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Arno Smets

Working Principle of a
Semiconductor Based Solar Cell
Band Gap I - Electrons in Atoms
Week 2.2.1
Hydrogen
Proton (+)
Electron (-)
How strong are electrons bonded: the H atom
1s
2s
3s
2p
3p
Ground
state
E
n
e
r
g
y
-
electron
proton
+
How strong are electrons bonded: the H atom
1s
2s
3s
2p
3p
Ground
state
E
n
e
r
g
y
-
electron
proton
+
How strong are electrons bonded: the H atom
1s
2s
3s
2p
3p
Ground
state
E
n
e
r
g
y
-
electron
proton
+
How strong are electrons bonded: the H atom
1s
2s
3s
2p
3p
Ground
state
E
n
e
r
g
y
-
electron
proton
+
How strong are electrons bonded: the H atom
1s
2s
3s
2p
3p
Ground
state
E
n
e
r
g
y
-
electron
proton
+
How strong are electrons bonded: the H atom
1s
2s
3s
2p
3p
Ground
state
E
n
e
r
g
y
2s
3s
1s
2p
3p
X Y Z
How strong are electrons bonded
1s
2s
3s
2p
3p
E
n
e
r
g
y
Electron spin
How strong are electrons bonded:
1s
2s
3s
2p
3p
E
n
e
r
g
y
Pauli principle: two identical electrons can not
occupy the same quantum state simultaneously.
Paulis Exclusion Principle:
1s
2s
3s
2p
3p
E
n
e
r
g
y
Pauli principle: two identical electrons can not
occupy the same quantum state simultaneously.
How strong are electrons bonded:
1s
2s
3s
2p
3p
E
n
e
r
g
y
Pauli principle: two identical electrons can not
occupy the same quantum state simultaneously.
Helium
How strong are electrons bonded
1s
2s
3s
2p
3p
E
n
e
r
g
y
He 1s
2
Lithium
How strong are electrons bonded
1s
2s
3s
2p
3p
E
n
e
r
g
y
Li 1s
2
2s
1
How strong are electrons bonded
1s
2s
3s
2p
3p
E
n
e
r
g
y
Be 1s
2
2s
2
How strong are electrons bonded
1s
2s
3s
2p
3p
E
n
e
r
g
y
B 1s
2
2s
2
2p
1
How strong are electrons bonded
1s
2s
3s
2p
3p
E
n
e
r
g
y
C 1s
2
2s
2
2p
2
How strong are electrons bonded
1s
2s
3s
2p
3p
E
n
e
r
g
y
N 1s
2
2s
2
2p
3
How strong are electrons bonded
1s
2s
3s
2p
3p
E
n
e
r
g
y
B 1s
2
2s
2
2p
4
How strong are electrons bonded
1s
2s
3s
2p
3p
E
n
e
r
g
y
B 1s
2
2s
2
2p
5
How strong are electrons bonded
1s
2s
3s
2p
3p
E
n
e
r
g
y
Ne 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
How strong are electrons bonded
1s
2s
3s
2p
3p
E
n
e
r
g
y
Na 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
1
How strong are electrons bonded
1s
2s
3s
2p
3p
E
n
e
r
g
y
Mg 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
How strong are electrons bonded
1s
2s
3s
2p
3p
E
n
e
r
g
y
Al 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
1
How strong are electrons bonded: the Si atom
1s
2s
3s
2p
3p
E
n
e
r
g
y
Si 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
2
Bonding of electrons in Si network
1s
2s
3s
2p
3p
E
n
e
r
g
y
Si atom: 14 electrons
Bonding of electrons in Si network
3s
3p