier sections have been
strongly influenced by the popularity of social media. In particular, some qualitative research
tools and platforms now offer the ability to create interfaces or environments that convey a
look or feel similar to Facebook, Twitter or other popular social media, in addition to more
neutral or custom branded environments.
Social media such as Facebook, LinkedIn, blogs, Twitter, fan groups, peer advice forums,
etc. have become a popular resource for secondary research, prior to investing in primary
qualitative research. Researchers often find social media to be a helpful starting point for
identifying trends and understanding how consumers express ideas.
As social media evolve, a variety of listening methods, such as text analytics and discourse
analysis, are being used to glean insights and inspiration. Qualitative researchers are often
tapped to apply their analytical and interpretive skills to these efforts.

Information shared through social media can be quite rich, since the people who contribute to
it are often highly engaged, interested, and in some cases influencers. However, social
media content may be skewed by people with very strong opinions. It can also be quite
challenging to determine whether users of specific social media represent your targets, since
social media can involve hundreds or even millions of participants and little is known about
them beyond what they communicate via the social media they use. In contrast, primary
qualitative research tends to involve smaller numbers of participants, recruited to fit precise
specifications based on your research objectives.
It can be tempting to try to engage users of natural social media in market research
activities either within the social media they use, or by recruiting them into research
conducted elsewhere. Some qualitative researchers have had good results recruiting business
people from LinkedIn or other social media that cater to people with professional interests.
However we recommend that recruiting via social media be done with caution, since many
people consider Facebook or other social media to be very personal spaces. It is also
important to be aware that it can be difficult or impossible to authenticate people from
sources like Craigs list or get paid to do research sites.
1.4.4 Benefits of social media over Primary research
Some of the benefits of social media over Primary research include:
A much larger sample size than primary research
Lower cost: Primary Research involves significant costs, much higher than gleaning
information from Social Media.

People talk about much more personally on social media than they would in an
interview, survey or focus group.
Unaided insights: Primary research follows the format of questions and answer. There
might be hidden insights that are not evident to interviewer that can be captured by
social media.
Speed of execution: Primary research takes weeks, sometimes months to deliver
insights. Social media research provides much speedier execution
Relevant audience: People talking about a theme on social media are the ones that
are most affected by that topic and thus is the most relevant audience for a research.
A primary research might not reach out to all relevant audience.


2.1 What is Social Networking?
Social networking is the grouping of individuals into specific groups, like small rural
communities or a neighborhood subdivision, if you will. Although social networking is
possible in person, especially in the workplace, universities, and high schools, it is most
popular online.

Figure 2: Social Networking

2.2 Concept of Social Networking

A social networking service is a platform to build social networks or social
relations among people who share interests, activities, backgrounds or real-life
connections. A social network service consists of a representation of each user (often a
profile), his or her social links, and a variety of additional services. Social networks are
web-based services that allow individuals to create a public profile, to create a list of

users with whom to share connections, and view and cross the connections within the

Figure 3: Social network services
Most social network services are web-based and provide means for users to interact over
the Internet, such as e-mail and instant messaging. Social network sites are varied and
they incorporate new information and communication tools such as mobile connectivity,
photo/video/sharing and blogging. Online community services are sometimes considered
as a social network service, though in a broader sense, social network service usually
means an individual-centered service whereas online community services are group-
centered. Social networking sites allow users to share ideas, pictures, posts, activities,
events, interests with people in their network.


2.3. Types of social networking

The social media space is booming, and at times, it can feel challenging to understand the
purpose of each channel and what kind of content is best suited for it. Social networks that
exist today come in many varieties, but they share a common goal: they are all built to
empower relationship building. Some exist to help you discover people and content, some are
strictly focused on communication, and some are focused on showcasing creativity each of
which convey different aspects of your personality. In a tactical sense, these social networks
can help you nurture current relationships and help you build new ones through the content
you share. This is why its helpful to fully understand the purpose of each social network, its
suggested audience, and how to create content that resonates with each network.
Use these simple guidelines to understand each type of social network, how they can serve
you, and what kind of content we recommend you post.
Social Networks - Services that allow you to connect with other people of similar
interests and background. Usually they consist of a profile, various ways to interact with
other users, ability to setup groups, etc. The most popular are Facebook and LinkedIn.
Bookmarking Sites - Services that allow you to save, organize and manage links to
various websites and resources around the internet. Most allow you to tag your links to
make them easy to search and share. The most popular are Delicious and Stumble Upon.
Social News - Services that allow people to post various news items or links to outside
articles and then allows its users to vote on the items. The voting is the core social
aspect as the items that get the most votes are displayed the most prominently. The

community decides which news items get seen by more people. The most popular
are Digg and Reddit.
Media Sharing - Services that allow you to upload and share various media such as
pictures and video. Most services have additional social features such as profiles,
commenting, etc. The most popular are YouTube and Flickr.
Micro blogging - Services that focus on short updates that are pushed out to anyone
subscribed to receive the updates. The most popular is Twitter.
Blog Comments and Forums - Online forums allow members to hold conversations by
posting messages. Blog comments are similar except they are attached to blogs and
usually the discussion centers around the topic of the blog post. There are MANY
popular blogs and forums.
Personal Networks
This is the oldest type of network in the digital game, and is easily identified because of its
inherently social nature. This social network exists to help you stay connected (and
sometimes even reconnect) with existing relationships by sharing important moments with
What to post: As suggested by the name, these networks thrive on personal content.
Whether sharing a milestone, an interesting article, or a location based check-in with
a friend this is the place to do it.
Positivity pays off. Weve seen that positivity boosts engagement and sharing. Try to
keep your content positive.
Keep it short. The most appealing updates are ones that offer something, but dont
give it all away.

Get visual. Posts with images tend to get very high engagement. When possible,
include photos with your posts.
Tag your friends. When appropriate, including your friends in your posts can help
boost the exposure of your content.
Content Sharing Networks
A content sharing network is often used to have larger scale conversations (often in real-
time). Although these networks help nurture both new and existing relationships, they tend to
be the best place to start to build new relationships and grow your audience organically.
What to post: Use a combination of personal and professional content to show more
dimensions of your personality and different aspects of your life. It can be intimidating to
enter the blurry (yet sometimes sweet) territory that sits between personal and professional
but a lack of social media presence can harm you more than help you. We recommend using
content sharing networks as tool to further your relationships with professional connections.
Numbers. Include interesting statistics and facts to pull in your readers.
Include other people. Use tagging functionalities to include relevant people in
your posts and start discussions.
Take advantage of hash tags. Including topically relevant hash tags in your post
can help its reach. Dont overdo it, though!
Include a clear CTA. Having a clear call to action helps your audience know what
you want them to do.
Be identifiable. Allow others to see who you are and find your profile. It can help to
have a high quality profile picture that is used consistent across your online profiles.

Shared Interest Communities
Shared interest networks are very community-oriented, informative by nature, and driven by
both professional and personal interests. People often use these communities to learn about a
skill, showcase things theyve learned, or stay connected with professional contacts.
What to post: These networks tend to have a healthy combination of personal and
professional content. Here are some ways to participate:
Ask questions. Shared interest communities are all about learning. Asking questions
is a great way to show your commitment to learning about a skill as well as a great
conversation starter.
Share your experiences. On the same token, you may know certain things that other
community members may not. Use your community to share how to capture the best
photograph of a sunset, how to get the best ROI for a marketing campaign, or how to
get more clients for your freelancing business.
Be identifiable. This one is worth mentioning again. Allow others to see who you are
and find your profile. It can help to have a high quality profile picture that is used
consistently across your online profiles.
Take it offline. Social media is a great way to discover interesting people, but the
real magic happens when you meet someone in person. If you find someone
especially inspiring or interesting, when the time is right, try to meet them in person.


2.4. Problem of Social networking

Figure 4: Problems of social networking
We all know how wonderful social networking ishow were all in touch with each other
and updated on each others lives. Sometimes, we know even more about people who live
abroad than those who live right next door. But some problems have come about because of
all the sharing and connectivity too. Have you experienced any of these?

1. Life envy All of a sudden, you find yourself wondering why your life isnt as fun and
fabulous as those of your friends. Whenever you check Facebook, Twitter, tumblr, or
Instagram, theyve uploaded photos of themselves at a party having the time of their lives
while you are still in your pajamas at three in the afternoon on a Saturday.
2. Friends are reduced to likes Instead of seeing who liked your photo or status update,
youre checking to see how many did. It doesnt really matter who liked what you posted, but
how many likes you were able to get! But then again, once someone really special laughs at a
joke you just told him, hes all that matters, right? Or at least he should be.

3. False information can spread like wildfire According to Facebook user Anne Santos,
Some people are careless in sharing news without checking the facts first. I remember how
so many people posted that a famous singer was dead and it was not true!
4. People are less sensitive Its easy to comment on someones post when you arent right
in front of them. It gives you more bravado, something you might think twice about if you
were having an actual conversation. This has been the cause of many fights, or the reason for
blocking and hiding friends.
5. Oversharing When the wife of Maria Tuasons (not her real name) cousin started
posting flirty messages and photos on the Facebook timeline of another man, everyone was
shocked. Thats how we found out that they were no longer together, she shares. It was
quite scandalous because even their lola asked to see the photos on Facebook! Tsk tsk.

6. Your life is on hold as you go online How familiar is this scenario to you? You and
your friends or family members are having a meal together, but no one is talking. Everyone is
on their phone checking their feed. You may like or comment on each others photos and
status updates while sitting right across from each other, but talking is not really the priority.
Having wifi is.

7. Nowhere to hide Before, if you wanted to stay away from your ex, all you had to do was
avoid his regular hangouts, but now, even if you block or unfriend him, he may still pop up
on your feed through a common friend! This can be a good thing if it forces you to deal and
move on, but it can be a very harrowing experience.

8. Stalking becomes easy If you want to know more about a person youve just met or
heard about, all you need to do is search for them and go through what they have posted on
their social networking sites. Because of this, how many people havent been hired because
of what theyve posted on their pages? How many students have been sanctioned because of
pictures theyve uploaded that schools do not approve of? Boundaries are not what they used
to be.

9. Its harder to diet! Majority of photos posted on Instagram are of children, pets, and
food. Food, glorious food. Food that will make you crave and binge. Food that will destroy
your diet. Tania Cruz (not her real name) has stopped checking her Instagram feed because
she cant stick to her diet with all the photos of mouth-watering dishes staring her in the face.

10. You feel lonely It may not make sense, but as social networking brings us together, it
can make you feel lonely too. As you see everyones connections and friendships, how
people comment and like everyone elses posts and not yours, how people get in touch with
you only when they want you to like their photo so they can win a contest, and so on. Or
what if you see a photo of all your friends at a get-together and you had no idea about it?

The best way to beat all these problems are: Have a good sense of humor and remember the
purpose of social media. Its meant to make your life and relationships richer, not the other
way around. The good news is, its all up to you and how you choose to deal with it alland
it shouldnt be to gripe about it on Twitter.
The Concerns

Social networking sites are applications and, as such, are generally not a problem for
organizations. It is the people who use them that are a cause for concern. Social networkers,
if one can call them so, are the root of five problems for an organization that allows social
networking at work.
One reason why organizations on social networking in the workplace are the fact that
employees spend a great deal of time updating their profiles and sites throughout the
day. If every employee in a 50-strong workforce spent 30 minutes on a social
networking site every day, that would work out to a loss of 6,500 hours of
productivity in one year! Although this may be a generalization, organizations look
very carefully at productivity issues, and 25 hours of non-productive work per day
does not go over well with management. When you factor in the average wage per
hour you get a better (and decisive) picture.
There is also an effect on company morale. Employees do not appreciate colleagues
spending hours on social networking sites (and others) while they are functioning to
cover the workload. The impact is more pronounced if no action is taken against the
Although updates from sites like Facebook or LinkedIn may not take up huge
amounts of bandwidth, the availability of (bandwidth-hungry) video links posted on
these sites creates problems for IT administrators. There is a cost to Internet
browsing, especially when high levels of bandwidth are required.
Viruses and Malware:

This threat is often overlooked by organizations. Hackers are attracted to social
networking sites because they see the potential to commit fraud and launch spam and
malware attacks. There are more than 50,000 applications available for Facebook
(according to the company) and while FaceBook may make every effort to provide
protection against malware, these third-party applications may not all be safe. Some
have the potential to be used to infect computers with malicious code, which in turn
can be used to collect data from that users site. Messaging on social networking sites
is also a concern, and the Koobface worm is just one example of how messages are
used to spread malicious code and worms.
Social Engineering:
Social engineering is becoming a fine art and more and more people are falling victim
to online scams that seem genuine. This can result in data or identity theft. Users may
be convinced to give personal details such as Social Security numbers, employment
details and so on. By collecting such information, data theft becomes a serious risk.
On the other hand, people have a habit of posting details in their social networking
profiles. While they would never disclose certain information when meeting someone
for the first time, they see nothing wrong with posting it online for all to see on their
profile, personal blog or other social networking site account. This data can often be
mined by cybercriminals.
Employers must be on the lookout for information that their employees may post, as
this may have an impact on the company. People often post messages without
thinking through what theyve have written. A seemingly innocuous message such as
Im working this weekend because weve found a problem in our front-end product

may be a spur-of-the-moment comment but could raise concern among customers
who may use that system, especially if the company handles confidential or financial
Reputation and Legal Liability:
At the time of authorship, there have been no major corporate lawsuits involving
evidence from social networking sites. However, organizations need to watch for
employees who may be commenting publicly about their employer. For example, one
young employee wrote on her profile that her job was boring and soon received her
marching orders from her boss. What if a disgruntled employee decided to complain
about a product or the companys inefficiencies in his or her profile? There are also
serious legal consequences if employees use these sites and click on links to view
objectionable, illicit or offensive content. An employer could be held liable for failing
to protect employees from viewing such material. The legal costs, fines and damage
to the organizations reputation could be substantial.

To Ban or Not to Ban?
There is no simple solution to any of the above issues. While internal controls and
technology can be used to an extent to control employee use of social networking tools, it is
impossible to control what they are posting at home.
And this is the dilemma that many businesses face today: They feel the need to change and
adopt these new methods of communication but they are greatly concerned that the
disadvantages and possible repercussions are too serious to ignore. Every action, every

minute spent online (and on social networking sites) may expose an organization to
numerous security threats. While the subject of productivity increase is debatable, the
security issues are not they are all too real.
Where does that leave businesses?
They have three options:
1. Ban access to social networking sites (and access to Internet as well).
2. Set limits and restrictions on use.
3. Allow unmonitored access.
Banning access to social networking sites may be an optimal solution for some organizations,
and one can see banks and government departments particularly keen on keeping the status
quo. However, many smaller organizations may feel that taking a heavy-handed approach
could be counterproductive, indicate a lack of trust in employees (probably justified to an
extent) and is too restrictive.
On the other hand, you certainly do not want to give unfettered access to social networking
sites. The best option may be to allow access to social networking sites while imposing limits
(when these can be used, for how long, and by whom). Regardless of which option an
organization may choose, they must ensure that the basic safeguards are in place:
1. Up-to-date anti-virus software,
2. A firewall and the ability to monitor the use of the Internet in general, and
3. Ability to monitor social networking sites in particular.


2.5. Opportunities of Social networking
The use of social media has exploded in the last several years, so much so that it now touches
almost every facet of our lives. Friendster, the first social media site, was launched in 2003.
Myspace, Facebook, LinkedIn, and Twitter soon followed. Facebook, the most popular of the
social media sites, currently has over 500 million users. It is the second most popular website
behind Google.
Social media is about community and relationships. You probably already realize how
important it is to increase your businesses exposure in your local community. Perhaps you
belong to the local Chamber of Commerce, Rotary club or serve on the board of a charitable
organization. Think of social media as an online extension of the many networking activities
you may already participate in as part of the real world. Some of the more commonly
known professional sites are LinkedIn, FastPitch and Plaxo. These sites are used for business
networking and job hunting. Many people consider them to be customer lead generation
vehicles as well. These sites share the common objective of building an online business
community. They can support your business by strengthening and expanding its network of
contacts. Based on specific trade and business information, LinkedIn, Fastpitch and Plaxo
can enable you to connect with individuals who may have mutually beneficial opportunities
to offer.
Eight social media workplace opportunities:
1. Promote your companys brandsales and marketing professionals can use social media
to introduce and promote new products and services in a way that increases a potential target
market exponentially. Social networking sites allow consumers to communicate with each

other and to share their thoughts and ideas about your companys products. Additionally,
social media sites provide consumers with the opportunity to follow your products or
services or to tweet about their experiences, thereby creating a more personal connection
while building brand loyalty.
2. Engage your customerswhatever your company sells, whether a product or a service, it
has a customer base that can be engaged through social media. But the manner of
engagement is unique because social media has revolutionized the style of business-to-
customer communications. Customers no longer want to be talked at. Instead, they are
looking for organizations to listen, to appropriately engage, and to respond to them. Social
media sites are now used as a version of electronic word of mouth and provide a platform for
your consumers to not only speak directly to your company, but also for consumers to
communicate with each other, sharing reviews or testimonials about specific products or
services. Companies that join social media sites are able to create stronger relationships with
their customers and are also able to improve customer service by utilizing social media to
address customer service issues.
3. Improved recruiting techniquesthe days of simply posting a job on a job board or
running a newspaper advertisement is long over. Instead, recruiters today are increasingly
turning to social media sites to attract and recruit top talent. In order to avoid being barraged
with hundreds of resumes submitted by unqualified candidates, recruiters are choosing to
perform targeted searches on professional social media sites, such as LinkedIn. Doing so
allows recruiters to search for candidates with specific knowledge, skills and experience.
Prospective employees are also using company profiles posted on social media sites to
develop lists of companies where they would be interested in working. By creating a detailed

profile, your company will be able to attract the best candidates and maintain strong ties with
former valued employees who could be potential candidates in the future.
4. Employee engagementSocial Networking tools allow organizations to improve
communication and productivity among employees. Professional social media sites such as
LinkedIn, allow your employees to join specific work groups in order to engage in
conversations with other professionals in similar industries. This kind of participation can
broaden the employees knowledge base and help to generate new and innovative ways of
meeting business challenges. Employees can also use social networking sites to build
targeted professional networks that can help them stay current with market trends. Allowing
employees the latitude to utilize social media techniques also promotes trust with employees
and fosters a more collaborative environment.
5. Cost effectiveusing social media as a sales and marketing tool is a very inexpensive mode
of advertising because it reaches a vast audience for a marginal investment. Instead of
spending large amounts of money on marketing and advertising campaigns, let your happy
customers advertise for you. Many consumers rely heavily on social media sites such as
Yelp, Urbanspoon, and City search for peer reviews of businesses. Many consumers are no
longer going directly to the source for product information; they trust their peers to fairly
review products for them. Therefore its a good idea to encourage your customers or clients
to check-in at your business, or direct them to review your product online. This method
ensures that you reach a vast audience via social networks, and even better, doesnt cost you
a thing.
6. Share information about your companyboth customers and potential employees use
social media to research companies that they have an interest in knowing more about. Social

media sites provide an excellent medium for companies to share positive information. It is
important to leverage sites such as Facebook and Twitter to your advantage. If your company
doesnt already have a Facebook page you should challenge your marketing team to create
one. Posting a Facebook page will allow your company to generate an online community of
clients or customers that are familiar with your product. Encourage your customers to like
your Facebook page. Each time an individual likes a page; all of their friends see that
endorsement and may become motivated to visit your site. If you have a new product coming
outor maybe youve been recognized for a current product or servicelet your customers
know via Twitter. Strategically timed tweets disseminate information about your company
to thousands of potential customers or employees.
7. An opportunity to listenremember, just because you arent listening, doesnt mean people
arent talking. Conversations about you and your business may be taking place with you or
without you. By actively taking part in the conversations happening on the web, you are able
to manage these conversations in a positive manner. Leverage social media to solicit
constructive feedback from both customers and employees. Social media allows companies
to collect feedback both more quickly and more cost-effectively than does a traditional email
or phone survey strategy. Many social media sites allow businesses to create polls, which are
posted online and are viewable to anyone that visits your site. This is a great way to get
invaluable feedback that you can use to improve your product. Also, by encouraging
employees to participate in these polls you can improve employment practices or pinpoint
deficiencies in your human capital practices and strategy.


2.6. Benefits of Social Marketing
Expanding Market Research
Social networking sites give businesses a fantastic opportunity to widen their circle of
contacts. Using Facebook, for example, a small business can target an audience of
thousands without much effort or advertising. With a good company profile and little in
terms of costs, a new market opens up, as do the opportunities to do business.
Personal Touch
Social networks allow organizations to reach out to select groups or individuals and to
target them personally. Businesses can encourage their customers to become connections
or friends, offering special discounts that would be exclusive to online contacts. This
personal touch is not only appreciated but may give the business access to that customers
own network of contacts.
Improve Your Reputation
Building strong social networks can help a business to improve its reputation with as little
advertising as possible. Social networks can boost your image as thought leaders in the
field and customers/contacts start to acknowledge your business as reliable and an
excellent source of information/products that suit their requirements.
Low-Cost Marketing
Once social networks have become established and people become familiar with the
brand, businesses can use the sites or applications to implement marketing campaigns,
announce special offers, and make important announcements and direct interested people

to the specific Web sites. It is mostly free advertising, and the only cost to the business is
the time and effort required to maintain the network and the official Web site.
2.7. Opportunities to use of social networking in education
In the field of education, social-networking sites offer a student the opportunity to
connect with other students, educators, administrators, alumni, both within and outside
his current institution. Scholars praise social-networking tools for their capability to
attract, motivate and engage students in meaningful communicative practice, content
exchange, and collaboration. There are some of opportunities in the use social networking
in education I will mention some of them.
Flexible learning expands choice on what, when, where and how people learn. It
supports different styles of learning, including e-learning. Flexibility means anticipating,
and responding to, the ever-changing needs and expectations of Vocational Education
and Training clients - enterprises learners and communities". Flexibility is one of the
most attractive elements of online learning in social networking. Blended approaches that
combine face-to-face and online learning are preferable to an online pedagogy alone.
Face-to face classes are likely to enable high levels of emotional understanding, while the
convenience and flexibility of online components can motivate students to complete
educational tasks.
It contributes to the different perspectives of the students, forums such as chat rooms that
exist in social networking provide opportunities to exchange views on topics [9], which
increases the opportunities to take advantage of views and proposals and their integration

with the views of the student, and helps in the formation of a solid foundation for
students in their knowledge purpose of.
The education theories confirm that human interaction is a vital element in the learning
process. It should be noted that social networking provides participation through such
virtual classrooms, chat rooms and meetings by video.
Remember information depends on all of our sensory, while the response depends on the
features of individual and the motivation to learn. So, it must be therefore provided a way
that has offered for a learner the possibility of repetition, which is rarely offered by
traditional educational methods. The social networking has offered this way through their
sites and gives the opportunity for learners to retrieve the information immediately or
Convenience and accessibility
The social networking is easy and quick in term of accessing accessibility, reviewing,
updating, and editing learning material needs any time and any where [9]. In addition, it
allows for option to select learning materials from large quantity of courses offered
online which the learner needs and it also makes easier distribution of courses material.
The social networking helps to reduce stress and increase satisfaction among students. It
allows each student (slow or quick) to study at their own pace and speed (self-pacing).
Furthermore, it is easy to join bulletin board discussion any time, or visiting classmates
and instructors remotely in chat room.

It can provide stronger understanding and increase retention on the subject , due to using
many elements which exist under e-learning, e.g. multimedia, quizzes, interaction ... etc
and the ability to retry training and over in order to understand.
The social networking allows access to courses available in their sites, allowing the
learner to follow-up online at any time it deems appropriate, and overcome the limitations
of space and time in the educational process. As a result, it helps resolve timetable


2.8. Advantages and Disadvantages of Social Networking: Should You Spend
More Time?
Social networking is the hottest online trend of the last few years. Not only do social
media sites provide a way to keep in contact with friends, but they can also offer
opportunities for professional online networking. Social networking could be
advantageous for your career, but there are also disadvantages to consider. Could the
time you spend interacting online be put to better use? Lets take a look at the
advantages and disadvantages of social networking to work out whether you should be
devoting more of your attention to this online activity.
Advantages of Social Networking
Social networking offers many benefits. It is now easier than ever to keep in contact
with old friends and colleagues. The professional networking site LinkedIn even allows
users to request introductions to business people who are known to their contacts. The
potential of this enhanced connectivity is huge; whereas once you would be left sifting
through business cards after a networking event, trying to remember details about each
person, you can now easily look up a connections credentials and business interests on
their social media profile.
LinkedIn is a particularly valuable business tool; over 200 million people are members,
including hiring managers from many top companies. Your profile is designed to
function as an online resume, detailing your education, career history (with
recommendations from your colleagues), and creative portfolio. The platform
encourages users to connect with people working in their organizations, and to endorse

their colleagues for the skills they display in their daily work. You can learn how to
take advantage of all that LinkedIn has to offer with this LinkedIn Training Course.
Social networking is particularly vital for entrepreneurs. Freelancers can find contacts
via professional groups on LinkedIn and Twitter, while business owners can make use
of the large user bases of Facebook and Twitter to market their products and services.
Facebook has a range of services designed to help businesses market themselves more
effectively, including the ability to target advertising at the precise demographic groups
that are likely to respond favorably. Find out how to create a Successful Facebook
Advertising Campaign with this free online course.
What about Twitter? Business owners can also use this service for effective promotion,
as explained in this Twitter for Business online course.
Disadvantages of Social Networking
The primary disadvantage of social networking is that most people do not know how to
network effectively. As a result, the few benefits they get from their networking activity
are not worth the time invested. The best way to avoid being disappointed in this way is
to decide on a strategy for using social sites, and stick to it. For example, if you are
going to use Twitter to draw attention to exciting new content on your website, then
resist the temptation to waste time tweeting about unrelated topics. Stay focused on
what you want to achieve and dont let yourself get distracted.


3.1 Results of the study
Social networks are popular places for people of all different backgrounds and experiences to
meet. Furthermore, they can be powerful tools for businesses to establish brand presence,
build brand awareness, as well as save advertising costs in economically dismal times. There
are opportunities for businesses to grow public awareness and get involved in the
communities, as well as continue to research for other ways to advertise on social platforms,
such as incorporate mobile handset devices into the marketing model.
However, businesses must also be wary of ethical issues such as intruding user privacy,
aggressive advertising, and spamming, in addition to legal pitfalls and data mining issues.
Moreover, the businesses must have a strategic e-commerce plan, as social networks are not
quite up to par on e-commerce transactions. Protecting user privacy and securing the users
personal data has become one of the most imperative goals of todays society. It is
particularly important in the age of rapid expansion and tremendous popularity of social
networking sites. In conclusion, social network advertising is flourishing in the era of Web
2.0 end-user interaction. Therefore, it is advisable that businesses not ignore the opportunities
to jump in and expand their customer base.


3.2 Limitations of the project
The illegal activities on Facebook are very wild, especially phishing attack which is the
most popular way of stealing other peoples passwords. The Facebook users are led to land
on a page where they are asked for their login information, and their personal information is
stolen in that way. According to the news from PC World Business Center which was
published on April 22, 2010, we can know that a hacker named Kirllos illegally stole and
sold 1.5 million Facebook IDs to some business companies who want to attract potential
customers by using advertisements on Facebook. Their illegal approach is that they used
accounts which were bought from hackers to send advertisements to friends of users. When
friends see the advertisements, they will have opinion about them, because People will
follow it because they believe it was a friend that told them to go to this link," said Randy
Abrams, director of technical education with security vendor Eset. There were 2.2232% of
the populations on Facebook that believed or followed the advertisements of their
friends. Even though the percentage is small, the amount of overall users on Facebook is
more than 400 million worldwide. The influence of advertisements on Facebook is so huge
and obvious. According to the blog of Alan who just posted advertisements on the Facebook,
he earned $300 over the 4 days. That means he can earn $3 for every $1 put into it. The huge
profit attracts hackers to steal users login information on Facebook, and business people
who want to buy accounts from hackers send advertisements to users friends on Facebook.


3.3 Suggestions & Recommendations.
The social networking is easy and quick in term of accessing accessibility, reviewing,
updating, and editing learning material needs anytime and anywhere. In addition, it allows
for option to select learning materials from large quantity of courses offered online which the
learner needs and it also makes easier distribution of courses material.
The social networking helps to reduce stress and increase satisfaction among students. It
allows each student (slow or quick) to study at their own pace and speed (self-pacing).
Furthermore, it is easy to join bulletin board discussion any time, or visiting classmates and
instructors remotely in chat room.
It can provide stronger understanding and increase retention on the subject, due to using
many elements which exist under e-learning, e.g. multimedia, quizzes, interaction. etc and
the ability to retry training and over in order to understand.
The social networking allows access to courses available in their sites, allowing the learner to
follow-up online at any time it deems appropriate, and overcome the limitations of space and
time in the educational process. As a result, it helps resolve timetable conflicts.
It's a good way to keep up with what people are doing, especially friendly
acquaintances you don't know enough that you'd phone or email them
otherwise. I think of it as quasi-keeping in touch. You're not directly
contacting the other person, but you're indirectly staying on each other's minds
and letting each other know what's going on in your lives through your
Facebook activity.

It's a really convenient way to organize get together. Create an official event,
or just a message to a bunch of people, and then let them work out the details.
Done properly and in moderation, it can be a good way to show your
personality to people. Through your status updates, 'Liked' pages, or videos or
articles you link to, you can let your friends know a bit about what makes you
tick. I can think of acquaintances I've added to Facebook, who when I read
their listed Interests, or saw an interesting story they linked to, thought, "Oh
wow, I didn't know they were into that stuff."
If a business is going to allow access to social networking sites, there are some basic tips to
1. Restrict access.
Give employees a breather and allow them to access social networking sites during their
lunch break, before and after office hours. Web filtering software gives administrators the
ability to implement time-based access to these and other sites.
2. Educate and train staff.
This is very important. Most employees are not aware how their actions online can cause
security issues for the organization. Tell them in a language they understand how a simple
click on a link they receive or an application they download can result in malware infecting
their machine and the network. Additionally, tell them not to click on suspicious links and to
pay attention when giving out personal details online. Just because employees are clever
enough to have an online profile does not mean they are technically savvy or that they have a
high level of security awareness.


3. Set security and usage policies.
Have all employees sign any policies related to the use of the Internet at work, access to
social networking sites and what they are allowed to say or do during office hours.
Monitoring of all Web activity is important, and employees should be aware that their actions
are being recorded and that failure to adhere to company policy can result in disciplinary
action and/or dismissal.


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