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RamaKant Rana M.Tech, B.Tech, LMIEI YouTube.com/Ra makantRana ELECTRO-CHEMICAL GRI NDING ECM E lectro-Chemical

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ELECTRO-CHEMICAL GRI NDING ECM

E lectro-Chemical Grinding

Electro-chemical grinding (E CG) is a variant process of the basic ECM. It is a burr free and stress free material remov al process, wherein material removal of th e electrically

and electro-

chemical process. The abra sive laden grinding wheel is negatively char ged and the workpiece is positively cha rged. They are separated by an electrolyte fl uid. The fine

chips of the material that

electrolyte fluid, which is fur ther filtered out. Electrochemical grinding an d electrochemical machining are similar proc esses with a difference that a wheel sub stitutes the tool used in ECM. The wheel shap e is similar to the desired work shape. The schematic of the electrochemical grinding is sh own in fig. 1

stays in the

conductive material takes

place through mechanical (grinding) process

is

removed

from the

workpiece

(debris)

Process of Grinding in ECM The main feature of electr ochemical grinding (ECG) process is the use grinding wheel which is em bedded with insulating abrasive particles such

set in the conducting mater ial. Copper, brass, and nickel are the most co mmonly used materials while aluminum ox ide is a typical abrasive used while grinding ste els.

of a metallic as diamond,

The commutator is an electr olytic spindle having carbon brushes and holds

the grinding

wheel. It receives a negativ e charge from the DC power supply and the

workpiece is

given a positive charge. I n ECG process, the grinding wheel slightly

touches the

workpiece. Electrolyte is sup plied on-to the grinding wheel near the workpi ece such that the wheel carries it through the cutting process thereby resulting in an ele ctro-chemical

the one which carries coolant in a conventi onal grinding enables the flow of the electrolytic fluid to t he work-tool

contact area. The electrolyt e along with wheel works simultaneously in t he process of

cutting. The electro-chemic al cells thus formed further oxidize the su rface of the workpiece. The wheel carrie s away the formed oxides thereby exposing th e fresh metal layers beneath the workpiec e.

action. A nozzle similar to process is provided, which

In this process of ECG, the m ajor material removal activity takes place by th e electrolytic action (around 90%). Rest o f the metal removal takes place due to the gr inding action along with abrasives used (e mbedded in the wheel). This mechanical actio n contributes

to around 10% due to abra sive action of the conducting grinding wheel.

applied on the grinding w heel is also much lesser than the conventi onal grinding

ing as in the

The pressure

process. Thus the very basic case of conventional process

The schematic of the electro chemical grinding process is shown in Fig. 1

necessity of frequent wheel dressings and tr is also eliminated.

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RamaKant Rana M.Tech, B.Tech, LMIEI YouTube.com/Ra makantRana ELECTRO-CHEMICAL GRI NDING ECM Figure 1 : Schematic

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YouTube.com/Ra makantRana ELECTRO-CHEMICAL GRI NDING ECM Figure 1 : Schematic of ECM Grinding Process Process

Figure 1: Schematic of ECM Grinding Process

Process Characteristics:

The life of grinding w heel in ECG process is very high as around 90% of the metal

is removed by electro lysis action and only 10% is due to the abrasive the grinding wheel.

action of

The ECG process is ca pable of producing very smooth and burr free those formed during the conventional grinding process (mechanical ).

edges unlike

The heat produced in the ECG process is much less, leading to lesser distortion of

the workpiece. The major material r emoval activity in ECG process occurs by the dis solving action through the ch emical process. There is very little tool and wo rkpiece contact and this is id eally suited for grinding of the following catego ries:

o

Fragile work- pieces which otherwise are very difficult to grin d by the conventional process

o

The parts that

cannot withstand thermal damages and

o

The parts des igned for stress and burr free applications.

Applications The applications of ECG proc ess include the following:

In production of tung sten carbide cutting tools.

In burr-free sharpeni ng of hypodermic needles.

In grinding of super-a lloy turbine blades.

In form grinding of ae erospace honeycomb metals.

In removal of fatigue cracks from steel structures that have been us ed for

underwater applicati ons.

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RamaKant Rana M.Tech, B.Tech, LMIEI YouTube.com/Ra makantRana ELECTRO-CHEMICAL GRI NDING ECM The ECG process can

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ELECTRO-CHEMICAL GRI NDING ECM

The ECG process can be appl ied to the following common methods of grind ing.

1)

Face Wheel Grinding .

2)

Cone Wheel grinding .

3)

Peripheral or Surface grinding.

4)

Form Wheel or Squar e grinding.

The Subsystems of Electro-C hemical Machining

Power supply.

Electrolyte circulatio n system.

Control system.

The Machine.

In the ECM setup, as the gap between tool and workpiece is small, a low an d constant voltage of around 10 V is ap plied across the electric circuit. The current den sity is however high.

The electrolyte chosen is suc h that the shape of cathode is not changed dur ing

electrolysis. To remove the p roducts of machining and to reduce the undesi rable effects which may arise with the gas es generated at the cathode and electrical hea ting, the

electrolyte is pumped at a ra te of 2 to 30 m/s, through the gap between the

The electrolyte system consi sts of the electrolyte storage tank, fairly strong pump, filter, sludge removal system and t reatment units.

electrodes.

Control of ECM process refe rs to a predetermined adjustment of process pa rameters. Thus control of the process p arameters in ECM is very vital as the rate of m aterial removal, surface finish and a ccuracy of machining depends upon the accura cy of the control parameters. The con trol parameters include voltage, type of electro lyte, inlet and outlet pressure of electr olyte, viscosity of electrolyte and the temperat ure of electrolyte. The current of the electrical system in ECM under operating condition is de pendent on the above parameters and t he feed rate of the tool.

The general requirements of the tool material in ECM are mentioned below :

The material used in tool-making needs to be a good conductor of e lectricity.

The tool should be ri gid enough to take up load and the fluid pressu re.

The tool should be ch emically inert with the electrolyte.

The tool material sho uld be easily formable and machinable to the d esired

shape. Copper, Brass, Titani um, Copper-Tungsten and Stainless steels are m ost commonly used elect rode materials when the electrolyte is made of sodium or potassium.

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when the electrolyte is made of sodium or potassium. 3 www.CrazyPro f.in www.RamakantRana.blo gspot.com
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RamaKant Rana M.Tech, B.Tech, LMIEI YouTube.com/Ra makantRana ELECTRO-CHEMICAL GRI NDING ECM The other materials

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ELECTRO-CHEMICAL GRI NDING ECM

The other materials

which can be used as tool materials are alumini um, graphite,

bronze, platinum, an d tungsten carbide. The hole or cavity pr oduced through ECM is an exact replica of the t ool shape.

Thus the tool shape and its a ccuracy have a direct effect on the work piece accuracy.

The ECM Process Parameter s The ECM process parameter s can be subdivided into the following sub-cate gories. The

Ishikawa cause and effect di agram of ECM process parameters is shown in F ig. 3.15.1.

Power Supply: It’s Ty pe, Voltage, Current and Current density.

Electrolyte: It’s type, Temperature, Flow rate, Pressure and Dilution.

Machine setting para meters: Working gap, Overcut and Feed rate.

Electrode material: T ype of the material used.

rate. Electrode material: T ype of the material used. Electrochemical machining is electrolysis through which th

Electrochemical machining is

electrolysis through which th e product is processed without the tool-workp iece contact or any thermal influence. Th e metallic workpiece is dissolved (Machined) lo cally through

electricity (Electro) and chem

discussed earlier, the materi al removal process in ECM occurs through atom ic level dissolution by the electroche mical action. The material removal rate (or ma chining rate)

is thus not dependent on the

a technology used for machining metals. It is b ased on

istry (Chemical) until it reaches the desired en d shape. As

mechanical or physical properties of the work material. It

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mechanical or physical properties of the work material. It 4 www.CrazyPro f.in www.RamakantRana.blo gspot.com
RamaKant Rana M.Tech, B.Tech, LMIEI YouTube.com/Ra makantRana ELECTRO-CHEMICAL GRI NDING ECM only depends on the

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ELECTRO-CHEMICAL GRI NDING ECM

only depends on the atomic weight and valency of the work material and th e important

condition is that the materia l should be electrically conductive. The most im portant

feature in ECM is that, it can irrespective of its hardness, ECM are:

machine any electrically conductive work mate rial strength or even thermal properties. The variou s uses of

o

Die-Sinking o perations

o

Deburring op erations

o

Drilling opera tions

o

Grinding oper ations and

o

Micro-machin ing operations

The various uses of ECM hav e been schematically shown in the following fig ures, Fig. 3.15.2, 3.15.3 and 3.15.4

shown in the following fig ures, Fig. 3.15.2, 3.15.3 and 3.15.4 5 www.CrazyPro f.in www.RamakantRana.blo gspot.com

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in the following fig ures, Fig. 3.15.2, 3.15.3 and 3.15.4 5 www.CrazyPro f.in www.RamakantRana.blo gspot.com
in the following fig ures, Fig. 3.15.2, 3.15.3 and 3.15.4 5 www.CrazyPro f.in www.RamakantRana.blo gspot.com
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RamaKant Rana M.Tech, B.Tech, LMIEI YouTube.com/Ra makantRana ELECTRO-CHEMICAL GRI NDING ECM Elect rochemical

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ELECTRO-CHEMICAL GRI NDING ECM

Elect rochemical Machining (ECM)

Electrochemical machining is

process. It is a non-traditional machin ing process belonging to the electrochemical c ategory. It is used for machining extremel y hard materials or materials that are difficult t o machine

using conventional methods . Its use is limited to electrically conductive mat erials. The

process has the capabilities hard steel such as titanium, internal geometries can be m

a method of removing metal by an electroche mical

of machining or cutting the intricate contours o r cavities in Hastelloy, Kovar, Inconel, and Carbide. External as well as

achined with an electrochemical machine.

ECM is characterized as the

deposition process. It is som etimes referred to as reverse electroplating sin ce it removes material instead of depositin g it. In the year 1833, Faraday established the l aws of electrolysis (electroplating). The mechanism in ECM process is similar to ele ctrical

discharge machining (EDM)

tool (cathode) and the work piece (anode), through a conductive fluid (elect rolyte). However, in ECM there is no tool wear. In ECM, the metal removal t akes place by electrochemical dissolution of an anodically polarized workpiece. By usin g the ECM process, very hard metals can be ea sily shaped

electrolytically and being a c hemical process, the rate of machining does no t depend on the hardness of workpiece. S oft materials can be readily used as tool mater ials on

harder work-pieces in ECM p rocess since the tool doesn’t wear unlike in the conventional machining met hods.

opposite of electrochemical or galvanic coating or

concept-wise, wherein a high current is passed between the

case of

ECM Fundamentals The electrolysis process bein g the most fundamental activity in ECM, its cha racteristics

are to be well understood be fore proceeding further into its other process

details.

Electrolysis, as the name sug gests is a chemical phenomenon that occurs be tween two conductors dipped in a suita ble solution when electric current is passed bet ween them. Example two copper wires, d ipped in a copper sulphate solution are connec ted to a source of direct current as s hown in Fig. 3.14.1. This solution of copper sulp hate is termed as the electrolyte an d it has electrical conducting property. The enti re system of electrolyte and electrodes is called as the electrolytic cell. As per the polarit y, the chemical reactions occurring at the anode and cathode are called as anodic or cathodic reactions respectively.

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are called as anodic or cathodic reactions respectively. 7 www.CrazyPro f.in www.RamakantRana.blo gspot.com
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RamaKant Rana M.Tech, B.Tech, LMIEI YouTube.com/Ra makantRana ELECTRO-CHEMICAL GRI NDING ECM Electrolytes are

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YouTube.com/Ra makantRana ELECTRO-CHEMICAL GRI NDING ECM Electrolytes are different fro m the metallic conductors

Electrolytes are different fro m the metallic conductors that conduct electric ity. In electrolytes, the current is ca rried by atoms or group of atoms and not by t he electrons. The atoms have either lost o r gained electrons, thereby acquiring either po sitive or negative charges and such a toms are called ions. The ions that carry positiv e charges are attracted by the cathode an d they move through the electrolyte in the dire ction of the positive current and are refe rred to as the ‘cat-ions’. The negatively charge d ions get attracted to the positive elec trode i.e. anode and they are referred to as th e ‘anions’. Due to the potential differen ce applied, the movement of ions is accompan ied by the flow of electrons, in the opp osite sense to the positive current in the electr olyte, outside the cell, as shown schematic ally in Fig. 3.14.2

olyte, outside the cell, as shown schematic ally in Fig. 3.14.2 8 www.CrazyPro f.in www.RamakantRana.blo gspot.com

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outside the cell, as shown schematic ally in Fig. 3.14.2 8 www.CrazyPro f.in www.RamakantRana.blo gspot.com
outside the cell, as shown schematic ally in Fig. 3.14.2 8 www.CrazyPro f.in www.RamakantRana.blo gspot.com
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RamaKant Rana M.Tech, B.Tech, LMIEI YouTube.com/Ra makantRana ELECTRO-CHEMICAL GRI NDING ECM In the

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ELECTRO-CHEMICAL GRI NDING ECM

In the electroplating process , which is a very popular application of electrol ysis, the

metal coatings are deposited

example of the anodic dissol ution operation is electro-polishing. In this poli shing process, the workpiece whic h has irregularities is made as the anode in the electrolytic

cell. The workpiece gets poli shed and irregularities on its surface are dissolv ed preferentially so that after t he process, the item gets shining effect and bec omes flat. The ECM and electro-polishi ng process are similar, such that both are anodi c dissolution

processes. The rate of metal

considerably less than that r equired in the metal removal processes. Some observations relevant to ECM are:

on the surface of a cathodically polarized met al. An

removal obtained in the electro-polishing proc ess is

At the anode, the me tal dissolves electrochemically and its rate of d issolution

depends upon numb er of factors such as the ionic charge, atomic w eight, the current and the time of current passage. The rate of dissolutio n is not influenced by the hardness of the work piece

material or any other

metal characteristics.

At the cathode, only the hydrogen gas is evolved. The electrode sha pe remains unaltered during the electrolysis process. This is the most relevant f eature of ECM being used as a metal shaping process.

Mechanism of Material Rem oval in ECM

The working principle of ECM

workpiece and tool are the a node and cathode respectively. In the electroly tic cell a constant potential differenc e, usually of about 10 V is applied across them. A suitable electrolyte, for example an a queous sodium chloride (table salt) solution is commonly chosen. In-order to remove t he products of machining, the electrolyte is pu mped through the gap between th e two electrodes. The rate at which metal is the n removed from the anode is approxima tely in inverse proportion to the distance betw een the

electrodes. As the machining

cathode towards the anode. The width of the gap along the electrode lengt h will gradually tend towards a ste ady-state value. Under such conditions, a shap e which is

roughly complementary to t hat of the cathode will be reproduced on the an ode. The schematic of “electrochemic al machine” is shown in Fig. 3.14.4

is schematically shown in Fig. 3.14.3 (a and b) , the

proceeds there is a simultaneous movement o f the

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b) , the proceeds there is a simultaneous movement o f the 9 www.CrazyPro f.in www.RamakantRana.blo
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RamaKant Rana M.Tech, B.Tech, LMIEI YouTube.com/Ra makantRana ELECTRO-CHEMICAL GRI NDING ECM Advantages of ECM

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Advantages of ECM

The major advantages of the

ECM process are:

No heat affected zon e is formed.

Harder metals than t he tool can be machined.

The hardness of mat erial does not affect the metal removal rate.

Complex shapes can

be machined on hard metals,

No tool wear occurs.

Burr-free products ar e obtained in this process.

There is no tool to w orkpiece contact.

There is no cutting fo rces, therefore clamping is not required except for

controlled motion of the work piece. The products obtaine d are free from physical and thermal strains.

Depending on the ma terials, high surface quality level is attainable ( Ra < 0.02

Aμm) High dimensional acc uracies are attainable

Limitations of ECM

The cost of tooling is high.

Energy consumption is high: Power consumption is more as the ECM operates at high curr ent and relatively low voltages (5-15V).

processes

The saline electrolyte

poses a risk of corrosion to the tool, workpiec e and the

equipment. Since special electrod es need to be developed for each product, hig her

production numbers are required for economic viability. Depending on the complexity of the ma terial, the optimum product numbers are decid ed. The electrode design is complex and has high initial cost but howeve r it has a

long life. Sharp corners or flat bottoms are not suitable through the ECM proc ess, as there is a tendency of the e lectrolyte to erode away the sharp profiles.

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of the e lectrolyte to erode away the sharp profiles. 11 www.CrazyPro f.in www.RamakantRana.blo gspot.com
of the e lectrolyte to erode away the sharp profiles. 11 www.CrazyPro f.in www.RamakantRana.blo gspot.com
of the e lectrolyte to erode away the sharp profiles. 11 www.CrazyPro f.in www.RamakantRana.blo gspot.com