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Chapter 6: Integument

Chapter 6: Integument MISC. TERMS AND INFO - conjunctiva : exposed portion of the eyeball, usually


- conjunctiva : exposed portion of the eyeball, usually transparent; covers the eardrum; directly continuous with mucous membranes that line all the passageways opening onto the surface - epidermis derived from ectoderm - dermis derived fr om mesoderm - variations in the Morphological features of the epi & derm

1. relative # and complexity of skin glands

2. extent of differentiation of specialization of the most superficial

layer of epi

3. extent of bone development in dermi

- skin of amphiox us exhibits epi and dermi, but epi is only one cell thick.

SKIN OF THE EFT (Notophthalmus )

- eft: juvenile land stage of aquatic urodele Notophthalmus - does not reflect ancient feature of craniate but illustrates contrasting adaptations of craniate skin fo r life on land as opposed to life on water. - epi: stratified epithelium >columnar cells in the basal, or germinal , layer are constantly undergoing mitosis, replacing those lost from the surface. >proliferation from the basal layer causes older cells to be pushed outward. >as they approach the surface, they synthesize keratin: scleroprotein

insoluble in wate r, and they become flattened ( squamous ).

> keratin ization : - keratinized/cornified: causes cells to die

> in efts: cornified layer is thin in contrast to thick cornified stratum in craniates. - glands of the skin develop from the epi and, in efts, are simple multicellular sacs that bulge into the dermis, where they are in the immediate vicinity of capillaries that supply nutrients and oxygen, and carry away metab wastes.

> they are able to synthesize mucus, but in the eft stafe they are

quiescent although not totally inactive. - dermis of efts consists of connective tissue that supports the bases of the glands, bV, lymphatics, small nerves, and pigment cells.

> it adheres to underlying body wall muscle.

- larvae live in water( many active mucous glands/no cornified epi) à metamorpho sed on land( skin glands à quiescent, epi keratinized , persists in land ) à sexually mature in water(mucous glands become active again, corni fied cells are shed and do not reappear ) >skin of larvae and aqua adults resembles that of fishes, skin of efts is like terrestrial amphi.


- avascular epi is the interface between organism and environment

- vascular derm provides physiologic support for the interfacing epi - 2 kinds of nonliving coverings of the epi in craniates:

1. mucus

2. stratum corneum

- unicellular epi glands of larval amphi - multicellular epi glands of metamorphosed amphi & amniotes (these invade the derm)

+ [Epidermis of Fishes & Aquatic Amphi) - predominant feature: abundance of epi glands - scales located beneath epi Epi Glands of Fishes

- mostly unicellular - goblet cells: secrete only mucus - granular cells: secrete mucus & other ingredients like (slime or

alkaloids) - sl imy mucus secreted in quantity in response to stressful external stimuli (hagfishes) - alkaloids not common in aquatic fishes - fucntions of mucus:

1. nutrition (for babies/hatchlings)

2. irritating toxins

3. unknown

Epi Glands of Aquatic Amphi

- mostly multi cellular - mucous/granular glands

- tailed amphis that are semiaquatic have the largest number of integumentary glands - functions of mucus:

1. respiratory membrane

2. holdfasts

3. restraining the female during amplexus


- light - emitting organs - ari se in the epi and invade the derm - upper part: magnifying lens - base: blood sinus (raw materials needed for bioluminescence), melanophores - functions of photopores

1. species and sex recognition

2. lure/warning

3. aid to concealment by countershading

Kerat in - most fishes synthesize little/no keratin - aquatic urodeles: thin dessication - impeding stratum - lampreys and hagfishes: conical cornified “teeth” - tadpoles: horny toothlike structures - aquatic urodeles: calluslike caps on toes - terrestrial craniates: ke ratin is a feature of the skin

+[Epidermis of Tetrapods]

- stratified epithelium - Peterson’s (Unnatural) Law: “Anything that can happen will happen.” - 2 primary epidermal features of terrestrial tetrapods:

1. integumentary glands

2. stratum corneum

Epiderm al Glands - saccular/alveolar (dipnoans and amphis)

- tubular: (abundant in mammals)digestive tract - 3 basic categories:

1. merocrine glands: sweat glands of humans

2. holocrine glands: oil glands of birds/sebaceous glands of


3. apocrine glands: mamma ry glands

- M ucus glands +confined to lubricated surfaces +synthesis of mucus would dehydrate a craniates lacking drinking water/moisture - G ranular glands +terrestrial amphis +not abundant in reptiles +absent in birds and mamals +source of many pheromones + pheromone functions - affect the behavior/physiology of other organisms/same species - signal the sex of an organism - identify members of the same population - leave trails +restricted to a localized area of the body +parotoid gland (in toads) behind the eye +femoral gland: secrete a substance that hardens to form temporary spines that restrain the female during copulation +musk turtles: yellowish fluid from 2 glands +crocs: row of (supposedly pheromonal) glands of unknown function - A vian oil gland s +uropygia l gland: largest in aquatic birds and domestic fowl +water repellent + secretion during preening +smaller oil glands line the outer ear - S ebaceous glands +oily exudate +secretion: sebum (into hair follicles) +ceruminous glands secrete cerumen (hairs trap in sects) +meibomian glands moisten the conjunctiva +chalazion: inflamed swelling on the conjunctival surface of the lid

- S udoriferous glands +a.k.a.: sweat glands +tubular glands that extend deep into the derm of mammals +predominant secretion: thermoregula tory +furry regions +mammals that lack sweat glands: pangolins, cetaceans, sireniands, echidnas +ciliary glands: open into the eyelash follicles +humans: largest # of sweat glands - Scent glands + both sebaceous and sudoriferous glands produce scents + functi ons - drive away enemies (skunks’ anal gland) - signal the sex (musk deer’s anal gland) - defense (kangaroos’ sebaceous gland)

Chapter 6: Integument

Chapter 6: Integument - for breeding (elephants’ temporal gland) +not all pheromones are products of integumentary

- for breeding (elephants’ temporal gland) +not all pheromones are products of integumentary glands - Mammary glands +develop in b oth sexes from milk lines (elevated ectoderm beneath the dermis) +nipple: forms above a patch of a milk line (derived from the

ventrolateral milk line but displaced dorsad during ontogenesis) +derived from sebaceous glands +secretion: includes lipids +kind s -





- - inguinal +cystern: terminal ducts at the base of the nipple where milk accumulates after having been “let down” from the lobes +oxytocin: hormone in the pituitary responsible for the smooth muscle contractions that cau se milk letdown +monotremes: no nipples

Stratum Corneum - early specializations: scales, claws, horny protuberances, hair, feathers (most remarkable). - Epidermal scales +amniotes +in squamates: stratum corneum is arranged on overlapping folds of the epi +th inning of stratum corneum permits mobility +scutes: large thin quadrilateral/polygonal scales +turtle scutes and scales don’t overlap +epi scales develop in birds on the apterylae +armidillos: hair and scales interspersed +mammals: confined to the legs and tail +pangolin scales are agglutinated hairs +lizards and snakes have 2 distinct layers:

- inner: deposited - outer: molted - Claws, hoofs, & nails +modifications of the stratum corneum +2 curved parts: unguis (dorsal) & subunguis (ventral) +both wrap arou nd the terminal phalanx +cuneus: cornified pad


Feathers +3 morphological varieties:






- filoplumes


Morphological Varieties of Feathers




+shaft à 2 vanes - base of shaft: calamus/quill - vane bearing: rachis +barbs à barbules( have hooklets)&flanges +superior umbilicus +afterfeather +pterylae: feather tracts +arrectores plumarum: smooth erector muscles Down:


+ small fluffy feathers underneath and between contour feathers Filoplumes:

+hairlike feathers consisting of a shaft +bri stles: resemble filoplumes but lack terminal barbs Development of a Feather - Dermal papilla : mound of mesodermal cells in the derm that indents the undersurface of the epi and induces mitotic activity in its basal layer - feather primordium: pimplelike elev ation on the surface of the skin - feather follicle: pit lined with epi around the f.primordium’s base - feather sheath: active growth zone at the base of the f.follicle - pinfeather: feather still surrounded by its sheath - full grown feather à dermal papilla i n the shaft dies and becomes pulp à papilla withdraws from the shaft base leaving an opening à inferior umbilicus Origin of Feathers - derived from reptilian scales - both initiated by formation of a vascularized dermal papilla - the 2 are dissimilar - protofeathe rs (in the Chinese Sinosauropteryx) add to the validity of scale - to - feather scenario - Hair +keratinized appendages

+root surrounded by a network of sensory nerve endings - ex. vibrissae(whiskers)

Morphology of a Hair - bulb: continual mitosis (how hairs elon gate) - root: where hair cells are dying and cornifying - shaft: remainder of the hair surrounded by sebum - cuticle: membranous cornified squamous cells covering the hair - medulla: coarse/spiny hairs contain these cornified cells separated by large amounts o f air and connected by intercellular bridges of keratin - arrector pili: tiny smooth muscle responsible for elevating the hairs (gooseflesh) - also a device for thermoregulaion - agglutinated hairs:

+ scales of pangolins +horns of rhinos - modifications of hair :

+bristles +spines of anteaters +porcupine quills

Origin of Hair

- - protothrix: tactile bristle - neomorphs: structures that have no ancestral precursor - Feathers, hair, and dermal papillae + morphogenesis of a feather: dermal papilla à activity in the ectoderm + morphogenesis of a hair: ectodermal invagination à dermal papilla - Horns and Antlers + 3 varieties o f mammalian horns:

- bovine horns - hair horns - horns of pronghorn antelopes + antlers and giraffe horns are not “true” horns Bovine Horns and P ronghorns - oxen, cows, sheep, goats & pronghorn antelopes - prime feature: core of dermal bone covered by a sheath of horn - bovine horns in both sexes - pronghorns are branched and the horny covering is shed annually Hair Horns

- - agglutinated keratini zed hairlike epidermal fibers - roughened area of the nasal bone - present in both sexes

Antlers and Giraffe Horns - not cornified structures - dermal bone attached to the frontal bone - “in velvet”: new growing antlers - covered with a soft vascular skin and ve lvety hair - only in males - replaced annually - giraffe horns: projections of the frontal bone and remain in velvet throughout life - Baleen and other Cornified Structures + toothless whales have oral epithelium (baleen/whalebone) + rattles: rings of horny stra tum corneum + beaks: covered with a horny sheath + combs of roosters: covered with a thick warty stratum corneum +ischial callosi: monkeys and apes sit on these +knee pads: camels kneel on these +tori: epidermal pads on most mammals rather than ungulates (“p ussyfoot”) ; ends of the tori : apical pads + corns and calluses: temporary thickenings of stratum corneum located where skin has been subjected to unusual friction




- collagenous connective tissue - blood vessels, small nerves, pigment cells - has a n ancient and persistent potential to form bone

+[The Bony Dermis of Fishes] - bony plates or smaller bony scales beneath the epi (dermal bone) - denticles: knobby/spiny elevations - 4 layers of primitive bone:

+lamellar bone +spongy bone +dentin +enamel - la mellar bone: compactly structured bone deposited in successive layers/lamellae - spongy bone: penetrated by blood channels of macroscopic size

Chapter 6: Integument

Chapter 6: Integument - dentin: another variety of bone - dermal armor: protective; stores calcium and

- dentin: another variety of bone

- dermal armor: protective; stores calcium and phosphates - classification of derma l plates and scales

+ placoid - derived from basal pate(root) - spine in the dermis erupts epi

rhomboid - retain 4 primitive layers of dermal bone - 2 subtypes: ganoid and cosmoid - no living fish have cosmoid scales - ganoine : form of enamel (found in Poly pterus and Calamoichthyes) +elasmoid - seen in most teleosts & lobe - finned fishes -



- formed from thin laminar bone - associated with a fibrous plate - 2 subtypes: cycloid and ctenoid(comblike) - consist of a very thin layer of acellula r lamellar bone underlain by

a plate of dense collagen

- ability to form scales lost by lampreys bony eels and others - scale analagen: develop transitorily in the embryos

+[Dermal Ossification in Tetrapods] - osteoderms: minute bony scales - only armadillos: dermal armor - bone is covered by epi scales - dermis has an anceitn and persistent potential to form bone

+[Dermal Pigments] - chromatophores: cells that contain pigment granules - melanophores (melanin graules/shades of brown/melanosomes) +hairs receive o nly melanin - xanthophores (yellow granules) - iridophores (guanine; silvery/iridescent granules) - erythrophores (red granules) - feathers receive melanin, xantho, and erythro - colors changes occur only in ectotherms - craniates cant because chromatophores can ’t aggregate nor disperse - morphologic color changes: (getting a tan) - pigment cells not confined to just the skin; found in meninges and striated muscles (melanocytes) - not all skin color is due to pigment; blood capillaries lie immediately under the epi


+[Agnathans] Epidermis + abundance of unicellular mucous glands + all layers are mitotic + only cornified structures(shed and replaced):


- horny denticles - biting - scraping cornified teeth

- Dermis + thiner than epi + exce ptionally tough collagenous connective tissue +[Cartilaginous Fishes] -


+ more layers than the agnathans

+unicellular are less abundant +goblet cells secrete toxins (chimaeras) +multicellular glands at base of claspers(chimaeras) +photophores: modi fied multicellular epidermal glands that have invaded the dermis

- Dermis + thicker than epi + 2 more/less well - defined layers +sandpaper texture + sheet of melanophores under the epi + chimaeras lost scales but more mucus glands than elasmobranchs, slippery s kin

+[Bony Fishes] Epidermis + epi glands are unicellular mucus glands +few granular glands that secrete irritating/poisoinous alkaloids +no placoid scales - Dermis +presence of ganoid scales +modern cycloid and ctenoid


+[Amphibians] + differs from that of fishes - scales are absent - epi glands are multicellular - epi exhibits stratum corneum (except toads) Epidermis +glandular +multicellular mucus glands +cornified appendages are rare +tadpoles have horny teeth à at metamorphosis, teeth are shed and adult becomes insectivorous - Dermis +firmly attached to underlying musculature +dermal chromatophores capable of color changes


+[Nonavian Reptiles] Epidermis +thick water impervious stratum corneum +ecdysis: molting of entire outer layer of stratum corneum in one piece/cast +epi glands are almost entirely granular +protective and pheromonal secretions are most effective in response to external stimuli +dry - Dermis +dermal bone



- Epidermis + thin - skinned +epi scales typically reptilian +uropygial gland + oily secretion - Dermis + supports feather follicles and erector muscles + thermoregulatory role + no osteoderms


+notable features


- - grater functional epi glands - thick cornified epidermis - thicker dermis

- Epidermis + 3 strata:

- stratum g erminativum (actively mitotic) - stratum granulosum (keratohyaline) - stratum corneum (forelimbs and hindlimbs) +4 th cellular layer: stratum lucidum (palms and soles) +2 major types of epi glands:


- - sudoriferous +mammary glands of viviparous m ammals appear to be modified sebaceous glands +mammary glands of monotremes appear to be modified sudoriferous glands +Claws have become hoofs in ungulatesand flat nails in primates +horns: either entirely keratin or have a horny sheath overlying a bony co re - Dermis + thickness: result of many hair follicles, erector muscles, sweat&oil glands, connective tissue, vascularity +superficial fascia: loose connective tissue that separates skin from underlying muscle


- protective (primary/dermal armor/fur/pigment) - exteroceptive (nerve endings/whiskers) - respiration (salamanders) - excretion (aquatic amphi) - thermoregulation (feathers) - locomotion (webs) - maintenance of homeostasis (fishes via dermal scales) - nourishment (teleost hatchlings feed o n mother’s mucus) - skin coloration (vit. D)