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Comes from Greek:
penta () five +
teuchos () roll = five rolls
Hebrew term = Torah hr"AT
Typically translated law in English Bibles, but this is
an inadequate translation.
Torah = instruction or teaching

The Genres of Torah
Genre = type of literature
Four major Torah genres:
Narrative -- majority of Pentateuch (Gen., Exod. 1-18,
Lev. 8-10, Num.)
Laws & regulations (Exod., Lev., Deut.)
Poetry (Gen. 49; Exod. 15; Deut. 32)
Genealogies (Gen. 5, 10, 36, Exod. 6) and censuses
(Num. 3 and 23)
The Purposes of Torah according to Torah
Impart wisdom (Deut. 4:5-8)
Wisdom is the skill of seeing life and all its components
from Gods perspective and keeping the proper focus.
Provide guidance (Exod. 16:4; Deut. 5:33)
How to be right with God by faith (Gen. 15:6)
How to walk with God (Leviticus)
Grant physical life (Lev. 18:5)
Ensure success (Deut. 28:1-14; Josh. 1:8)
Equip us for every good work
2 Tim. 3:16-17 All Scripture is inspired by God
and profitable for teaching, for reproof, for
correction, for training in righteousness; so that
the man of God may be adequate, equipped for
every good work.
Composition of the Torah
Mosaic Authorship
Claimed in the following books of the Pentateuch
Exod. 24:4, 34:27; Num. 33:2; Deut. 31:9
Affirmed by OT terminology
law of Moses (22x; Josh. 8:32; 1 Kgs 2:3)
book of Moses (5x; Ezra 6:18)

Composition of the Torah
book of the law of Moses (3x; Josh. 23:6; 2
Kgs 14:6)
word of the Lord by Moses (1x; 2 Chron.
commandment of Moses (1x; 2 Chron. 8:13)
Composition of the Torah
Verified by Jesus
Mosaic authorship of Pentateuch generally
Luke 24:27 Beginning at Moses and the Prophets

Luke 24:44 all things which are written about
Me in the Law of Moses and the Prophets and the
John 5:46 If you believed Moses you would
believe me
John 7:19 Did not Moses give you the law?
Composition of the Torah
Jesus attribution of specific books of the
Pentateuch to Moses
Exodus -- Mark 7:10 Moses said "honor father and
mother," "whoever speaks evil of father and
mother is to die" (Exod. 20:12, 21:17)
Leviticus -- Matt. 8:4 Moses commanded offerings
for cleansed leprosy (cf. Mark 1:44)
Deuteronomy -- Matt. 19:8 Moses permitted you
to divorce your wives (Deut. 24:1-4)
Composition of the Torah
Date of Composition
Between 1445/6 and 1405/6
Some later editing by Joshua is possible
but not necessary.
E.g., death of Moses narrative (Deut. 34)
God could have inspired Moses to write the
account of his own death. We dont know for
Composition of the Torah
Possible Order of Composition
1. Exod. 15 Song of Moses
2. Exod. 20 Ten Commandments
3. Exod. 22-24 Book of the Covenant
4. Exod. 25-30 Instructions for Tabernacle
5. Parts of Leviticus
6. Narrative sections of Gen.-Num. ?
7. Deuteronomy
Composition of the Torah
Canonical Arrangement
No evidence for alternative order
Historical motive: arrangement appears to be
basically chronological
Theological motive: illustrate how to be right
with God (Abraham, Joseph) before laying out
the walk with God (Mosaic Covenant).
Contextual motive: background to and
justification for conquest of Canaan.
How to Read Scripture
Allows us a limited view into the world of the
ancient near east
Stained Glass
Highly selective portrait designed to
communicate a theological message
Narratives reveal human nature and thus our
own nature, teaching us how to live and please