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At the end of the lesson the Trainee ill !e a!le to de"onstrate an #nderstand the
Introd#$tion to T#r!ine Maintenan$e%
Break downs and unscheduled outages on large modern turbine plant are
expensive, both in direct repair costs and replacement costs. aintenance is
there!ore directed towards obtaining sustained reliable operation between ma"or
overhauls. The scope !or carr#ing out routine preventive maintenance during
periods o! operation is limited except on peripheral items, such as automatic
greasing e$uipment, oil !ilters and coolers, etc. This section is there!ore concerned
mainl# with work carried out at times o! ma"or overhaul. The extent and !re$uenc#
o! turbine maintenance is governed b# a number o! re$uirements. %hen planning
turbine overhauls, it is essential to consider he interactions between the various
tasks and to cater ade$uatel# !or the need to maintain a clean and tid# working
environment. Clean&condition working areas should be set up whenever turbine
c#linders, valve, pipework and bearings are opened. 'de$uate checks must be
incorporated when rebuilding plant to ensure that no !oreign material remains in
turbine components on completion.
Turbine rotating parts here comprise sha!ts, bearings, coupling and barring gear,
together with the related sub"ects o! alignment, coupling concentricit# and
't times o! ma"or strip down, it is usual to carr# out a comprehensive surve# o!
turbine sha!ts. The degree and t#pe o! inspection varies between the di!!erent
turbine stages. (ha!ts sub"ected to high temperatures )*+ and ,+ reheat- are
examined !or creep e!!ects as well as !atigue, whereas, on the high&stressed L+
sha!ts, stress corrosion and.or corrosion !atigue e!!ects predominate. 'll sha!ts are
examined at gland areas !or signs o! corrosion pitting and at the "ournal areas !or
wear and scoring. ,! necessar#, the sur!aces are skimmed or polished at these
*igh temperature creep is monitored b# carr#ing out dimensional checks o! sha!t
diameter, together with truth checks. ,t ma# be necessar# to remove scale b# grit
blasting, using either sharp sand or !ine aluminum oxide. The prepared sur!aces
can then be examined !or !atigue cracking )using either magnetic particle inspection
)+,- techni$ues or d#e +enetrant-, particularl# at changes in section, or at blade&
root !ixings.
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(ome machines have experienced stress corrosion and.or corrosion !atigue
cracking o! L+ sha!ts, with the presence o! condensing steam providing a
su!!icientl# corrosive environment. The problem can be accentuated on reheat
machines undertaking to shi!t operation b# contamination !rom boiler.reheater leaks
during vacuum raising. Ultrasonic techni$ues are now available which permit
inspection !or cracking at vulnerable areas, such as changes o! section and locations.
The sha!ts o! a turbine generator are supported in "ournal bearings. These are
white metal lined, thick&wall bearings and ma# be either plain or sphericall# seated,
dependent on their position and dut#. 5ig. 3&3 shows a t#pical sphericall# seated
turbine bearing, with shimmed pads !or ad"ustment. The bearing is lined with a tin
based white metal. The bore is machined to an elliptical shape to combat an#
tendenc# !or sha!t whirl6 this shape is achieved b# machining the bore with shims in
the hal! "oint to suit the sha!t "ournal si7e, as recommended b# the turbine
manu!acturer. 2nce machined, there is no re$uirement to bed the sha!t or ad"ust
clearances, except that horn clearances ma# need slight ad"ustment.
aintenance o! bearing covers )keeps- and top halves. 's with other parts o! the
turbine, it is important to record the 8as !ound9 condition, as this ma# assist in
determining the work to be carried out and in accomplishing a success!ul rebuild.
Readings are taken o! the bearing top and side oil clearances and o! the pedestal
bridge gauge readings. Bearing top hal! clearances are taken b# assembling the
bearing with a piece o! appropriatel# si7ed lead wire on top o! the "ournal and
measuring the thickness to which it is compressed. Each bearing pedestal is !itted
with a bridge gauge !or the measurement o! the side and top clearances o! the
"ournal, this determining precisel# how the sha!t is l#ing with respect to the pedestal.
These datums are use!ul as checks o! correct re&assembl#.
*aving obtained these initial measurements, the sha!t can be supported either b#
overhead crane or b# special sha!t raising gear to permit removal o! the bearing
bottom hal!. 't this stage, various inspections are carried out on the bearing.
The bearing sur!ace is !irst examined !or signs o! deterioration. The relativel# low
melting point white metals undergo a rapid loss o! !atigue strength with increasing
temperature, so the sur!ace should be inspected !or cracking or cra7ing. This loss
o! strength ma# also result in extrusion or wiping under adverse loading.lubrication
conditions. 'lthough, in less severe cases, the bearing ma# subse$uentl# be
dressed !or re&use, it is important to !ind the cause o! the damage be!ore doing so.
/uring manu!acture, the white metal !orms a metallurgical bond to the steel
housing. This adhesion should be checked, using ultrasonic techni$ues6 an#
signi!icant deterioration o! the bonding renders the bearing un!it !or !urther service.
The sur!ace contour must be inspected at "acking oil holes, lubricating oil !eeds and
at an# anti&whirl grooves that m# be included. ,! necessar#, the metal is dressed.
The condition o! the anti&rotation devices, housing hal!&"oints and spherical pads,
should be examined and an# roughness removed with a !ile. 5retting o! the
spherical sur!aces ma# indicate incorrect bedding o! the pads to the pedestal6 this
can be checked using engineers9 blue marking and the pad shims ad"usted
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%hen rebuilding the bearing, all sur!aces must be kept scrupulousl# clean. Bridge
gauge readings and clearances are recorded !or !uture re!erence. %ith sphericall#
seated bearings, the weight the weight o! the sha!t must correctl# seat and align the
bearing in the pedestal. The keep is then re$uired to 8nip9 the bearing in this
position6 this is checked b# means o! lead wire on the top pad with shims at the
keep "oints. ' ;.;:&;.;< mm 8nip9 is generall# acceptable. Be!ore the keep is !inall#
re!itted, the pedestal is cleaned and an oil !lush carried out.
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+i,% 1-1% T-.i$al S.heri$all- seated t#r!ine !earin,%
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Two main t#pes o! thrust bearing are used on turbine generators. The high dut#
tilting pad variet# is used to absorb the residual end&thrust o! the main turbine sha!t
s#stem, whilst maintaining the correct axial alignment o! !ixed and moving blades.
The bearing consists o! two rings o! white&metal !aces pads on either wide o! a sha!t
thrust collar. ,ndividual pads are able to tilt to allow !ormation o! a stable
h#drod#namic oil !ilm. The other !orm o! thrust bearing incorporates white&metal
thrust !aces at each end o! a "ournal bearing. These are associated with lighter
duties, t#picall# being !itted to exciters and gearboxes.. The thrust !ace metal ma#
be grooved radiall# to !eed oil and to aid cooling o! the sur!ace. 5ig. 3&:)a- and )b-
illustrate the two t#pes.
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+i,% 1-/0a1% (i,h d#t- tiltin, .ad%
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+i,% 1-/0!1% 2hite "etal thr#st fa$es%
,n both, it is important that the load is transmitted evenl#6 this re$uires the collar to
have a !lat, true sur!ace, perpendicular to the axis o! the sha!t )i.e. %ithout swash-,
and an e$uall# true and !lat sur!ace o! white metal. The bedding is checked using
engineers9 blue and the white metal scraped accordingl#. The thickness o! the tilting
pads must be matched. ,n the tilting pad bearing, the !loat between thrust !aces is
ad"ustable b# means o! shims and liners attached to the pad carriers. The liners are
also used to position the turbine sha!ts to give the correct axial blade clearances.
/uring maintenance, the condition o! the white metal lining is inspected !or wear,
scoring and adhesion. To ensure !reedom to tilt, the ribs or steps on the backs o!
pads must not be worn or damaged. 'll oil !eed galleries must be clear be!ore re&
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The high power transmission associated with steam turbines necessitates the use o!
solid couplings, with !itted bolts, between individual sha!ts. 0er# little maintenance
is involved unless the holes su!!er scoring, or concentricit# checks indicate that
coupling hole re&boring is necessar#. Bushes are o!ten !itted to couplings which
enable badl# scoring or oversi7e holes to be recovered to near normal si7e.
Bolt&hole re!urbishing is carried out with the coupling halves clamped together
concentricall#. The hole are bored or drilled to remove an# step between the two
halves. ' honed !inish is used to give a smooth sur!ace. The recesses !or the bolt
heads and nuts must be !aced perpendicular to the hole to ensure that there is no
distortion o! the bolts as the# are tightened. The nuts must be locked, as
recommended b# the turbine manu!acturer.
5lexible couplings, which are able to accommodate the large axial movements
caused b# turbine expansion, are o!ten used to couple exciters, where power
transmission duties are less onerous.
5ig. 3&= illustrates a claw&t#pe coupling which drives through pads on each claw.
These pads need checking periodicall# !or wear or !or ridging o! the sur!ace, as this
ma# cause the coupling to resist expansion movement and overload the thrust
bearing. Badl# worn pads should be renewed and bedded to the driven sur!aces o!
the coupling mu!! or sleeve. This is best accomplished b# means o! a special "ig
that holds the claw and sleeve concentricA each pad is bedded in turn. The pads
are ad"usted so that the# all contact the sleeve sur!aces in this concentric condition.
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+i,% 1-3% *enerator4"ain e5$iter6 fle5i!le-$la t-.e $o#.lin,%
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Large, modern turbine generators consists o! up to six solidl# coupled rotors that
must be aligned such that the shear !orces and bending moments at the couplings
are 7ero. Each sha!t exhibits elastic de!ormation due to its own weight and thrust
the per!ectl# aligned s#stem !orms a curve, the sha!t catenar#. 5ig. 3&> illustrates a
sha!t catenar# !or a @@; % six rotor machine. The rotors retain their natural
de!lections at all speeds except when passing through a sha!t critical. To ensure
the smooth running o! a machine, it is !irst necessar# to build the sha!t s#stem to the
static de!lection curve and later to check the alignment periodicall#. Compensation,
b# biasing the heights o! particular bearings, is build into the sha!t alignment to cater
!or the e!!ects o! A
Changes o! bearing height due to thermal expansion.
Large di!!erences in "ournal diameter between ad"acent bearings, such as ma#
exist, !or example, between the generator rotor and exciter.
(ha!t whirl associated with lightl#&loaded bearings.
'n initial approximate alignment o! bearing pedestals and c#linders has traditionall#
been obtained during erection b# means o! a taut piano wire stretched along the
axis o! the machine. The various pedestals are positioned with respect to this wire,
their height being ad"usted in line with the expected catenar#. odern methods
emplo# optical s#stems, using either precision telescopes or lasers.
5inal alignment o! the rotors is obtained b# ad"usting the bearings to give parallelism
and concentricit# at each pair o! couplings. This procedure is !ollowed at times o!
maintenance when previous condition monitoring observations, or changes o! rotors
or bearings, have dictated that sha!t alignment should be checked. The alignment
is carried out b# measuring the !ace gaps and peripher# errors between couplings.
4ap measurements, using suitable gauges, are taken at the top, bottom and two
side positions and a repeat set taken with both sha!ts rotated through 3B;D. The
average o! the two sets indicates the true parallelism o! the coupling !aces,
eliminating an# errors due to out o! truth between coupling and sha!t.
Concentricit# is checked b# measuring between the peripheries o! the two
couplings, using either dial indicators or !eeler gauges, to a !inger attached to one o!
the couplings. To eliminate coupling errors, both sha!ts are turned together and
readings taken at the top, bottom and two side positions. Calculations, using
ra?tios and similar triangles, taking account o! sha!t length, distance between
bearings and coupling diameter, determine the ad"ustments re$uired at the bearings
to obtain sha!t alignment. %ith solidl# coupled sha!ts, it is usual to work to ver#
close tolerances o! the order o! ;.;:? mm.
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+i,% 1-7% T-.i$al shaft $atenar- for a 88& M2 t#r!ine ,enerator6 shoin, the 9erti$al
hei,hts a!o9e dat#" of ea$h !earin,%
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'lthough it is possible to calculate the ad"ustment needed !or both gap and
peripher# errors at the same time, the correction o! gap errors can re$uire
substantial bearing movement and so it is o!ten advantageous to correct them !irst.
,t should also be remembered that such corrections will a!!ect blade and gland
clearances and consideration should be given to the removal o! c#linders to check
%here a ma"or deviation !rom the catenar# is suspected, the vertical alignment o!
the sha!ts can be checked in situ, using a laser and suitabl# designed sighting
targets mounted on the sha!t "ournals. (uch a s#stem has been developed and
used success!ull# b# the CE4B.
%hen two turbine sha!ts are coupled together, it is important to ensure that the# are
virtuall# concentric with one another, i.e. no misalignment between the axes o! the
two sha!ts, and that the# remain so during subse$uent operation.
5ailure to achieve good concentricit# ma# result in unacceptable bearing vibration
set up b# an out o! balance due to the two sha!t masses being on di!!erent axes.
5itted bolts are used at couplings to maintain alignment and to transmit the high
tor$ue loading.
'n# error in pitch circle diameters between couplings will adversel# a!!ect
concentricit#. The !ollowing procedure is adopted to ensure concentricit# to within
;.;: mm at ad"acent bearing "ournals )Re!er to 5ig. 3&?-.
+i,% 1-:% Con$entri$it- "eas#re"ent !eteen ad;a$ent shafts%
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The coupling halves are bolted together. ,! the concentricit# is suspected or known
to be in error then onl# a !ew undersi7e bolts are used. This enables the couplings
to be moved relative to one another !or correction purposes.
2ne bearing bottom hal! is removed and dial indicators rigidl# mounted at both
The sha!ts are rotated and the indicators are read at >?D intervals. The indicator at
the unsupported "ournal responds to an# misalignment o! the sha!t axes. The
indicator at the supported "ournal is purel# !or control purposes, recording an#
movement due to irregularities.or ovalit# o! the sha!t. The di!!erence between the
indicators represents the amount o! eccentricit# present.
,t must be recogni7ed that an# slight ovalit# or de!ormation o! the "ournal sur!aces
will a!!ect the readings when such small de!lections are being observed. +lotting
the net de!lection versus angular position can aid anal#sis o! the results.
Theoreticall#, the plots should !orm a smooth c#clic curve that reduces to a straight
line !or per!ect concentricit#. B# matching the best curve to the measured
de!lections, an# errors due to de!ormation can be eliminated and the eccentricit#
(mall errors ma# be corrected within the tolerances o! the !itted bolts6 larger errors
will re$uire the use o! undersi7e bolts to obtain concentricit#, and then the boring o!
the coupling holes to !it new bolts.
aintenance o! lubricating oil s#stem components consists o! stripping the various
regulating valves, oil pumps and their drive arrangements !or inspection. There are
no speci!ic re$uirements other than to ensure that all items are in good order,
replacing an# worn parts as necessar#. 2il coolers and !ilters must be cleaned and
procedures established !or !lushing the oil s#stem on completion o! maintenance
work to remove an# contamination o! the pipe work, etc. This , best accomplished
b# installing temporar# pipe&work at the pedestals to b#pass the bearings and thus
promote !lows greater than those under normal operation. The oil !ilter should be
cleaned again a!ter !lushing.
2perational !lexibilit# o! a turbine is largel# dependent on accommodating the large
thermal expansions that take place whilst, at the same time, maintaining the
alignment and clearances o! the rotating parts. This necessitates regular
maintenance o! turbine casings and their associated support arrangements.
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The opportunit# to inspect and carr# out work on turbine casings usuall# arises !rom
the need to do other work, !or example, blade or high temperature bolt inspections.
aintenance consists mainl# o! renewal o! de!ective thermocouples, checking !or
distortion, and inspection, including non&destructive testing )1/T- o! the structure.
Large modern turbines emplo# double&c#linder arrangements at the *+ and ,+
stages to reduce the operating stresses and conse$uentl# the si7e o! the c#linder
!langes. This means that components, such as bolts, ke#s and thermocouples,
operating at the highest temperature conditions are not easil# accessible, without
resorting to an expensive strip&down o! the outer c#linder. (o, when the opportunit#
exists, a through examination o! all components is carried out. This includes 1/T o!
the casings themselves, particularl# at changes o! section, to examine !or thermal
!atigue or creep cracking6 inspection o! inner c#linder support and retaining
arrangements is also undertaken. The double&c#linder con!iguration necessitates
special steam inlet connections incorporating a piston ring "oint at the inner c#linder6
the condition o! these piston rings must also be checked.
'!ter several #ears o! operation, c#linder distortion ma# arise, resulting in di!!iculties
in making leak !ree "oints and in obtaining gland.blading clearances, due to ovalit#.
The degree o! distortion is checked b# bolting the c#linder halves together with the
spindle removed and checking the bore with internal micrometers. Usuall# the
ma"orit# o! the distortion is removed b# the bolting operation and the bore
measurements will indicate the allowances that need to be made during the rebuild
to cater !or an# small amount o! residual distortion. ,n more extreme cases,
machining o! the "oint !aces and.or bores is necessar# to remove the distortion
'ttachment o! components to casing materials must be carried out to the
manu!acturer9s approved procedures. ,n particular, the welding o! insulation
retaining pins and the !ixing o! thermocouples to high temperature casings needs
care!ul attention to avoid stress raising.
Li!ting attachments are o!ten le!t on c#linders during operation and there!ore re$uire
care!ul examination be!ore use.
L.+. turbines ma# be either single or double casing designs, with the !ixed
diaphragms located into a cast c#linder section6 exhaust sections and outer
c#linders are o! welded and bolted construction. ,nspections o! the welded casing,
ba!!les and supports should be made at times o! overhaul. Bled steam connections
o!ten incorporate expansion bellows within the condenser steam space and these
also re$uire periodic inspection !or damage.
The "ointing o! turbine c#linders re$uires special care i! problems o! steam leakage
and air ingress are to be avoided during operation. Eoint !aces need to be scraped
clean, with particular attention being paid to areas around studs where old "ointing
material ma# accumulate.
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(upport arrangements associated with turbine c#linders and pedestals are
important in maintaining alignment o! the sha!t s#stem during expansion and
contraction. 'n# mal!unction ma# lead to crabbing o! the pedestals with a
conse$uential e!!ect on sha!t eccentricit#. This, in turn, ma# result in axial and radial
!ouling o! the !ixed and moving components. 5ig. 3&@ illustrates t#pical turbine
support arrangements which compriseA
+edestal guide ke#s to maintain bearing and sha!t alignment.
Bearing plates on which pedestals slide.
C#linder centerline guide ke#s to maintain c#linder alignment.
C#linder palm transverse ke#s to allow transverse expansion and to transmit axial
push&pull !orces during expansion and contraction.
C#linder palm bearing plates.
The !irst two items accommodate the largest movements and are lubricated with
high temperature grease, usuall# !rom an automatic greasing !acilit#. The higher
operating temperatures o! the others make lubrication di!!icult to achieve but,
because o! the smaller movements, this is not usuall# necessar#. 'll ke#s and
bearing plates re$uire examination !or excessive wear and periodic cleaning to
remove corrosion products. The !re$uenc# o! these inspections depends on the
t#pe o! operation o! the machine and maintenance experience. 5or instance,
turbine undergoing two shi!t operation, or sub"ected to high pipe work loading,
re$uire more !re$uent inspections. (ome o! the ke#s ma# onl# be accessible with
the c#linder thermal insulation removed and so opportunit# should be taken to
examine these items at least at ever# ma"or overhaul. %hen removing ke#s !or
examination it is important to anchor the components concerned securel#, using the
turbine manu!acturer9s approved methods. 5ailure to do this ma# result in pipe
work !orces a causing movement o! c#linders, making it di!!icult to re!it the ke#s
C#linder palm transverse ke#s need to be examined !or both excessive clearance
and tightness. The push pull action on the ke#s can result in apparentl# slight wear
on the !lanks being accentuated at the corners, allowing the ke#s to roll as the
c#linder expands and contracts. The lost motion caused b# rolling ke#s is o!ten
greater than that due to uni!orm excessive clearance and both t#pes o! de!ect must
be corrected i! reduction o! axial clearances )leading to rubbing- is to be avoided.
The un&lubricated ke#s ma# also experience sei7ure during transmission o! axial
movement. This can cause c#linder distortion and abnormall# high locating o! the
c#linder center guide ke#s, leading ultimatel# to radial rubbing. This the palm ke#s
must be cleaned and checked !or !reedom o! movement with the minimum o!
ke#wa# clearance, t#picall# ;.;< mm.
The c#linder&palm bearing plates are usuall# o! a bron7e material support the steel
c#linder palm. The movements and loading on these plates are generall# small and
maintenance usuall# onl# consists o! removal, cleaning and re!itting. 'n# hard
scoring is dressed out and the cause ascertained )this ma# be due to corrosion
products on the steel palm-.
C#linder centerline guide ke#s are also onl# sub"ect to small movements and so
wear should be light unless other !actors, such as pipe loading or sei7ed transverse
ke#s, are involved. These items o!ten onl# re$uire a !eeler clearance check.
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+edestal guide ke#s and bearing plates experience movement e$uivalent to the !ull
c#linder expansion6 as their operation is essential in keeping sha!t alignment, the#
re$uire special attention at times o! maintenance. Each ke# is remove din turn, with
the pedestal anchored to prevent movement. The ke# and ke#wa# are cleaned to
remove old grease and each si7ed to obtain clearances. Fe#s having excessive
clearances can lead to crabbing o! the pedestals with conse$uential operational
di!!iculties. %hen renewing ke#s, consideration should be given to the likel# e!!ect
on alignment. ,! it is not apparent on which side the wear has taken place, in the
absence o! initial si7e data, a replacement ke# could hold the pedestal out o!
alignment. ,! necessar#, there!ore, alignment checks should be carried out when
renewing ke#s, the grease wa#s associated with the ke# cleaned and the ke#
re!itted with a new charge o grease. 2nce all the ke#s have been inspected, the
pedestals can be "acked to release the bearing plates. These again should be
thoroughl# cleaned o! old grease and inspected !or wear be!ore being re!itted.
Turbine c#linders are opened at times o! ma"or overhaul to allow maintenance
inspections o! the blading and glands. The need !or blade examinations ma# also
be indicated b# per!ormance monitoring6 when blade damage is suspected, an
en!orced outage is necessar# !or investigation and repair. /uring minor overhauls,
it is usual to carr# out partial inspections o! the easil# accessible areas, such as the
glands land the last row o! L+ blades, the latter to monitor !or the e!!ects o! erosion.
The se$uence o! operations involve din a ma"or strip&down is as !ollowsA
3. The c#linders are opened and the 8as !ound9 blade and gland clearances
:. oving and !ixed blades are inspected !or mechanical damage, erosion,
corrosion and chemical deposits.
=. The components are cleaned and sub"ected to non destructive testing.
>. Repairs and modi!ications are carried out, including the re!urbishment o!
sealing !ins.
?. Radial and axial clearances are ad"usted.
@. The turbine rotor.c#linder is reassembled, recording the !inal clearance data.
'n# ma"or realignment o! the sha!t s#stem should take place prior to step ?6 minor
alignment corrections ma# be carried out with the c#linder assembled.
Clearances are measured at strip down to evaluate an# remedial work that ma# be
necessar# and, on re&assembl#, to provide a record !or $ualit# control purposes and
!or !uture re!erence. 'xial clearances are measured at the two hal! "oint positions6
radial clearances are taken at the sides, top and bottom positions, although the
latter ma# be omitted i! there is no other reason to remove the turbine spindle. (ide
clearances are measured using !eeler gauges. Top and bottom radial clearances
are obtained b# lowering the c#linder or spindle onto appropriatel# si7ed lead wire
and measuring the compressed material with suitable dial calipers.
'll clearances should be related to the turbine normal running position, !or example,
when checking axial clearances, the sha!t s#stem should be located against the
thrust pads. Because o! the support arrangements, some designs o! c#linder ma#
necessitate the bottom halves to be raised to obtain running radial clearances6
in!ormation concerning this will be contained in the manu!acturer9s maintenance
EC*'1,C'L ',1TE1'1CE '/0'1CE/ C2UR(E
LE((21 3 +'4E 3@ (TE' TURB,1E 20ER*'UL
+i,% 1-8% T-.i$al t#r!ine s#..ort arran,e"ents%
'/0'1CE/ C2UR(E EC*'1,C'L ',1TE1'1CE
(TE' TURB,1E 20ER*'UL LE((21 3 +'4E 3<
,nitiall# inspections are carried out at the time o! strip down, when a general
impression o! the condition o! the blading components becomes apparent. ore
detailed visual examinations are undertaken o! the critical areas, in particular, blade
roots and associated securing arrangements, blade support s#stems )such as lacing
wire and shrouding- and inter&stage sealing arrangements. The condition o! L+
blade and erosion shields is also examined and the securit# o! diaphragm retaining
and anti&rotation arrangements are checked. The presence o! blade deposits has a
detrimental e!!ect on turbine e!!icienc#, due to a reduction in area or steam !low and
a deterioration o! sur!ace !inish and pro!ile. The improved boiler water $ualit#
associated with modern generating units has greatl# reduced the problem o! blade
!ouling and thus the need !or routine cleaning. *owever, at times o! ma"or overhaul
or inspection, it ma# be necessar# to remove an# such deposits. (oluble
accumulation is easil# removed b# water washing, but the more !irml# adhering
insoluble material, mainl# composed o! silica and iron oxide, re$uires the use o!
mechanical methods !or its removal.
,nsoluble deposits are removed b# a blasting process which, !or turbine rotors and
removable diaphragms, is carried out remote !rom the turbine in a !ull# enclosed
tented area. 5ixed blading o! bottom hal! c#linders is usuall# cleaned in situ !or
convenience, in which case special precautions are necessar# to prevent the
ingress o! deposits and abrasives into bled&steam branches, etc. The blasting
medium used depends on the severit# o! deposits and the sur!ace !inish re$uired.
'lumina is commonl# used, being both an e!!ective abrasive and also providing a
sur!ace !inish suitable !or 1/T.
/etailed examination o! blading is carried out to monitor !or de!ects, particularl#
cracking. +, and d#e&+enetrant 1/T techni$ues are used at areas o! concern6 the
critical areas are those that are most highl# stressed and where construction "oints
are located. Thus L+ blading )including blade roots, lacing wire holes, !errules and
bra7ing, erosion shields and blade shroud riveting- are items that receive attention.
2bviousl#, experience o! similar machines or previous !ailures will in!luence the
inspection polic# o! the maintenance engineer.
%ork on blading o!ten necessitates the use o! specialists !or the diagnosis o!
de!ects and method o! repair, because o! the skill and expertise re$uired to carr#
out the work. ,1 particular, since an# de!ect on moving blading can have
catastrophic conse$uences, expert advice should alwa#s be sought. (mall sur!ace
de!ects, such as cracks or impact damage, can sometimes be merel# dressed out
b# care!ul grinding. ore serious de!ects ma# re$uire the renewal o! blade
This work, including lacing wire and shrouding repairs which ma# entail removal o!
blades, needs the services o! appropriatel# trained personnel who processes the
skills and e$uipment re$uired to under take the tasks. Renewal o! erosion shields
also necessitates special techni$ues to ensure secure bonding o! the shield b# !ull
penetration o! the bra7e. The method !or re&establishing blade clearance depends
on the condition o! the sealing strips and the extent o! ad"ustment necessar#. ,! the
strip is undamaged ad clearances are re$uired to be increased, then either
machining o! the seal areas on the spindle or machining o! the !ixed strip, using a
boring bar arrangement, will su!!ice.
EC*'1,C'L ',1TE1'1CE '/0'1CE/ C2UR(E
LE((21 3 +'4E 3B (TE' TURB,1E 20ER*'UL
%here clearances are expressive or the strip has been severel# damaged, the
specialist operation o! !itting new strip is the onl# option. '!ter ad"ustment o!
clearances, all sealing !ins are dressed to give a kni!e edge. This ensures that
should a rub occur, the edges o! the sealing strip will de!orm with the minimum
production o! !riction heat.
5inal setting o! axial clearances is carried out with the c#linders assembled. The
sha!t is !loated in the bearings )with the thrust bearing removed- until the !ixed and
moving blades contact. The thickness o! the thrust bearing liners or coupling
spacers is then ad"usted to give the designed o!!set !rom this contact position.
aintenance associated with the modern turbine spring back lab#rinth gland is
similar to that alread# described !or blade sealing strips.
The main di!!erence arises due tot he ring o! sealing strips being made up o! a
number o! segments mounted in an ad"ustable carrier ring, and held in close
proximit# to the sha!t b# springs (ee 5ig. 3&@. (hould the sha!t contact an# o! the
segments, the springs allow movement, limiting an# !riction heating e!!ect on the
4lands are dismantled, cleaned and inspected checking !or damage to the segment
!ins and springs. The segments must be wedged to prevent movement that would
otherwise be allowed b# the springs. The use o! small "acking screws through the
segment against the carrier ring is a convenient and positive method o! obtaining
this condition.
'/0'1CE/ C2UR(E EC*'1,C'L ',1TE1'1CE
(TE' TURB,1E 20ER*'UL LE((21 3 +'4E 3C
+i,% 1-8% T-.i$al t#r!ine ,land%
EC*'1,C'L ',1TE1'1CE '/0'1CE/ C2UR(E
LE((21 3 +'4E :; (TE' TURB,1E 20ER*'UL
/amaged or excessivel# worn segments must be renewed. Those shoring onl#
slight wear can be re!urbished !or re&use b# machining their backs to allow them to
spring into a smaller diameter. (ubse$uent operations are common to both new
and re!urbished components. The ends are machined to maintain the design
clearance between ad"acent segments. The whole ring is then assembled in the
carrier, each segment is wedged or "acked to its normal running position and the
assembl# is machined at the sealing !ins to the re$uired sha!t diameter, plus the
clearance allowance. This !inal machining ma# need to allow !or centrali7ation o!
the gland to the sha!t, although ad"ustment is o!ten possible b# means o! shimmed
pads in a similar wa# to "ournal bearings.
+rior to !inal assembl#, the segment !ins are dressed to give a kni!e edge and
"acking holes are plugged. Each segment o! the assembled gland is checked !or
!reedom o! movement. %hen the gland ring is !itted to the sha!t, the axial position
must be checked. Errors in this position ma# lead to damage when di!!erential
expansion takes place. Liners are provided to enable the axial position to be
odern turbine generators are o!ten e$uipped with electronic governing s#stems in
which steam admission valves respond to electronic speed or load signals via
electro&h#draulic rela#s. aintenance o! both mechanical and electronic s#stems is
described, with man# o! the procedures being common to both. 1ormall#
maintenance is restricted to times o! statutor# unit overhaul, with onl# de!ects or
breakdown situations being dealt with outside these periods. The t#pes o! problem
encountered with governing s#stems !all mainl# into two distinct categoriesA a great
deal o! the s#stem is, because o! its dut#, continuall# moving, leading to problems o!
excessive wear6 other parts tend to run at a single position, when excessive !riction
becomes the main !actor.
Electronic governing s#stems generall# use a phosphate ester !ire resistance !luid
as the h#draulic operating medium. The rapid speed o! response to match that o!
the electronic governor itsel! is achieved b# using the !luid at pressures o! up to 3?;
bar. The s#stems are there!ore high pressure and low capacit#6 ver# tight
clearances are necessar# at the various components to reduce leakage and wear.
(#stem response and capacit# is increased b# the use o! h#draulic accumulators.
The !luid is maintained to a ver# high $ualit# b# means o! conditioning plant,
incorporating !ilters and vacuum chambers !or the removal o! moisture, particulate
matter and gums. +hosphate ester !luid has the advantage o! a higher temperature
capabilit# than lubricating oil, but must be handled with care due to its toxicit#.
The maintenance turbine valvegear is most convenientl# considered in two parts6
the steam side and the operating rela# e$uipment
'lthough detailed designs var# between turbine manu!acturers, man# o! the
maintenance aspects are similar. 5ig. 3&B a t#pical governor valve and operating
rela# o! a mechanical s#stem. 5ig. 3&C)a- illustrates a throttle valve o! an electronic
s#stems, and 5ig. B&3C )b- its electro&h#draulic rela#.
'/0'1CE/ C2UR(E EC*'1,C'L ',1TE1'1CE
(TE' TURB,1E 20ER*'UL LE((21 3 +'4E :3
't times o! ma"or overhaul, it is usual to dismantle the steam valves !or inspection.
0alve cover nuts are removed, using procedures described in (ection <.@ o! this
chapter, and the valve internals withdrawn, together with an# integral steam strainer
baskets. 'll components are dismantled and cleaned !or inspection, including the
pilot valves o! emergenc# stop valves, where applicable. Clearances between valve
spindles and leak o!! bushes are checked and an# scoring or scale build up
removed b# honing. %hen clearances are excessive, the bushes are renewed.
0alve seats are examined !or signs o! damage that could impair their shut&o!!
capabilit#, and !or secure !ixing within the valve bod#. ,n particular, seats that are
bolts in position ma# come loose due to creep relaxation o! the retaining stress, so
these re$uired special attention. The screws themselves must be ade$uatel#
secured to prevent an# loose or broken ones !rom entering the turbine and
damaging blades. +ilot valve assemblies need similar attention to screwed
components, as well as a general check !or the absence o! excessive wear and !or
!reedom o! movement.
Comprehensive 1/T is carried out to check items !or mechanical and thermal
!atigue damage. 0alve seats and valve heads are checked !or cracking o! the seat
!acing material, using d#e&+enetrant. 0alve spindles are sub"ect to large steam
velocities during operation and !low induced vibration can ultimatel# cause !ailures.
0ulnerable areas, such as changes o! section, crosshead tapers and threaded
portions, are checked !or cracking, again using d#e&+enetrant. 0alve bod# !orging
are inspected !or thermal !atigue or creep damage, concentrating on changes o!
section other known areas o! weakness and welded attachments. These checks
usuall# take the !orm o! ultrasonic and.or magnetic particles inspection and are
particularl# relevant to machines sub"ect to thermal c#cling.
EC*'1,C'L ',1TE1'1CE '/0'1CE/ C2UR(E
LE((21 3 +'4E :: (TE' TURB,1E 20ER*'UL
+i,% 1-<% *o9ernor 9al9e and o.eratin, rela-6 t-.i$al of a "e$hani$al ,o9ernin,
'/0'1CE/ C2UR(E EC*'1,C'L ',1TE1'1CE
(TE' TURB,1E 20ER*'UL LE((21 3 +'4E :=
+i,% 1-=0a1% *o9ernor 9al9e and o.eratin, ,ear for an ele$troni$ ,o9ernin,
EC*'1,C'L ',1TE1'1CE '/0'1CE/ C2UR(E
LE((21 3 +'4E :> (TE' TURB,1E 20ER*'UL
+i,% 1-=0!1% O.eratin, for an ele$troni$ ,o9ernin, s-ste"%
'/0'1CE/ C2UR(E EC*'1,C'L ',1TE1'1CE
(TE' TURB,1E 20ER*'UL LE((21 3 +'4E :?
,! the turbine blading is to be protected !rom damage, cleanliness during
maintenance o! valve gear is o! prime importance. %ooden blanks )or similar- must
be available and strictl# used to cover apertures where debris could enter the
interconnecting pipe work during operations, such as cleaning "oint !aces, etc. 2n
re&assembl#, the valve internals must be checked as clear o! all !oreign material.
%here linkages are connected to the valve spindle b# a crosshead arrangement,
the assembl# must be securel# !ixed to prevent !atigue !ailure o! the spindle.
%here the spindle incorporates a taper !itting to the crosshead, this should be
lapped to ensure !irm contact.
The h#draulic operating rela#s and valve power pistons associated with mechanical
governing s#stems tend to need less maintenance than the steam valves, especiall#
i! the operating oil is kept clean and !ree !rom moisture. *owever, it is usual to
dismantle them at ma"or overhauls and to inspect !or wear at pistons and bushes
that could eventuall# a!!ect their operation. ost designs o! power piston
incorporate strong springs re$uiring special care during dismantling to ensure that
the stored energ# is released in a controlled manner. %ith tight clearances between
precision components, cleanliness is again an important !actor. (prings and
spindles are checked !or corrosion, which ma# occur i! moisture control o! the oil is
The pins and bushes associated with operating linkages o!ten re$uire considerable
re!urbishment due to wear resulting !rom the transmission o! large operating !orces.
(ome designs use +T5E lubricated bushes, whilst others use grease lubrication
!rom the turbine automatic greasing !acilit#.
The servo valves and operating rela#s associated with electronic governing s#stems
operate with a high $ualit# h#draulic !luid and are there!ore less likel# to re$uire
regular maintenance. The high precision components are also ver# susceptible to
damage and when maintenance is re$uired it is usual to interchange complete
modules. There!ore, maintenance re$uirements are determined b# thorough pre&
outage !unction checking o! the s#stem, so that an# components identi!ied as
de!ective or suspect can be exchanged. +iston spools and sleeves are changed as
a complete assembl# to prevent damage to sur!aces. (ervo valves are removed to
check !or internal leakage and, i! this is !ound to be excessive, the# would be
exchanged. The re!urbishment o! linkage pins and bushes is similar to that
described above !or mechanical governor s#stems.
Routine maintenance o! the valve servo s#stems is restricted to !ilter changes and
accumulator checks. Each steam valve rela# has its own !ilter, t#picall# = um, which
should be changed at each ma"or overhaul. 'ccumulator pressure are checked
periodicall# and their bags should be changed at a !re$uenc# advised b# the
manu!acturer, t#picall# ever# > G @ #ears.
/e!ective servo and rela# valve components are usuall# returned to the
manu!acturer !or re!urbishment. (trict clean condition workshop !acilities are
re$uired with the application o! special working practices. +olished and mirror
!inishes are emplo#ed on components. These are ver# susceptible to both
mechanical damage and corrosion6 the latter ma# be initiated b# corrosive !luids or
even perspiration. +arts need to be scrupulousl# cleaned, using an approved
solvent and non&linting cloth, then stored, coated with oil. *#draulic !luid must be
used on components during re&assembl#.
EC*'1,C'L ',1TE1'1CE '/0'1CE/ C2UR(E
LE((21 3 +'4E :@ (TE' TURB,1E 20ER*'UL
This section is restricted to the work associated with mechanical governors6 the
maintenance and calibration o! the electronic components !ollows the philosoph#
described in (ection 3: o! this chapter.
' t#pical bob&weight governor is illustrated in 5ig. 3&3;. The centri!ugal !orce o! the
spinning weights is balanced b# the springs such that the weight position is
proportional to the rotational speed. The lever s#stem translates the weight position
to an oil rela# plunger which in turn produces an oil pressure proportional to speed.
The relationship is a !unction o! spring rates and rela# design and is so arranged to
give the re$uired governing characteristic )droop-. 2verhaul o! governors must
ensure that their relationship are maintained whilst eliminating an# h#steresis e!!ect
due to !riction or backlash. ,t is o!ten pre!erable to return governors to the
manu!acturers !or ma"or re!urbishment, where the necessar# special e$uipment and
calibration rigs are available.
%ear o! the linkage arrangements and oil rela# sleeves are the areas usuall#
re$uiring attention. Linkage bushes are usuall# +T5E impregnated, allowing ver#
tight clearances. These ma# be renewed, provided the necessar# tools are
available to allow controlled dismantling o! the spring assembl#. (pecial care is
needed when pressing in the new bushes so as not to damage the bearing sur!ace.
2il rela# clearances are checked and an# worn components renewed. %hen
reassembling the governor to the drive sha!t, checks are carried out to ensure that
the assembl# rotates concentricall#.
'/0'1CE/ C2UR(E EC*'1,C'L ',1TE1'1CE
(TE' TURB,1E 20ER*'UL LE((21 3 +'4E :<
+i,% 1-1&% T-.i$al >!o!ei,ht-t-.e? s.eed ,o9ernor and oil rela-%
EC*'1,C'L ',1TE1'1CE '/0'1CE/ C2UR(E
LE((21 3 +'4E :B (TE' TURB,1E 20ER*'UL
There are man# other components re$uiring inspection during ma"or overhaul.
These include boiler pressure and vacuum de&loading e$uipment and various other
ancillar# oil rela#s. The maintenance associated with these is similar to that
previousl# described !or valve gear rela#s.
The tripping s#stem arrangements must be inspected to ensure reliable operation.
The impact loads that occur when these s#stems operate can cause bruisting o!
latching sur!aces and excessive wear at ke#wa#. ,! such damage is allowed to go
unchecked, the e!!icienc# o! operation ma# be seriousl# impaired.
2n completion o! maintenance and be!ore return to service, the manu!acturer9s
recommended procedures must be !ollowed to set the e$uipment !or correct
operation. 0alve linkage settings must be ad"usted and the valves operated to
check that the opening characteristics are correct. ' check o! valve position against
control oil pressure in both the opening and closing directions will indicate whether
excessive !riction is present.
Bolts and studs used on turbine c#linder and valve steam chest "oint, which are
sub"ect to high temperatures )H=<;DC-, are made o! special material having
enhanced creep resistant properties. *owever, at such temperatures, the !asteners
have a basic li!e due to their limited capacit# !or creep strain be!ore the# crack and
!ailed. The creep e!!ect also results in stress relaxation !rom the initial value o!
about =;; 1.mI, which will lead to steam leakage !rom the "oint unless periodic
retightening is carried out. The turbine manu!acturer usuall# speci!ies the maximum
operating hours between tightening, t#picall# =;,;;; hours. Each tightening
operation increases the average stress on the !astener and hence the rate o!
accumulation o! creep strain. The material li!e is there!ore reduced each time the
!astener is tightened.
The materials used are either Chrome&ol#&0anadium )Cro0- steels or nickel&
based allo#s. The latter, although possessing superior basic li!e, have certain
disadvantages. 't temperatures below ?=BDC, the# ma# exhibit a gradual reduction
in length, with a resultant increase in stress. There!ore the# should be slackened
and re&tightened at intervals o! about =;,;;; hours to limit this stress increase.
1ickel&based allo# material is also susceptible to stress corrosion, particularl# in wet
or condensing steam conditions. Thus an# !asteners o! this material suspected o!
operating under these conditions re$uire more !re$uent examination. Lubricants
containing sulphur compounds must not be used with nickel based materials !or the
same reasons. 'll the creep resistant materials tend to be brittle when cold and it is
important not to sub"ect them to impact !orces. Temperature gradients in !asteners
and "oints can signi!icantl# a!!ect material li!e, particularl# in studs. Thermal
distortion o! the surrounding structure imposes bending stresses on the !astener
causing abnormall# high strains at the outside o! the bend. ,n studs, these e!!ects
are concentrated at the !irst engaged thread which is also usuall# the hottest area.
,n addition to the accumulation o! locali7ed creep strain, c#clic straining ma# also
lead to thermal !atigue cracking in a two shi!ting regime. The maintenance o!
thermal insulation. ,s there!ore ver# important to high temperature bolt li!e and "oint
'/0'1CE/ C2UR(E EC*'1,C'L ',1TE1'1CE
(TE' TURB,1E 20ER*'UL LE((21 3 +'4E :C
aintenance aspects o! high temperature bolts are predominantl# concerned withA
Routine tightening at recommended intervals.
Renewal o! li!e expired !asteners.
,nspection and 1/T o! !asteners sub"ected to abnormal circumstances or when
approaching the limit o! their basic li!e.
aintaining records o! operating hours, ad"usted to take account o! re&tightening
and temperature gradients.
5astener li!e depends upon the controlled application o! the initial strain at each
tightening operation. 5or Cro0, this initial strain is usuall# in the range ;.3:J to
;.3@?J6 !or nickel&based allo#s, ;.;BJ to ;.33J. the percentage strain is that
existing in the shank o! the !astener between the !irst engaged threads )the
e!!ective length-. Controlled application o! strain ideall# means direct measurement
o! the applied extension or application o! a measured h#draulic load !rom which the
strain can be derived. %here these methods are not possible, the strain ma# be
derived either b# measurement o! the angle o! rotation o! the nut or b# tor$ue
tightening o! the !asteners whilst using an appropriate thread lubricant. /irect
measurement o! the extension o! large bolts and studs necessitates the use o!
either ultrasonic instruments or special measuring e$uipment6 the latter re$uired a
hole through the length o! the !astener. 5ig. 3&33 illustrates such an arrangement. ,t
consists o! a tube with a s#stem o! collates at its end which engages the bottom o!
the stud )or stud&bolt- hole. ' sleeve locates at the top o! the stud and the change
in the relative position o! sleeve and tube is a measure o! the stud extension.
The actual tightening operation must be achieved without impacting the !astener
and one o! three methods is usuall# emplo#edA
4radual tightening, using a h#draulic tor$ue wrench.
Rotation o! the nut, !ollowing extension b# heat.
Rotation o! the nut, !ollowing extension b# h#draulic stretching.
+rior to tightening, the "oint !aces are closed and an# "ointing material crushed b#
tightening the nuts su!!icientl# to give metal to metal contact. ,! direct measurement
o! extension is being used, the initial lengths o! the !asteners in their unstressed
condition will have been measured also. Extension b# heat and h#draulic stretching
re$uires the use o! speciall# adapted studs.bolts. 5or heat, an electric heating
element is inserted into a hole running through the length o! the stud. %hen the
applied heat has caused su!!icient elongation, the nut is rotated through an angle
calculated to give the re$uired strain. This can be checked b# measurement when
the stud has cooled. *#draulic stretching uses studs with a lengthened threaded
portion on to which is crewed the stretching e$uipment. *#draulic pressure is used
to stretch the stud and the nut is then tightened. The h#draulic pressure is
proportional to the stress in the stud and so the s#stem can be calibrated to tension
!asteners accuratel#. 5ig. 3&3: illustrates an arrangement !or h#draulic stretching.
%hichever method is used, nuts must be tightened in accordance with the
manu!acturer9s recommended se$uence. This will involve slackening each nut in
turn !rom is tor$ued condition and then appl#ing the controlled tightening procedure.
The $ualit# management o! !asteners in a power station demands the maintenance
o! ade$uate records, so that the integrit# o! operating "oints can be con!irmed and
replacement o! !asteners can be arranged at the appropriate time.
EC*'1,C'L ',1TE1'1CE '/0'1CE/ C2UR(E
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Each "oint involving high temperature bolts should be identi!ied in the records
together with data on the t#pe, material, si7e, design, strain and operating
temperature o! the !asteners. The records are up&stated during the li!e o! the "oint,
incorporating the appropriating li!e penalties associated with retightening and.or
excessive temperature gradients. (uch data can to used to initiate 1/T o!
!asteners when the# reach B;J o! their basic material li!e and planned renewal
when approaching their li!e expir#. ,n the event o! discover# o! cracked or
completel# !ailed !asteners in a particular "oint, all !asteners should be renewed and
the old ones examined metallurgicall# to determine the cause o! !ailure. +remature
!ailure ma# be associated with stress corrosion or thermal gradients which would
re$uire additional measures being taken to avoid a recurrence o! the !ailure. Under
such circumstances, consideration must be given to other similar "oints that ma# be
given to other similar "oints that ma# be a!!ected.
+i,% 1-11% E5tenso"eter for "eas#rin, !olt e5tension% The le9er arran,e"ent
is #sed to en,a,e the $ollets in the !otto" of the st#d hole %
'/0'1CE/ C2UR(E EC*'1,C'L ',1TE1'1CE
(TE' TURB,1E 20ER*'UL LE((21 3 +'4E =3
+i,% 1-1/% Bolt e5tension tool (-dra#li$ .ress#re at the load $ell is #sed to
stret$h the !olt% The n#t is then r#n don to "ate ith the s#rfa$e%
Thermal insulation o! turbine components is o! the utmost importance in reducing
temperature gradients across thick&walled !orging and along !asteners. (uch
gradients can cause severe distortion, leading to operational di!!iculties and an
increased likelihood o! !ailures due to thermal !atigue. ,nsulation on turbine
c#linders must also minimi7e the di!!erences in metal temperature between top and
bottom halves at start&up and shutdown.
Two !orms o! man&made mineral !iber )5- are commonl# used in the insulation
o! turbine components, either as a spra# material or in mattress !orm. %hichever is
used, it is important that the insulation is applied to approved procedures b# skilled
applicators to ensure a high $ualit# installation.
(pra#ed 5 consists o! chopped rock&based !iber pre&mixed with cementation
binders. ,t is applied with speciali7ed spra# e$uipment whereb# the !iber.binder is
mixed with water at the spra# no77le. %hen properl# applied, it !orms a continuous
la#er o! small !ibrous bundles bonded together with no "oints or voids. /egradation
o! spra# material occurs with age and is accelerated b# vibration and steam.water
leakage. The external coating can sometimes hide the poor condition o! the spra#
material beneath and the taking o! core samples to check material condition will
assist in determining maintenance re$uirements.
EC*'1,C'L ',1TE1'1CE '/0'1CE/ C2UR(E
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5 mattress consists o! rock&based !iber woven or !ormed into a $uilt and
bonded to :? mm stainless&steel wire mesh on one side. This relative so!t and
!lexible arrangement is ideal !or insulating complex shapes although it has the
disadvantage o! compressing easil# and o! slipping, i! not ade$uatel# supported.
Eoints are inevitable and special techni$ues are needed to ensure the absence o!
,nsulation material is supported b# means o! steel studs attached to the valve chest
or c#linder, usuall# b# welding. The studs are ? G@ mm diameter, with a maximum
pitch when measured between stud tips o! =;; mm. Their length is such that the
perpendicular distance !rom the tip to the sur!ace e$uals the re$uired thickness o!
insulation. (pecial arrangements are re$uired at !lange bolts to ensure the absence
o! voids and to maintain the insulation thickness, particularl# when mattresses are
used. 1uts.studs are wrapped with glass cloth and stainless steel wire is looped
around them to be used later to pull the outer insulation mesh into contact with the
insulation. 4aps between nuts are !illed with compressed 5 mattress so that
voids do not occur when mattresses are applied. The applied thickness is
dependent upon the highest casing metal temperature and is usuall# calculated to
give an outer cold !ace temperature o! ?;DC !or an ambient temperature o! =;DC.
5igure 3&3= shows a t#pical relationship between insulation thickness and a hot&!ace
temperature. The insulation thickness is built up in one, two or three la#ers, each
retained b# stainless steel wire mesh. Bottom&hal! c#linders have their insulation
temperature di!!erences between top and bottom halves.
(pra# material should onl# be applied b# speciall# trained personnel, using material
that has been stored in a dr# location in sealed bags. The material should not be
more than 3 #ear old. ,deall#, the process should be continuous6 special attention is
re$uired to ensure good adhesion o! the material to the casing and the achievement
o! the speci!ied densit#. This ma# be checked b# using hand pressure to see
whether there is an# movement o! the material6 the resilience will give an indication
!or the densit#. /ensit# can also be checked b# taking core samples. The !inal
thickness is checked using a suitable probe.
attress is applied with the wire mesh !acing outwards. The insulation must be in
intimate contact with the sur!ace and radiation paths prevented b# ensuring that all
"oints in the lower la#er are covered b# mattress in the subse$uent la#er, the overlap
being ideall# at least !our times the insulation thickness.
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't the ends o! bottom hal! c#linders, the thermal insulation is tapered to !inish !lush
with the gland housing to avoid the possibilit# o! !orming packets which could trap
oil. Casing location ke#s are kept !ree o! insulation.
The insulation sur!ace is coated with a la#er o! sel!&setting cement, @&B mm thick,
vent holes being provided to aid dr#ing out o! the material. %hen thoroughl# dr#,
the insulation s#stem is !inished with an oil and water resistant glass rein!orced
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's with all turbine work, $ualit# assurance is o! paramount importance i! the
reliabilit# o! plant is to be assured. Checks are re$uired at ever# stage o! the
insulation process to ensure that approved procedures and materials are being
used. The check list shown in 5ig. 3&3> is an example o! documentation re$uired to
insure this.
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