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UNIVERSITATEA CRETIN

DIMITRIE CANTEMIR
FACULTATEA DE FINANE, BNCI I
CONTABILITATE BRAOV







CRISTINA PIPO









LIMBA ENGLEZ






MANUAL DE STUDIU INDIVIDUAL








BRAOV
2011


























CUPRINS
v

INTRODUCERE ix
PRESENT SIMPLE 1
1.1. Introducere 1
1.2. Obiectivele unitii de nvare 1
1.3. Coninutul unitii de nvare 2
1.4. ndrumar pentru autoverificare 5
TOWNS 9
2.1. Introducere 9
2.2. Obiectivele unitii de nvare 9
2.3. Coninutul unitii de nvare 10
2.4. ndrumar pentru autoverificare 12
PRESENT CONTINUOUS 17
3.1 Introducere 17
3.2 Obiectivele unitii de nvare 17
3.3 Coninutul unitii de nvare 18
3.4. ndrumar pentru autoverificare 20
TRAVELLING ABROAD 23
4.1. Introducere 23
4.2. Obiectivele unitii de nvare 23
4.3. Coninutul unitii de nvare 24
4.4. ndrumar pentru autoverificare 27
PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE 31
5.1. Introducere 31
5.2. Obiectivele unitii de nvare 31
5.3. Coninutul unitii de nvare 32
5.4. ndrumar pentru autoverificare 36
SALES 39
6.1. Introducere 39
6.2. Obiectivele unitii de nvare 39
6.3. Coninutul unitii de nvare 40
6.4. ndrumar pentru autoverificare 46
THE NOUN 49
7.1. Introducere 49
7.2. Obiectivele unitii de nvare 49
7.3. Coninutul unitii de nvare 50
7.4. ndrumar pentru autoverificare 60
WHERE DO YOU WORK? 63

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8.1. Introducere 63
8.2. Obiectivele unitii de nvare 63
8.3. Coninutul unitii de nvare 64
8.4. ndrumar pentru autoverificare 66
THE ADJECTIVE 71
9.1. Introducere 71
9.2. Obiectivele unitii de nvare 71
9.3. Coninutul unitii de nvare 72
9.4. ndrumar pentru autoverificare 78
BUSINESS ACROSS CULTURES 81
10.1. Introducere 81
10.2. Obiectivele unitii de nvare 81
10.3. Coninutul unitii de nvare 82
10.4. ndrumar pentru autoverificare 85
THE PRONOUN 89
11.1Introducere 89
11.2Obiectivele unitii de nvare 89
11.3 Coninutul unitii de nvare 90
11.4. ndrumar pentru autoverificare 95
BUSINESS LUNCH 99
Introducere 99
12.2 Obiectivele unitii de nvare 99
12.3 Coninutul unitii de nvare 100
12.4. ndrumar pentru autoverificare 104
REVIEW 107
13.1 Introducere 107
13.2 Obiectivele unitii de nvare 107
13. 3 Coninutul unitii de nvare 108
13.4. ndrumar pentru autoverificare 120
REVIEW 123
14.1 Introducere 123
14.2 Obiectivele unitii de nvare 123
14.3 Coninutul unitii de nvare 124
14.4. ndrumar pentru autoverificare 129
PRESENTATIONS 135
15.1. Introducere 135
15.2. Obiectivele unitii de nvare 135
15.3. Coninutul unitii de nvare 136
15.4. ndrumar pentru autoverificare 140
CAREERS 141

CUPRINS
vii
16.1. Introducere 141
16.2. Obiectivele unitii de nvare 141
16.3. Coninutul unitii de nvare 142
16.4. ndrumar pentru autoverificare 144
CAREERS 147
17.1 Introducere 147
17.2 Obiectivele unitii de nvare 147
17.3 Coninutul unitii de nvare 148
17.4. ndrumar pentru autoverificare 150
COMPANIES 153
18.1. Introducere 153
18.2. Obiectivele unitii de nvare 153
18.3. Coninutul unitii de nvare 154
18.4. ndrumar pentru autoverificare 156
COMPANIES 159
19.1. Introducere 159
19.2. Obiectivele unitii de nvare 159
19.3. Coninutul unitii de nvare 160
19.4. ndrumar pentru autoverificare 163
PAST TENSES 167
20.1. Introducere 167
20.2. Obiectivele unitii de nvare 167
20.3. Coninutul unitii de nvare 168
20.4. ndrumar pentru autoverificare 177
ALL TIME EXPRESSIONS 179
21.1. Introducere 179
21.2. Obiectivele unitii de nvare 179
21.3. Coninutul unitii de nvare 180
21.4. ndrumar pentru autoverificare 186
GREAT BUSINESS IDEAS 189
22.1. Introducere 189
22.2. Obiectivele unitii de nvare 189
22.3. Coninutul unitii de nvare 190
22.4. ndrumar pentru autoverificare 191
MARKETING 195
23.1. Introducere 195
23.2. Obiectivele unitii de nvare 195
23.3. Coninutul unitii de nvare 196
23.4 ndrumar pentru autoverificare 198


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MERGERS AND TAKEOVERS 201
24.1. Introducere 201
24.2. Obiectivele unitii de nvare 201
24.3. Coninutul unitii de nvare 201
24.4. ndrumar pentru autoverificare 205
LETTER WRITING 207
25.1 Introducere 207
25.2 Obiectivele unitii de nvare 207
25.3 Coninutul unitii de nvare 208
25.4. ndrumar pentru autoverificare 214
BUSINESS LUNCH 217
Introducere 217
26.2 Obiectivele unitii de nvare 217
26.3 Coninutul unitii de nvare 218
26.4. ndrumar pentru autoverificare 220
BUSINESS VOCABULARY PRACTICE 223
27.1 Introducere 223
27.2 Obiectivele unitii de nvare 223
27. 3 Coninutul unitii de nvare 224
27.4. ndrumar pentru autoverificare 228
BUSINESS VOCABULARY PRACTICE 231
28.1 Introducere 231
28.2Obiectivele unitii de nvare 231
28.3 Coninutul unitii de nvare 232
28.4. ndrumar pentru autoverificare 234






INTRODUCERE
ix


INTRODUCERE


Disciplina Limba englez este una dintre materiile utile studenilor aflai n primul an de
studii universitare deoarece i ajut pe acetia s restabileasc contactul cu una dintre cele mai
utilizate limbi folosite n mediile: economic, financiar, bancar, n companiile multinaionale
sau n cele care deruleaz activiti de import-export.
Aadar, necesitatea studierii limbii engleze se impune determinat de obigativitatea
oricrei firme de a redacta documente n limba englez, de a comunica cu potenialii sau
prezenii parteneri de afaceri n aceast limb.

Obiectivele cursului

Cursul i propune introducerea noiunilor de limba englez ncepnd cu nivelul pre-
intermediate, nivel la care se afl majoritatea cursanilor att din punct de vedere al
cunotinelor gramaticale ct i din punct de vedere al cunotinelor de vocabular.
Cursul se concentreaz pe reluarea elementelor de gramatic i de vocabular i pe
aducerea n prim plan a unora noi, utile studenilor.

Competene conferite

Dup parcurgerea acestui curs, studentul va dobndi urmtoarele competene generale i
specifice:
1. Cunoatere i nelegere (cunoaterea i utilizarea adecvat a noiunilor specifice
disciplinei)
Cunoaterea i nelegerea elementelornou prezentate de limb
utilizarea corect a termenilor introdui
definirea / nominalizarea de concepte utilizate la curs
capacitatea de utilizarea conceptelor raportat la noul statul, acela de student
2. Explicare i interpretare (explicarea i interpretarea unor idei, proiecte,
procese, precum i a coninuturilor teoretice i practice ale disciplinei)
generalizarea, particularizarea, integrarea unor elemente de limba
realizarea de conexiuni ntre diferite elemente aparinnd sferelor diferite de
nelegere
argumentarea unor enunuri n limba englez n faa partenerilor de afaceri,
anagajailor;
capacitatea de organizare i planificare a discursului
capactitatea de analiz i sintez
3. Instrumental-aplicative (proiectarea, conducerea i evaluarea activitilor practice
specifice; utilizarea unor metode, tehnici i instrumente de investigare i de aplicare)
relaionri ntre elementele ce caracterizeaz activitile de management
internaional;
descrierea unor stri, sisteme, procese, fenomene
capacitatea de a transpune n practic cunotiinele dobndite n cadrul cursului;
abiliti de cercetare, creativitate n domeniul managementului internaional;

LIMBA ENGLEZ
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capacitatea de a concepe proiecte i de a le derula activiti utiliznd limba englez;
capacitatea de a soluiona probleme utiliznd limba englez
4. Atitudinale (manifestarea unei atitudini pozitive i responsabile fa de domeniul
tiinific / cultivarea unui mediu tiinific centrat pe valori i relaii democratice /
promovarea unui sistem de valori culturale, morale i civice / valorificarea optim i
creativ a propriului potenial n activitile tiinifice / implicarea n dezvoltarea
instituional i n promovarea inovaiilor tiinifice / angajarea n relaii de parteneriat
cu alte persoane / instituii cu responsabiliti similare / participarea la propria
dezvoltare profesional )
reacia pozitiv la sugestii, cerine, sarcini didactice, satisfacia de a rspunde la
ntrebrile clienilor utiliznd limba englez;
implicarea n activiti tiinifice n legtur cu disciplina Limba englez;
acceptarea unei valori atribuite unui obiect, fenomen, comportament, etc.
capacitatea de a avea un comportament etic utiliznd ct mai corect limba englez
capacitatea de a aprecia diversitatea i multiculturalitatea prin prisma utilizrii
limbii engleze
abilitatea de a colabora cu specialitii din alte domenii utiliznd limba englez.

Resurse i mijloace de lucru

Cursul dispune de manual scris, supus studiului individual al studenilor, precum i de
material publicat pe Internet sub form de sinteze, teste de autoevaluare, studii de caz,
aplicaii, necesare ntregirii cunotinelor practice i teoretice n domeniul studiat. n timpul
convocrilor, n prezentarea cursului sunt folosite echipamente audio-vizuale, metode
interactive i participative de antrenare a studenilor pentru conceptualizarea i vizualizarea
practic a noiunilor predate. Activiti tutoriale se pot desfura dup urmtorul plan tematic,
conform programului fiecrei grupe:
1. Utilizarea limbii engleze pentru comunicare
2. Utilizarea limbii engleze n scris
3. nelegerea diferitelor tipuri i metode de comunicare n limba englez
4. nelegere unui text scris n limba englez

Structura cursului

Cursul este compus din 28 uniti de nvare:

Unitatea de nvare 1. Present Simple
Unitatea de nvare 2. Towns
Unitatea de nvare 3. Present Continuous
Unitatea de nvare 4.
Travelling Abroad
Unitatea de nvare 5.
Present Perfect Simple
Unitatea de nvare 6. Sales
Unitatea de nvare 7. The Noun
Unitatea de nvare 8.
Where Do You Work
Unitatea de nvare 9.
The Adjective
Unitatea de nvare 10. Business Across Cultures
Unitatea de nvare 11. The Pronoun
Unitatea de nvare 12. Business Lunch
Unitatea de nvare 13. Review
Unitatea de nvare 14. Review
Unitatea de nvare 15. Presentations
Unitatea de nvare 16. Careers

INTRODUCERE
xi
Unitatea de nvare 17. Careers
Unitatea de nvare 18. Companies
Unitatea de nvare 19. Companies
Unitatea de nvare 20. Past Tenses
Unitatea de nvare 21. All time Expressions
Unitatea de nvare 22. Great Business Ideas
Unitatea de nvare 23. Marketing
Unitatea de nvare 24. Mergers and Takeovers
Unitatea de nvare 25. Letter Writing
Unitatea de nvare 26. Letter Writing
Unitatea de nvare 27. Business Vocabulary
Unitatea de nvare 28. Business Vocabulary




Teme de control (TC)

Desfurarea temelor de control se va derula conform calendarului disciplinei i acestea
vor avea urmtoarele subiecte:
1. Elaborarea unei scurte prezentri pe baza temelor dicutate
2. Traducerea unui text relevant studierii limbii engleze

Bibliografie obligatorie:

1. Pipo, Cristina, Tania Muina, Limba englez, Workbook, Editura Aula, Braov,
2006
2. Pipo, Cristina, Tania Muina, Ramona Han, Gabriela Osanu, Limba englez
evaluarea competenelor lingvistice de comunicare, Braov, Aula, 2011
3. Redman, Stuart, English Vocabulary in Use, pre-intermediate & intermediate,
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1997
4. Cotton David, Falvey David, Kent Simon, New Market Leader, Intermediate
Business English coursebook, Pearson Education Limited, Edinburgh, 2002

Metoda de evaluare:
Examenul final se susine sub form scris, la el adgndu-se activitatea studentului la
seminar
















LIMBA ENGLEZ
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Simbolurile utilizate:



Introducere



Obiectivele unitii de nvare


Timpul alocat unitii de nvare:


Coninutul unitii de nvare


Exemple


ndrumar pentru autoverificare


Teste de evaluare/autoevaluare


UNIT 1 PRESENT SIMPLE

1


PRESENT SIMPLE



1.1. Introducere
1.2. Obiectivele unitii de nvare timp alocat
1.3. Present Simple
1.4 ndrumar de autoverificare
1.5 Teste de evaluare



1.1. Introducere

Pentru nelegerea i utilizarea ct mai clar a limbii
engleze verbul este foarte necesar, utilizarea corect a limbii
engleze fiind deosebit de important.



1.2. Obiectivele unitii de nvare


Studierea prezentului simplu
Studierea formei prezentului simplu
Utilizarea n context a prezentului simplu
Aplicaii
Prefixe



Timpul alocat unitii de nvare

Pentru unitatea de nvare Limba englez, timpul alocat
este de 2 ore.


UNIT 1


LIMBA ENGLEZ
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1.3. Coninutul unitii de nvare


RULES OF FORMATION

Forma afirmativ
1
( affirmative form)
Subiect + Verb la infinitiv
I play football every Saturday

!!! La persoana a 3-a, numrul singular, verbul adaug s
(-es): I walk He walks, I eat She eats, I watch She
watches, I go It goes

Forma interogativ (interrogative form)
Do/Does + Subiect + Verb la infinitiv
Do you play football every Saturday?
Does he watch TV every morning?

Forma negativ (negative form)
Subiect + Do/does + Not + Verb la infinitiv
I do not play football every Sunday.
He does not / doesnt watch TV every morning.

USE

1. Adevruri generale (General truths)
The Earth moves round the sun.
Children love cookies.

2. Aciuni obinuite (Habitual actions)
My neighbours listen to loud music every Tuesday
morning.
I sometimes go to a hip-hop concert.

3. Prezentul instantaneu (Instantaneous Present Simple)
The player kicks the ball and scores.
Now I take your photo, stay still.
Here comes the winner.

4. Present Simple cu valoare de viitor (Present Simple
with Future value)
The plane takes off at 12,45 tomorrow morning.
The train leaves the station at one oclock.



1
Vezi tipuri de propoziii

UNIT 1 PRESENT SIMPLE

3

ADVERBE

PREFIXES





PRACTICE

I. Punei verbele din parantez la Present Simple (Put the
verbs in brackets into Present Simple):

John (have)1 a blue car. He - (drive)2 his car every day.
At the weekend he and his wife (go)3 for a walk in the part.
They usually (take)4 the tube because is faster. Every
summer John - (want)5 to visit New York and (tell)6 that to
his wife, but every summer his wife (choose)7 to go
somewhere else. John and his wife (have)8 a dog. Every
Saturday morning John - (take)9 the dog out for a walk while
his wife (make)10 coffee.


LIMBA ENGLEZ
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II.Rescriei urmtoarele propoziii la formele de
interogativ i de negativ (Rewrite the following sentences into
the interrogative and negative forms):

1. Every day he sells ice cream at the corner of the street.
.............................................................................................
.............................................................................................
.......................................................................................
2. At two oclock every Monday, a woman in black comes
and buys a vanilla ice cream.

.......
3. He looks at her with his blue eyes and smiles.

...............
4. She takes the ice cream, blushes and leaves.
.

...............
5. He keeps smiling until she disappears behind the
groceries door.

....
6. The ice cream melts in her hands.

..........
7. She never eats the ice cream.

.......
8. She gets into the groceries and buys flowers.

..............
9. She comes out and gives them to the ice cream man.

.......................................................

10. She keeps smiling until he takes the flowers.
.
.......................................................................
........................................

III.Folosii cuvintele de mai jos pentru a comunica

UNIT 1 PRESENT SIMPLE

5
adevruri generale, adugai dac este necesar, cuvinte care
s completeze sensul propoziiei (Use the words below to
communicate general truths, add if necessary words to
complete the meaning of the sentence):

1. The sun .. in the East. (rise)
2. Bees honey. (make)
3. An atheist .. in god. (not/believe)
4. An interpreter .. from one language to
another. (translate)
5. A liar is someone who .the truth.
(not/tell)
6. Wood . on water. (float)
7. The fish in the sea. (live)
8. Water at 100C. (boil)
9. It always in winter. (snow)
10. People .. the summer and its heat.
(love)




1.4. ndrumar pentru autoverificare


Rspundei ntrebrilor urmtoare folosind adverbele din paranteze (Answer the
following questions using the adverbs in the brackets):

Observaie (Observation): Aceste adverbe sunt utilizate cu Present Simple i au rolul de a
exprima o aciune care se petrece cu o anumit regularitate. Locul lor este de obicei, naintea
verbului (These adverbs are used with Present Simple and they have the role to express an
action that takes place with a certain regularity. They are usually placed, before the verb).

1. How often do you go to cinema? (usually)
..
2. What is your favourite music? (often)
.
3. Do you play tennis? (occasionally)

4. What do your parents ask you to do? (always)

5. 5 Do you like summer camps? (rarely)

6. What do you take if youve got flu? (generally)

7. Do you like to go for long walks? (never)

8. Do you enjoy listening to rock music? (seldom)

LIMBA ENGLEZ
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9. Do you like to go camping? (once a year)
...........
10. What is you favourite sport? (occasionally)
..............



Concepte i termeni de reinut

Reguli de formare a prezentului simplu
Utilizare prezentului simplu
Adverbe utilizate cu prezentul simplu
Prefixe




Teste de evaluare/autoevaluare


Teste de evaluare/autoevaluare



Read the text below. For questions 1-5 choose the answer (A, B or C) which you
think fits best according to the text. Write your answers on your exam sheet.

After a nationwide search, the producers of the coming Broadway revival of The
Miracle Worker have cast a vision-impaired 10-year-old as the understudy for the role of
Helen Keller, to the delight of advocates for disabled actors who were concerned about the
choice of a seeing, hearing actress to play Helen.
Kyra Ynez Siegel of Eugene, Ore., landed the understudy job after flying to New York
two weeks ago for an audition. That involved working with a fight choreographer on
movement techniques for an early scene in which Helen and her new teacher, Annie Sullivan,
battle over a doll.
After an injury when she was 9, Miss Siegel, who will become one of the few disabled
actresses working in a major Broadway production this season, can see only shapes and
colours out of her right eye, she said in an interview by e-mail. She can see well out of her left
eye.
It is very challenging to use both my eyes together, she wrote in the e-mail message.
It makes me sad sometimes, but I dont care because I try not to think about it. Sometimes
your dreams get crushed but you just keep going.
While casting understudies is rarely a newsworthy event, the selection of Miss Siegel
stands out because of an unusual pledge that the lead producer of The Miracle Worker,
David Richenthal, made last month amid complaints about his choice of a star actress, Abigail
Breslin, an Oscar nominee in 2007 for Little Miss Sunshine, to play Helen.
Ms. Breslin, who is 13, can see and hear. Some advocacy groups, like the Alliance for
Inclusion in the Arts, said that a blind or deaf actress would give the character of Helen
greater authenticity and that disabled performers were overlooked generally.
In response, Mr. Richenthal said he would make a concerted effort to audition deaf or
blind actresses as Ms. Breslins understudy. But he also emphasized that in the end, his choice
would be based on acting ability.

UNIT 1 PRESENT SIMPLE

7

1. To the delight of the advocates for disabled actors, a vision-impaired actor received a
role in a Broadway play.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say
2. Helen and her new teacher did not battle over a doll.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say
3. For Miss Siegel it is difficult to use her hands
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say
4. There were some complaints for choosing the nominee actress in 2007 for the role of
Helen.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say
5. Mr. Richenthal would make an effort to audition more disable people.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say




Bibliografie:

Pipo, Cristina, Tania Muina, Limba englez, Workbook, Editura Aula, Braov, 2006
Pipo, Cristina, Tania Muina, Ramona Han, Gabriela Osanu, Limba englez
evaluarea competenelor lingvistice de comunicare, Braov, Aula, 2011
Redman, Stuart, English Vocabulary in Use, pre-intermediate & intermediate, Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge, 1997
Cotton David, Falvey David, Kent Simon, New Market Leader, Intermediate Business
English coursebook, Pearson Education Limited, Edinburgh, 2002

























LIMBA ENGLEZ
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UNIT 2 TOWNS

9



TOWNS

2.1. Introducere
2.2. Obiectivele unitii de nvare timp alocat
2.3. Towns
2.4 ndrumtor pentru autoverificare
2.5 Teste




2.1. Introducere
Pentru nelegerea i utilizarea ct mai clar a limbii engleze vocabularul are un rol
deosebit de important




2.2. Obiectivele unitii de nvare


Studierea vocabularului pentru orase
nelegerea vocabularului
Utilizarea vocabularului n context






Timpul alocat unitii de nvare

Pentru unitatea de nvare Limba englez, timpul alocat este de 2 ore.






UNIT 2


LIMBA ENGLEZ

10

2.3. Coninutul unitii de nvare


Towns

Facilities:
Swimming pool, sports centre, golf course, theatre, opera
house, radio station, art gallery, school, college, evening classes, take away, hotel,
restaurant, dance hall, health centre, registry office, chemists, estate agent, city hall

Problems:
Traffic jams, slums, vandalism, overcrowding, pollution,
crime

Describing towns:
Filthy, shabby, magnificent, clean, historic, quaint, deserted,
lively

Festivals

Superstitious people come at festivals
Festivals celebrate a centenary or a by-centenary
Festivals celebrate revivals after a
period of penance and fasting which are sombre periods
for people
All the festivals are flamboyant
The atmosphere is very lively and people are making a
spectacle out of it.

On the road

Junction
Traffic lights
A bend in the road
Inside lane
Fast lane
Bridge
Accidents
Main roads
A car breaks down
Rush hour
Traffic jam
To come from opposite direction
To brake
To prevent an accident
To be badly injured
To be badly damaged

UNIT 2 TOWNS

11

Giving directions:
Turn right / left
Take the first/second turning on your right/left
Keep going
Get to

Needed words:
Taxi / Cab
Pavement / Sidewalk
Speed limit
Petrol station
Fasten the seat belt
Overtake

Vehicles: bus, coach, lorry, bicycle, motorbike, van

Transport

TAKE: a bus, a train, a plane, a taxi
GO ON: my bike
GO BY: my car
GET ON/OFF: bus, train, plane, bike
GET IN/OUT: taxi, car
At the railway station:
Platform
Passengers
Change
Late arrival
Due to
Timetable

Movement

Cars/lorries/trains travel
Boats/ships sail
Traffic crawls along
Cars tore along the road and shoot past us
Trains can trundle or plod along

Words and expressions related to liking:
I quite like, I fancy, I enjoy, Im fascinated,
Im attracted, Im captivated, Im keen on, I really love

Words and expressions related to disliking:
hate, loathe, detest, cannot stand, cannot bear, disgust

Ways of addressing to loved ones: dearest,
darling, dear, love, pet, sweetheart

LIMBA ENGLEZ

12


2.4. ndrumar pentru autoverificare
TheSanbona Wildlife Reserve derives its name in part from the name of the indigenous
peoples who lived there for generations, the San. The Sanbona Wildlife Reserve has over one
hundred thirty thousand acres at the base of the Warmwaterberg. The reserve includes the
only free ranging lions on a private reserve in the Western Cape of South Africa.
While the San people roamed this area of the Western Cape of South Africa for thousands
of years they created a variety of art that can now be enjoyed by guests of the reserve. There
are seven separate sites of rock art within the reserve. Many of these religious art works are
more than thirty-five hundred years old.
Some of the lions being bread in this area of the Western Cape South Africa is the
extremely rare white lion. While this species of lion has always been rare in this region it has
now largely been completely eliminated in many areas. It is the hope of the owners of this
private reserve to be able to release one day these lions into the wild.
This Western Cape of South Africa wildlife reserve offers guided tours to guarantee that
guests have an unforgettable experience. The reserve also has a variety of luxurious lodges for
guests to enjoy when they aren't out watching the amazing wildlife.

1. The indigenous people who lived in the San gave the name of the Sanbona Wildlife
Reserve.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say
2. The art of the San People is inexistent.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say
3. White lions are bread in the area.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say
4. White lions are brought to the US for shows.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say
5. The luxury lodges are for the people to enjoy themselves while in Africa
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say


Concepte i termeni de reinut
Road features
Accidents
Giving directions
Words related to traffic
Likes and dislikes
Vehicles










UNIT 2 TOWNS

13

Teste de evaluare/autoevaluare


Choose the correct answer:

When Christopher Columbus set foot on the shores of the New World on 12 October
1492, the Lacandones, descendants of the Mayans, Mexicos most romanticised Indians, lived
in harmony around the great cities and temples their ancestors had built in south-eastern
Mexico. Not long afterwards, the forces of colonisation and exploitation forced them to flee
into the depths of what is now the largest surviving rain forest in North America. For
centuries they were secure in their jungle isolation. Until the late 1940s apart from a handful
of mahogany loggers, crocodile hunters and gum gatherers they and the more than 13,000 sq
km (5,020 sq miles) of lowland tropical forest, the Selva Lacandona, were largely left alone.
But today, on the eve of the 500th anniversary of Spains arrival in the Americas, the
Lacandones are on the verge of cultural extinction. And just as their way of life has been
overwhelmed, so has their environment. Only 30 per cent of the Selva Lacandona remains and
much of that is damaged. The rest has been cleared by thousands of immigrant slash-and burn
farmers, lumber companies, commercial cattle ranchers and the state-owned oil company,
whose budget for the area increases yearly. Even the Montes Azules Biosphere Reserve, a
1,278 sq km (493 sq mile) area set aside by a Mexican presidential decree in 1977, has seen
large swathes of its pristine forest cut down. The final round of destruction of the jungle a
massive dam project that would have flooded more than 500 square miles of forest and dozens
of archaeological sites was postponed last April by the president, Carlos Salinas de Gortari.
But ecologists know that there is nothing to stop the next president from reviving the project
once more. Throughout the degradation of North Americas last great tropical forest, which
extends into Guatemala, the Lacandones have been used by the government as a symbol of
Mexicos surviving indigenous communities. In the 1970s, in a burst of generosity, President
Luis Echeverria gave them thousands of acres, only to snatch back much of the land after
advisers convinced him of its value. What the government didnt simply take back, it
retrieved by sending agents into the jungle with gifts and ready cash in exchange for thumb-
prints on land contracts the Lacandones couldnt understand. These efforts to incorporate the
jungle into the Mexican economy have all but destroyed the traditional values and religion of
the Lacandones. Most still dress in the traditional white cotton shikur, and keep their long
black hair unshorn, but its no longer clear how many do this out of choice. Western haircuts
and Tshirts are not uncommon. At the archaeological site of Palenque, the dozen or so
Lacandones who surround the entrance, selling bows and arrows to tourists, duck into the
forest at the end of the day to change into their jeans and trainers. The accumulated
knowledge of the past few centuries now resides in the memories of only a few elders, and
ceremonies that were once a regular part of life are performed only every few years, often for
visiting anthropologists. The cosmogony of their ancestors and the ceremonial centres built
during the Mayan era still hold a sacred importance. But the complex Mayan calendar has
been reduced to a wet and a dry season, and apart from a few of the more stalwart northern
Lacandones of Naja settlement, most have been converted by fundamentalist Christian
missionaries in recent years. Polygamy, once common, is now
considered taboo. Even at the best of times, the Lacandones were never very numerous.
Most estimates put their number at around 5,000 before Columbus set sail for the New World:
today there are maybe 300 left, a number considered so insignificant that some people believe
the point of genetic no-return has been reached. What is certain is that if the current rate of

LIMBA ENGLEZ

14
destruction continues, we will witness not only the extinction of the Lacandon Maya, but that
of the largest rain forest in the Americas north of the Amazon.

1. Where were the temples built by the Mayans?
A. in south-eastern Mexico B. in New York C. in Spain D. in Canada

2. Where did the Indians flee?
A. in the middle of the continent B. in the temples C. in the pine forest D. in the
depths of what is now the biggest rain forest in North America

3. Until when the Lancadones were left alone?
A. 13,000 BC B. 1200 AD C. 1940s D. never

4. What happens now on the eve of the 500
th
anniversary of Spains arrival in the
Americas?
A. The Lancadones are on the verge of cultural extinction B. the Lancadones are
preparing for war C. the Lancadones disappeared a long time ago D. the
Lancadones created another cult

5. What has remained from the Selva Lancadona?
A. nothing B. 13% C. 30% D. all of it

6. Whose budget for the area has increased yearly?
A. farmers B. Lancadones C. commercial cattle ranches D. state-owned oil
companys

7. What area was set aside by a presidential decree in 1977?
A. Lancadones reserve B. Montes Azules Biosphere Reserve C. Carlos Salinas
reserve D. none

8. What is the outcome of the efforts of integrating the jungle into the Mexican economy?
A. the environment B. the Mexican cities C. the rain forest totally D. the destruction
of the traditional values and religion of the Lancadones

9. Do the Lancadones keep their traditional outfits?
A. no anymore B. some of them but not for sure out of choice C. yes because their culture
is very important for them D. yes because they are compelled

10. What is the authors prediction towards the future of the rain forest and Lancadon Maya?
A. they will extinct B. they will survive C. they will be just fine D. they will be
remembered thorough time










UNIT 2 TOWNS

15

Bibliografie:

Pipo, Cristina, Tania Muina, Limba englez, Workbook, Editura Aula, Braov, 2006
Pipo, Cristina, Tania Muina, Ramona Han, Gabriela Osanu, Limba englez
evaluarea competenelor lingvistice de comunicare, Braov, Aula, 2011
Redman, Stuart, English Vocabulary in Use, pre-intermediate & intermediate, Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge, 1997
Cotton David, Falvey David, Kent Simon, New Market Leader, Intermediate Business
English coursebook, Pearson Education Limited, Edinburgh, 2002









































LIMBA ENGLEZ

16








UNIT 3 PRESENT CONTINUOUS


17




PRESENT CONTINUOUS


3.1. Introducere
3.2. Obiectivele unitii de nvare timp alocat
3.3. Present Continuous
3.4 ndrumtor pentru autoverificare
3.5 Teste



3.1 Introducere



Pentru nelegerea i utilizarea ct mai clar
a limbii engleze verbul este foarte necesar,
utilizarea corect a limbii engleze fiind deosebit
de importan.



3.2 Obiectivele unitii de nvare



Studierea prezentului continuu
Studierea formei prezentului simplu
Utilizarea n context a prezentului continuu
Aplicaii
Prefixe


Timpul alocat unitii de nvare

Pentru unitatea de nvare Limba englez, timpul alocat este de 2 ore.

UNIT 3


LIMBA ENGLEZ
18

3.3 Coninutul unitii de nvare


Regula de formare a lui Present Continuous (Rule of
formation for Present Continuous)

Forma afirmativ (affirmative form)
Subiect +To be+ verb cu terminaia ing
John Travolta is dancing on the dance floor in front of us.
They are writing e-mails right now.

Forma interogativ (interrogative form)
To be +Subiect + verb cu terminaia ing
Is he coming?
What are you doing?

Forma negativ (negative form)
Subiect + To be+ Not+ verb cu terminaia ing
You are not listening to me.
He is not/ isnt going for a walk.

ntrebuinarea lui Present Continuous (Present
Continuous use):

1. O aciune n desfurare n momentul vorbirii (an
action taking place at the moment of speaking)
The rain is falling down the window.
She is singing a Christmas carol for the baby.

2. O aciune temporar, limitat la o anumit perioad de
timp (a temporary action, limited to a certain period of time)
I am going by bus this week because of the tube strike.

3. Present Continuous cu valoare de viitor (Present
Continuous with Future value)
We are leaving tomorrow.

Practice

I.Completai textul cu verbele care lipsesc folosind
Present Continuous (Fill in the gaps with the missing verbs
using Present Continuous):

write (2), go, plan, read, think, come, play, do, talk

Hey Michael, I . (1) you this letter
because I (2) about you. George

UNIT 3 PRESENT CONTINUOUS


19
.. (3) football with his friend. Jim
.. (4) an article in a magazine about Egypt and I
(5) anything because I dont feel like. I
..(6) to go and study somewhere closer to
you so that we can talk and have fun more often than now.
Actually I (7) right now to tell dad all about
my plans. He (8) .. from work and he (9)
.. to me in this very minute, I cannot hear
what he says because I (10) my
letter.

II.Rescriei propoziiile folosind Present Continuous
(Rephrase the sentence using Present Continuous):

1. You never find your keys.
lose

.............................................................
2. There is an obvious increase of living standards in
Europe.
Rise

..........................................................
3. I left the bags inside.
forget

..........................................................
4. My computer is not working again.
break down

.......................................................
5. Ive got nothing to read.
never go

.................................................................
6. I always miss the bus and Im late for my gym class.
Not/ hurry up
............................................................
..........................................
7. I feel so fat, I want to try to lose some weight but I
cant.
eat

.........................................................................
8. Im so afraid of spiders.
See

................................................................................

LIMBA ENGLEZ
20
9. Ive lost my car keys and I have to go to work.
Keep
...........................................................................................

10. I feel sick, I think Ive got flu.
Wear

................................................................................




3.4. ndrumar pentru autoverificare

Write a story telling what you are doing in this very moment.

Concepte i termeni de reinut

Reguli de formare
Utilizare
Adverbe
Sufixe



Teste de evaluare/autoevaluare

Write sencenteces describing activities you
do at the moment of speaking


Choose the correct answer:

Almost one in four children is overweight by the time they enter primary school,
according to figures out today.
The report, from the NHS Information Centre from 23 per cent of four to five-year-olds
are overweight or obese. This rises to one in three youngsters by the time they reach their
final year of primary school.
This means there has been barely any change in childhood obesity rates over the last few
years, despite the Government recently spending 75million on a 'Change4Life' advertising
campaign to encourage families to eat more healthily.
The data is taken from more than a million children (91 per cent of eligible pupils), as part
of the Government's National Child Measurement Programme.
The scheme has been criticised for being voluntary, with research suggesting that some
overweight and obese children 'opt out' of being weighed and measured, potentially skewing
the results.

UNIT 3 PRESENT CONTINUOUS


21
The report found that children in urban towns and cities were much more likely to be
overweight than those living in more rural areas.
Tim Straughan, chief executive of The NHS Information Centre, said: 'This is the fifth
year of the programme and participation in the study continues to increase with more than a
million children taking part.
How the figures add up...
Children aged four to five-year-olds
Boys: 14% overweight and 11% obese
Girls: 13% overweight and 11% obese
Children aged 10 to 11-year-olds
Boys: 15% overweight and 20% obese
Girls: 15% overweight and 17% obese
'The study suggests that weight problems continue to be far worse for older children than
for younger children, with one in three Year 6 pupils being either overweight or obese and
nearly one in five obese.
'These statistics suggest that more needs to be done at a younger age to combat obesity
within primary education and positively encourage healthy eating and participation in
physical activity, to reduce future health implications for these children.'
Tam Fry, from the National Obesity Forum, said: 'Government assurances last year that
childhood obesity levels were levelling off have been found to be sadly wanting.
'Any hope that Whitehall may have had for a quick fix to the epidemic has been shattered
by today's figures.
'The fact that obesity doubles during the primary school years from reception year shows
that the Department of Education must rethink its recent proposals on school dinners and
physical activity.
'The Department of Health should also be ashamed that a quarter of our children arrive at
primary school overweight or obese.
'Until its policies allow all UK four-year-olds to arrive at school with a healthy weight,
obesity rates will continue to spiral.'

1. How many children are overweight nowadays?
A. two in five B. two in four C. one in four D. one in five

2. According to what report 23% of four to five years olds are overweight?
A. New York Times B. NHS Information Centre C. NHS Study D. NHS Abuse centre

3. Were there any efforts made by the government to encourage people eating healthier?
A. they dont care B. they barely did anything C. they offered people 75 million if
they lost weight D. the Change4Life advertising campaign

4. Are there any children who dont want to be measured?
A. yes, there are B. no, everyone has to be measured C. yes, but they are measured
anyway D. no, they want to participate

5. Are the children that live in cities more likely to suffer from obesity than those who
live in the countryside?
A. no, because they eat more healthy foods B. no, the rate is the same C. yes, the
report shows that D. yes, because they eat more candies


LIMBA ENGLEZ
22
6. In which year is the program?
A. 14 B. 5 C. 11 D. 13

7. When is the health more in danger?
A. in the first years of life B. in the adulthood C. when the children are older D. its
the same

8. At what age should children be encouraged to combat obesity?
A. younger age B.whn they are older C. never, they are fine D. always

9. What should the Department of Education rethink?
A. banning dinner B. banning breakfast C. dinners and physical Activity D. School
attendance

10. What should the new policies include?
A. four years old forbiddance of attending school if they are overweight B. four years old
arrival at school with a healthy weigh C. four years old arrival at school with an unhealthy
weigh D. four years old to bring scales at school

Bibliografie:


Pipo, Cristina, Tania Muina, Limba englez, Workbook, Editura Aula, Braov, 2006
Pipo, Cristina, Tania Muina, Ramona Han, Gabriela Osanu, Limba englez
evaluarea competenelor lingvistice de comunicare, Braov, Aula, 2011
Redman, Stuart, English Vocabulary in Use, pre-intermediate & intermediate, Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge, 1997
Cotton David, Falvey David, Kent Simon, New Market Leader, Intermediate Business
English coursebook, Pearson Education Limited, Edinburgh, 2002




UNIT 4 TRAVELLING ABROAD

23






TRAVELLING ABROAD


4.1. Introducere
4.2. Obiectivele unitii de nvare timp alocat
4.3. Travelling abroad
4.4 ndrumar de autoverificare
4.5 Teste de evaluare



4.1. Introducere

Prezentul capitol prezit elemente aparinnd vocabularului de cltorii



4.2. Obiectivele unitii de nvare


Studiul textelor care aduc n prim plan vocabuarul legat de cltorii



Timpul alocat unitii de nvare


Pentru unitatea de nvare Limba
englez, timpul alocat este de 2 ore.








UNIT 4


LIMBA ENGLEZ

24

4.3. Coninutul unitii de nvare


Read the text below. Are the sentences 1-5 Right (A) or
Wrong (B)? If there is not enough information to answer
Right (A) or Wrong (B), choose Doesnt say (C). Write
your answers on your exam sheet.

Seventeen-year-old Herui Alemayhu came to the United
States from Ethiopia two years ago. The teen was excited for
a chance to live in a different country, but afraid of how hed
adapt to an American high school. Making friends was the
hardest part for me, I dont like to be lonely or anything, so I
was so scared about making friends, Alemayhu said.
Teenage life in America is hard regardless of where a kid
lives, but for immigrants the transition to high school can be
the most challenging. Besides learning a new language,
immigrant teenagers have to make friends, and adjust to the
different technology that is used in American schools.
Theres a lot of hi-tech stuff here, Alemayhu said.
The biggest problem for teens I think is on one side they
are still attached to the culture of their parents, said Bob
Ponichtera, executive director and founder of Libertys
Promise. We have a lot of sympathy for the parents too
because they left everything they had to come here.
Ponichteras grandparents were immigrants that came
here from Italy at the turn of the last century. They worked in
factories to provide a better life for his parents. His father, in
turn, started his own business and was able to send
Ponichtera to Yale University.
Most of the students agreed that their moms and dads
made those sacrifices to provide a better life for them.
America is good and its full of opportunity that we didnt
have in Africa. I really like being here and it feels good,
Charles said.
(news.medill.northwestern.edu)

TEST

1. Herui Alemayhu has been in the USA for three years.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say

2. Herui lives in New York.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say

3. Transition to high school can be difficult.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say

UNIT 4 TRAVELLING ABROAD

25

4. Bob Ponichtera comes from a family of Spanish
immigrants.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say

5. The problem for immigrants is that they dont know
much about their new country.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say


Read the text below. For questions 1-10, choose the
answer (A, B, C or D) which you think fits best according to
the text. Write your answers on your exam sheet.

By weight, the moon rocks collected during the Apollo
missions are worth far more than diamonds, and in any case,
they have a priceless historical value. They are relics of
humanity's greatest adventure to date.
Not all are properly accounted for, however. That's why
Joseph Gutheinz, a former NASA investigator, has spent
much of his career tracing moon rocks that have gone
missing: he's even staged elaborate stings to lure would-be
illegal sellers. And there's one particular group of moon
rocks that Gutheinz is keen to recover.
The Apollo samples add up to about 382 kilograms. The
vast majority are stored in a pristine high-security NASA
vault in Houston, Texas. But after the first landing by Apollo
11 in 1969, US president Richard Nixon presented lunar dust
embedded on plaques to 135 nations, US states, and
territories. In 1972, Nixon presented another round of
plaques, each with a fragment collected by the crew of
Apollo 17. NASA considered each sample the property of the
people of the nations and states to which it was given - but
many plaques were stolen or lost.
Gutheinz first learned that these plaques might not be in
their rightful places as an investigator in NASA's Office of
Inspector General. He had been looking into complaints
about attempted sales of bogus lunar rocks and dust, so he
decided to go undercover. The effort was called Operation
Lunar Eclipse. Using the alias John's Estate Sales, Gutheinz
placed an advert in USA Today. "Moon Rocks Wanted," it
read.
Gutheinz received a call from someone offering the
Apollo 17 plaque given to Honduras. He settled on a price of
$5 million dollars and asked the seller, Alan Rosen, to leave
it in a bank vault in Miami, Florida. Once there, Gutheinz
and NASA agents seized it. In 2003, the plaque was returned
to the Honduran government.
Gutheinz now teaches law, and has incorporated the
moon rock mystery into his course on investigations, setting

LIMBA ENGLEZ

26
students loose to trace the remaining lost plaques. Gutheinz
and his students have located 77, but nearly 160 are still
missing.
Some, like the rock gifted to Malta, were stolen from
museums. Others were taken by politicians. The Romanian
plaque, for example, was auctioned off from the estate of
executed dictator Nicolae Ceausescu. Gutheinz suspects that
many people who acquired the rocks underestimated their
rarity, and so some have turned up in inglorious places. One
of them, West Virginia's, had been sitting in a box in the
garage of a retired dentist.
The strangest case of Gutheinz's career, however, is the
one he is investigating at the moment. Coleman Anderson, a
one-time fishing boat captain on the reality TV series
Deadliest Catch, is suing the state of Alaska for title to its
Apollo 11 plaque. Anderson claims he salvaged the plaque
after a fire at the museum where it was displayed 37 years
ago. The curator of the Alaska state museum has asked
Gutheinz for advice on how to get the plaque back.
Gutheinz says the plaques are too precious to be in
private hands, but accepts that many may be beyond his
reach. "I think we'll get a lot back, but we're never going to
get 100 per cent," he says.
(Lost treasures: President Nixon's moon rocks,
MacGregor Campbell, 2012, newscientist.com)

TEST

1. The moon rocks from the Apollo mission
A. are worthless
B. are as valuable as the diamonds
C. are priceless
D. are worth less than diamonds

2. The moon rocks
A. are all at NASA
B. are kept by Joseph Gutheinz
C. are traced by Joseph Gutheinz
D. are sold in an illegal auction

3. 328
A. is the number of all the rocks
B. is the quantity of rocks from the Apollo mission
C. is the number of people searching for the rocks
D. is the number of people that own the rocks

4. The plaques are the property of the nation according to
A. NASA
B. NATO
C. Nixon

UNIT 4 TRAVELLING ABROAD

27
D. Apollo

5. Gutheinz decided to go undercover because
A. he knew the importance of the rocks
B. he wanted to try and sell rocks
C. seller complained of his lunar dust
D. he saw compliants about sales

6. An Apollo plaque was offered to Gutheinz
A. for $5 milllion
B. in 2003
C. in Honduras
D. in Miami

7. The moon rocks were located by
A. Gutheinz and his students
B. Gutheinz for 77 years
C. Gutheinz and his students in 160 days
D. sellers

8. People that bought the plaques
A. new very well their value
B. were unaware of their value
C. were unable to keep them
D. were unaware of their rarity

9. The state of Alaska is sued by
A. Anderson
B. museum curator
C. Gutheinz
D. a museum

10. Gutheinz believes that the plaques
A. should be sold
B. should be well kept because they are precious
C. shouldnt be in private hands
D. shouldnt be kept by him




4.4. ndrumar pentru autoverificare

1.Is there a place you would like to travel?
2.Are there any interesting countries you have travelled to?




LIMBA ENGLEZ

28
Concepte i termeni de reinut

Travelling Abroad
Words related to travel
Answering questions





Teste de evaluare/autoevaluare

Describe your favourite place where to go on
holiday



My parents brought me up to think I was the centre of the universe. They showered me
with love and attention and gave me terrific self-confidence. I was the eldest of four. There
were three girls and then finally the longed for boy arrived. We were all indulged, all special.
I dont think any one of us was the favourite. My father was a barrister and my mother had
been a nurse before she married. She was a big, jolly woman, as big as I am, with a great
smile that went right round her face. We never had a lot of money but we had great comfort
and lived in a big, shabby old house with nearly an acre of garden looking out over the sea in
Dalkey, near Dublin. We each had our own bedroom and we had a maid, Agnes, who is still a
friend. We all went to school on the train from Dalkey to Killiney to the Convent of the Holy
Child. It was just three miles down the line and now I see it as the most beautiful place, but
we never noticed the view when we were children. I was a terrible goody-goody. At school I
was the girl who was always approached if somebody had to write a thank-you letter to a
visiting speaker or make the speech of thanks. I was an extrovert. I dont remember any time
until I was 16 or 17 that I ever felt self-conscious. I thought I was marvellous because my
parents made me feel that way. When I was little they would take me out of bed and bring me
down to entertain their friends to whom I now apologise. I was a very devout little girl. I
was going to be a saint, not just a nun. I intended to be the first Saint Maeve. At home we kept
hens and when they died of old age we buried them and held a Requiem Mass. I was the
priest, of course, and prayed for their souls and put flowers on their graves. We had an
honorary grave for the tortoise once because we thought he was dead, though we couldnt find
the body. He turned up again he had only gone away for the winter.
I was a placid child, very content. I never rebelled. It sounds terribly smug, but all I
wanted in life came to me. I remember lovely birthday parties as a girl jellies and cakes with
hundreds-and thousands on them and people singing Happy Birthday, and giving me little
bars of soap all wrapped up. And like Benny, despite my size, I longed to be dressed in silly
frocks in crushed velvet. I was so innocent. My mother told me the facts of life when I was
about 12 and I didnt believe her. I told my father I thought Mother must be having delusions!
I was a big, bold, strapping schoolgirl but, in fact, I had nothing to be self-confident about. I
wasnt very academic; I was quick minded, but I was very lazy. My reports werent good,
which distressed my parents. In Ireland in those days you had to pay for education after the
age of 14 and I remember my father saying that a good education was all he could afford to
give me. Homework was considered very important and every evening the breakfast room
would be set up with dictionaries and pens and paper and a big fire going. Daddy would often
work with us. I always finished as quickly as possible so I could go off and read my Girl or

UNIT 4 TRAVELLING ABROAD

29
School Friend comics. Without any doubt, my favourite teacher at the convent was Sister St
Dominic. She was a wonderful woman who made a tremendous impression on me. She saw
something in every child and thought we were all great. She managed to put some sense into
teaching because she always enjoyed herself so much. Because of her I became a teacher. At
school I lived a fantasy life. I had a book called the ABC hipping Guide and dreamed of
travelling the world. My teachers always said of my essays, Try to stick to the facts, Maeve,
because I embroidered and exaggerated so much. Nowadays I cant believe how quickly time
passes, but when I was a child, the summer holidays seemed to last for ever. They were
idyllic, and I put a lot of that into my books. Everything about my childhood has been useful
material.

1. Who gave the author self confidence?
A. teachers B. parents C. grandparents D. nobody

2. Is the authors mum still working as a nurse?
A. yes, she does B. no, she has never worked as a nurse C. she did work as a nurse
until she got married D. she did work as a nurse until a week ago

3. Where did they live?
A. in Dublin B. out of Dublin C. outside Dalkey D. in Dalkey near Dublin

4. What is the most beautiful place in authors eyes?
A. Dalkey B. Dublin C. the Convent of the Holy Child D. their garden

5. The author was marvellous because
A. her parents made her feel this way B. everyone told her that C. she just was D.
she was telling herself that every morning

6. What did they do to the hens?
A. they put them in contests B. they had Sunday supper out of them C. when they
died of age they buried them and kept a Requiem Mass D. they played with them

7. Did the lack of good reports distress the authors parents?
A. they did not know B. yes C. no D. doesnt say

8. Did the author consider giving time for homework?
A. yes, she paid a lot of attention to homework B. no, she did not do her homework
at all C. yes, she would ask her father to help D. she did it quickly so she could go
and read her Girl or School Friend comics

9. What did the teachers say about her essays?
A. they were too simple B. she had to try and stick to the facts C. there was too much
embroidering D. they were poor

10. Was her childhood useful material for the books?
A. yes B. no C. doesnt say D. she cant remember her childhood





LIMBA ENGLEZ

30

Bibliografie:

Pipo, Cristina, Tania Muina, Limba englez, Workbook, Editura Aula, Braov, 2006
Pipo, Cristina, Tania Muina, Ramona Han, Gabriela Osanu, Limba englez
evaluarea competenelor lingvistice de comunicare, Braov, Aula, 2011
Redman, Stuart, English Vocabulary in Use, pre-intermediate & intermediate, Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge, 1997
Cotton David, Falvey David, Kent Simon, New Market Leader, Intermediate Business
English coursebook, Pearson Education Limited, Edinburgh, 2002



UNIT 5 PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE

31



PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE

5.1. Introducere
5.2. Obiectivele unitii de nvare timp alocat
5.3. Coninutul unitii de nvare
5.4 ndrumar de autoverificare
5.5 Teste de evaluare



5.1. Introducere

Pentru nelegerea i utilizarea ct mai
clar a limbii engleze verbul este foarte necesar,
utilizarea corect a limbii engleze fiind deosebit de importan.




5.2. Obiectivele unitii de nvare

Studierea prezentului simplu
Studierea formei prezentului perfect simplu
Utilizarea n context a prezentului perfect simplu
Aplicaii
Prefixe





Timpul alocat unitii de nvare

Pentru unitatea de nvare Limba englez, timpul alocat este de 2 ore.






UNIT 5


LIMBA ENGLEZ

32

5.3. Coninutul unitii de nvare


Observaie (Observation): n limba englez verbele sunt
clasificate n verbe cu form regulat i verbe cu form
neregulat (in English verbs are classified in regular and
irregular verbs, according to their form).
Verbele regulate au aceeai form pentru Past Simple
2
i
pentru Past Participle
3
. ed este adugat formei de infinitiv.
(Regular verbs have the same form for Past Simple and Past
Participle -ed is added to the infinitive form).

Exemple (Examples): Verbele cu form regulat au aceeai
form pentru Past Simple ct i pentru Past Participle (Regular
verbs have the same form for Past Simple and Past Participle):



Verbele cu form neregulat au forme diferite att pentru
Past Simple ct i pentru Past Participle
4
. (The irregular verbs
have different forms for Past Simple and Past Participle):






Regula de formare a lui Present Perfect Simple (Rule of
formation for Present Perfect Simple)

Forma afirmativ (affirmative form)
Subiect + have/has+ verb la forma 3/-ed
I have seen you.
He has finished his letter.
Forma interogativ ( interrogative form)
Have/has + Subiect +verb la forma 3/-ed
Infinitive
forma 1
Past
simple- forma
2
Past
Participle -
forma 3
talk Talked Talked
clean Cleaned Cleaned
walk walked Walked
Infinitive
-forma 1
Past
simple
forma 2
Past
Participle-
forma 3
know Knew Known
see Saw Seen
write Wrote Written





UNIT 5 PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE

33
Have you seen the show yet?
Has she talked to him?

Forma negativ (negative form)
Subiect + have/has+ not + verb la forma 3/-ed
I have not / havent seen the show yet.
She has not / hasnt talked to him.
ntrebuinarea lui Present Perfect Simple (Present
Perfect Simple Use):

1. O aciune trecut cu efect n prezent (a past action with
a present result)
I have read the book.
He has not written his essay.

2. Un eveniment anterior momentului vorbirii, ncheiat n
trecutul recent (an anterior event to the moment of speaking,
finished in the recent past)
They have just drunk a cup of tea.
He has just left.

3. O aciune care ncepe n trecut i continu n momentul
vorbirii i n viitor (An action that begins in the past and
continues in the moment of speaking and in the future)
He has started to work this morning.
We have met him today.
Exercises

I. Potrivii punctele de la 1 la 10 cu cele de la a la j (Match
the points from 1 to 10 with those from a to j):
1. Simon (talk)
2. Bob (just / play)
3. Susan (decide)
4. My friends (adopt)
5. Martha (go)
6. My parents (visit)
7. I (just / finish)
8. We (make)
9. I (not /see)
10. The president (speak / yet)

a. song form Scottish folklore.
b. to George a few minutes ago.
c. tidying my room.
d. a phone call this morning.
e. on the radio
f. Australia this year.
g. a movie in ages.
h. a girl this week.
i. to New York this month.

LIMBA ENGLEZ

34
j. This morning to write a letter

I I.Present Perfect Simple cu SINCE i FOR (Present
Perfect Simple with SI NCE and FOR):

OBS:
Folosim since cu referire la un moment iniial (SINCE
1970) i FOR pentru exprimarea unei perioade de timp (for 2
years).
Completai propoziiile cu since sau for (Complete the
following sentences using since or for):

1. Its a long time - I havent seen you.

.....................................................................
2. I have lived in this house three years.

............................................................................
3. Its over a year I have been there.

.....................................................................
4. Karl has had a cold two weeks.

......................................................................
5. Susan has stayed at the boarding school four years.

...................................................................
6. Tom and I havent seen each other - more than five years.

............................................................................
7. Jessica hasnt bought a dress -last week.

........................................................................................
8. George hasnt gone out for jogging -more that a month.

.................................................................................
9. I havent had a chocolate - I started this diet.

.....................................................................................
10. Tim hasnt seen a movie - ages.
.
.............................................................................................









UNIT 5 PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE

35
III. Rspundei urmtoarelor ntrebri folosind Present
Perfect Simple (Answer the following questions using Present
Perfect Simple):

1. How many things have you forgotten to do this week?

.................................................................
2. How many movies have you seen this month?

.....................................................................
3. How many cigarettes have you smoked this week?

.....................................................................
4. How has the weather been like this month?

.............................................................................
5. How long have you lived in this city?

..................................................................
6. What things havent you done lately?

......................................................................
7. How long havent you been to a place you like?

.................................................................
8. For how long havent you talked to Jim?

.....................................................................
9. What things have you done lately?

..............................................................................
10. How your holiday has been so far?

.....................................................................

IV.Citii situaiile i alctuii propoziii cu: just, already,
yet (Read the situations and write sentences using: just,
already, yet):

1. Would you like some breakfast? (just)

..............................................................
2. Do you know where can I find a post office? (just)
.
...............................................................
3. What is interesting on the news today? (yet)
.
........................................................
4. I want you to meet John. (already)


LIMBA ENGLEZ

36
.....................................................
5. Have you listened to this song? (already)
.
....................................................
6. Does he know about your big plans? (yet)
.
......................................................................
7. I like your new car. (just)
.
...................................................................
8. Do you want to go and visit the London Eye? (just)
.
..........................................................................
9. I must answer that letter. (already)
.
.....................................................................................
10. What are you going to do after you graduate? (yet)
.....................................................................................................
.....



5.4. ndrumar pentru autoverificare

V.Reformulai propoziiile de mai jos folosind since i for (Rephrase the following
sentences using since and for):

1. I havent seen him today.
I havent seen him...............................
2. After four years Tom is driving again his car.
Tom .........................
3. He last sent me an email when I was in India.
He .....................
4. It is 20 past 3 and I had breakfast at 10. I am really hungry.
I ............................
5. They last went on a holiday 3 years ago.
They ..............
6. On 4
th
of July I had a glass of wine.
I ..............................................
7. The Royal Navy never changes its rules but this year they accepted the first two women
to be part of a crew.
Since ..........
8. I last had my hands on a masterpiece like this ten years ago.
I havent ...................
9. He decided not to study economics ten years ago.
He hasnt ..
10. They left the office three days ago and I dont know where they are.
They..........................................................

UNIT 5 PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE

37



Concepte i termeni de reinut

Utilizarea Present Perfect
Auxiliarul necesar timpului Present Perfect




Teste de evaluare/autoevaluare

Write a short story of a person who
needs to do a lot of things and never
finishes anything





Read the text below. For questions 1-5 choose the answer (A, B or C) which you
think fits best according to the text. Write your answers on your exam sheet.
Getting a job interview is a great achievement, and it should really fill you with a sense of
expectancy. Every time you walk through the door for an interview, you should have your
mind made up that this is your job. Interviews, if approached correctly should be easy, and
you should always be in with a fighting chance if you know how to perform. Make your
impression on the interviewer and make sure you're remembered as a potentially contender
for the position after you've left. In this article we'll look at the dos and don'ts of interview
technique.
Before you even think about setting off for the interview you need to get your clothing
sorted out. Wear a suit, but only where necessary. If it's an office job, get on your suit, shirt
and tie, and make sure you're looking pristine. If it's a retail job, or a position which doesn't
demand formal wear, there's no need to wear it. Either way you must ensure you look tidy,
and cover any tattoos or piercings before you go in. The fact of the matter is you will be
largely judged within the first two seconds of walking through the door. You only get one
chance of the first impression, so don't let anything spoil it.
You should work out where your interview is being held and the most direct route there. If
you don't know where it is, find a map and look it up. Arrange to be there at least ten minutes
early to create the best impression in front of your employer. When you get called, walk in
and make eye contact with each member of the interview panel whilst shaking their hands and
introducing yourself. This is the best way to appear confident and to really make a mark. Also
make sure you have a prepared list of questions to ask - you should be given the opportunity
at the end of the interview, and asking questions definitely creates the right impression.
Finally always answer questions fully, developing each point you make. Do not be shy
about telling them exactly why you are right for the position, and let your personality come
through where possible. Be animated, use your hands, and try to express yourself eloquently.
You'll be asked some tough and complex questions, so just make sure you have all the
answers ready to impress at your interview.




LIMBA ENGLEZ

38

1. The article looks at dos and donts for an interview
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say
2. It is important when you go to an interview to flaunt your tattoos
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say
3. It is important to be ten minutes early for your interview
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say
4. Asking questions at the end of an interview makes the interviewer leave the room
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say
5. When you answer the questions fully you should develop each point you make
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say










Bibliografie:


Pipo, Cristina, Tania Muina, Limba englez, Workbook, Editura Aula, Braov, 2006
Pipo, Cristina, Tania Muina, Ramona Han, Gabriela Osanu, Limba englez
evaluarea competenelor lingvistice de comunicare, Braov, Aula, 2011
Redman, Stuart, English Vocabulary in Use, pre-intermediate & intermediate, Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge, 1997
Cotton David, Falvey David, Kent Simon, New Market Leader, Intermediate Business
English coursebook, Pearson Education Limited, Edinburgh, 2002




UNIT 6 SALES

39





SALES

6.1. Introducere
6.2. Obiectivele unitii de nvare timp alocat
6.3. Coninutul unitii de nvare
6.4 ndrumar pentru autoverificare
6.5 Teste



6.1. Introducere

Pentru nelegerea i utilizarea ct mai clar
a limbii engleze vocabularul are un rol deosebit
de important



6.2. Obiectivele unitii de nvare

Studierea vocabularului pentru vnzri
nelegerea vocabularului
Utilizarea vocabularului n context





Timpul alocat unitii de nvare

Pentru unitatea de nvare Limba
englez, timpul alocat este de 2 ore.







UNIT 6


LIMBA ENGLEZ

40

6.3. Coninutul unitii de nvare



Listen to three people talking about the
products they buy and when they buy them.
Complete this chart.






Speake
r
Produc
t
Place How
often
1 clothes Mail
order

2 Online
3 Once a
year


Speaker 1 I buy a lot of clothes by mail order. I order by phone
and the mail-order company posts the goods to me. I spend a
lot, but I only order once every three months.
Speaker 2 I do my food shopping on the Internet. It's very
convenient and only costs 6 Euros for delivery. I do everything
- order, pay and arrange delivery. Once a week I go online.
Speaker 3 I love the January sales. I buy things like electrical
goods because the discounts are so good. You can get some real
bargains, especially in the high-street department stores. I go
every year.

Where do you buy the products mentioned above? How
often do you buy them? Use the words from the box.
I buy clothes in high street stores. / usually buy them every
month.
usually once a week at the weekend sometimes every day

Work in pairs. Choose two other products you buy. Talk
about where and how often you buy them.

Read the Delfov sales leaflet. Find expressions which mean
the following:

There are some good offers. great deals

UNIT 6 SALES

41
The buyer pays only a small amount of money at the beginning.
The buyer pays some money every four weeks for a year.
There is no cost for transporting the goods to the buyer.
It doesn't cost extra to pay over 12 months.

GREAT DEALS ON ALL COMPUTERS,
PHOTOCOPIERS AND DATA PROJECTORS
3-YEAR GUARANTEE
LOW DEPOSIT
PAY 100 NOW FOLLOWED
BY 12 MONTHLY PAYMENTS
INTEREST-FREE CREDIT
FREE DELIVERY

Read these sentences. Does a buyer or a seller say them?
Write B or S next to each sentence.
1 We offer great deals.
2 I'd like to place an order.
3 Do you give a guarantee?
4 I'd like to compare prices.
5 Are the goods in stock?
6 Can you pay a deposit?
7 We always deliver on time.
8 Can I make monthly payments?

Listen to a conversation between a buyer and a seller.
Underline the correct answers.
1 Which model does Karl want? PS7 / TX7
2 How long is the guarantee? three years / two years
3 How much deposit is needed for large orders? 15% / 10%
4 What does the seller say is a large order? Over 50 units / Over
25 units
5 Does the seller always have goods in stock? Yes / No

Transcript: (KS = Karl Svensson, AD = Alex Dodd)
KS Hello. Can I speak to Alex Dodd, please?
AD Speaking.
KS This is Karl Svensson.
AD Hello, Mr Svensson. You asked us for a price for some
TX7s.
KS Yes, that's right. Before I place an order, I have some
questions.
AD Sure. Go ahead.
KS Well, firstly, do you give a guarantee?
AD Yes. It's two years on all our models.
KS OK. And what about a deposit?
AD Well, we ask for a 15% deposit on large orders - that's more
than 50 units.
KS Yes, that's no problem. And do you have the goods in
stock?

LIMBA ENGLEZ

42
AD Yes, we always have goods in stock, and we always deliver
on time.
KS OK, I think that's everything. I'd like to compare prices with
Emmerson's, but I'll contact you again this
afternoon.

What is important for you when you buy a product like a
computer or a TV? Put these items in order of importance (1-
6).
a three-year guarantee
free delivery
interest-free credit
a big discount
a low deposit
great after-sales service

Before you read the article, discuss these questions.
1 Some businesses start very small, then become global
companies. What examples can you give?
2 What do you know about IKEA, the global furniture retailer?

Match these words (1-4) to their meanings (a-d).
1 distribute / 2 specialize / 3 stylish / 4 range
a) sell only or mainly one type of goods
b) attractive and fashionable
c) a set of similar products made by a particular company
d) supply goods from one place to shops or customers

Look through the article to find out what these numbers
refer to.
1) 17 2) 150 3) 2005 4) 6,000 5) 17.3

Ingvar Kamprad started IKEA in his small farming village in
Sweden over 60 years ago. He was only 17 years old and sold his
products from his bicycle. When his business grew, he distributed
them from a milk van. He first introduced furniture into the IKEA
product range in 1947.
Demand for his furniture increased rapidly, so he decided to
specialize in this line.
In the mid 1950s, IKEA began designing its own furniture. It
wanted to
make innovative, stylish products and to keep prices down. This
made it possible for a large number of customers to buy IKEA
home furnishings. IKEA opened its first store in Sweden in
1958.Inthe next 40 years, the number of stores went up to over
150in 29 countries.
In 2005, there were a record of 18 new stores - 15 in Europe
and three in North America, and then IKEA entered the Japanese
market with two stores in 2006.
That year in February, it also opened a new store in London.

UNIT 6 SALES

43
Six thousand customers arrived for the midnight opening. There
were not enough security staff and police to manage the crowd, and
some people hurt themselves in the rush to get into the store!
Sales for the IKEA Group rose steadily, year after year. At the
end of financial year 2002, sales were at 11billion Euros the end of
2006, they totaled 17.3billion Euros. The success story continues,
and the group expects to add more stores to its existing network.
(Financial Times)

Decide whether these statements are true or false.
1 Kamprad started IKEA over 60 years ago. True
2 IKEA began designing its own furniture in 1947.
3 IKEA's strategy was to make original furniture at low prices.
4 IKEA entered the Japanese market 20 years ago.
5 IKEA opened a new store in London in 2005.
6 Sales increased by over 6 billion Euros in four years.

Look through the article to find the missing word(s) in these
sentences.
1 When his business , Kamprad distributed his products from a
milk van.
2 Demand for his furniture rapidly.
3 In the next 40 years, the number of stores to over 150 in 29
countries.
4 Sales for the IKEA Group steadily, year after year.

What do these three verbs have in common?
Work in pairs. Discuss what makes success in business
possible and add to this list.
intelligence
personal contacts
Money
hard work
Luck
Put the points above in order of importance.

Use the words from the box to complete the Dart leaflet
below.
discount free period price save
.up to 50% on selected models
Three days for the .. of
two.insurance and unlimited mileage
Extra 10% until the end of July
For a limited . Only
As a Gold Club member ... you get
free hire days or airline miles as your reward
you can use our express service, available at all international
airports in the country
you don't wait for a piece of paper when you return the car - we
e-mail you a detailed receipt

LIMBA ENGLEZ

44

Decide whether these sentences about the Dart leaflet are
true or false.
1 The customer can get some deals for half price. True
2 There is an extra cost for insurance.
3 The price is cheaper if the customer is quick.
4 The offer is for the whole year.
5 Gold Club members have a choice of reward.
6 Gold Club members get their receipt by express post.

Rewrite the false statements in Exercise B to make them
true, for example, 2 There is no extra cost for insurance.
Bob Hazell is the director of Advanced Training, a sales
training company in the UK. He is giving some advice to
salespeople. Listen to the first part and complete these
summary notes.
1 The first thing is - make sure that youve got
everything that you need for your interview.
2 Secondly,. your customers well before
you go.
3 Thirdly, make sure that you're talking to the
.Remember 'MAN': M is the person who has
the .; A is the person who has the ..;
N is the person who has the We need to talk to
the person who has all three.
4 Fourthly, the important thing to do is to know
well.

Transcript (I = Interviewer, BH = Bob Hazell)
What makes a successful sale?
The first thing is to be prepared - er, make sure that you've got
everything that you need for your interview. Secondly, you should
have researched your customers well before you go. That doesn't
mean knowing everything about them, but it does mean knowing
the basics, so that you don't have to ask silly questions. The third
thing to do is to make sure that you're talking to the right people.
To help to do this, there's a very simple process based upon the idea
of 'MAN' M, A, N. M is the person who has the money; A is the
person who has the authority; and N is the person who has the need.
And nearly always we end up talking to the person who has the
need. If we don't talk to the person who also has the authority and
the money, then we may not get what we're looking for. Fourthly,
the important thing to do is to know your product or service well.
Knowing that will firstly build confidence in you, and secondly it
will build credibility with your customer.

Listen to the second part and answer the questions below.
When training people to be good at selling, two things are very
important:
motivation and simple tools that they can take away and

UNIT 6 SALES

45
use.

1 What are the three basic points that make up motivation?
2 What are the four steps to follow when doing an interview?

Transcript (I = Interviewer, BH = Bob Hazell)
How do you train people to be good at selling?
There are two things that we feel are very important here.
Firstly, people who sell need to have the motivation to do it; and
secondly, they need to have simple tools that they can take away to
use. So let's look at the motivation side of that first. Motivation is
down to three basic points: firstly, there's our drive - that's our get-
up-and-go; in other words, it's what makes us want to go and sell in
the first place. Secondly, our attitude - towards the company we
work for, the people that we are selling to, their company, our
products and our services. Our attitude needs to be right in all those
things. And thirdly, we need to have
the confidence to give us the ability, when we're in front of that
customer, to come across credibly. So it's very important to do that.
The second thing that we need out there is the process. Now,
that means knowing how to conduct an interview, and basically
there are four steps to that.
Firstly, we probe - that means, we ask questions. That's
designed to get the customer talking. Secondly, we confirm - that
is, we say what they have just said back to them, but in our own
words, and get them to nod across the table. Thirdly, we match
what we have got to what they need, so that, in benefit terms, we
tell them what our product or service can do for them. And
fourthly, and most importantly of all, of course, is that we close, we
move the process forward in some way: we get them to agree to
another meeting, or, best of all, we get the business there and then.

Background
Link-up Ltd sells most well-known brands of mobile phones. It
has many high-street stores. Staff help customers choose the right
phone and advise them on the various service packages.

Concepte i termeni de reinut

sales
what make a good sale
developing sales




LIMBA ENGLEZ

46




6.4. ndrumar pentru autoverificare



Read the text below. For questions 1-5 choose the answer (A, B or C) which you
think fits best according to the text. Write your answers on your exam sheet.

New Yorkers may be buying fewer luxuries for themselves in this recession, but they
seem reluctant to skimp on their pets. As a result, real estate professionals report, there is a
small explosion of pet retailers in New York City.
This apparent surge is not only a reflection of the pampering of pets. In a slow leasing
market, previously reluctant landlords now seem more willing to negotiate with pet
businesses, and some pet retailers, particularly those that have animals on the premises, are
seizing the opportunity to expand.
For instance, Spot, formerly known as the Paw Stop, signed a 10-year lease this month for
5,000 square feet of retail space at 145 West 20th Street, between Sixth and Seventh Avenues
in Chelsea. The business, which provides boarding, grooming and day care for dogs, has a
store in TriBeCa, and its owners say they are continuing to seek retail space on the Upper
West Side.
Were doing well with our business in TriBeCa, said Anisha Khanna, a co-owner of
Spot. People dont stop spending on their pets and their kids in a recession. I guess with the
emotional connection, theyre spending more than ever.
With retail and office rents having declined by about 25 percent in the last 12 months,
other pet retailers are either locking in space or looking. In October, Fetch NYC, a dog day
care business, signed a lease for 6,000 square feet at 85 South Street in Lower Manhattan, and
another dog day care company called Paws and Relax took 1,300 square feet at 220 Avenue B
and East 13th Street. Both deals were done by the commercial brokerage JDF Realty.

1. Pet retailers are developing
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say
2. Spot couldnt signed a ten years lease of 5,000 square feet of retail space
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say
3. People spend more on their pets and children in a recession because they feel more
connected emotionally with them
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say
4. Lately with retail rents declined
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say
5. Fetch NYC is a company that besides dog care opened a new dog restaurant
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say







UNIT 6 SALES

47

Teste de evaluare/autoevaluare




Read the text below. For questions 1-5 choose the answer (A, B or C) which you
think fits best according to the text. Write your answers on your exam sheet.

Like many newlyweds, Elizabeth and Andrew Wooten eagerly anticipated making a home
together. The couple, who met when he moved to her West Village neighbourhood in 2006,
were married in her hometown of St. Francisville, La., last May. But they began hunting for
the right apartment in Manhattan several months before the big day.
After touring more than 70 places We drove our broker crazy, Ms. Wooten said
they eventually found it: an 850-square-foot, one-bedroom rental on the ground floor of a
stately town house off Washington Square Park, one of those houses you walk past and stare
at.
Ms. Wooten, 27, who works in the development office of a private school on the Upper
East Side, and Mr. Wooten, 30, a management consultant, hoped they could make the inside
as appealing as the outside.
Employing the time-honoured method of furnishing a starter apartment, they began asking
family members for hand-me-downs and searching Craigslist, an approach that was somewhat
successful: by late June, they had amassed a number of pieces in addition to the few they
already owned, including a set of six French Empire dining chairs (courtesy of Ms. Wootens
parents) and a dining table (found on Craigslist).
Ms. Wooten began setting out their wedding gifts, and they hung art. But despite their
efforts, the living area felt dark and didnt reflect the life they envisioned for themselves.
They tried rearranging the furniture, but were still dissatisfied.
That was when Ms. Wooten saw a posting (no longer online) on The New York Times
Web site, offering help to people struggling with a furniture budget that feels too tight. In
an e-mail response, she described her dilemma as not having much furniture and feeling
not quite sure where to place the furniture we actually do have.
There was also the issue of the couples conflicting tastes: I lean toward French
traditional but my husband likes modern, so its a challenge to blend our styles, she wrote.
And although they could afford to buy a few new things, they had to be cost conscious:
Ms. Wootens father had suffered congestive heart failure the year before, and was
hospitalized shortly after the wedding, and Ms. Wooten wanted to be able to pay for frequent
flights to Louisiana.

1. Elizabeth and Andrew are newlyweds.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say
2. The apartment was situated on the outskirts of the city.
A. B. at the ground floor C. in the center of the city
3. Why was the couple dissatisfied
A. because the bedroom was dark B. because the living area was dark C. because
the kitchen was small
4. Elizabeth leans towards moving into a few years into a new apartment.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say
5. The couple could afford new furniture.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say


LIMBA ENGLEZ

48



Bibliografie:


Pipo, Cristina, Tania Muina, Limba englez, Workbook, Editura Aula, Braov, 2006
Pipo, Cristina, Tania Muina, Ramona Han, Gabriela Osanu, Limba englez
evaluarea competenelor lingvistice de comunicare, Braov, Aula, 2011
Redman, Stuart, English Vocabulary in Use, pre-intermediate & intermediate, Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge, 1997
Cotton David, Falvey David, Kent Simon, New Market Leader, Intermediate Business
English coursebook, Pearson Education Limited, Edinburgh, 2002




UNIT 7 THE NOUN
I
49




THE NOUN

7.1. Introducere
7.2. Obiectivele unitii de nvare timp alocat
7.3. Coninutul unitii de nvare
7.4 ndrumar pentru autoverificare
7.5 Teste


7.1. Introducere

Pentru nelegerea i utilizarea ct mai clar
a limbii engleze verbul este foarte necesar,
utilizarea corect a limbii engleze fiind deosebit
de important.




7.2. Obiectivele unitii de nvare

Studierea substantivului
Studierea formei substantivului
Utilizarea n context a substantivului
Aplicaii
Prefixe






Timpul alocat unitii de nvare

Pentru unitatea de nvare Limba englez, timpul alocat este de 2 ore.








UNIT 7


LIMBA ENGLEZ
50

7.3. Coninutul unitii de nvare



The Noun
(Substantivul)

1. Clasificarea substantivelor:
(Classification of Nouns):

1. simple (simple): chair, table, mug
2. derivate (derived): discontent, unhappiness
3. compuse (compound): dining-room, teenager

2. Numrul substantivelor:
(The number of the Nouns)

A. Substantive variabile (Variable Nouns):

Pluralul substantivelor n limba englez se formeaz, ca
regul general, prin adugarea la forma de singular a:
(The plural form of the English Noun is made by adding
to the singular form of the Noun the):
- desinenei s (- inflexion s): dog-dogs, computer-
computers, perfume-perfumes
- desinenei es la - substantivele terminate n s, -z, -x, -
ch, sh (-inflection es added to the nouns ended in s, -z, -x,
-ch, sh ): watch watches, box boxes
! - substantivele terminate n y transform la plural y n
ie (nouns ended in y, into plural transform y in ie): city-
cities
!- unele substantive terminate n f (e) transform la
plural f n v (certain nouns ended in f(e) into plural
transform f in v): leaf leaves, loaf-loaves, elf-elves

Exist substantive a cror form se schimb la plural:
(There are nouns that change their plural form): man-men,
woman-women, foot-feet, tooth-teeth, child-children

Pluralul de origine strin al unor substantive preluat n
special din limbile greac i latin (the Foreign Plural of
certain nouns borrowed from Greek and Latin): stimulus-
stimuli, corpus-corpora, genus-genera, alga-algae, criterion-
criteria, phenomenon-phenomena, larva-larvae, tempo-tempi

B. Substantivele invariabile (Invariable Nouns):


UNIT 7 THE NOUN
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51
Acestea sunt substantivele care au doar o form de
singular sau de plural (The Invariable Nouns have only
singular or plural form).

1. cu form de singular (with singular form): luggage,
money, advice, knowledge, John, The Thames, news,
measles, optics, mathematics, cards, draughts

Pentru folosirea lor noi suntem ajutai de cuantificatori
(In their usage we are helped by the Quantifiers):
A piece of - music, luggage, advice
A slice of bread
A loaf of - bread
A lump of - coal
A bar of - soap
A strip of land
A sheet of paper
A bowl of - rice
A drop of water
A game of tennis
An item of news, furniture

2. cu form de plural (with plural form): trousers,
compasses, glasses, scissors, clothes, jeans, The Alps, police

Substanitivele variabile/ numrabile vs substantivele
invaribile/ nenumrabile
(Variable Nouns /Countable Nouns vs. Invariable
Nouns / uncountable Nouns):

Multe substantive pot fi folosite att ca substantive
numrabile ct i ca substantive nenumrabile, ele
schimbndu-i sensul n funcie de utilizarea lor (Many
Nouns can be used either as countable or as uncountable
Nouns changing their meaning according to their use):

Exemple (Examples):

1.
a. Did you hear a noise?
un zgomot, substantiv numrabil (one noise, countable
noun)

b. There is too much noise in this room.
mult zgomot, substantiv nenumrabil (noise, uncountable
noun)

2.
a. She found a blonde hair on his jacket.
un fir de pr, substantiv numrabil (one hair, countable

LIMBA ENGLEZ
52
noun)

b. I need to cut my hair.
tot prul, substantiv nenumrabil (all hair, uncountable
noun)

3.
a. Living in a different country is an interesting
experience.
o experien interesant (one experience, countable noun)

b. You can gain experience by taking these classes.
experien, substantiv nenumrabil (experience,
uncountable noun)

Much, many, little, few, a lot, plenty

Much
Se folosete cu substantive nenumrabile (It is used with
uncountable nouns): much sugar, much time, much space

Little
Se folosete cu substantive nenumrabile (It is used with
uncountable nouns): little money, little space
A little puin, conotaie pozitiv (positve conotation): I
know a little Spanish. (tiu puin spaniol, de ajuns)

Plenty
Se folosete cu substantive nenumrabile i substantive la
plural (It is used with uncountable nouns and plural nouns):
plenty of time, plenty of ideas

A lot of
Se folosete cu substantive nenumrabile i substantive la
plural (It is used with uncountable nouns and plural nouns): a
lot of friends, a lot of honey

Few
Se folosete cu substantive la plural, indic un numr
insuficient i implic o apreciere negativ (It is used with
plural nouns, indicates an insuficient number and has a
negative connotation): few children, few wishes (puin, nu
prea mult)

A few- cantitate mic, indic un numr mic dar suficient
i implic o conotaie pozitiv (small quantity, indicates a
small number but suficient and implies a positive
connotation): a few weeks ago, a few books (cteva cri,
ndeajuns)


UNIT 7 THE NOUN
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53
Many
Se folosete cu substantive la plural (It is used with plural
nouns): many people, many cars

Some
Cu substantive numrabile la plural (with countable
nouns into plural): There are some books.
Cu substantive nenmrabile la singular (with uncoutable
nouns into singular): She bought some cheese.

No
Nici unul/una din mai muli: No letter. He has made no
mistakes.

3. Genul substantivelor (The Gender of the Nouns):

n limba englez genul este natural (aceasta nseamn c
se bazeaz pe sexul biologic al obiectelor indicate de
substantiv). (In English gender is natural (which means that it
relies on the biological sex of the objects denoted by the
nouns)).

Clasificare (Classification):

1. masculin corespunde sexului masculin. (masculine
corresponds to the male sex):
man, sailor, uncle, priest
substituit de (substituted by): he, who

2. feminin corespunde sexului feminin (feminine
corresponds to the feminine sex):
girl, aunt, waitress
substituit de (substituted by): she, who

3. dual - doar pentru substantivele nemarcate pentru gen
(dual only for nouns unmarked for gender):
student, teacher, minister, doctor
substituit de (substituted by): he, she, who

4. neutru pentru obiecte al cror sex nu este cunoscut
sau nu este important (for unknown or unimportant sex
objects):
baby, horse, engine
substituit de (substituted by): it, which

Diferenele dintre genuri. (Gender Distinctions):

1. folosirea cuvintelor diferite (the use of different
words): uncle aunt, husband wife, boy girl, bull cow,
monk nun, father mother, king queen, bachelor

LIMBA ENGLEZ
54
spinster
folosirea substantivelor compuse (the use of compound
nouns):
school-boy school girl, landlord- landlady, tom cat
tabby cat

2. folosirea sufixelor (the use of the suffixes):
er: waiter, widower, manager
ess: princess, actress
or: sailor, actor, traitor

4. Cazul genitiv al substantivelor (The Genitive case
of the Nouns):

1.Genitivul analitic (The analytical genitive):
Se formeaz cu prepoziia OF pentru (It is formed with
the preposition OF for):
- lucruri (things): the shade of a tree, the cover of the
book
- prile ale lucrurilor (parts of the things): the inside of
the box, the bottom of the stairs
- referine abstracte (abstract references): the price of
success

2.Genitivul sintetic (The synthetic genitive):
Se formeaz cu s adugat substantivului pentru (It is
formed by adding S to the noun for):
- nume proprii (proper nouns): Gerges car, Toms cat,
Dianas friend
- substantive indicnd persoane (personal nouns): boys
toy, girls doll, my brothers computer game
- animale mari (large animals): lions tail, elephants nose
- substantive indicnd locuri (place nouns): Londons
museums, New Yorks parks
- referine ale timpului (time references): a days work, a
months savings, a years absence
- expresii fixe (fixed expressions): at arms length, at
earths surface, one hearts content, journeys end

Exercises

I.Trecei cuvintele din italice la forma de plural. (Turn
the italicized nouns into the plural form):

1.The girl is playing with a ball.
..................................................................................................
...........................................................................................
2. Have you put the box into its place?
......................................................................
............................................................................................

UNIT 7 THE NOUN
I
55
3. My luggage is very heavy.

.................................................................
4. Have you heard the news?

.......................................................
5. Tinas child came to visit.

.........................................................
6. This is a very good stimulus for her.

......................................................
7. There is a clever criterion to choose the best.
..
...................................................................
8. You should always think about his advice.
..
.........................................................
9. I need an apple to show you a trick.
..
........................................................
10. Nowadays, we all use a washing machine.
..
........................................................................
11. My cat is so lazy she does not want to catch the
mouse in the basement.
..
....................................................................
12. My family is always happy to visit my sister in law.
..
....................................................................
13. The businessman is considering closing his business.
..
................................................................
14. The housewife is always cooking and cleaning.

..........................................................
15. Where are my scissors?
..
.........................................................
16. My tooth needs a doctor.
..
................................................................
17. He has a great formula for our project.

.......................................................
18. When I was in Paris, I saw an unusual passer by on a
bridge.

.......................................................

LIMBA ENGLEZ
56
19. Nowadays, one can see a woman driver very often.
..
..........................................................
20. There are too many fish in the sea.

...........................................................

II.Folosii un cuantificator adecvat pentru fiecare
substantiv. (Use a proper quantifier for each noun):

1. Ive a got such a great . information.
2. Yesterday, I bought pink soap from Lush.
3. Shall we move this . furniture into the
sitting room?
4. With help well climb this mountain so
fast...
5. She cut ..bread and put the rest on the
kitchen table.
6. Could you borrow me a ..chalk?
7. I thought I could give you ..sugar so that
you dont have to go to the shop.
8. I feel like eating a .of chocolate.
9. This of news is very important for our
future.
10. On the airplane, we were allowed to take one
of luggage.

III. Punei substantivele din parantez la forma corect
de genitiv (Put the nouns in brackets into the correct genitive
form):

1. The (city / London) is now famous for its architecture.
..
....................................................................
2. My (father in law / brother) is driving his car.
..
.......................................................................
3. The (teacher / music room) is in the proximity of the
(daughter/ bedroom).
..
....................................................................
4. (Shakespeare and Milton / works) are famous all over the
world.


5. (St Paul / Cathedral) is famous for its beauty.
..
....................................................................
6. In (the centre / square) one can see many pigeons.


UNIT 7 THE NOUN
I
57
...................................................................
7. (The beauty / landscape) amazed him.

.....................................................................
8. (George/phone) was stolen by some burglars.

.........................................................................
9. The Tower of London /museum is open on Sunday.

..................................................................
10. Timothy / computer game is new.

............................................................................

IV.Alegei cuvntul corect (Choose the appropriate
word):

1. I bought paper/ a paper in the morning to find out more
about the accident in Turkey.
2. I have decided to write him a letter but I havent got
paper/ any paper.
3. Amy was so nice to give us some advice/ advices.
4. John is looking for a work/ job at the moment as he is
unemployed.
5. Our travel/ journey from London to New York was not as
exhausting as I thought.
6. Annoying news is/ are always on PROTV channel.
7. Your hair has / hairs have a strange colour, do you like
it?
8. Mathematics are/is very difficult to study.
9. The Thames are/is large.
10. My blue jeans is/are on the top shelf.

V. Alegei forma corect a verbului (Choose the correct
form of the verb):

1. The trousers I bought are/is too baggy for your taste.
2. Mathematics is/are not my favourite subject.
3. Jim says politics is / are a waste of time.
4. May I borrow your scissors? Mine are/is at Johns.
5. A very rare species of bird is/are to be seen on Discovery
channel tonight.
6. Minus 25 degrees is/are too much for me, I just cannot
live like this.
7. The bus is/are a very good means of transport.
8. Mumps is /are a childrens disease.
9. Gymnastics is/are very good for ones health.
10. Brussels is/are a beautiful city.



LIMBA ENGLEZ
58
VI.Folosii genitivul n propoziiile create de voi (Use the
genitive form in sentences of your own):

1. hat/woman

...............................................................
2. the garden/our neighbours

.......................................................
3. mother/chocolate

...................................................
4. elephant/tail

....................................................
5. clothes/children

....................................................
6. tomorrow/meeting

..............................................................
7. back/car

..............................................................
8. Jack and Amy/ wedding presents

........................................................
9. the score / the game

...................................................
10. the bottom/ the page

...................................................

VII.Punei substantivele din parantez la forma corect
folosind cazul genitiv (Put the nouns in brackets into the
correct form using the genitive case):

1. Every day I commute for work, it is only (a half an
hour/ drive).

...............................................
2. (The world/ population) is growing every single day
more and more.

...............................................
3. (The owner/ the restaurant) is my friend.

................................................
4. (The cover/ this book) is gold.

UNIT 7 THE NOUN
I
59

................................................
5. (Mr Carter/ lobster) is more than a pet for him.

...................................................
6. (The winner/ the race) is George.

...................................................
7. (The whirl/ the fan) is driving me mad.

...........................................................
8. (The Gulf / Mexico) is what weve talked about today
at school.

.........................................................................
9. We are at a (mile/ distance) from each other.

................................................................................
10. I can hear the (ocean/ roar) from up hear.

.................................................................................

VIII.Completai propoziiile folosind: myself, yourself,
ourselves, me, you, us (complete the sentences using myself,
yourself, ourselves, me, you, us):

1. I enjoyed trying to figure out how this
game has to be played.
2. Be careful so you dont hurt trying to
open that can.
3. Please, help with one of my home made
biscuits.
4. He can look after , do not worry.
5. I shall let . in as soon as I find my keys.
6. I always take my dog with .. when I go out.
7. Sometimes we need to help , no one will.
8. .., come here.
9. He never shaves ... He always needs
someone to help him.
10. Take care of .., her mother shouted.

ix.Completai propoziiile cu: some, any, somebody,
something, somewhere, anybody, anything, i anywhere
(Complete the sentences with: some, any, somebody,
something, somewhere, anybody, anything, and anywhere):

1. You can pay your bills at .. bank.
2. Yesterday I met old friends of mine.
3. Using this travel card I can travel with ..
train I need.

LIMBA ENGLEZ
60
4. There isnt .. at the information desk.
5. We shall meet over the rainbow.
6. I dont feel like talking about ..
7. He was talking to ..
8. Lets go you want.
9. There must be wrong with him.
10. I need to buy . lettuce.



Concepte i termeni de reinut

substantivul
Pluralul substantivelor
Genitivul substantivelor


7.4. ndrumar pentru autoverificare

X.Completai propoziiile cu: much, many, little, a little, few, a few, a lot, plenty
(Complete the sentences with: many, little, a little, few, a few, a lot, plenty):

1. There was .. to drink at the party.
2. There were .. people gathered in the square.
3. I have never seen so buses in my whole life.
4. There is so . noise in this cinema, one can hardly hear what the actors say.
5. He has . money to spend on his voyage.
6. I need to tell you words about him.
7. Only . countries joined EU in the last 4 years.
8. I only speak .. Polish, but I can understand more than I can say.
9. There isnt furniture in this room. What did it happen?
10. English people drink .. tea.



Teste de evaluare/autoevaluare



Travelers diarrhea may be commonly known as Delhi belly, but it should really be
renamed as Cairo cramp, after Egypt was named the country where holidaymakers are most
likely to fall ill.
The Health Protection Agency (HPA) estimated there were 82 cases of stomach illness for
every 100,000 visits to Egypt, compared to 65 cases for India. They were followed by
Thailand, Pakistan and Morocco.
The report divided travel destinations into three levels of risk, classifying visits to Africa,
Latin America, the Middle East and Asia as the most dangerous for gastrointestinal infection.
Of the top 10 most popular destinations for English, Welsh and Northern Irish tourists,
Portugal had the highest rate with 6.6 cases per 100,000 visits.

UNIT 7 THE NOUN
I
61
The study also found that half of the 24,322 laboratory-confirmed cases between 2004 and
2008 were caused by salmonella. Particular germ risk areas were unhygienic restaurants and
swimming pools.
Travelers were advised to wash their hands regularly, carry alcohol gel and be cautious
about drinking water.

1. In India holidaymakers are most likely to fall ill
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say
2. There were two levels of risk.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say
3. Netherland is the les risky country to travel to
Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say
4. Unhygienic restaurants and swimming pools were the particular germ risk areas.
Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say
5. Should travelers shouldnt be cautious about drinking water?
Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say








Bibliografie:

Pipo, Cristina, Tania Muina, Limba englez, Workbook, Editura Aula, Braov, 2006
Pipo, Cristina, Tania Muina, Ramona Han, Gabriela Osanu, Limba englez
evaluarea competenelor lingvistice de comunicare, Braov, Aula, 2011
Redman, Stuart, English Vocabulary in Use, pre-intermediate & intermediate, Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge, 1997
Cotton David, Falvey David, Kent Simon, New Market Leader, Intermediate Business
English coursebook, Pearson Education Limited, Edinburgh, 2002


















LIMBA ENGLEZ
62




UNIT 8 WHERE DO YOU WORK?
63






WHERE DO YOU WORK?


8.1. Introducere
8.2. Obiectivele unitii de nvare timp alocat
8.3. Where do you work?
8.4 ndrumtor pentru autoverificare
8.5 Teste


8.1. Introducere

Pentru nelegerea i utilizarea ct mai clar
a limbii engleze vocabularul are un rol deosebit
de important



8.2. Obiectivele unitii de nvare

Studierea vocabularului pentru joburi
nelegerea vocabularului
Utilizarea vocabularului n context



Timpul alocat unitii de nvare

Pentru unitatea de nvare Limba englez, timpul alocat este de 2 ore.





UNIT 8


LIMBA ENGLEZ
64

8.3. Coninutul unitii de nvare


Harmful on the Home Front

While the notion' of working from home may be a luxury
that appeals to, many employees, a new survey' reveals' that
it might not quite be the walk in the park' that it initially'
seems.
The study, which appeared recently in the Journal of
Business and Psychology, states,, that many of those who
have the opportunity to do their job from the comfort of
their own abode' sometimes find it difficult to split" their
time between 'work' and 'home'.
Despite the obvious benefits, a number of people often
find themselves unable to concentrate on their tasks, instead
being sidetracked by' other factors such as family,
housework, daily chores" and even pets.
Similarly, many people find themselves working much later
than they would if they were in an office - often logging on
late at night or continuing to work long after they should
have finished.
According to 'the research, those employees who did
find it hard to divide their time between- the two were
more prone to exhaustion, suggesting that working
from home can, in some cases, be detrimental to people's
health.
Business psychologist Paul Franks warns" those considering
the move to make sure they have weighed up all the
pros and cons29 before committing" themselves.
"It takes a certain, dedicated" person to do this - it's definitely
not for everyone. You have to know where to draw
the line". Not only can working from home have negative
effects on the employee, it can also have a knock-on effect"
and harm the business."

(Business English Magazine, no. 28, 2012)

1.Do you think working from home is useful?
2.Would you work from home?
3.Do you know anyone who works from home?

Read the text below. For questions 1-5 choose the answer
(A, B or C) which you think fits best according to the text.
Write your answers on your exam sheet.

The asteroid impact that ended the age of dinosaurs 65 million

UNIT 8 WHERE DO YOU WORK?
65
years ago didn't incinerate life on our planet's surface it just
broiled it, a new study suggests. The work resolves nagging
questions about a theory that the impact triggered deadly wildfires
around the world, but it also raises new questions about just what
led to the mass extinction at the end of the Cretaceous period.
The impact of a 10-kilometre asteroid is blamed for the
extinction of the dinosaurs and most other species on the planet.
Early computer models showed that more than half of the debris
blasted into space by the impact would fall into the atmosphere
within eight hours.
The models predicted the rain of shock-heated debris would
radiate heat as intensely as an oven set to "broil" (260 C) for at
least 20 minutes, and perhaps a couple of hours. Intense heating for
that long would heat wood to its ignition temperature, causing
global wildfires.
Yet some species survived, and the global layer of impact
debris doesn't contain as much soot as would be expected from
burning the world's forests, raising questions about the extent of
post-impact wildfires.
To explain the discrepancy, Tamara Goldin of the University of
Vienna and Jay Melosh of Purdue University in Indiana studied
how ejects falling through the atmosphere might affect heat transfer
from the top of the atmosphere to the ground. Earlier models
considered only how atmospheric greenhouse gases would absorb
heat.
The study reveals that the first debris to re-enter the atmosphere
just a few minutes after the impact helped protect the surface from
the debris that followed. "The actual ejects themselves were getting
in the way of the thermal radiation [in the atmosphere] and
shielding the Earth," Goldin told New Scientist.

1. Did an asteroid hit the planet 65 million years ago?
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say

2. Did the debris fall back into the atmosphere within two
hours?
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say

3. No species survived?
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say

4. The atmospheric greenhouse gases absorbed the heat.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say

5. The future technology will detect the exact amount of heat
from the atmosphere
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say



LIMBA ENGLEZ
66

8.4. ndrumar pentru autoverificare


The Importance of Friends
Your relationships with friends become especially important during the teen years.
Friendships are relationships between people who like each other and who have similar
interests and values. Good friendships generally begin when people realise that they have
common experiences, goals, and values.
Each person must also show a willingness to reach out, to listen, and to care about the
needs of the other person. Forming strong friendships is an important part of social health. To
make new friends, get involved in activities at school or in the community. For example, join
a school club or volunteer at a local youth group. When you participate in activities that you
enjoy, youre likely to meet others who share your interests.
A friend is much more than an acquaintance, someone you see occasionally or know
casually. Your relationship with a friend is deeper and means more to you. Although there is
no accepted test for friendship, most people whom you call friends will have the following
qualities:
Trustworthiness. Good friends are there for you when you need support. They are honest
with you, they keep their promises, and they dont reveal your secrets. Good friends live up to
your realistic expectations. If necessary, these friends would be willing to make sacrifices for
you.
Caring. Good friends listen carefully when you want to talk. They try to understand how
you feel. In fact, they empathize with you when you have strong feelings such as joy, sadness,
or disappointment. Friends dont just recognize your strengths and talents they tell you
about them and help you develop them. Caring friends might try to help you overcome your
weaknesses, but they accept you as you are. They dont hold grudges and can forgive you if
you make a mistake.
Respect. Good friends will not ask you to do anything that is wrong or dangerous or
pressure you if you refuse. They respect your beliefs because they respect you. They also
understand that your opinions may be different from theirs, and they realize that this is
healthy. Because you and your good friends usually share similar values, they will not expect
you to betray those values. If friends disagree, they are willing to compromise, which means
to give up something in order to reach a solution that satisfies everyone.
Most of your friends are probably your peers people close to your age who are similar to
you in many ways. You may be concerned about what your peers think of you, how they react
to you, and whether they accept you. Their opinions can affect your ideas of how you should
think and act. This is called peer pressure the influence that people your age have on you to
think and act like them.
People of all ages want to be well liked by their peers. You, too, probably would like to be
popular. Remember, however, that just being popular isnt enough. You also want your peers
to respect you to hold you in high regard because of your responsible behaviour.
(adapted from Teen Health, 2005)

1. The age when one starts to find friends important is
A. at about 15.
B. at about 8.
C. at about 20.

UNIT 8 WHERE DO YOU WORK?
67
D. at about 50.

2. In order to become good friends, two people should
A. have common acquaintances.
B. have common relatives.
C. have common aims.
D. have nothing in common

3. In order to have friends a person should
A. listen to music as much as possible.
B. care about poor people.
C. care about the environment.
D. listen to others and care about them.

4. One way of making friends is
A. going to school on a regular basis.
B. taking part in group activities.
C. setting up your own club.
D. doing things even if you dont enjoy them.

5. An untrustworthy friend is one who
A. is hardly reliable.
B. likes keeping secrets.
C. does not break a promise.
D. expects too little from you.

6. Good friends who listen to you and share your feelings are
A. caring.
B. careful.
C. careless.
D. hopeful.

7. Empathic friends also
A. consider you too weak.
B. always praise your talents.
C. try to develop your strong points.
D. try to develop your weak points.

8. Grudges in paragraph 5 means:
A. dislikes.
B. fights.
C. favours.
D. faults.

9. Persons who respect you as a friend
A. will expect you to be always healthy.
B. will try to convince you that their opinion is the right one.
C. will accept that you may see things differently.
D. will expect you to often change your set of values.


LIMBA ENGLEZ
68
10. According to the article, peer pressure makes you
A. steal from your friends.
B. avoid going out with.
C. listen to your friends.
D. imitate your friends.



Concepte i termeni de reinut

Joburi
Tipuri de joburi
Aplicatii pentru joburi



Teste de evaluare/autoevaluare





Previously I wrote about the common expressions we use daily, and I focused on the
themes of animals and music. I ended the trivia about animals with a promise to treat more
'general' idioms in the same fashion.
Accordingly, I will 'start from scratch' and tell you that many years ago, this expression
referred to competitive sporting events where a starting line was scratched in the dirt. You can
imagine this meant a 'race' (or competition), could be held absolutely anywhere.
A slight variation - 'come (or be) up to scratch' - belonged to the boxing ring, wherein a
contestant, once knocked down, was allowed a 30 second interval, and then a further 8
seconds to regain the ability to come unaided to a line marked in the centre of the ring, or...'up
to scratch'.
At the essential core of all things is the 'nitty gritty' - we all know that. But do we also
know that originally this referred to an unclean scalp (on an equally unclean, poor or rough
person), and to the inevitable nits or lice causing a build-up of scales, and an itch that must be
scratched. Easy then to follow the logic of probing deeply to get to the bottom of the problem.
Too often, a desirable plan or outcome is a matter of 'touch and go', and we understand
the words to clearly indicate a decidedly risky undertaking. However, an older definition
came from the days of stagecoaches and the fierce and usually unfriendly competitive nature
of their journeys. In their frenzied attempts to overtake each other, dangerous tactics could
mean the difference between a 'touch' (or entanglement of wheels with diabolical
consequences) and a 'go' (where the 'touch' was light enough to allow continuance without
harm to either stagecoach). And so we can see how our 'plan' becomes a finely balanced
matter, capable of toppling over at the slightest 'wrong touch' or miscalculated step.
(Wacky Words of Wisdom - Generally Speaking, Christine Larsen, 2012,
ezinearticles.com)

1. The author ended the trivia with a promise
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say

2.Start form scratch means a line that was not at all scratched

UNIT 8 WHERE DO YOU WORK?
69
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say

3. Lice are still present in competitions
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say

4. Touch and go is not risky
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say

5. Stagecoaches were very friendly with each other
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say






Bibliografie:


Pipo, Cristina, Tania Muina, Limba englez, Workbook, Editura Aula, Braov, 2006
Pipo, Cristina, Tania Muina, Ramona Han, Gabriela Osanu, Limba englez
evaluarea competenelor lingvistice de comunicare, Braov, Aula, 2011
Redman, Stuart, English Vocabulary in Use, pre-intermediate & intermediate, Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge, 1997
Cotton David, Falvey David, Kent Simon, New Market Leader, Intermediate Business
English coursebook, Pearson Education Limited, Edinburgh, 2002

























LIMBA ENGLEZ
70




UNIT 9 THE ADJECTIVE
71




THE ADJECTIVE


9.1. Introducere
9.2. Obiectivele unitii de nvare timp alocat
9.3. The Adjective
9.4 ndrumtor pentru autoverificare
9.5 Teste



9.1. Introducere



Pentru nelegerea i utilizarea ct mai clar
a limbii engleze verbul este foarte necesar,
utilizarea corect a limbii engleze fiind deosebit
de important.



9.2. Obiectivele unitii de nvare

Studierea adjectivului
Studierea formei adjectivului
Utilizarea n context a adjectivului
Aplicaii
Prefixe




Timpul alocat unitii de nvare

Pentru unitatea de nvare Limba
englez, timpul alocat este de 2 ore.





UNIT 9


LIMBA ENGLEZ

72

9.3. Coninutul unitii de nvare



1. Comparaia adjectivelor n limba englez (The
Comparison of the Adjectives in English)

Grade de comparaie ale adjectivului (Degrees of
comparison of the Adjective in English)

1. pozitiv (positive): tall, fair, good
2. comparativ (comparative):
a. de inferioritate (of inferiority): not as tall as, not as
pretty as, not as cool as
b. de egalitate (of equality): as tall as, as pretty as, as
cool as
c. de superioritate (of superiority): taller than, prettier
than, cooler than
3. superlativ (superlative):
a. relativ (relative): the tallest, the cleverest, the most
beautiful
b. absolut (absolute): very tall, extremely clean,
extraordinary handsome
Adjectivul are dou f rme de comparativ i superlativ
innd seama de numrul lui de silabe (The Adjective has
two forms of comparative and superlative considering its
number of syllables):
1. adjectivele cu o silab (one syllable adjectives):

Poziti
(Positive)
Comparativ
(Comparative)
Superlativ
(superlative)
small Smaller the smallest
dry drier the driest
big bigger the biggest

2. adjectivele cu dou silabe (two syllable adjectives)

Pozitiv
(Positive)
Comparativ
(Comparative)
Superlativ
(su erlative)
happy happier the happiest
clever cleverer the cleverest
pretty prettier the prettiest

Observaie (Observation): Adjectivele cu una i dou
silabe formeaz comparativul prin adugarea lui er la
comparativ i respectiv est la superlativ (The one or two
syllables adjectives form the comparative and the

UNIT 9 THE ADJECTIVE
73
superlative forms by adding er for comparative and est
for superlative).


adjectivele cu trei sau mai multe silabe ( three or more syllable adjectives)

Pozitiv
(Positive)
Comparativ
(Comparative)
Superlativ
(Superlative)
intelligent more intelligent the most
intelligent
precious more precious the most
precious
interesting more interesting the most
interesting

Observaie (Observation): Adjectivele cu trei sau mai
multe silabe formeaz comparativul prin adugarea lui more
la comparativ i al lui the most la superlativ (The three and
more than three syllable adjectives form the comparative
and the superlative forms by adding more for the
comparative form and the most for the superlative form).

Cnd vorbim despre comparaia adjectivelor n limba
engleza nu trebuie s uitm comparaia neregulat (When
we talk about the Comparison of the Adjectives in English
we must not forget the Irregular Comparison of the
Adjectives):
Sunt adjective care au forme diferite pentru pozitiv,
comparativ i superlativ (There are adjectives that have
different forms for positive, comparative and superlative):

Pozitiv
(Positive)
Comparativ
(Comparative)
Superlativ
(superlative)
good better the best
bad/ill worse the worst
old older
elder
the oldest
the eldest
5

little less the lest

2. Ordinea Adjectivelor. (The order of the
Adjectives):

Nu putem vorbi de reguli stricte cu privire la ordinea
adjectivelor. Tabelul urmtor are doar rol informativ. (We
cannot talk about strict rules regarding the order of the
adjectives. The table below is only a general guideline).


5
Pentru familie

LIMBA ENGLEZ

74
Calitate
(Quality)
Mrime/ Vrst/
Form/ Temperatur
(Size/ Age/
Shape/ Temperature)
Culoare
(Colour)
Origine
(Origin)
Material
(Material)
Substantiv
(Noun)
Beautiful Old Dark red Persian hand-
woven
Rug

Exercises

I.Punei adjectivele din parantez la formele
de pozitiv de comparativ de superlativ.
(Put the adjectives in brackets into
the positive, comparative or superlative forms):

1. She is (beautiful) girl in school.
.................
2. He is (clever) of them all.
.......
3. He is (nice) than Tom.
..............
4. Your car is (big) but mine is (big).

5. Im (happy) than Ive ever been.
.......
6. Their price is (high).
...............
7. This man is (old) than I am.
................
8. (fat) you are, (hard) your life will be.
........
9. This land is (dry) than the previous.
.........
10. This book is (interesting) science fiction book I have
ever read.
.....................

II.Punei adjectivele n urmtoarele categorii. Put the
adjectives into the following cathegories):

11. age:
12. size:
13. clothes:

smart, overweight, in their thirties, small, old, middle aged,
casual, tall, young, thin


UNIT 9 THE ADJECTIVE
75


Punei adjectivele din parantez la locul corect. (Put the
adjectives in brackets into the correct place):

1. black (boots)
...................
2. white dog (beautiful)
......................
3. wrist watch (silver)
..............
4. brown face (big- dark)
..............
5. old bird (white haired)
.........
6. red apples (large)
.............
7. French girl (tall/ young)
......
8. Chinese box (ancient)
......
9. Romania carpet (old)
............................
10. round table (big)



IV.Aici sunt ase perechi de antonime. Scriei un rspuns
n rebus.(Here are six pairs of opposites. Write the answer n
the crossword):

a car (1) a car (6)
hair (1) hair (10)
an house (2) a house (5)
a shower (3) a shower (8)
a man (4) a man (7)
a mountain (8) a door (














LIMBA ENGLEZ

76
1
S
L 2
O
W

3

4 5
6
7

8
9
1
0




V.Alegei cuvntul potrivit (Choose the right word):

Example:
My homework is boring.
Im bored because I dont like maths.

1. I am disappointed/ disappointing with this movie, I
thought it would be different.
2. Joan was embarrassed/ embarrassing when she realised
that her dress was inappropriate for the party.
3. It was an embarrassed/ embarrassing situation she will
hardly ever forget.
4. The experience I had in Africa was amazing/ amazed.
5. This rainy weather is depressed/ depressing.
6. I find this play very interested / interesting.
7. He was so annoyed/ annoying when he found out the
news.
8. The white coffee has a discussed / discussing taste.
9. I was exhausted / exhausting when I arrived at the top of
the mountain.
10. Even though the experience was good, it was tiring/ tired.


VI.Completai propoziiile cu adjectivele potrivite la
gradul de comparaie potrivit (Complete the sentences with
the appropriate adjective in the correct degree of
comparison):

cheap, good, large, lucky, long, big, thin, difficult, small,
easy, warm

1.We always go by bus. It is ...
2. This room is . than the other, which

UNIT 9 THE ADJECTIVE
77
...
3. Im sure you can do . than this.
4. You are so .. You have the job of your
dreams.
5. This exam was . than the one I took last
week.
6. She lost a lot of weight. She looks so ...
7. This is . rock concert I have ever seen.
8. The game is . than I expected.
9. Its .. today than it was yesterday.
10. It takes to get to New York from
London than to Paris.

VII.Completai propo iiile folosind asas (Complete the
sentences using asas):

Example:

Gina has 2 million, Tom has 2 million.
Tom is as rich as Gina.

1. John saw a big lion at the zoo and he ran. Sam saw the
lion too and he ran as well.
..
2. Im so happy but you look happier.

3. It is very cold outside. Inside it is so cold.

4. Snow White was beautiful. Her mother was ugly.


5. Tim is five. Mimi is five.
..
6. Monday morning the city is crowded. Tuesday morning
the city is not so crowded.


7. This chair is comfortable. That chair looks so comfortable.
..
8. Collin Farrell is handsome and Jude Law is handsome too.
.
9. The Maths teacher is old and so is the English teacher.
They are both 50.
..
10. In 1920s to get to London from New York was difficult.
Today is quite easy.

..



LIMBA ENGLEZ

78

9.4. ndrumar pentru autoverificare


Being photographed is pretty much a way of life for human celebrities. Not so
astronomical ones. The most massive black hole ever measured, which lies at the heart of the
galaxy M87, 50 million light years from Earth, is the closest thing we have to a celestial
bigwig. Yet no picture of it, or any other black hole, has ever been snapped.
That's not just a problem for fans lusting after a pin-up. Seeing the shadow of a black hole
would provide the first direct evidence that these bizarre objects really do exist. What's more,
looking at the way light bends around the edges of the shadow could also turn up deviations
from Einstein's theory of general relativity, the reigning theory of gravity that some physicists
want to replace.
The trouble is not that black holes are invisible: as great absorbers of light, they should
appear as a black spot when viewed against a bright background. Rather, all known black
holes are too far away for ordinary telescopes to make out the shadow. However, plans are
afoot to take a picture of a black hole using radio telescopes set far apart on Earth but which
together act like a single huge telescope thousands of kilometres across.
In the meantime, Jason Dexter of the University of California in Berkeley and colleagues
have created the next best thing the most realistic preview yet of what the black hole at the
heart of M87 looks like. As well as putting a face on this A-list object, their simulations
reveal details that suggest glimpsing M87's black hole for real may well be feasible.
The team simulated how matter and light behave near M87's black hole. Unlike previous
efforts, their calculations fully incorporated general relativity and the effects of powerful
magnetic fields near the black hole.
They simulated the disc of gas and dust that is swirling around it as well as the powerful
jet of electrically charged particles shooting into space from the black hole's vicinity.
Both the disc and jet emit radio waves. But rather than travelling in straight lines, the
radio waves are bent by the black hole's powerful gravity, which acts a little bit like a lens.
This would radically distort the appearance of the disc and jet in radio images, the
researchers found, smearing them to make a bright crescent surrounding the dark shadow of
the black hole.
In a real image, the existence of this shadow would provide direct evidence for an event
horizon, the defining feature of a black hole. Once light, or anything else, passes inside this
boundary, it can never escape.
The simulations suggest the black hole's shadow should be observable with telescopes
that researchers are planning to link up for this purpose. The researchers concluded this from
calculations of the shadow's size and the size of the smallest details discernable by such
linked telescopes.
With a mass that was recently revised upwards to 6.4 billion times that of the sun, M87's
black hole seems like an ideal photographic target, because its shadow should look relatively
large in the sky.
(The size of the jet launching region in M87, Jason Dexter, Jonathan C. McKinney
,
Eric Agol, 2012, onlinelibrary.wiley.com)





UNIT 9 THE ADJECTIVE
79
1. M 87 is
A. the furthest black hole
B. the smallest black hole
C. the biggest black hole
D. the longest black hole

2. The first direct evidence of the black hole is
A. its shadow
B. its length
C. its light
D. its gravity

3. Black holes can be seen
A. against all odds
B. against their invisibility
C. against the fact that are very far
D. against a bright background

4. The most realistic preview of a black hole
A. was created by Jason Dexter
B. was created by Jason Dexters colleagues
C. was created by the University of California
D. was created by Jason Dexter and his colleagues

5. The preview of the black hole is
A. not realistic
B. the most realistic
C. only for scientists
D. not offered to the public

6. The calculations included for the first time
A. all the magnetic fields of the Earth
B. images of the M87
C. general relativity
D. all the black holes

7. The disc of gas was simulated
A. swirling around
B. as a powerful jet
C. as a gun shooting
D. in the vicinity of the M87

8. The black holes gravity acts upon the radio waves
A. like a jet
B. like lenses
C. in straight line
D. bending them

9. Light
A. can escape from the black hole

LIMBA ENGLEZ

80
B. cannot escape from the black hole
C. provides evidence for the existence of the black hole
D. makes proof of the shadow inside the black hole

10. Telescopes
A. can locate the black hole
B. help in locating the black holes shadow
C. calculate the shadow
D. look large in the sky


Concepte i termeni de reinut

Adjectival
Formele adjectival
Utilizarea adjectivului




Teste de evaluare/autoevaluare



Punei adjectivele din paranteze la gradul de comparaie potrivit (Put the adjectives in
the brackets into the approriate degree of comparison):

1. This is . room Ive ever seen. (clean)
2. New York is the .. city Ive ever visited. (interesting)
3. This is car Ive ever had.(fast)
4. This has been one of .. dinners so far. (enjoyable)
5. This hotel is .. than the one weve just visited. (cheap)
6. This is dress youve ever bought. (expensive)
7. London is a big city but New York is ... (big)
8. Your jokes are . than his. (funny)
9. He is son in the family. (old)
This is thing Ive ever done in my life. (easy)

Bibliografie:


Pipo, Cristina, Tania Muina, Limba englez, Workbook, Editura Aula, Braov, 2006
Pipo, Cristina, Tania Muina, Ramona Han, Gabriela Osanu, Limba englez
evaluarea competenelor lingvistice de comunicare, Braov, Aula, 2011
Redman, Stuart, English Vocabulary in Use, pre-intermediate & intermediate, Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge, 1997
Cotton David, Falvey David, Kent Simon, New Market Leader, Intermediate Business
English coursebook, Pearson Education Limited, Edinburgh, 2002



UNIT 10 BUSINESS ACROSS CULTURES
81





BUSINESS ACROSS CULTURES



10.1. Introducere
10.2. Obiectivele unitii de nvare timp alocat
10.3. Business Across Cultures
10.4 ndrumtor pentru autoverificare
10.5 Teste




10.1. Introducere

Pentru nelegerea i utilizarea ct mai clar
a limbii engleze vocabularul are un rol deosebit
de important



10.2. Obiectivele unitii de nvare

Studierea vocabularului pentru
diversitatea cultural
nelegerea vocabularului
Utilizarea vocabularului n context





Timpul alocat unitii de nvare

Pentru unitatea de nvare Limba
englez, timpul alocat este de 2 ore.






UNIT 10


LIMBA ENGLEZ

82

10.3. Coninutul unitii de nvare



1.Doing business across cultures

Business-etiquette savvy is not just good sense, it can
also prove to be a deal maker or breaker in today's global
marketplace as more cultures interact than ever before.
Though it is impossible to fully understand all the
intricacies of other societies, it is worth learning at least the
basics -- how to greet and address others, how to dress, how
to handle business cards, personal space, eye contact, and
punctuality to name a few.
First impressions are always important so showing
cultural respect when greeting others is essential. In many
western countries a handshake is the preferred greeting, but
even differences exist there.
In Germany a firm, brief handshake with good eye
contact is expected at introductions and departures while in
Italy handshakes can be warm and spirited in business
meetings. And in both countries it is customary to shake
hands with everyone in the group upon entering and leaving,
avoiding general group salutations.
Some cultures, such as the French, may kiss one another
when greeting at work, but it is best to refrain from the
behaviour unless they initialise it, extending your hand
instead.
The Japanese often shake hands with westerners as a sign
of respect and appreciate when westerners bow out of respect
to their culture. Chinese may bow or shake hands.
In Saudi Arabia always shake hands with the right hand
as left hands are considered unclean. Never extend your hand
to a Saudi woman. And in Taiwan, western males should not
initiate a hand shake with Chinese females.
Eye contact is essential in Australia, England, Germany,
Italy, and the United States, for example, but it should be
used with caution in Taiwan where prolonged eye contact is
considered a hostile gesture.
Although time is treated differently amongst cultures, it
is always in your best interest to be punctual. In Germany
and Japan, arriving late is rude and unacceptable.
Don't be surprised, however, if you are kept waiting for a
business meeting in Saudi Arabia, where punctuality is not of
high importance.
In the U.S. and in Taiwan people are uncomfortable
when their personal space is invaded, so it is recommended

UNIT 10 BUSINESS ACROSS CULTURES
83
to stay about two arm's lengths away.
In Australia and England, an arm's length distance should
be observed, while in France and Italy people may stand
closer while talking.
Handle business cards in China with respect by reading it
and then carefully placing it in a card case. Never place it in
a shirt pocket or wallet immediately without examining it
first. When distributing cards there, do so with two hands.
The safest guideline to follow for business attire is a dark
suit and tie for men and a business suit or skirt and blouse for
women. Avoid heavy perfumes or colognes and excessive
jewelry. But it is always worth researching the attire of the
country you are visiting.
Remember to wear good socks in Japan as you may be
asked to remove your shoes during some business meetings.
When possible, learn a few words in the language of the
country you are visiting as a sign of respect. And before you
travel, contact your embassy to request briefing on business
etiquette and cultural background.
(cnn.com)

2.Body Language Across Cultures
It used to be that the study of body language across
cultures was an academic pursuit interesting but not really
vital in the course of daily living. Now, however, with our
globalised economy and greater exposure to diverse cultures,
understanding differences in body language can have a huge
impact on many aspects of work, business, and personal life.
Examples of Cultural Differences amount of physical
touch, the conversational distance between people, the
interactions between same genders, the interactions between
different genders, and the like.
For example, some cultures are very expressive when it
comes to physical touch. Think about Italy where a big hug
and kiss on each cheek is considered a common and
acceptable greeting, and then compare it to Japan where a
proper greeting consists of a respectful bow and no touch at
all.
Personal space and comfort distances are very personal,
of course, but they also are influenced by cultural
expectations. In South America, for instance, personal space
and comfort distances tend to be quite small. People stand
very close to each other to talk, even when they dont know
each other very well. Go to the United States, though, and
personal space becomes much larger; people are not as
comfortable when others stand close to them, especially if
they are not very well acquainted.
Cultural differences in body language extend to gender
interactions as well. Many cultures still view men as
dominant and of higher status than women, and their body

LIMBA ENGLEZ

84
language expectations reflect this view. Women may be
expected to avert their eyes in the presence of a man, or walk
a few steps behind him. Western cultures, in general, have
gradually revised their gender expectations to allow men and
women to share more equal status in terms of acceptable
body language.

Practical Applications of Cultural Differences
Anybody who travels to different countries, whether for
business or pleasure, must have a good understanding of
body language expectations. In the business world, the wrong
body language messages can skewer a deal quite fast. In the
world of general travel, the wrong body language messages
can lead to hostile and even dangerous situations.
For instance, in the Middle East a male businessperson
has much more leeway in terms of where and how he walks
than a female does, not to mention much different levels of
access to local business opportunities. In fact, very few
women do business in the Middle East because the cultural
aversion to interacting with women is just too much to
overcome.
If you are planning a vacation to other countries, you
should always pay attention to the body language
expectations. For instance, if you get lost in Japan youre
much more likely to get help from a local citizen if you know
to show respectful body language and follow local customs
of bowing and avoiding touch.
The bottom line when it comes to cultural differences is
that knowledge is the key. If you go to a different culture it
only makes sense to learn about their expectations and
adhere to those expectations during your time there. It shows
respect for the culture, respect for the people, and may even
keep you from inadvertently breaking the law in some very
conservative countries. When you understand and apply
appropriate body language behaviours, your entire
experience is likely to be more pleasant and successful.
Body language is part of every aspect of your daily life. It
affects your interactions with other people your observations
of other people, and even your interactions and observations
with yourself. Many people dont realize just how powerful
body language is when it comes to self-esteem, self-
confidence, and just generally feeling good about yourself.

How Does Your Body Language Affect You?
Maybe your mother told you to smile, even if you dont
feel like it, because it can help you and the people around
you feel a bit better. This old piece of advice has very real
roots in reality, because your own body language has a
powerful effect on you as well as on the people around you.
Lets go back to the smile for a moment. Try it for

UNIT 10 BUSINESS ACROSS CULTURES
85
yourself right now; smile for a few seconds and notice how
you feel. You might feel a bit silly, of course, but chances are
you also feel at least an inkling of more positive feelings.
Counsellors and mental health professionals often use this
technique to help people with depression literally lift their
own spirits, encouraging those people to make a conscious
effort to smile as much as possible.
Body position and posture is also an important factor in
your self-esteem and self-confidence. You can try this for
yourself, too. Stand up and walk across the room with your
shoulders slumped, your head tilted down, and your feet
dragging just a bit. How does it feel? Now walk back across
the room with your shoulders square and back, your head
held up, and your feet moving briskly. How does it feel?
What differences did you notice?



10.4. ndrumar pentru autoverificare

Believe it or not, you can actually pack more fun in your day by watching TV on the go.
In these busy times, everyone is trying to pack as much as possible into their hurried
schedules. Frequently, the opportunity to enjoy TV entertainment is put off until the end of
the day, or a few hours on the weekend if there is room to squeeze it in at all. That is exactly
why so many people now watch TV on the go and tune in to their favourite shows from
portable devices.
How TV On The Go Works?
A new technology called a Slingbox connects your DVR to your home internet connection
so you can connect back to it with a laptop, tablet PC, cell phone or other mobile device that's
connected to a high speed internet connection. All you need is a slingbox converter attached
to your Wi-Fi connection and you have mobile television at your fingertips and have the
ability to navigate program guides and even schedule DVR recordings
Any Time, Anywhere, Mobile Television Technology
We all knew it would happen sometime and we are just thankful it happened in our
lifetime; truly mobile television technology. Now, no matter where we are at or what we are
doing, we can tune in to our shows in real time and DVR recorded favourites and watch in
those snips of downtime found in our day without being tethered to the living room. With
play and pause features, you do not even need a whole block of time to enjoy a program, but
integrate our entertainment into our day in exactly the way you desire, picking up right where
you left off.
(If You Cant Watch TV on the Go, Here's What You're Missing, Landon Christian,
EzineArticles.com/6875075, 2012)

1. It is impossible nowadays to watch TV at home
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say

2. We watch TV entertainment in the morning
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say

LIMBA ENGLEZ

86

3. Many people watch TV on the go
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say

4. Slingbox connects your DVR to your internet connection a t home
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say

5. We ca tune in to our show from anywhere
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say



Concepte i termeni de reinut

Vocabular engleza de afaceri pentru diversitate cultural
Diferente si asemnri culturale
Utilizarea corect n context a vocabularului studiat



Teste de evaluare/autoevaluare




Read the text below. For questions 1-5 choose the answer (A, B or C) which you
think fits best according to the text. Write your answers on your exam sheet.

Modern babies live in a sanitised world. This has already been blamed for the high
incidence of asthma and allergies, but might also up the risk of developing a host of other
conditions common in rich countries, such as stroke and heart disease.
According to the "hygiene hypothesis", our immune system evolved to handle a germ-
laden world. If we don't encounter many pathogens during infancy, it doesn't learn to keep
itself in check, and turns on inflammation - normally a response to infection - in inappropriate
situations. This reaction, the hypothesis goes, is responsible for the recent increase in asthma
and allergies, both associated with inflammation.
Recently, it has emerged that chronic inflammation may also increase the risk of diabetes,
stroke and heart diseases. So might the hygiene hypothesis be implicated here too?
To find out, Tom McDade of Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois, and
colleagues turned to health surveys, which began at birth, of 1534 children in Cebu City in the
Philippines. In this place, western levels of sanitation are generally not found. When these
people reached 20, McDade's team were able to test their blood for C-reactive protein (CRP),
a marker of chronic inflammation.
They found that the more pathogens the people had encountered before age 2, the less
CRP they had at age 20. Every episode of diarrhoea back then cut the chance of higher CRP
later by 11 per cent; every two months spent in a place with animal faeces cut it by 13 per
cent. Being born in the dusty, dirty dry season cut the chance by a third.

1. Cleaning products are causing asthma in young children.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say

UNIT 10 BUSINESS ACROSS CULTURES
87
2. Our immune system is not evolving.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say
3. When the people turned 20 McDade tested their blood for C-reactive protein.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say
4. The study took place in Philippines and then in other African and South American
countries.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say
5. Every episode of diarrhoea cut the chances of higher CRP
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say










Bibliografie:


Pipo, Cristina, Tania Muina, Limba englez, Workbook, Editura Aula, Braov, 2006
Pipo, Cristina, Tania Muina, Ramona Han, Gabriela Osanu, Limba englez
evaluarea competenelor lingvistice de comunicare, Braov, Aula, 2011
Redman, Stuart, English Vocabulary in Use, pre-intermediate & intermediate, Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge, 1997
Cotton David, Falvey David, Kent Simon, New Market Leader, Intermediate Business
English coursebook, Pearson Education Limited, Edinburgh, 2002






















LIMBA ENGLEZ

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UNIT 11 THE PRONOUN
89





THE PRONOUN



11.1. Introducere
11.2. Obiectivele unitii de nvare timp alocat
11.3. The Pronoun
11.4ndrumtor pentru autoverificare
11.5Teste




11.1Introducere

Pentru nelegerea i utilizarea ct mai clar
a limbii engleze verbul este foarte necesar,
utilizarea corect a limbii engleze fiind deosebit
de importan.



11.2Obiectivele unitii de nvare

-Studierea pronumelui
-Studierea formei pronominale
-Utilizarea n context a pronumelui
-Aplicaii
-Prefixe



Timpul alocat unitii de nvare

Pentru unitatea de nvare Limba
englez, timpul alocat este de 2 ore.





UNIT 11


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11.3 Coninutul unitii de nvare



Pronumele
(The Pronoun)

Pronumele personal (The Personal pronoun)
Formele pronumelui personal (Forms of personal
pronoun):

Subiect
(Subject)
I you he she it one we you they
Obiect
(Object)
me you him her it one us you them

Le numim pronume personale deoarece se refer la
persoanele gramaticale (prima, a doua, a treia) i pot fi
grupate n felul urmtor (We call them personal nouns
because they refer to grammatical persons (1
st
, 2
nd
, 3
rd
) and
can be grouped like this):

- Persoana nti (1
st
person): I, me
- Persoana a doua (2
nd
person): you
- Persoana a treia (3
rd
person): he, she, it, one, they

! Pronumele personale, subiect, la singular he, she, it au
aceeai form de plural: they, i pronumele personale, obiect
(complement direct), him, her, it au forma de plural them.
(The singular subject pronouns he, she and it have the
same plural form: they, and the singular object pronoun him,
her and it have the plural form: them).

! Alegerea pronumelui depinde de substantivul care
trebuie nlocuit. Pronumele se acord cu substantivele pe
care le nlocuiesc n numr (artndu-ne dac nlocuiesc un
substantiv la singular sau plural). Altele se acord n gen
(artndu-ne dac nlocuiesc un substantiv la masculin,
feminin sau neutru):
The choice of pronoun depends on the noun that is being
replaced. Pronouns agree with the nouns they replace in
number (showing us whether they replace a noun into
singular or plural). Some agree in gender (showing us
whether they replace a noun into masculine, feminine or

UNIT 11 THE PRONOUN
91
neuter):

John is here. He cant stay.
The windows are dirty. I must wash them.
If you see Tina, please give her my message.

! De obicei nu se folosete pronumele mpreun cu
substantivul (We do not normally use a pronoun and a noun
together).
My friend invited me to dinner.
Not * My friend, he.

Persoana nti singular (The first person singular I):

(Vorbitorul sau cel care scrie folosesc I atunci cnd se
refer la el nsui sau la ea nsi. Acesta este singurul
pronume personal care este scris cu liter mare. Amintii-v
scrierea lui I cu liter mare indifirent de locul acestuia n
propoziie (The speaker or writer uses I when referring to
himself or herself. This is the only personal pronoun which is
always spelt with a capital letter. Note that I is written as a
capital letter whether it is at the beginning of the sentence or
not):

I think therefore I am. John told me I need to wait.
Jane and I have already eaten.

Genul n relaie cu animale, lucruri i ri (Gender in
relation to animals, things and countries):

- Numele de animale se nlocuiesc cu it asemeni
denumirii lucrurilor. Folosim doar: he, she, who atunci cnd
exist un motiv. De exemplu animalele pot fi personalizate
atunci cnd ele snt animale de cas sau n povestirile
populare atunci cnd lor le se dau nsuiri omeneti. (Animals
are usually referred to with it as if they were things. We
only use: he, she, who when there is a reason for doing so.
For example, animals may be personalized as pets, as farm
animals, or in folk tales and referred to as male or female):
What kind of dog is Spot? Is he a mongrel?
The fox is in the woods. She is trying to convince the
bear to go with her.

- Numele altor animale mici i insecte snt nlocuite cu
pronumele: he, she, ... doar atunci cnd le snt descrise
rolurile biologice (Other lower animals and insects are only
referred to as he, she when we describe their biological
roles):
The cuckoo lays her eggs in other birds nests.


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Sau uneori cnd snt prvite n activitile lor obinuite (Or
sometimes, when we regard their activities of interest):
Look at that frog, she jumps really funny.

- Amabarcaiunile, automobilele, motocicletele i alte
mainrii snt considerate a avea genul feminin atunci cnd
din partea vorbitorului exist o afectivitate (Ships, cars,
motorbikes and other machines are sometimes referred to as
if they were feminine when the reference is affectionate):
My car is not fast, but she does 50 miles to the gallon.

- rile pot fi personificate folosidu-se femininul
(Countries can also be personified as feminine):
In 1941 America assumed her role as a world power.

Pronumele posesiv i adjectivul posesiv (The
Possessive pronoun and The Possessive Adjective)

Formele pronumelor posesive i ale adjectivelor posesive
(Forms of the possessive pronouns and possessive
adjectives):

Adjective
(Adjectives)
my your his Her i
its
(ones) our your their
Pronume
(Pronouns)
mine yours his hers
-
- ours yours theirs

! Cu excepia lui ones apostroful s nu este acceptat cu
adjectivele i pronumele posesive. Nu ar trebui s confundm
its posesiv cu its = este sau are
(With the exception of ones the apostrophe (s) is
unaccepted with possessive adjectives and pronouns. We
should not confuse its (possessive) with its = it is or it has)

Adjectivele i pronumele posesive arat posesia (ceva sau
cineva aparine cuiva) (Possessive adjectives and pronouns
show possession (something or someone belongs to
somebody)).
Adjective posesive i determinanii trebuie aezai mereu
n faa substantivelor (The possessive adjectives are
determiners must always be used in front of nouns).
My book is on the table.
Here is your pen.
Their questions were very interesting.

Pronumele personale nu snt niciodat aezate n faa
substantivului i snt mereu accentuate n vorbire. Ele se
refer att la persoane ct i la lucruri, singular sau plural. Its
nu este niciodat folosit ca pronume. (The possessive

UNIT 11 THE PRONOUN
93
pronouns are never used in front of nouns and are stressed in
speech. They refer equal to persons and things, singular or
plural. Its is never used as pronoun).
These are my shoes. These shoes are mine.
This is not my pen. It is yours.

Pronumele reflexiv (Reflexive pronoun)

Forma pronumelui reflexiv ( The form of the reflexive
pronoun):

Singular
(Singular)
myself yourself himself,
herself, itself,
oneself
Plural
(Plural)
ourselves yourselves themselves

Exist cteva verbe n englez care cer folosirea
pronumeleui reflexive mpreun cu ele (There are some
verbs in English which must always be followed by a
reflexive pronoun): e.g. absent, avail, pride
The student absented himself from school for more than
two weeks without his parents agreement.
I cut myself trying to wipe the desk.
We really enjoyed ourselves at the fair.

Pronumele i adjectivul demonstrativ (The
Demonstrative Adjective and Pronoun)
Formele adjectivului i pronumelui demonstrativ (Forms
of demonstrative adjectives and pronouns):

De apropiere (for things that are near)
Singular: this boy, girl, tree, book, money
Plural: these boys, girls, trees, books, -

De deprtare (for things that are further away)
Singular: that boy, girl, tree, book, money
Plural: those boys, girls, trees, books, -

Demonstrativele pot fi adjective: adic pot fi
determinani i se pot plasa n faa substantivului sau a lui
one/ones sau pot fi pronume folosite n locul substantivelor
(Demonstratives can be adjectives: that is, they can be
determiners and go before a noun or one/ ones or they can
be pronouns used in a place of a noun)

Adjective + Noun = I dont like this top.
Adjective + One = I dont like this one.
Pronoun = I dont like this.

Demonstrativele folosite ca pronume se refer de obicei

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la lucruri i nu la oameni (Demonstratives used as pronouns
normally refer to things not people):
I found this wallet. I found this.

Pronumele nehotrt (Indefinite pronoun)
Formele pronumelui nehotrt (Forms of indefinite
pronoun):

Compui ai (Compounds of): some, any, no and every.
Some-: someone, somebody, something
Any-: anyone, anybody, anything
No-: no one, nobody, nothing
Every-: everyone, everybody, everything

Pronumele nehotrte i primesc denumirea de la
imposibilitatea asculttorului sau a cititorul de a ti la ce se
refer exact vorbitorul sau cel care scrie (The indefinite
pronouns get their names due to the fact that the reader or
the listener doesnt always know to what the speaker or
writer referrers to exactly):

Some:
- Afirmativ (The affirmative): I met someone you dont
know yesterday.
- ntrebri care l au ca rspuns pe yes (Questions
expecting yes): Was there something you needed?
- Oferte i cereri (Offers and requests): Is there anything
I can give you?
Any:
- n propoziii negative (In negative statements): There
isnt anyone who can help you.
-n ntrebri al cror rspuns este nesigur (In questions
when we are doubtful about the answer): Is there anyone
here who is a doctor?
- Cu hardly (With hardly): Ive hardly anything to do
today.
No:
- Cnd verbul este afirmativ (When the verb is
affirmative): There is no one here at the moment.

Exercises:

I. Completai propoziiile cu pronumele potivit
(Complete the sentences using the appropriate pronoun):
1. tells me all sorts of things about her
job.
2. . go home happy and hoping for a sunny
day.
3. was a great source of sadness to me
that couldnt seem to manage to live on the

UNIT 11 THE PRONOUN
95
same continent.
4. Garv and had only been married a few
months before moved to Chicago.
5. Her writings always seem good to ...
6. . decided to go to America.
7. . were spending an alarming time
flying over the suburbs of Los Angeles.
8. But all the same, something flickered in front of
...
9. There isnt .. at the door.
10. I knew I could do it ..
11. Maybe that is what .. do when you
split up with .: try to remember what once
welded you together.
12. There was a funny complicity between
.
13. The skyline was low and extended for ever-
.. was nothing like Chicago.
14. The thief could be in the
building.
15. were flowers.
16. .d expected something little
edgier for Emily.
17. .. remembers you.
18. really bad happened in the
market.
19. I like ..........
20. This must be .



11.4. ndrumar pentru autoverificare

Read the text below. Are the sentences 1-5 Right (A) or Wrong (B)? If there is not
enough information to answer Right (A) or Wrong (B), choose Doesnt say (C). Write
your answers on your exam sheet.

In this tech savvy age, we have all sorts of gadgets for staying in touch 24/7. We have
smartphones, pagers, Twitter, Facebook, email, etc. You name it and we have it. While
contacting a person has become easier than ever, why is it that people are actually lonelier
now than when we didn't have any of this fast paced technology to keep in touch?
Maybe being accessible 24/7 is not as fantastic as we thought it would be? Being
accessible all the time limits our opportunity to have some peaceful 'down' time. We need that
time to maintain some personal freedom and to allow our minds to take a breather, unwind,
and just relax.
To gain that much needed freedom, more and more people now avoid answering their
phones. Thank you caller ID. We are having a relationship with each other's voicemails
instead! People are also interacting more via text, Twitter, or email than actually getting

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together in person. Are you guilty of this? Aw come on, let's face it, how many times have
you avoided seeing a person face to face and emailed or texted them instead?
Technological advancement has actually created a new age way of 'building a wall'
between others and us. We simply turn off our gadgets to end communication. The same
gadgets that were meant to make communication simpler and faster are the same tools we use
to avoid closeness with others.
The need for face-to-face interaction is becoming obsolete and reliance on technology
continues to isolate us further from one another. "Getting together" is now done via
teleconference calls. We get together with others who share a common interest or common
challenge and provide 'support' that sorely lacks within our communities, families, and
friendships. Relationships end via text or get posted with a change of status on Facebook!
It is a shame that the more technologically advanced we get, the more isolated and lonely
we become as a society. While it's wonderful to be able to connect with someone who lives
thousands of miles away, it's sad that those who live within driving or even walking distance
from one another opt to communicate via techs than in person.
(Twitter and Facebook, Sydney Chhabra, 2012, ezinearticles.com)

1. People are lonelier now than in the past
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say

2. Down time is not necessary anymore
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say

3. All phones have voicemail
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say

4. it is wonderful to connect to people who live far from you
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say

5. people who live closer dont communicate face to face
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say


Concepte i termeni de reinut

pronumele - form
pronumele utilizare corect
Pronumele utilizare n context









UNIT 11 THE PRONOUN
97

Teste de evaluare/autoevaluare





Read the text below. For questions 1-10, choose the answer (A, B, C or D) which you think
fits best according to the text. Write your answers on your exam sheet.

We're used to taking command of our personal climate in planes and cars by using simple
controls. Why not in buildings too?
A study of the effect of installing individual air-conditioning vents at office desks, and
putting controls at each worker's fingertips, suggests it can cut a building's energy use in half.
The approach costs more to install than a conventional system, and has never taken off
commercially. But engineer Stefano Schiavon at the University of California, Berkeley, and
colleagues say their research shows the idea is worth revisiting, as companies and countries
seek to cut emissions.
They simulated an office building in a hot, humid climate like that of Singapore, where air
conditioning is relied on throughout the year. Results showed the building's energy use was
cut by 50 per cent.
Personalised ventilation means less air needs to be cooled and pumped through a building
because air needs only to be blown at desks, and not throughout entire rooms. Individual
vents can also switch off automatically when a desk is vacant.
The result is that a room's temperature can increase while keeping people comfortable at
work.
Raising a building's temperature even a little can save large amounts of energy. The
Japanese government is campaigning to convince offices to discourage suits and ties, to allow
office thermostats to be turned up slightly and save power.
"In an environment like Singapore, it's pretty clear that these systems would pay for
themselves in energy savings," Schiavon says.
In Singapore it's pretty clear that these systems would pay for themselves in energy
savings
Air conditioning is a major driver of south-east Asia's electricity use, and accounts for the
bulk of electricity used by buildings in Singapore.
Past research has shown personal ventilation can also make people more comfortable, and
hinted it can limit the spread of airborne diseases.
The personalised approach isn't always suitable, though. Only workplaces where people
tend to stay in one place would benefit, points out environmental engineer Peter Nielsen of
Aalborg University in Denmark. Savings are also smaller in cooler climates, where on cold
days the number of people directing warm air onto themselves causes the room to overheat.

1. In what places do we command our personal climate?
A. in the yard B. on the bus C. in planes and cars D. anywhere

2. What could the installation of air-conditioning vents at office desks lead to?
A. saving energy B. wasting more energy C. costs less on installation of new devices D.
nothing really

3. Why the idea of putting controls at each fingertip should be considered by companies?

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A. because companies are interested in new gadgets B. because companies have money to
spend C. because companies seek to cut emissions D. because companies seek to
increase emissions

4. What is the Japanese government campaigning for?
A. discouraging wearing suits and ties at work B. asking people to wear jeans at work C.
allowing employees to be late for work D. asking employees to work overtime

5. Can the temperature of a room increase while people still feel comfortable at work?
A. no B. depends on the weather C. depends on the climate D. yes

6. Was there any effect on energy saving in Singapore?
A. no, there wasnt B. unnoticeable C. more than 80% D. by half

7. Would the company get their investment back in time if they consider buying this type of
equipment?
A. no, because the equipment is too expensive B. yes, but not soon C. yes, definitely as
the equipment pays itself in energy saving D. doesnt say

8. Does personal ventilation have a positive influence on the well being of the employees?
A. no, because they have to look after it every moment B. no, because it breaks down a
lot C. yes, because they can feel more comfortable D. yes, at times

9. Is air conditioning used a lot in Singapore?
A. almost never B. only in the hot summer days C. sometimes D. all the time

10. Are cooler climates benefiting form the same energy saving as hotter ones?
A. no, because in colder days air-conditioning might overheat the rooms B. yes, because
individual controllers can be stopped C. no, because in hotter days people tend to overuse it
D. yes, because they invest more




Bibliografie:

Pipo, Cristina, Tania Muina, Limba englez, Workbook, Editura Aula, Braov, 2006
Pipo, Cristina, Tania Muina, Ramona Han, Gabriela Osanu, Limba englez
evaluarea competenelor lingvistice de comunicare, Braov, Aula, 2011
Redman, Stuart, English Vocabulary in Use, pre-intermediate & intermediate, Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge, 1997
Cotton David, Falvey David, Kent Simon, New Market Leader, Intermediate Business
English coursebook, Pearson Education Limited, Edinburgh, 2002



UNIT 12 REVIEW
99






BUSINESS LUNCH


12.1. Introducere
12.2. Obiectivele unitii de nvare timp alocat
12.3. Business Lunch
12.4 ndrumtor pentru autoverificare
12.5 Teste




Introducere

Pentru nelegerea i utilizarea ct mai
clar a limbii engleze vocabularul are un rol
deosebit de important








12.2 Obiectivele unitii de nvare

Studierea vocabularului pentru business
lunch
nelegerea vocabularului
Utilizarea vocabularului n context





Timpul alocat unitii de nvare

Pentru unitatea de nvare Limba
englez, timpul alocat este de 2 ore.



UNIT 12


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100

12.3 Coninutul unitii de nvare


Business Lunch Etiquette

Knowing what to do when meeting a prospective client
for lunch, or going to lunch with the boss or colleague can be
confusing at times. Here is a quick list of items to remember:
Be in the present moment with whoever you are with.
Limit glancing around the room. Its a sign that you are
looking for something better. There is nothing worse than
having a conversation with someone who is half there.
Being on time.
This sounds so commonsensical. The percentage of
people being late is over 65 percent. Don't push your time to
the last minute before leaving the office so you will be late.
Take some reading or work with you, arrive early, sit in the
lobby, and work. Or give yourself some space to think over
how you want to approach the time together. You
introduction, tone, style, or even plan a quick get away if the
union isn't working. The memory implant of your lateness
will always override any request for forgiveness.
Turn off your cell phone before entering the restaurant.
No one around you wants to hear your conversation.
Even if you let it ring, pick it up and then take it outside. Did
you leave your lunch companion alone? This is just plain
rude. If you have an "I don't care attitude" about this, I'll tell
you a story about a lunch guest of mine who did this and the
three prospects she was meeting didn't even sit down. They
saw her talk, she waved a 1-minute finger single to them, and
they turned around and walked out. They wouldn't even
answer her phone calls or emails afterwards.
If you are woman and this is business, its appropriate
now to stand up and shake the hand of a male.
This overrides the old rule of staying seated. If the
meeting is for your spouses business and you are coming
along because other spouses are coming, then you stay seated
as your spouse stands up. This rules applies for either gender.
Offer your hand and give a firm handshake.
Sometimes, people who don't like to shake hands will
not meet yours. Don't think anything of it if they don't, this is
just their preference. And particularly don't say something
cute or funny.
Think of an opening statement to make as you are
shaking hands.
This is part of your first impression, so make it good.
Always use the guests first name either at the beginning or

UNIT 12 REVIEW
101
at the end of the statement. For example, "Thank you for
taking the time to get together today, Catherine." When
needing to complete a group of introductions, highest rank
rules over gender.
Small talk is important - don't leave it out. The length of
time for small talk depends on many factors. If you are in the
presence of famous or very rich people and not in a social
setting, then the small talk, if any, is going to be quick and
short. It could be as short as one or two sentences. People
who know how much their time is worth, or
who are doing you a favor by being there, also fall into
this category.
Who picks up the tab?
If you did the inviting, you are responsible for the check.
No matter how more well-off they are. If a joint meeting, ask
at the beginning or when scheduling the lunch on check
splitting. Waiting until the check arrives to state the check
splitting is a sign of professional weakness. If you are
meeting with someone who is giving you valuable advice,
you must pick up the tab. A personal handwritten follow-up
note is also appropriate. If they have saved or helped you
make more money, send them a gift or gift certificate. If you
don't you will never get any more of their time again. This
has occurred to me, and the person never gets any time again.
Where does the napkin go?
Immediately after sitting, place the napkin in your lap. If
you notice the napkin is in the goblet, this is usually a signal
from the restaurant that the server will place the napkin into
your lap. If you excuse yourself during the meal, place the
napkin on the left hand side of your plate or on the chair.
This signals
the server that you aren't done. When done, place napkin on
the right of the plate and your fork and knife horizontally
across the plate to signal the server.
What to eat and use first?
Which glass or which fork can be confusing. Bread and
salad plates always to the left, drinking glasses to the right.
Utensils start from the outside in and the dessert fork is by
the dessert plate. Lay your fork and knife across your plate to
signal the server you're finished.

(sideroad.com)









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Business Dining Etiquette

Pre-Dinner Etiquette
Arrive on time
Call ahead if you know you will be late
Wait 15 minutes before calling to check on the arrival
status of your dinner partners

Sitting Down
Do not place any bags, purses, sunglasses, cell phones, or
briefcases on the table
When you are all seated, gently unfold your napkin and
place it on your lap, folded in half with the fold towards your
waist
Keep utensils in the same order they appear on the table
Do not rearrange to accommodate yourself if you are left-
handed
Wait for all parties to arrive before beginning any part of
the meal

Place Setting
Solids on your left:



Liquids on your right:



Whether basic or formal place setting, use your utensils
from the outside in
Dessert utensils may be above the place setting or served
with dessert

Eating Styles
Continental or European style: cutting the food with the
right hand and using the left hand to hold the food while
cutting and when eating.
American style: cutting the food with the right hand and
holding the food with the left, then switching hands to eat
with the right hand.
Resting and finished utensil positions: see diagrams

Ordering
When in doubt, follow the lead of the host
Dont order the most expensive item
Order simply
Avoid finger foods or difficult foods that are difficult to
eat
In general, dont order alcohol at a business meal

UNIT 12 REVIEW
103

Dos and Donts of Dining
General Etiquette



akeup or comb your hair at the table
Utensils


are not using them
d utensils
and cups
Napkins


table
While Eating
yours
th your mouth full



everyone else
napkin on your seat
to the left of your plate, but do not push your place setting
away from you

Helpful Hints
Break your bread/rolls and butter each piece individually
Gently stir your soup to cool it instead of blowing on it
Spoon your soup away from you
If something undesirable is in your mouth, discreetly
remove it with your fork
If you have any problems with the meal, quietly bring it
to the waiters attention

Paying the Bill
You should prearrange how the bill is being paid
Make sure the bill is accurate
Tip appropriately




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12.4. ndrumar pentru autoverificare

This is our first boys-only trip together, because this is a special under-5s Fun and Fitness
term-time break and, sadly for big sister Maisie, school comes first. So while mummy tries to
sell the idea of girlie nights in watching entertainment shows and eating pizza as
compensation, Gregor and I have an action-packed itinerary ahead.
Our arrival early afternoon was simple. After a short wait for our keys we went to
investigate our home for the next few nights a two-bedroom Prestige caravan.
Decorated in pleasant neutral furnishings with heating in every room and a kitchen
(complete with milk, tea and sugar), comfort is certainly not an issue.
Although theres a programme of regular activities, Fun and Fitness breaks offer extra
opportunities for tots to take part in events especially for their age group.
But with our first scheduled session not due until the morning, we were free to do as we
pleased, so it was off to the pool.
Free, unlimited swimming is a real plus, especially when the hardest thing about going is
remembering to stick the cosies on the radiator on your return so theyre dry in time for the
next dip. Apart from a couple of friendly lifeguards, we had the pool to ourselves and enjoyed
splashing each other to our hearts content. Dried and dressed, its only a minutes walk back
to our caravan and while Gregor catches up with some Charlie and Lola on the DVD player, I
make tea.

1. For Maisie, after school comes swimming.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say
2. They didnt have to wait for long until they got the room?
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say
3. The house was pleasantly decorated in neutral tones
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say
4. The first session schedule did not start the next day
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say
5. They had a garden to enjoy the weather?
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say


Concepte i termeni de reinut

Business etiquette
What to do during a business lunch
What to expect from a business lunch



Teste de evaluare/autoevaluare



Read the text below. For questions 1-10, choose the answer (A, B, C or D) which you
think fits best according to the text. Write your answers on your exam sheet.


UNIT 12 REVIEW
105
Once upon a time, not so long ago, the idea that you might store your entire music
collection on a single hand-held device would have been greeted with disbelief. Ditto backing
up all your essential computer files using a memory stick key ring, or storing thousands of
high-resolution holiday snaps in one pocket-sized camera.
What a difference a decade makes. The impossible has become possible thanks to the
lightning rise of a memory technology with the snazzy name of "flash".
So where is the technology that can store our high-definition home cinema collection on a
single chip? Or every book we would ever want to read or refer to? Flash can't do that. In labs
across the world, though, an impressive array of technologies is lining up that could make
such dreams achievable.
These "supermemories" are close to realising a vision set out by revered physicist Richard
Feynman 50 years ago this month. In a lecture to the American Physical Society entitled
"There's plenty of room at the bottom", he asked whether it might ever be possible to write all
24 volumes of the Encyclopaedia Britannica on a pin head. Each tiny ink dot used to print
each letter would have to be reduced to the size of just 1000 atoms, he calculated - a square
with sides of just 9 nanometres.
Feynman speculated that people looking back from the year 2000 would wonder why it
took till 1960 before we began to explore this "room at the bottom" - what we now know as
the nanoscale. Late start or not, the progress in miniaturising information storage in the
decades since has been stunning. Today, the smallest feature that can store a bit of
information is some 40 nanometres across in commercial flash devices. The first flash chips
capable of storing 64 gigabits of information were shipped just a couple of months ago.
The kinds of technologies Feynman was talking about, though, would fit terabytes of data
on a single chip. That requires a design simpler even than the already admirably
straightforward flash architecture (see "Flash: memory hero"). The mechanism for reading
and writing the memory would also have to be reliable and, above all, fast, taking just
nanoseconds. And the memory should be stable: once written, it should not degrade for at
least a decade.
That is quite a shopping list. Whatever technology fits the bill will not be flash, but it will
be mightily impressive. It won't be easy establishing it, with flash already so well entrenched,
but with the market for memory chips worth something between $20 billion and $30 billion,
you can bet it won't be too long before one or more of the technologies described in this
feature is sitting inside devices in our pockets. Before that happens, though, the runners and
riders in the supermemory steeplechase have just a few hurdles to clear.

1. Was it possible, not so long ago, according to the author, to store an entire music
collection on a single hand-held device?
A. no, and the idea could have been seen with disbelief B. yes, even though people
did not consider it useful C. yes, but the device was too expensive D. yes, but
people did not like hand-held devices

2. What made it possible to store so many files on small cards?
A. hard B. camera C. snazzy D. flash

3. Is there a technology that can store every book we ever wanted to read?
A. yes, it is available right now B. no C. yes, it was just put on the market D. there are
few chances to ever have anything like that

4. How many years ago was the vision of supermemories set by Richard Feynman?
A. 50 B. 20 C. 25 D. 15

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5. The progress in miniaturizing information has been in the past years
A. it is dated now B. slow C. fast D. unnoticeable

6. Richard Feynman wanted to write all the 24 volumes of the Encyclopaedia Britannica on
A. pen B. nanometre C. chip D. a pin head

7. How does the author of the article call the flash?
A. flash hero B. memory hero C. hero memory D. hero chip

8. What does this mean once written it should not degrade for at least a decade?
A. the memory should be reliable B. the memory should be fast C. the memory
should be stable D. the memory should change according to times

9. What is worth between $ 20 billion and $ 30 billion
A. the CDs market B. the market of new memory disks C. the market of flash
technology D. the market for memory chips

10. What do the runners and riders in the supermemory steeplechase have to do until well
have the new storing devices at our disposal?
A. to clear some bank accounts B. to clear some space C. to clear a few hurdles D. to clear
some information

Bibliografie:

Pipo, Cristina, Tania Muina, Limba englez, Workbook, Editura Aula, Braov, 2006
Pipo, Cristina, Tania Muina, Ramona Han, Gabriela Osanu, Limba englez
evaluarea competenelor lingvistice de comunicare, Braov, Aula, 2011
Redman, Stuart, English Vocabulary in Use, pre-intermediate & intermediate, Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge, 1997
Cotton David, Falvey David, Kent Simon, New Market Leader, Intermediate Business
English coursebook, Pearson Education Limited, Edinburgh, 2002




UNIT 13 - REVIEW
107






REVIEW


13.1. Introducere
13.2. Obiectivele unitii de nvare timp alocat
13.3. Review
13.4 ndrumtor pentru autoverificare
13.5 Teste



13.1 Introducere

Pentru nelegerea i utilizarea ct mai clar
a limbii engleze verbul este foarte necesar,
utilizarea corect a limbii engleze fiind deosebit
de importan.



13.2 Obiectivele unitii de nvare

Studierea elementelor gramaticale
Studierea formelor gramaticale
Utilizarea n context a elementelor
gramaticale
Aplicaii
Prefixe





Timpul alocat unitii de nvare

Pentru unitatea de nvare Limba
englez, timpul alocat este de 2 ore.







UNIT 13


LIMBA ENGLEZ

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13. 3 Coninutul unitii de nvare


The Review of the Verb
(Recapitulare a verbului)

I.Completai urmtorele propoziii cu verbe la prezentul
simplu sau continuu (Complete the following sentences with
verbs in Present Simple and Present Continuous):

1. The plane (take off) every Tuesday at 5.30, but today it
(leave) at six because there is too much fog on the
airport.


2. Bill (wake up) every morning at 6 but today is his
birthday so he (stay) in bed a little bit longer.


3. Gina (wear) a blue skirt every Sunday but this Sunday
she (think) that she should change it.


4. The old woman (go) to see a doctor once week but this
week she (fly) to America to visit her daughter.


5. Georges dad usually (drive) a yellow taxi but today he is
on strike so he (walk) down the street.


6. Kim (have) to wear a uniform at school but today she
(wear) whatever she wants.


7. David (play) football every summer but this summer he
(play) American football.


8. I usually (go) to the office at 9 but today I (leave) early
because Ive got a deadline.

.




UNIT 13 - REVIEW
109

II.Completai propoziiile cu un verb din lista de mai jos
la Present Simple or Present Continuous. (Complete the
sentences with a verb from the list below in the Present
Simple or Present Continuous):

- eat (twice), consider, order (twice),
know, promise

I usually 1... only healthy food. I
2.... diet as very important for a good way of
living. Today I 3... out with my friend
Jack. He 4... coke, hamburgers and ice
cream. I 5..... as well chips, coke and
cheeseburgers. I 6.... that this food is not
healthy but I 7... this is the last time I
8... something like that.

III.. (Acesta este un fragment din Aventurile lui Alice in
ara minunilor. ncercai i punei verbele la forma corect
de trecut. (This is an extract from Alices Adventures in
Wonderland. Try and put the verbs in the correct Past Tense
form):
For a minute or two she 1.(stay)
looking at the house, and wondering what to do next, when
suddenly a footman in livery 2.(come).
running out of the wood. She 3.(consider)
him to be a footman because he was in livery. Another
footman 4.(open).. it. Both footmen, Alice
5.(notice)., had powdered hair. She
6.(feel) very curious to know what it was
all about, and 7.(creep).. a little way out of
the wood to listen. The Fish-Footman
8.(begin). by producing from under his
arm a great letter, nearly as large as himself, and this he
9.(hand over).. to the other, saying, in a solemn
tone, `For the Duchess. An invitation from the Queen to play
croquet.' The Frog-Footman 10.(repeat)..,
in the same solemn tone, only changing the order of the
words a little, `From the Queen. An invitation for the
Duchess to play croquet.' Then they both
11.(bow) low. Alice
12.(laugh). so much at this, that she
13.(have to) run back into the wood for fear of
their hearing her; and when she next 14.(peep
out) the Fish-Footman was gone,
and the other 15.(sit) on the ground
near the door, staring stupidly up into the sky. Alice
16.(go). timidly up to the door, and
17.(knock). .

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IV.(Rescriei propoziiile astfel nct sensul s rmn
acelai. Folosii Present Perfect Continuous. (Rewrite the
sentences so that the meaning is the same. Use Present
Perfect Continuous):

1. Gina has bought a sweater a week ago, she hasnt
stopped wearing it since than.


2. I have arrived at the station for a while now.


3. Jim has started to play a computer game for more than
two hours.


4. Roger has played the piano the whole morning.


5. She has not finished talking.

.
6. Tom searches for a cheap holiday because he hasnt
got too much money.

..
7. Tina is so happy to be back at the seaside. She loves
swimming in the sea.

.
8. The plane is late due to a stormy weather. Im waiting
for my friend and Im cold.

.

V.Alegei timpul corect (Choose the correct tense):

1. Have you seen Matrix? / Did you see Matrix?
2. Did you talk to Jim yesterday? Have you talked to Jim
Yesterday?
3. Have you taken any pictures of Julia Roberts lately? Did
you take any pictures of Julia Roberts lately?
4. Did you go to Trafalgar Square when you visited
London? Have you been to Trafalgar Square when you
visited London?
5. Bill Clinton visited London in 2004. / Bill Clinton has
visited London in 2004.
6. Did you see/ have you seen the game last night?
7. Did you eat / have you eaten that cake last week?
8. You didnt tell / havent told him anything about last

UNIT 13 - REVIEW
111
month did you/ have you?

VI.Punei verbele din parantez la Past Simple sau Past
Perfect Simple (Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Simple
or Past Perfect Simple):

As he spoke, they 1.(enter). a huge hall
lit by enormous candles. It 2.(is) so large
and dark that the corners of the room 3.(fade)..
away completely. There 4.(is). an
enormous roaring fire on one sidewall, and they
5.(move) toward it instinctively after
the cold outside. Angel 6.(talked) to
the innkeepers for all these. He 7.(want)..
to impress his guessed. He 8.(ordered) the best rooms and the
best food. He 9.(plan).. this to the smallest
detail and he 10.(is). very proud of his
work.

VII.Ana plnuiete s ctige la loterie duminica aceasta.
Ea se gndete ce va face cu banii. Rescriei propoziiile
urmtoare folosind timpul viitor. (Ana is planning to win the
lottery this Sunday. She is thinking what she will do with all
the money. Rewrite the sentences using Future Tense):

1. I start travelling.


2. I buy a yacht and invite all my friends to join me.


3. I travel only at first class.


4. I give money to the poor.


5. I never cook dinner.


6. I keep my work because I want to be a normal person.


7. I wake up every morning at seven.


8. I go shopping every day.

.
9. I buy a flat in New York.

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112

..
10. I try to meet George W. Bush.

.


VIII.
OBS:
Phrasal Verbs sunt acele verbe care au diferite sensuri n
funcie de prepoziiile care le urmeaz. Mai jos sunt date
cteva exemple. (Phrasal Verbs are those verbs with different
meanings regarding the preposition or the adverb that follow
them. Below are given some examples):

BREAK
Break down
- a machine breaks down o main se stric: The
elevators in this building are always breaking down.
- somebody breaks down a door cineva drm o u:
Superman broke down the door just looking at it.
Break into
- to enter a place using force - a intra prin for (pentru a
fura): The thieves break into peoples house when they are
not home.
- break into tears / laughter a izbucni n lacrimi/ rs: She
was so happy and she broke into tears.
Break up
- separate a se despri: Jennifer Aniston and Brad Pitt
broke up last year.

Deal
Deal in
- to have a particular attitude to your work- a avea o
atitudine particular n legtur cu munca ta : As a politician
I do not deal in speculations.
Deal with
- to take the correct action for the piece of work- a
aciona corect pentru un anumit lucru: Whos dealing with
this issue?

tell
Tell of
- especially literary to describe the details of an event
or person- a descrie detaliile unui eveniment sau ale unei
persoane: The poem tells of the deeds of a famous warrior.
Tell somebody off to talk angrily to someone because
they have done something wrong- a vorbi mustrtor cu
cineva deoarece au fcut ceva ru: My dad told me off for
swearing.

UNIT 13 - REVIEW
113


FALL
Fall apart
-if an organisation falls apart it stops working effectively
and it has a lot of problems- dac o organizaie se destram
nceteaz a mai lucra efectiv i are multe probleme: The
health system is falling apart.
-if your life falls apart you suddenly have a lot of
personal problems- dac viaa ta se destram tu dintr-o dat
ai multe probleme personale: When his wife left him, his
world fell apart.
Fall over
- if someone falls over or if they fall over something, they
fall onto the ground- dac cineva cade sau cade peste ceva,
cade pe pmnt: Tommy fell over one of those cables.
Fall in with
- to accept someones suggestions and not disagree with
them- a accepta sugestiile cuiva i a nu-l contrazice: Im
quite happy to fall in with whatever you decide.


Completai cu forma corect a verbului (Fill in with the
correct form of the verbs):

1. My dads car is always .when we have to go on
holiday.
2. The burglars .. my neighbours house last night.
3. Gina . tears when her father asked her where
her necklace was.
4. My boss asked me to .. this serious problem.
5. This book social issues.
6. Tom . with Janes decision to go to Hawaii for
the summer.
7. Be careful, you might . if you dont look
down.
8. When he realised he was ill, his world ..
9. My parents last night because I arrived late.
10. In my work I ..with serious
issues.

IX.Folosii gerunziul. (Use the gerund):

1. Nick likes football. He is always playing it.
Karl is keen on..
2. Kim washed her hand, and after that, she had lunch.
Before..
3. I didnt try to find my lost skates, I watched TV.
Instead of .
4. Although Kat lost her friend, she was not crying.

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114
In spite of ..
5. When I had a key, I entered the house.
After .....
6. John was trying to find a job. Andrew is asking him.
Are you interested in ?
7. Jesse wants to buy a car but he is reluctant. He is asking.
What are the advantages of..?
8. Anna felt very ill last night. But she decided to go to
work.
Anna went to work in spite
9. Jim and Rebecca are very upset with each other. Rebecca
is telling Jim.
Im fed up with you .
10. Jane has been living in London for two weeks. She
finds it quite easy to drive on the left side.
Jane found out the advantages of
..

X.Alegei timpul corect din list. (Choose the correct
tense from the list):

As she 1. these words her foot
2.., and in another moment, splash! she
3... up to her chin in salt water. He first
idea was that somehow she 4... into the
sea, `and in that case I 5.... go back by
railway,' she said to herself. (Alice had been to the seaside
once in her life, and 6... to the general
conclusion, that wherever you 7........................... to on the
English coast you 8... a number of bathing
machines in the sea, some children digging in the sand with
wooden spades, then a row of lodging houses, and behind
them a railway station.) However, she soon
9...that she 10.... in the pool of
tears which she 11.... when she
12.. nine feet high.
(Alices Adventures in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll)

1 a. said b. says c. had said
2 a. had slipped b. slipped c. slips
3 a. is b. had been c. was
4 a. fell b. had fallen c. falls
5 a. can b. must c. will
6 a. comes b. is coming c. had come
7 a. go b. went c. had gone
8 a. finds b. find c. found
9 a. makes out b. had made out c. made out
10 a. was b. is c. had been
11 a. had kept b. keeps c. is keeping
12 a. is b. had been c. was

UNIT 13 - REVIEW
115


XI.
Question tags:

Example:
She is not here, isnt she?
You are my friend, arent you?
You didnt drink the coffee, did you?

Obs.
1.Verbul este reluat la sfritul propoziiei la forma
negativ, dac este folosit afirmativ sau afirmativ dac este
folosit negativ, timpul nu se schimb. (The verb is used again
at the end of the sentence in the negative form if it is used in
the affirmative or affirmative if it is used in the negative, the
tense does not change).
2. Question Tags pot indica, n funcie de intonaie,
(Question Tags can indicate depending on the intonation):
- nesiguran (uncertainty): You talk to him, dont you?
- surpriz (surprise): He is not leaving, isnt he?
- cerere (a request): You cannot help me, can you?
- certitudine (certainty): You care about this project, dont
you?
- comentariu (comment): This weather is awful, isnt it?

Completai urmtoarele propoziii folosing Question
Tags. (Complete the following sentences using Question
Tags):

1. You are Spanish,......
2. Its an incredible news,
3. It was a remarkable story,.......
4. It is a splendid place,.
5. She eats only
fruit,........................
6. The flight was
cancelled,....................
7. They havent
replied,.....

8. He did not listen to my
advice,....................
9. He visited
France.................
.
10. I dont have to
fly,..................
11. Lets go,


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116
12. I am a good friend,

XII.Scriei verbele n spaiile libere. (Write the verbs in
the gaps):

go, listen, play, talk, have, look, read, watch

1. to music
to the radio
2. a magazine
a newspaper
3. out of the window
4. a sandwich
a burger
5. football
computer game
Cards
6. television
a video
7. to my friend
8. to the shops
to the park

XIII. Alege forma corect a verbului (Choose the correct
form of the verbs):

1. How long have you been reading/have you read that
book?
2. How many pages of the book have you read/have you
been reading?
3. Emma has visited/has been visiting 12 countries so far in
her voyage through the world.
4. Emma has been visiting/has visited Europe for a week
when she met John.
5. I have been playing/I have played tennis for more than
two hours.
6. I have played/I have been playing poker this morning.
7. I have written/I have been writing ten e-mails this
evening, I feel exhausted.
8. Phillip has been listening / has listened to that CD for
more than two moths.

XIV. Sunt propoziiile corecte sau incorecte? Scrie corect
sau greit lng fiecare i scrie varianta corect (Are the
underlined sentences right or wrong? Write right or wrong
next to each sentence and give the correct answer):

1. I have visited my grandmother yesterday.



UNIT 13 - REVIEW
117
2. I lived in this town since I was five.


3. My parents always taught me to behave myself wherever
I go.

.....................................................................
4. Diane hasnt been at work last week.

.......................................................
5. Jenny has left school in 2003.

..............
..........................................................................................
6. Tom has been a teacher two years ago.
...
...................................................
7. Thomas has bought a computer game last week.
..
8. When I was ten I read Crime and Punishment.

.........................................................................

XV.Completai propoziiile folosind timpurile Present
Simple sau Future ale verbelor din paranteze (Complete the
sentences using Present Simple or Future Simple of the verbs
in brackets):

1. Thousands of people unemployed when the
factory .. its gates. (be/close)
2. This song .... a hit as soon as they
... it. (be/release)
3. If we . soon we the beginning of the
movie. (leave/miss)
4. We. to buy new curtains when we the
house. (have to/move)
5. When we . about the sale we. you
know. (find out/let)
6. What he when he ..
school? (do/leave)
7. He ..settle until you ... to
him. (settle/talk)
8. Jim . until everybody .
down. (not sing/ sit)





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XVI.Completai propoziiile cu Past Simple sau Past
Continuous al verbelor din paranteze (Complete the
sentences with the Past Simple or Past Continuous of the
verbs in brackets):

1. He was (not/listen) to me. He (think) I was annoying.

............................................................
2. I (search) for information on the internet when you
(knock) on the door.

..................................................................
3. They happily (dance) on the dance floor when the music
(stop).

.........................................................................
4. You (talk) to John when I (enter) the room.

..................................................................
5. As I (listen) to that song, all the memories (come) into
my mind.

...........................................................
6. What (happen) when I (call) you?

.......................................................
7. He (sing) when his neighbours (come) home.

..............................................................
8. He (cross) the road when a car (hit) him.

..................................................................

XVII. Pune verbele la forma corect (Put the verbs into
the correct form):

Situation: Tom and Gina have not seen each other for
more than four years. The meet accidentally in a train
station:

1. G. Hello, Tom.
2. T. Hello, Gina.
3. G. I . you for donkeys years. (see)
4. T. How are you? What .. lately? (do)
5. G. I for a computer company on Fleet street.
(work)
6. 6.T. Really, thats so nice.
7. G. What about you?
8. T. I two years ago and I have a boy. (get

UNIT 13 - REVIEW
119
marry)
9. G. How nice, how is your wife? .? (work)
10. T. Yes, she . as an accountant but at the
moment she . at home with our baby. (work/ stay)
11. G. For how long are you in London?
12. T. Im in London only for three days. Lets go for a
coffee and talk more.
13. G. Sure, come to dinner tonight, I.
something. (cook)
14. T. Ok, I .. there. (be)

XVIII. Completai cu formele verbale corespunztoare (Fill
in with the appropriate verb forms):

change, find (twice, once passive), succeed, seem (twice),
look, try, move, wander, fly beat

`Come, my head's free at last!' said Alice in a tone of
delight, which (1) into alarm in another
moment, when she (2) that her
shoulders were nowhere (3)...: all she could
see, when she (4).... down, was an immense
length of neck, which (5) . to rise like a
stalk out of a sea of green leaves that lay far below her.
`What can all that green stuff be?' said Alice. `And where
have my shoulders got to? And oh, my poor hands, how is it
I can't see you?' She (6).. them about as she
spoke, but no result (7)...to follow,
except a little shaking among the distant green leaves.
As there seemed to be no chance of getting her hands up
to her head, she (8).. to get her head down to
them, and was delighted to find that her neck would bend
about easily in any direction, like a serpent. She
(9).... in curving it down into a graceful
zigzag, and was going to dive in among the leaves, which she
found to be nothing but the tops of the trees under which she
(10), when a sharp hiss made her draw
back in a hurry: a large pigeon (11).. into
her face, and (12). her violently with its
wings.
(Alices Adventures in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll)

XIX.Completai cu forma corect a verbelor (Complete
with the correct form of the verbs):

build (passive) have to manage be
(twice) gain contribute

If you want to find out how this nice, quiet country 1.
to propagate such a variety of large,

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magnificent gardens, you 2. .. dig deeper than
the sub-soil. For Shropshire 3. .on rocks from
11of the 13 known geological periods the smallest area in
the world to boast so many.
Capability Brown and Gertrude Jekyll 4.
their own individual genius to the
landscape.
You could say that all gardens in England 5.
... places of rest and repose to visitors and
honoured guests alike. In Shropshire garden you also 6.
.. strength, both physical and spiritual, which
is what a proper garden 7. .. really about.



13.4. ndrumar pentru autoverificare

Can you give your muscles a better workout simply by changing your shoes?
The athletic shoe giant Reebok claims you can. The new EasyTone walking shoe, a
provocative new marketing campaign says, leaves leg and buttock muscles better toned than
regular walking shoes.
Consumers are buying it literally. Officials from Reebok, a unit of Adidas, say the
EasyTone is the companys most successful new product in at least five years.
Other companies have marketed shoes that promise a physiological benefit. Masai Group
International, of Switzerland, sells the MBT, a rocker shoe with a curved sole, said to ease
arthritis and back pain. Shape-Ups from Skechers USA are designed to improve posture and
muscle tone and promote weight loss. The FitFlop brand has been engineered to increase leg,
calf and gluteal muscle activity, giving the wearer a workout while you walk.
While most athletic shoes offer support and cushioning, the new muscle-activating shoes
are engineered to create a sense of instability. Design elements like curved soles and Reeboks
balance pods are said to force the wearer to engage stabilizing muscles further, resulting in
additional toning for calf, hamstring and gluteal muscles.
That sounds great, but do they really work? To support the claims, the shoemakers each
offer company-financed exercise studies suggesting that the shoes produce a higher level of
muscle engagement, at least in a controlled research setting.
But the studies dont show whether more engagement leads to meaningful changes in
muscle tone or appearance over time. Nor is it clear whether the high level of engagement
continues once the walker becomes accustomed to the shoe.

1. Reebok claims you can give your muscles a better workout?
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say
2. The customers answered a pool about Reebok
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say
3. EasyTone improve posture
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say
4. The design elements do not engage stabilizing muscles
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say
5. Studies show that you become a better person when you use the shoes.

UNIT 13 - REVIEW
121
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesnt say


Concepte i termeni de reinut

Elemente recapitulative



Teste de evaluare/autoevaluare



Read the text below. For questions 1-10, choose the answer (A, B, C or D) which you
think fits best according to the text. Write your answers on your exam sheet.

Black squirrels watched curiously as I gathered discarded fir cones to build a fire while
shy chipmunks hid under our Cruise America RV or motor home as we call them on our side
of the Atlantic.
We were setting up camp for the night under a flaming red canopy of autumn leaves on a
road trip around Lake Michigan, the second largest of the Great Lakes of North America.
Along with Superior, Erie, Huron and Ontario, the Great Lakes are the largest body of
fresh water in the world. They seem as big as an ocean with waves, treacherous shores,
shipwrecks and beautiful beaches.
We'd flown into Chicago for a trip that took us north to Milwaukee, up the western shore
of the lake, across the Upper Peninsula and south on the eastern shore.
With my husband Roy behind the wheel we clocked up over 1,200 miles in nine days - a
bit of a whistle-stop tour. I'd recommend taking things slower so you can embrace the whole
camping thing.
Our home on wheels, the standard 25ft RV, had a dining area, a double bed, over-cab bed,
a bathroom with toilet and shower, a cooker, fridge/freezer and a microwave.
Wisely you are not allowed to set off in your RV on the day you arrive after an
international flight so it was the next day, and after watching an instruction video, that we hit
the open road.
At 7ft 6in, the RV is wider than you might think and the weight makes it heavy to stop so
allow plenty of time for braking. And pay lots of attention to the wing mirrors, especially the
blind spot on the right.
Our first stop was in Milwaukee, about 95 miles north of Chicago which we felt was far
enough for the first day.
As well as the Miller brewery, the city is known for Harley Davidson motor bikes. Rock
music was playing as we pulled up at the Harley museum where even the doors are heavy
metal. There are photos of William and Walter Harley and Arthur Davidson, who designed
the first bike in 1903. Somehow, I expected them to be in leathers, not suits and bowler hats.

1. What was the author doing under the close scrutiny of the black squirrels?
A. starting his RV B. asking for advice on how to build a fire C. starting a fire D.
gathering discarded fir cones to build a fire

2. Lake Michigan is
A. the second largest of the Great Lakes of America B. the second largest lake of
America C. the second largest lake of Canada D. The biggest lake in the world

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122

3. Do the lakes look like an ocean with waves and shores and beautiful beaches?
A. doesnt say B. no, because they are too small C. yes because they are the largest
body of fresh water in the world D. no, because of the fog

4. Were they due to arrive at the north of Milwaukee?
A. Yes they were flying from Paris B. yes, they were flying from Chicago C. yes and
they flew into Chicago D. no, they were supposed to get to the Upper Peninsula

5. When you go camping should you
A. take things slower B. go as fast as you can so you can see a lot C. take thick
clothes D. take a bike

6. Was their RV very expensive?
A. no, it was really dirty and difficult to drive B. it was a standard RV C. it was a
very expensive last minute RV D. they did not have an RV

7. Can you drive an RV ass soon as you get off the plane?
A. no, you should take a day rest B. it is the best solution C. no, you should eat
properly before driving an RV D. no, you should take a weeks class to learn how
to drive the RV

8. What is Milwaukee known for?
A. bread B. cheese C. bicycles D. Harley Davidson motor bikes

9. The music that was playing when they arrived at the Harley museum was
A. dance music B. folk music C. country music D. rock music

10. The doors were made of
A. glass B. heavy metal C. wood D. metal and wood

Bibliografie:


Pipo, Cristina, Tania Muina, Limba englez, Workbook, Editura Aula, Braov, 2006
Pipo, Cristina, Tania Muina, Ramona Han, Gabriela Osanu, Limba englez
evaluarea competenelor lingvistice de comunicare, Braov, Aula, 2011
Redman, Stuart, English Vocabulary in Use, pre-intermediate & intermediate, Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge, 1997
Cotton David, Falvey David, Kent Simon, New Market Leader, Intermediate Business
English coursebook, Pearson Education Limited, Edinburgh, 2002




UNIT 14 - REVIEW
123




REVIEW


14.1. Introducere
14.2. Obiectivele unitii de nvare timp alocat
14.3. Review
14.4 ndrumtor pentru autoverificare
14.5 Teste



14.1 Introducere

Pentru nelegerea i utilizarea ct mai clar
a limbii engleze vocabularul este foarte necesar,
utilizarea corect a limbii engleze fiind deosebit
de important.




14.2 Obiectivele unitii de nvare


Studierea vocabularului recapitulativ
nelegerea vocabularului
Utilizarea vocabularului n context







Timpul alocat unitii de nvare

Pentru unitatea de nvare Limba
englez, timpul alocat este de 2 ore.






UNIT 14


LIMBA ENGLEZ
124

14.3 Coninutul unitii de nvare


I. Folosindu-v de urmtoarele adjective ncercai s
descriei cteva persoane publice (Using the following
adjectives try and describe a few public persons):

Black, white, red, green, big, small, petite, large,
American, English, Asian, African, polite, loud, quiet, happy,
friendly, unfriendly, funny, beautiful, unpleasant, angry, busy.




















II. Completai cuvntul corect din caset (Fill in with the
correct word from the box):






Alice 1. ... her feet into Timberlands,
fills her pockets with doggie treats (Never go anywhere
without them, Harry said. You 2. ... train any
time, anywhere), 3. ... her coffee and 4.
. the door into the yard. How funny, she had
thought, to call three acres of wood, and a pond, a yard.
Come! She says to Snoop, reaching down and giving him
a 5. .. as he 6. . runs up to her,
and the pair of them set off across the lawn.
pick up, slip, step out, treat, obedient, rainbow, sip, noise,
sit down, can, be, house, trunk, chill

UNIT 14 - REVIEW
125
Alice walks slowly, 7. . her coffee and
smiling as she looks around. The only 8. . are
the birds, a group of bright red cardinals hopping around the
lawn, and the occasional rustle of squirrel.
She reaches the water and 9. . on a
huge tree 10. that must have fallen down
during a particular bad storm. The water is still overhung and
dark, but Alice 11. ........................happier in her life.
Fishing her coffee, she walks back up to the 12.
..., standing on the patio for a while as she
shivers in the 13. ... of the early morning
air. Still sunny, October is nevertheless edging towards
winter, and the leaves are about to transform into the 14.
.. of colours for which New England is
famous.
(Jane Green- Spellbound)

III. a. Completai cuvntul corect din csu (Fill in with
the correct word from the box):







When the 1. .. rises, it is a typically English
evening at home. 2. .. English Mr Smith, in his 3.
. armchair L of the fireplace, wearing English 4.
, is smoking an English 5. .. and
reading an English 6. . He is wearing
English 7. and has a small grey English
moustache. Typically English Mrs Smith, is seated in an
armchair L of the table, darning 8. socks.
There is a long English 9. . An English clock
chimes three English chimes.
MRS SMITH: Goodness! Nine oclock! This evening for
supper he had soup, fish, cold ham and mashed potatoes and a
10. English salad, and we had English
11.. to drink. The children drank English 12.
... We had a very good 13. .. this evening.
And thats because we are English, because we live in the
suburbs of London and because our name is 14.
.
(David Milsted Brewers Anthology of England and the
English)

b. Cunoatei i alte caracteristici ale englezilor.
Discutai-le. (Do you know other things that characterize the
English? Discuss them).
slippers, pipe, silence, newspaper, favourite, water,
spectacles,
typical, English, good, beer, meal, Smith, curtain

LIMBA ENGLEZ
126

........................
....................
.............
..........



IV. a. Alege paragraful corect i completeaz textul
(Choose the correct paragraph and fill in the text):

I moved on to the next envelope. I had only to scratch a
card to win half a million. I did and found I was a lucky
winner. Id send it off to be entered into the free prize draw.
Ive always been a compulsive filler-in of competition forms.
I cant throw them away I might win!
.
Today, the junk looked very promising. Best of all was the
prize of a holiday in India, courtesy of Bewleys tea
merchants, and all I had to do was complete the tie-breaking
sentence: Bewleys make the best cup of tea because I
munched my honey and oatcakes, picked up my lucky
competition fountain pen and gave the sentence all the
consideration my expensive education allowed.

...............
I read The Herald and The Scotsman. To help my
language studies, I always tackled the Gaelic column.
Although at first glance those double consonants can be
intimidating, Gaelic sounds much softer than it looks. I had
started going to a beginners class at the university and I never
missed a Gaelic soap opera on TV in the afternoon. On one
memorable occasion, Jamie working from home had offered to
translate.
................................................................................
...........................
I was very impressed by his ability to speak Gaelic. He
told me he had spent every school holiday on the Isle of
Barra, staying with his Great Aunt Flora, and when youre
little, its dead easily to pick up a language especially if the
locals are the only ones who ever take notice of you

.....................................................................

The gold-plated nib raced over the dotted line it aint
just what they brew, its the way that they brew it! It didnt
quite scan, but it was good enough to get to the short list
and win a hamper.
Which was probably why the marketing companies of the
world had my new address long before my immediate

UNIT 14 - REVIEW
127
family.
He said to me: Lets go to Barra and you can practice
your Gaelic. You go in a little sixteen-seater plane that
lands on the beach at low-tide. Scheduled flights from
Glasgow according to the phases of the moon
(If you ever get the chance to watch soap opera in a
language you dont understand, with live translation from
a dear friend do so. I could hardly breathe for laughing.)
(Lazy Ways to Make a Living - Abigail Bosanko)

b. Can you complete the sentence Bewleys make the best
cup of tea because ?
.................

V. Completai cuvintele care lipsesc cu unul din cuvintele
din caset (Fill in with the missing words with one suitable
word from the box):

enjoy /club /time city/ /hour /tree /house /know /charity
/feel /discover /hand /day time /outfit

Alice has knocked down walls and 1.
raised wooden panelling that was hidden some 2.
in the sixties. She has ripped up the lino in the
kitchen and discovered wide old oak pieces of wood. She has
found the room that must have been Rachel Danburys office,
and finds she can spend 3. .. sitting on the
window seat in there, gazing up the 4. ,
thinking about nothing other than how at peace she 5.
.
The more she discovers about the 6. house, the more she
feels as if she 7. . the writer. She has yet
to lay her 8. on a copy of The Winding
Road, and Alice is drawn down into the spell, falls more in
love with the house with every passing 9.
.
There are 10. .., however when
Alice has to go in the city. She does so reluctantly, but
Monday to Friday or Tuesday to Thursday if she can get
with it go in she does. To the theatre with Joe, to openings
at the Met, 11. . benefits at the Frick,
restaurants, bars and 12. . She comes in
to have her highlights done at Frederic Fekkai, to shop at
Bergdorf Goodman for the requisite black tie 13.
.., to lunch with Gina at Jean George
or Le Cirque 2000- the only things she truly 14.
about coming in to the 15.
.
(adapted by Spellbound Jane Green)


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128
VI. Completai cuvintele care lipsesc cu unul din cuvintele
din caset (Fill in with the missing words with one suitable
word from the box):

whenever /sadness /play /hands /music /passion
/someone /kitchen

When we returned to Edinburgh, it was as though I had
brought some of the 1. .. with me. It was
probably made worse by the tendency 2. .. a
few minor chords on the piano 3. I
passed by it. Sometimes I just held them down too long. My
married life settled into a sedate, melancholic rhythm. If it
were a piece of 4. ., it would have been
like Albinonis Adagio, only as poignantly beautiful.
I developed a 5. . for puddings and
stodgy pastry. It was nice to be able to potter around the 6.
without someones arms around my
waist. I was able to cook without 7. ..
standing behind me and kissing my neck at the same time.
And the way he had always wanted to hold my 8.
..! So annoying. It was great not being
bothered by that sort of thing any more.
(Lazy Ways to Make a Living - Abigail Bosanko)

VII. Completai cuvintele care lipsesc cu unul din
cuvintele din caset (Fill in with the missing words with one
suitable word from the box):

meet/ legend /language /history /shop /bargain /around
/birthplace /mark /power

Here Shropshire 1. .. Wales and his
borderland town is steeped in history, myth and 2.
.. Today the influence of Wales is still felt
and youll hear a blend of 3. .. as you brose
around. Rich in 4. .. Oswestry may be but its
still a vibrant and vital market town, with more than its fair
share of small speciality 5. . as thriving street
market. 6. .. await.
Ancient signs are all 7. . The Oswestry
Hill Fort known as Caer Ogyrfan after King Arthurs father
in law, is said to be the 8. .. of Queen
Guinevere. Offas Dyke marks out old border on one side of
the town and Wats Dyke 9. .. the other. There
are wells and springs named after Saints, which are said to
have 10. to heal the believer and inspire
the more cynical.
(Shropshires guide)


UNIT 14 - REVIEW
129
VIII. Completai cuvintele care lipsesc cu unul din
cuvintele din caset (Fill in with the missing words with one
suitable word from the box):

buildings /city/ forgets/ year/ fascinating/
name/ against/ invaded

Oxford is the city of the dreaming spires. The golden 1.
with their spires, towers and domes have
shaped a graceful timeless 2. , which no
visitor 3.. Over 900 years as a seat of
learning have made Oxford a very special place to visit at any
time of 4. ..
The citys history is 5. . The Romans
made Oxford a pottery centre, the Saxons princess Frideswide
founded a religious community on the site of Oxfords
Cathedral, and the Oxenford, the original Saxon crossing
point, gave the city its 6. .
Alfred the Great developed and fortified the city 7.
the invading Danes. Robert DOilly built
Oxfords castle in 1072. Richard the Lionheart was born at
Beaumont Palace in 1157. Charles I held parliament in the
Convocation Hall during the Civil War and Hitler planned to
make Oxford his headquarters if he 8. ..
Britain.
(Oxfords guide)




14.4. ndrumar pentru autoverificare

Life in Tokyo, as everywhere else in the world, is annoying and unfair. The good men are
all married. Co-workers clip their fingernails at their desks. Laundry comes back from the
cleaners still dirty. Society is too competitive. It is impossible to get enough sleep.
Recently a group of about 100 Tokyo residents put their complaints into a pile and a
composer, Okuchi Shunsuke, turned them into a song. About 80 of the complainers
(accompanied by an accordion, a bass cello and a tambourine) then performed the
composition at various sites around the city, becoming the latest example of what has become
known as a complaints choir.
The idea started in Finland, where there is a word for people who complain
simultaneously, valituskuoro, which translates as complaints choir. About six years ago
Oliver Kochta-Kalleinen and his wife, Tellervo Kalleinen, both visual artists living in
Helsinki, began discussing the possibility of turning this metaphorical concept into something
quite literal. People spend so much energy complaining, they reasoned, so why not harness all
that energy into something positive?
In 2005, with help from arts-related organizations in England and Finland, the two
organized their first complaints choir, in Birmingham, England.

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130
The Tokyo choir, which performed last month, is the eighth that the couple have worked
with. But others have formed choirs in other cities, and, Mr. Kochta-Kalleinen said, more than
60 performances have occurred worldwide from Melbourne to Singapore to Philadelphia
to Florence. People of differing ages and backgrounds are encouraged to participate. Singing
experience is not required.
If you demand a certain amount of singing skills it would exclude a lot of people, Mr.
Kochta-Kalleinen said. Anyone who has a complaint should be able to take part.
In all of the choirs, members try to keep aggrieved looks on their faces as they air their
complaints. But then this front tends to give way to ill-disguised and even undisguised glee.
Mami Kataoka, chief curator of the Mori Art Museum in Tokyo, said she asked the
Kalleinens to help organize a complaints choir because she saw it as a unique form of
participatory art in which choir members could co-produce a work of art along with a
composer.
At the start of the performance last month, many choir members were wearing surgical
masks, which are common in Tokyo these days because of swine flu (another thing, perhaps,
to complain about). They started by simply humming to the music, then took off their masks
and started singing.
The process by which the initial complaints were winnowed into a manageable song was
democratic, Ms. Kataoka said, with the final version an interesting balance of issues covering
public transportation, personal appearance, work, love, society and the future.
Videos of choirs around the world show that while some complaints are universal, others
are coloured by the particulars of a culture.
In Tokyo complaints about work were more common than in other cities, Mr. Kochta-
Kalleinen said. (I cannot say no to work on holidays. My boss made his mistakes mine. I
am scared every three months because Im a three-month contract worker.)

1. Why does the author say that life in Tokyo is unfair?
A. there arent enough shoes B. people are unhappy C. there is no electricity D.
because laundry comes back from the cleaners still dirty

2. What did the people do with all their complaints about Tokyo?
A. sent them into a signed letter to the mayor B. sent them to the press C. sent them to
a composer to write a song D. made a song themselves

3. What is, translated into English, the name given to people who complaint simultaneously
in Finland?
A. choir B. complainers C. performers D. complaints choir

4. Who came up with the idea of turning the concept into something literal?
A. Tokyo people B. the mayor of Tokyo C. people from Finland D. Oliver Kochta-
Kalleinen and Tellervo Kalleinen

5. In the two artists opinion can complaining be turned into something positive?
A. yes and it was successful B. no, because its way too annoying C. yes, but the
quality of the work might not be good enough D. yes, but they dont take
responsibility for the outcome

6. What is the number of choirs the couple has worked with so far?
A. 18 B. 8 C. 80 D. 2005


UNIT 14 - REVIEW
131
7. Why were the members of the choir wearing surgical masks?
A. because it was cold B. because they didnt want to show their faces C. because of
the swine flu D. because they wanted to show their disapproval

8. Was the final version of the song related to personal appearance?
A. no, it was about the swine flu B. no, because people dont care about that C. yes
there was, among other things D. no, because it was about more important issues

9. Are all complaints general for all cultures or are there some particularities?
A. yes, there are particularities B. yes, but very few and unimportant C. yes and too many
D. no, there arent

10. Are there more complaints in Tokyo than in other cities?
A. yes B. doesnt say C. no D. not more than in New York



Concepte i termeni de reinut

Elemente de recapitulare



Teste de evaluare/autoevaluare





Read the text below. For questions 1-10, choose the answer (A, B, C or D) which you
think fits best according to the text. Write your answers on your exam sheet.

Strapped into a custom built seat, Andy Green prepares for the ride of his life. The
pancake-flat desert stretches out for miles ahead. The computer indicates all systems are
normal. He eases off the brakes and puts his foot down on the throttle. The jet engine roars
into life. In precisely 42.5 seconds he'll be travelling 1000 mph. In a car.
"It's almost impossible to tell the difference between going supersonic in a car and in an
aircraft," says Green. He is the only person on Earth who can say that from personal
experience. Green was a fighter pilot for the UK Royal Air Force for 20 years, and he is also
the fastest man on wheels. In 1997, driving a vehicle called ThrustSSC, he set the world land
speed record of 763 miles per hour, becoming the first and only person to break the sound
barrier in a car (761 mph under standard conditions). Now, together with the Bloodhound
SSC design team, he's attempting to do it all over again, and then some.
This time there's competition. A three-way race is developing, with two other teams, one
from North America and the other from Australia, vying to wrest the record from the Brits.
The first step will be to break the existing record and get past 800 mph. If that succeeds, the
next stage is to attempt 1000 mph (1609 kilometres per hour). "That's what we're designing
the car for," says Ron Ayers, chief aeronautic engineer on the Bloodhound project.
All three competing vehicles have wheels, brakes and a steering wheel, but that's pretty
much where the similarity with conventional cars ends. Getting up to the speed of sound and

LIMBA ENGLEZ
132
beyond poses challenges that a normal car will never encounter, requiring some radical design
and engineering.
For example, the wheels of a 1000 mph car will need to rotate at over 10,000 revolutions
per minute, many times faster than on an ordinary car. This rate of spin entails an acceleration
of almost 50,000 g at the rim, generating forces that would easily tear conventional wheels
apart. Instead, this car will need wheels of solid titanium, or more likely carbon-reinforced
aluminium. What's more, as the vehicle approaches the speed of sound, it produces a frontal
shock wave which fluidises the earth ahead, so the wheels end up carving through ground,
rather than simply rolling over it. On top of all that, beyond 250 mph, airflow starts to become
a more important consideration in controlling the vehicle than traction on the ground. At this
speed, the wheels begin to behave like rudders or aerofoils, and driving the car becomes more
like controlling a speedboat or flying an aircraft. "Our biggest single concern is to make sure
the vehicle stays on the ground," says Green.
As the car approaches the speed of sound, it produces a shock wave which fluidises the
earth ahead.
Creating a "car" that takes account of all these factors means exploring unchartered
territory in aerodynamics and vehicle mechanics. "No one has ever designed a car to go this
fast before," says Green, "so we've got to develop and test, develop and test... it's an ongoing
research project."

1. Why is it different this time that Andy Green drives a car?
A. nothing, he is just recording it B. he asked all his friends to take photos C. he has a
powerful engine D. he is going supersonic

2. Andy Green was the first man who
A. drove a car with 671 mph B. broke the sound barrier in a car C. drove a car D.
drove a vehicle called ThrustSSC

3. Is there a competition this time?
A. yes, there is B. no, its just him C. no, he is the only person who can drive a car at
that speed D. yes, but Green is not in

4. What is the first step in this competition?
A. to make Green win B. to see who of three competitors is the best C. to check the
car D. to break the existing record

5. What for, are the people from the Bloodhound project designing the new cars?
A. to attempt 1000 mph B. to fly in space C. to entertain people D. to attempt 100
mph

6. Which are the similarities between the three vehicles? A. They are all black B. they all
have brakes, wheels and a steering wheel C. they all have Ron Ayers as a pilot D. theyve
been all designed by Green

7. What does the speed of sound require in car?
A. radical design of wheels B. radical changes in the manufacturing process C. radical
restructuring D. radical design and engineering

8. Would conventional wheels of a conventional car resist to the forces generated in the
new car?

UNIT 14 - REVIEW
133
A. yes, with a few manufacturing adjusting B. no, they are destroyed C. yes, there are
the same forces D. yes, but they wouldnt last for long

9. What is Greens main concern?
A. that the car wont stay on the ground B. that the car is too light C. that the car is
not safe enough D. that the car is not fast enough

10. Does the car need more testing?
A. yes because of the safety issues B. yes, because its an ongoing research process C.
no, the car is perfect D. no, the car is good to go








Bibliografie:


Pipo, Cristina, Tania Muina, Limba englez, Workbook, Editura Aula, Braov, 2006
Pipo, Cristina, Tania Muina, Ramona Han, Gabriela Osanu, Limba englez
evaluarea competenelor lingvistice de comunicare, Braov, Aula, 2011
Redman, Stuart, English Vocabulary in Use, pre-intermediate & intermediate, Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge, 1997
Cotton David, Falvey David, Kent Simon, New Market Leader, Intermediate Business
English coursebook, Pearson Education Limited, Edinburgh, 2002























LIMBA ENGLEZ
134


UNIT 15 PRESENTATION
135






PRESENTATIONS



15.1. Introducere
15.2. Obiectivele unitii de nvare timp alocat
15.3. Presentations
15.4 ndrumar de autoverificare
15.5 Teste de evaluare



15.1. Introducere

Pentru nelegerea i utilizarea ct mai clar a limbii engleze n
domeniul englezei de afaceri, necesitatea unei corecte prezentri a
materialului este util.



15.2. Obiectivele unitii de nvare


Studierea tipurilor de prezentri
Studierea formelor de prezentare
Utilizarea informaiei primate
Aplicaii



Timpul alocat unitii de nvare

Pentru unitatea de nvare Limba englez, timpul alocat este de 2 ore.




UNIT 15


LIMBA ENGLEZ
136


15.3. Coninutul unitii de nvare


TYPES OF PRESENTATION
Examples of different presentations:
Press conference: two chief executives tell journalists why their
companies have merged
Briefing: a senior officer gives information to other officers about a
police operation they are about to undertake
Demonstration: the head of research and development tells non-
technical colleagues about a new machine
Product launch: a car company announces a new model
Lecture: a university professor communicates information about
economics to 300 students
Talk: a member of a stamp-collecting club tells other members about
19
th
century British stamps.
Seminar: a financial adviser gives advice about investments to eight
people
Workshop: a yoga expert tells people how to improve their breathing
techniques and gets them to practice.

Dos and donts: preparation
Here are some tips for a stand-up presentation (one person talking to an
audience).

a. Find out about the audience: how many people there will be, who
they are, why they will be there, and how much they know about the
subject.
b. Find out about the venue and facilities: the room, the seating plan,
the equipment, etc.
c. Plan the content and structure, but dont write the complete text
of the presentation
d. Write notes on sheets of paper, not on cards
e. Try to memorize the first five sentences of your talk
f. Prepare visual aids: pictures, diagrams, etc
g. Rehearse your presentation (practice it so that it becomes very
familiar) with friends or colleagues.


Key phrases: introduction

Introduce yourself and your subject



UNIT 15 PRESENTATION
137


Outline what youre going to talk about: describe the different
sections of your talk




Say whether people ask questions during the talk, or at the end




Dos and donts: timing
a. Start on time. Dont wait for latecomers.
b. Plan how long youre going to spend on each point and keep to these timings.
c. Dont labour a particular point (spend too long on something)
d. Dont digress (talk about things that have nothing to do with the subject), unless you
have a particular purpose in mind.
e. Finish on time. Dont run over. It looks bad if you dont have time to finish all your
points and answer questions.


Dos and donts: voice
f. Project your voice to the back room, but dont shout. Dont ask if people at the back
can hear. Check the volume (loudness) of your voice beforehand.

LIMBA ENGLEZ
138
g. Use a microphone if you need one. Dont hold it too close to your mouth.
h. Whether using a microphone or not, speak in a natural tone of voice. Dont speak in a
monotone (on the same level all the time). Vary the pitch (level) of your voice.

Rapport with the audience
Experts say you can gain the audiences attention in a presentation by:
Telling an anecdote (a story, perhaps a personal one)
Mentioning a really surprising fact or statistic.
Stating a problem
Asking a question
Of course, it is important to respect the cultural expectations of your audience.

Key phrases: main part
You can continue your presentation:
Ok. To begin lets look at the first type of skills that consultants need: technical skills.
Of course, related to technical skills is a good general knowledge of management subjects
But Im digressing: lets get back to the technical skills themselves Thats all I have time
for on technical skills.
Lets move on to the second area: interpersonal skills. As you can see on this
transparency, there are two key areas in relation to interpersonal skills I think that covers
everything on interpersonal skills.
Time is moving on, so lets turn to the third area: people management issues.

Dos and donts: body language
Tips on body language:
Make eye contact: look at each person in the audience for about a second, before
moving on to the next person. Dont concentrate on just one or two people.
Dont speak to the equipment or the screen: face the audience at all times.
Smiling is fine at appropriate moments, but not too much
Avoid mannerism (ways of moving and speaking which you do repeatedly without
realizing)

Key phrases: closing and dealing with questions
Bringing the presentation to a close:
Let me sum up. Firstly, we looked at technical skills, secondly, at management skills and
last, but by no means least, at interpersonal skills. In my view, the secret for success in the
future is going to be interpersonal skills. That brings me to the end of the presentation. Are
there any questions?

Here are some phrases which can be useful when answering questions.


UNIT 15 PRESENTATION
139













LIMBA ENGLEZ
140

If a member of the audience didnt hear a question, they might say:
Sorry, I didnt catch the question could you repeat what the questioner said?
Ending the presentation:
I think thats a good place to stop. Thank you for listening.



15.4. ndrumar pentru autoverificare

Have you ever given a presentation? What type was it? In your experience, what
makes a good/bad presentation?
How are people expected to dress for different types of presentation in your country?
How is body language used in presentations in your country? Which gestures are
acceptable and which are not?
What are the advantages and disadvantages of using different types of equipment?
What are some of the potential problems?
Concepte i termeni de reinut

Prezentri
Forme de prezentare
Tipuri de prezentri




Teste de evaluare/autoevaluare


Teste de evaluare/autoevaluare



Write a presentation to a product or a service you know well.




Bibliografie:

Pipo, Cristina, Tania Muina, Limba englez, Workbook, Editura Aula, Braov, 2006
Pipo, Cristina, Tania Muina, Ramona Han, Gabriela Osanu, Limba englez
evaluarea competenelor lingvistice de comunicare, Braov, Aula, 2011
Redman, Stuart, English Vocabulary in Use, pre-intermediate & intermediate, Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge, 1997
Cotton David, Falvey David, Kent Simon, New Market Leader, Intermediate Business
English coursebook, Pearson Education Limited, Edinburgh, 2002



UNIT 16 CAREERS
141




CAREERS

16.1. Introducere
16.2. Obiectivele unitii de nvare timp alocat
16.3. Careers
16.4 ndrumtor pentru autoverificare
16.5 Teste




16.1. Introducere
Pentru nelegerea i utilizarea ct mai clar a limbii engleze vocabularul are un rol
deosebit de important




16.2. Obiectivele unitii de nvare


Studierea vocabularului pentru cariere
nelegerea vocabularului
Utilizarea vocabularului n context



Timpul alocat unitii de nvare

Pentru unitatea de nvare Limba englez, timpul alocat este de 2 ore.







UNIT 16


UNIT 16 CAREERS
142

16.3. Coninutul unitii de nvare



Up or out is part of industry culture

By Charles Batchelor
Up or out, the policy of requiring employees to race up the
promotion ladder or face being eased out, is commonly
regarded as a sign of the consulting industrys hard-nosed
approach to doing business.
But how widespread is this practice? And is it still relevant
in an age when human capital management has become more
sophisticated at dealing with diversity of background and
aspiration?
Although management consultancy is frequently
associated with this policy of requiring staff to move up or
move out, this approach is employed in other sectors including
law, the military and universities where academic staff who
fail to attain tenure can be required to leave.
Among consultants that approach has been most closely
associated with strategy houses, says Alan Leaman, chief
executive of the Management Consultancies Association.
There are aspects other firms employ but they are not so out
and proud about it. But even there I am sure it is changing
since they are more concerned about growing people and
giving them career options.
It makes a lot of sense for firms to be clear about what
they are doing, says Fiona Czerniawska, a director of
Sourceforconsulting.com, a research organisation. Up or out
may seem draconian but people do move in and out. Staff
turnover in consulting is between 15 and 20 per cent a year so
people stay on average five to six years.
We dont have an explicit up or out policy or way of
thinking, explains Russ Hagey, senior partner and chief talent
officer at Bain & Co, the strategy consultancy that, along with
McKinsey, has been most closely associated with this robust
approach to managing human relations.
That would be short-sighted. Instead we take a view of
the life-
cycle of our talent pipeline. It starts with how we think about
professional development and training. We focus on helping
people build the skills to be successful at Bain and post-Bain.
Consultancy, in particular, faces the challenge of
constructing careers for people who, having devised
management strategies for other businesses, want to apply
their skills to running a business of their own. This means the

UNIT 16 CAREERS
143
consultancy firms can expect a constant leakage of their best
people into senior jobs in the corporate sector.
John Donahoe, chief executive officer at eBay, is a former
Bain consultant, as is Kenneth Chenault, chairman and chief
executive of American Express. Former McKinsey consultants
include James McNerney, chairman and chief executive of
Boeing, and Vittorio Calao, chief executive at Vodafone.
Keeping on good terms with these people requires HR
policies that leave them with a good impression of their former
employer, so that it is strongly placed to win future consulting
jobs or to win friends and influence from former employees
who have gone into the public sector. In some cases former
employees have returned to Bain after a spell in the outside
world, enabling the firm to broaden the range of experience
offered to clients.
Graduate and MBA recruits to Bain are presented with a
vision of terrific professional development involving an
extensive global training programme and an on-the-job
learning environment, says Mr Hagey. We talk about the
prospects of being a partner. But more importantly we talk
about building general management skills. With 500
employees making partner from a total head count of 3,500,
clearly not everyone can make it to the top.
To build long-term relationships with staff, Bain maintains
an internal jobs bank, posting vacancies within the firm and at
clients while also including opportunities put up by executive
search companies and Bain alumni. There is an externship
programme to place employees with outside companies for six
months and an active programme to reach out to former staff
who might be tempted back to the firm.
It requires us to up our game internally to see that we
create a culture and a value proposition so that staying at Bain
is highly valued, Mr Hagey explains. But at the same time the
firm works on its departure culture. We focus on how
people depart so that we do it in a constructive and helpful
way.
This is the company perspective but how do employees
and former employees view it? Some appear to be more
willing to acknowledge the up or out approach but all accept
it as part of the results-driven nature of the job. The mentality
of the firm is up or out, says one in a jobs website posting. It
can be stressful but everyone hired has the potential of rising
up within the company.
If you work hard and demonstrate your capabilities, then
you will be immediately rewarded, says another. It is quite
stressful at times because if you dont perform well, you
definitely will hear about it.

UNIT 16 CAREERS
144
Within the consultancy industry there does appear to be a
willingness to acknowledge a greater degree of diversity in
career planning than in the past. This is a talent business and
it is all about attracting the brightest and best but not everyone
can be the boss, says Mr Leaman.
It is not just about a standard pathway that you must
follow. It is all about looking at the options and finding the
strengths of an individual and how best to exploit them.
Kate Wood, global head of human resources and
recruitment at PA Consulting, says: We dont need
everybody to be a partner. But we do want everyone to do a
great job. Individuals have different career aspirations at
different times in their lives. Everyone has a career plan,
refreshed every year, so they know where they are going. PA
has 136 partners out of a total head count of just over 2,000
staff.
Up or out is not a label that the consultancies are keen to
own up to. A more nuanced approach is called for, reflecting
staff aspirations both during and after their time at the firm.
But there is no less pressure to deliver the best for clients, and
for individual consultants the reality remains they will still be
judged on their ability to deliver.
(ft.com)


16.4. ndrumar pentru autoverificare



Describe your ideal career.

Concepte i termeni de reinut
Cariere
Buiding up your career




Teste de evaluare/autoevaluare




1 Its important to understand how other cultures behave so you dont cause.
A offence B problem C disaster D behavior

2 In some countries it is quite to use the correct title when talking to business colleagues.
A offensive B likely C formal D tricky


UNIT 16 CAREERS
145
3 Having good may help you to make deals more easily.
A entertaining B manners C demonstrations D handshaking

4 Ian has to be very organised as his work involves meeting tight .
A problems B responsibilities C challenges D deadlines

5 Lesley doesnt like having to wait for other people to work for her.
A generate B solve C resolve D tackle

6 Paul enjoys working at Small World because he finds the stimulating.
A installation B environment C application D opportunity

7 If someone looks me straight in the eye without I tend to think they are honest.
A yawning B sighing C blinking D sniffing

8 Your body usually gives other people information about how you really feel.
A appearance B impression C language D relationship

9 Bob and Tony are business and have arranged to meet at the sales conference.
A delegates B customers C associates D officers

10 Ive given the latest sales to Mr Allen but he hasnt had a chance to look at them yet.
A systems B figures C worksheets D facts

Bibliografie:

Pipo, Cristina, Tania Muina, Limba englez, Workbook, Editura Aula, Braov, 2006
Pipo, Cristina, Tania Muina, Ramona Han, Gabriela Osanu, Limba englez
evaluarea competenelor lingvistice de comunicare, Braov, Aula, 2011
Redman, Stuart, English Vocabulary in Use, pre-intermediate & intermediate, Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge, 1997
Cotton David, Falvey David, Kent Simon, New Market Leader, Intermediate Business
English coursebook, Pearson Education Limited, Edinburgh, 2002


















UNIT 16 CAREERS
146



UNIT 17 CAREERS
147





CAREERS


17.1. Introducere
17.2. Obiectivele unitii de nvare timp alocat
17.3. Careers
17.4 ndrumtor pentru autoverificare
17.5 Teste




17.1 Introducere



Pentru nelegerea i utilizarea ct mai clar
a limbii engleze cunoasterea vocabularului
pentru cariere este necesar


17.2 Obiectivele unitii de nvare



Studierea vocabularului pentru cariere
nsuirea vcablarului pentru cariere
Utilizarea n context a vocabularului pentru cariere
Aplicaii



Timpul alocat unitii de nvare

Pentru unitatea de nvare Limba englez, timpul alocat este de 2 ore.





UNIT 17


LIMBA ENGLEZ
148


17.3 Coninutul unitii de nvare


Career Objective

A career objective is best used to focus a resume when
you know what position you are interested in. This section
appears at the beginning of a resume after the name and
contact information. If you are sending your resume to a
company in the hopes of landing any job, a qualifications
summary would be better for you. It's a good idea to have one
or the other, before leaping into the heart of your resume.
The purpose of a career objective is to tell the employer
what it is that you want to do. The rest of the resume focuses
on supporting this objective and convincing the employer of
your ability to do it. If you do decide to use an objective, do
not use vague words and phrases. They will not add value to
your application. Do not write: "To obtain a position in a
progressive company where I can use my skills to increase
sales and contribute to the overall success of the
organization". Rather, be specific in outlining exactly what
you are looking for: "To direct a sales organization at a
consumer products company."
Keep your objective focused and precise. As a guide,
make it 12 words or less; don't go over this limit unless you
feel it will really help you land your job. Ensure that the rest
of your resume supports your objective. After you have it
written, ask yourself:
Does my objective position me as a qualified
candidate for the position I am seeking?
Does it emphasize the contribution I can make to the
organization?
Does it entice the employer to read the rest of my
application?
Remember that if you do use an objective in your resume,
be sure to adjust your resume for the different types of jobs
that you apply for.

Objective Examples
Seeking a position in sales where five years of customer
service experience will add value.
Position where three years of management experience will
contribute.
Corporate trainer, where a thorough understanding of
English will be useful. Skilled in public speaking and
instructing.

UNIT 17 CAREERS
149

Should I include a career objective in my resume?
Well, that really depends on your objectives. The table
below may help you decide.

Advantages
It tells the employer exactly what you want; this will
give you an edge over people sending a resume to the
company in the hopes of hitting any job matching their
qualifications.
If you are applying for a specific position, then an
objective will convey a long run outlook.
It shows the employer that you have direction.
If your previous jobs are different from the type of job
that you are now seeking, then an objective
communicates your decision to change careers.

Disadvantages
If you are applying to the company, and not
necessarily for a specific position, then an objective
can limit your chances of getting a job with that firm.
Having both a career objective and a cover letter may
be redundant.
If you're still not sure, as a general rule of thumb, use an
objective if you know what job you want. If you're not sure,
you're better off with a summary of your qualifications. It's
best to have either one or the other; do not omit both.
Qualifications Summary

An objective can be a great way to start your resume if
you know exactly what you are applying for. However, if you
aren't sure (or you want to apply for a range of jobs) a
qualifications summary can be a great way to start. It is
generally two or three phrases in length and used to highlight
specific skills that are relevant to the potential job.
A qualifications summary appears near the beginning of a
resume, after the header. If you choose to use both an
objective and a qualfications summary, the objective appears
second; however, it is usually best just to use one or the other.

Examples of Summaries:
"Completing a degree in journalism with a minor in
marketing. Interned as assistant account executive with
copywriting responsibilities at local advertising agency. Sold
advertising space for college newspaper."
"Sixteen years of editing and writing experience. Three
years of experience managing advertising sales, promotion,
production, and circulation. Winner of the Jesse H. Neal
Award for Journalistic Excellence."

LIMBA ENGLEZ
150

Should I have a qualifications summary or a career
objective?
As stated in the career objective section, if you know what
job you're applying for, the career objective is better.
However, if you're not sure what positions a company has to
offer or what you're applying for, the qualifications summary
is better.

Advantages
Clearly outlines the fit between your expertise and the
employers needs.
Adds up the sum of all experiences. For instance,
stating that you have 5 years of budget planning
experience may be more impressive than listing it
individually under each job, and hoping that the
employer realizes that you are an expert in this area.
Provides the employer with a clear indication of what
you have achieved and where you have been

Disadvantages
For new entrants into the workplace, you likely have
not had enough experience to warrant a summary.
Stating a summary will only be useful if you indeed
have something relevant to the position requirements.
Some employers find these summaries redundant.

Can I make a resume with neither a qualifications
summary nor a career objective?
This is probably a bad idea. The qualifications summary
and career objective are fast, effective ways to hook the reader
into looking at the rest of your resume. Employers will have
to sift through your resume otherwise to find out what you are
good for. Additionally, both methods give your resume focus.
(careerowlresources.ca)




17.4. ndrumar pentru autoverificare

What makes a good resume?
Do you think it is important to have a career plan?
What are the main objectives a person should have for their career?

UNIT 17 CAREERS
151

Concepte i termeni de reinut

Cariere
Steps in your career
Climbing your career ladder



Teste de evaluare/autoevaluare




How would you answer the interview question: What are your career targets ?

mong the questions you will face during an interview will definitely be your career
objective. This is something you should be so well imbibed in your psyche that when you talk
about it, it should come out as your second nature. In order to answer well on this aspect, you
need to tally internalize your career objectives which will anyway stay unchanged whatever
job you will take up.
There will be questions such as, 'would you like to change anything in the way you took
of your career decisions' or 'what if you would be offered another choice of career'. Through
questions such as these the interviewer is trying to judge whether you really love the work
you have applied for and whether there would be any possibility of you being wooed by some
other opening before you contribute to the company. Be honest in your answer; however do
not move too far from the objectives of the present job.
Other questions may search your areas of interest and focus such as 'other than the present
job, what else you would be comfortable with'. Here be as brief as you can while highlighting
two or three areas of interest in the same line of the job that you are being interviewed. You
need to be prepared for this question because you need to match your strengths to the possible
ramification of the job you're being interviewed for. So prepare well.
Some interviewers ask seemingly friendly and philosophical questions, such as 'how
would you define success; how about the level of success in your life'. They are not being
vague; actually they are looking how settled you are with the present career goals. Hence, you
answer should be centered around your major career accomplishments and related directly to
some if not most of the objectives of the present job. This needs preparation as well.
'Describe what you understand by position' (the position you applied for) would be
another trick question though it looks pretty harmless. The interviewer here seeks to learn
whether you understood and are aware your responsibilities in the given position. Keep the
answer focused on action and results that the position entails. Keep it as brief as a definition
should be.
A good question, often encountered during your career objectives interview is, 'what
would be the best period of time in a job/ company/ position' or 'how long do you usually stay
in a job'. Such questions look into your long-term perspective and whether you are a dynamic
professional or a passive one. A dynamic person would answer that they would stay in a job
as along as they felt they contributed to the goals of the company and their own
professionalism; while a passive person would say they would not like to change jobs once
they found their dream job.

LIMBA ENGLEZ
152
Your career goal questions like any other during an interview seek to probe how well you
would fit with the company and in the job you are applying for. Keep all the question centered
on your strengths and achievements that are most in line with the position you aspire for.
(cvtips.com)







Bibliografie:

Pipo, Cristina, Tania Muina, Limba englez, Workbook, Editura Aula, Braov, 2006
Pipo, Cristina, Tania Muina, Ramona Han, Gabriela Osanu, Limba englez
evaluarea competenelor lingvistice de comunicare, Braov, Aula, 2011
Redman, Stuart, English Vocabulary in Use, pre-intermediate & intermediate, Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge, 1997
Cotton David, Falvey David, Kent Simon, New Market Leader, Intermediate Business
English coursebook, Pearson Education Limited, Edinburgh, 2002




UNIT 18 COMPANIES
153





COMPANIES


18.1. Introducere
18.2. Obiectivele unitii de nvare timp alocat
18.3. Companies
18.4 ndrumar de autoverificare
18.5 Teste de evaluare



18.1. Introducere

Prezentul capitol prezit elemente aparinnd
vocabularului pentru afaceri - companii



18.2. Obiectivele unitii de nvare


Studierea vocabularului pentru compani
nsuirea vocabularului pentru companii
Utilizarea n context a vocabularului
Aplicaii



Timpul alocat unitii de nvare


Pentru unitatea de nvare Limba
englez, timpul alocat este de 2 ore.








UNIT 18


LIMBA ENGLEZ

154

18.3. Coninutul unitii de nvare


Cloud computing cuts start-up costs

Back in the days of the dotcom boom towards the turn of
the century, an internet entrepreneur had to spend hundreds
of thousands of pounds buying computer servers, set them
up, launch the service and then pray that he had guessed
correctly on what the uptake would be.
If the site attracted too many visitors, the servers would
simply collapse under the weight of traffic. If there were too
few visitors, the company was left with a roomful of
expensive, under-used equipment.
I remember playing all those guessing games. I spent
weeks trying to negotiate different kinds of deals with
internet hosting companies: could we have two servers for
the first two months, then six for the next two, not really
being sure what we would need, says Lachlan Donald, a
veteran technologist who is now chief technology officer of
99designs, a internet marketplace for graphic designers.
If a company got its calculations wrong, it could take
days or weeks to get more computer power.
At previous companies it was a nightmare. Even to get a
new web server set up would take a couple of weeks, says
Jags Raghavan, vice-president of business development at
8KMiles, an internet consulting company. Now you can do
it at a touch of a button.
The difference is the arrival of cloud computing services,
which allow companies to rent computing power by the hour
and by the megabyte, making it vastly easier to launch an
online business. Start-up costs are much lower.
Companies had to borrow a lot of money to buy all
those servers. It created a barrier to entry that cloud
computing has removed, says Mr Donald. When he helped
to launch 99designs, using Amazon Web Services to run the
website, the company was set up without any external
funding at all.
Amazon Web Services has been the biggest boon to
venture capital-backed companies in recent years. It has
meant you can now fund 10 companies for the price of one,
and you are seeing new applications being developed that
would have been difficult to build cost-effectively in the
early days, says Michael Grant, chief executive of
Cloudscaling, a company that offers cloud infrastructure
software.
These services also help to keep down staff costs. If you

UNIT 18 COMPANIES
155
are a fashion company, your business is not information
technology. Now, you dont have to set up an IT division that
is not part of the core business. You can run with minimal IT
staff, says Mr Raghavan.
Having computing power on tap like electricity or water
has also helped fledgling companies to deal with sudden
jumps in popularity. Zynga, a developer of games for social
networks, for example, turned to Amazon Web Services in
2009 when users of its FarmVille game jumped from zero to
10m in six weeks and the company had run out of its own
data centre capacity.
If you are launching an app and you arent sure how
many people will be hitting the site, it makes sense. Even if it
is 1m users you will have the flexibility to handle that, Mr
Raghavan said.
Mr Grant says that having unlimited amounts of
computing power on tap has also helped to spawn new types
of companies that would not have been viable before, such as
biogenomics businesses offering specialised analysis of gene
sequences.
If you are three guys in a garage and you need 10,000
servers because you are doing some super-fancy algorithmic
calculations, the cloud is fantastic for that, he says.
Cloud computing can work for larger companies as well
as small ones. A number of Fortune 500 companies use cloud
computing for some of their operations, often where they
have want to experiment with new types of services, or
create a website around a new product, without huge IT
investment.
However, computing experts warn that after a certain
point, cloud services can prove very expensive, and it might
make sense for companies to move to running their own
servers. After growing from six staff to 70 in four years,
8KMiles is still on the cloud, but other companies are
moving on. Zynga, for example, recently moved a large
portion of its games from Amazon to its own computers.
Cloudscaling is exploiting this trend and has a growing
business helping companies who have outgrown the start-up
phase transition away from public cloud services like
Amazon to running their own private networks.
The cloud might also not work for companies that are too
small. It can be complicated designing software to run well
on the cloud, warns Mr Donald, and this is something that
very small businesses could struggle with.
It is much more technically complex. You need to
automate everything and assume everything is going to fail.
Although a whole ecosystem of software services companies
has sprung up to help with this, it is still has more
complications, he said.
Mr Raghavan agrees. The cloud is not for everyone. If

LIMBA ENGLEZ

156
you have a solid business case I would recommend it. But if
you just have a concept and dont really know what your
audience is, I would not recommend it, because the cloud is
not free, he says. It reduces your capital expenditure costs,
but it is not free.




18.4. ndrumar pentru autoverificare

What is cloud computing?
What are the benefits of cloud computing?
Are there any drawbacks for using cloud computing?

Concepte i termeni de reinut

Cloud computing
New trends for companies



Teste de evaluare/autoevaluare




Types of companies

Whenever a person decides to start a business, it becomes important for him to know
about various types of companies available. This information will be useful for the person as
he can compare and understand the advantages and disadvantages of all options available with
him. Choosing a type of company which suits the financial condition and expansion vision of
the initiator becomes very crucial before starting a company. Given below is the basic
information on all different types of companies in the United States, along with a few
advantages and disadvantages.


What Are the Different Types of Companies

Sole Proprietorship
A sole proprietorship is one of the most simplest and uncomplicated types of companies.
This kind of business organization has a single person who owns and controls it. He is the one
who makes sure the entire business functions smoothly and is also accountable for any profit
or loss the business makes. Certain other features of the sole proprietorship business
organization are:
Does not require a lot of money to form.
The dissolution procedure is very easy, simple and quick.
There are very few tax related facets attached with this type of business organization

UNIT 18 COMPANIES
157
Any liabilities in business are the proprietor's personal liabilities
Whenever the owner dies, the business organization also automatically stops existing.
The owner has unlimited liability in the organization.
This form of business structure is useful for people who have an expertise in a certain
field and want to make money by applying that knowledge. There is no need to consult other
people in the organization before taking any decision and also employees have no stock
options. However, when it comes to taxation and other financial aspects, there is no difference
between the proprietor's personal life and business, as it is regarded one and the same by the
government. It is therefore important to have a good knowledge about these obligations,
before deciding to start a sole proprietorship.

Partnership
Partnership firms involve a business organization formed between two or more people. All
these members are known as partners and are joint owners of the entire business organization.
The partners are accountable for any profit, loss or liability of the business organization. An
important feature of this type of company is that all partners enter into a pre-defined
agreement regarding profit sharing and loss bearing, before starting their venture. Irrespective
of the capital brought in or the profit-loss sharing percentage of a partner, he can be asked to
pay off total debts of the company, as the partners have a joint as well as several liability in
the organization. Certain other features include:
Similar to a sole proprietorship, partnership ventures are simple, easy and quick to
form
The whole taxation policy and obligations are a little complex, but there is no specific
tax for the partnership firm.
Every partner is jointly and individually liable to the entire firm.
It depends upon the agreement between partners, as to how they would like to run the
firm. Dissolution of the firm takes place when a partner turns bankrupt, dies or through a
mutual decision between the partners. Before getting into a partnership firm, it is important to
understand that the financial obligations and agreement between partners. Partnership firms
are broadly divided into three types:
General Partnership: Every partner enjoys equal ownership rights along with profit
sharing and loss bearing, unless specifically mentioned in the agreement.
Limited Partnership: In this type, not all partners participate in the running of
business. One of them is responsible for this, while others bring in the capital.
Joint Venture: This particular partnership is formed by two people only for a particular
project and is dissolved on its completion.
Limited Liability Company (LLC)
This is one of the more recent types of companies which has come into being only
recently. A limited liability company is a mix of business corporation and partnership types of
companies and provides greater flexibility by blending benefits of both. Similar to partnership
firms, an LLC can be as simple or complicated as the partner wants it to be. According to
rules of the state, partners in an LLC get limited liability or unlimited liability. A few state
laws also call for a pre-fixed date to be decided by members at the time of formation, when
the firm will dissolve. Tax obligations of an LLC are similar to ones applicable to a
partnership firm. However, during formation, members should be careful in not including
more than two features of a business corporation in the agreement, or else the LLC will be
treated like a business corporation for taxing purposes. The best part about LLCs is that they
are very flexible and therefore can be formed to run a variety of business ventures. The most
important part in the formation procedure is the agreement between members and hence it
needs to be carefully created.

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Business Corporation
Of all types of companies, the business corporation is the most complex type. Whenever a
business corporation is incorporated or registered with the government, a new separate entity
is created. This is distinct from the owners and therefore irrespective of the personal financial
condition of all shareholders, the organization continues to function until dissolved. The
shareholders, or owners, decide and elect directors who form necessary policies and rules for
the proper functioning of the organization. Various mangers and officers are appointed by
these directors who actually control the daily on goings of the organization. There are
numerous legal formalities like approvals and meetings which need to be adhered to by
corporations. There are basically 4 types of business corporations - General Corporation,
Close Corporation, S Corporation and Non-profit corporation. With basics remaining same,
there are a few differences in terms of number of share holders and profit sharing polices,
which separate them from each other.


There are a few advantages of a business corporation. The most crucial one being the fact that
a business corporation is treated as different from the owner and his personal liabilities.
However, it takes a lot of time, money and legal formalities to set up a business corporation.

Choosing a particular company for starting a business from the various types of companies
discussed above, is perhaps now a little easier. Understand that this is more like an overview
and get proper detailed information on each type before venturing into one.
(buzzle.com)


Bibliografie:

Pipo, Cristina, Tania Muina, Limba englez, Workbook, Editura Aula, Braov, 2006
Pipo, Cristina, Tania Muina, Ramona Han, Gabriela Osanu, Limba englez
evaluarea competenelor lingvistice de comunicare, Braov, Aula, 2011
Redman, Stuart, English Vocabulary in Use, pre-intermediate & intermediate, Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge, 1997
Cotton David, Falvey David, Kent Simon, New Market Leader, Intermediate Business
English coursebook, Pearson Education Limited, Edinburgh, 2002




UNIT 19 COMPANIES
159





COMPANIES

19.1. Introducere
19.2. Obiectivele unitii de nvare timp alocat
19.3. Companies
19.4 ndrumar de autoverificare
19.5 Teste de evaluare



19.1. Introducere

Pentru nelegerea i utilizarea ct mai
clar a limbii engleze i a vocabularului de afaceri
.





19.2. Obiectivele unitii de nvare

Studierea vocabularului pentru compani
nsuirea vocabularului pentru companii
Utilizarea n context a vocabularului
Aplicaii




Timpul alocat unitii de nvare

Pentru unitatea de nvare Limba englez, timpul alocat este de 2 ore.




UNIT 19


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19.3. Coninutul unitii de nvare



The Best Industries for Starting a Business Right Now

Candy

How sweet it is. Even in a recession, candy has been a
luxury that many people can still afford. "Chocolate is a
comfort food," says Dan Johnson, owner of Choco-Logo in
Buffalo, New York, which has seen retail sales rise 30
percent since last year. The confectionery industry, as a
whole, grew 3.7 percent during the 52-week period ending
April 19, according to the National Confectioners
Association, which is pretty good considering so many
industries are flat or declining. Historically, experts say,
candy is one of the most recession-resistant industries and
many of todays classic brands, including Snickers, Tootsie
Pops, and 3 Musketeers, all launched during the darkest days
of the Great Depression, between 1930 and 1932.

Energy

The energy industry is full of start-up opportunities, so
it's no surprise that it was the fastest-growing category
among privately-held companies on the 2008 Inc. 500 | 5000
list -- with a median four-year growth rate of 287.5 percent
among 79 companies on the list. These companies run the
gamut from dealing in solar energy to alternative fuels. Due
to growing consumer demand to save on energy costs,
companies that install efficient lighting systems or cut down
on heating costs by installing solar panels are well positioned
for future growth. In addition, economic stimulus funds for
energy projects nationwide amount to $43 billion, creating
opportunities for entrepreneurs with a scientific background
to break into areas such as biofuel and wind power.

iPhone Apps

Apple launched its App Store last summer, creating a
whole new burgeoning industry in the process. Sales of apps
in the first month topped $30 million, leading Steve Jobs to
predict that the marketplace would be worth $1 billion some
day. To date, companies have produced more than 30,000
applications, ranging from games such as Tap Tap Revenge
to apartment-hunting help to tools for finding out the name of

UNIT 19 COMPANIES
161
a song; in all, Apple has processed more than a billion
downloads. To capitalize on the trend, venture-capital firms
such as Kleiner Perkins have begun investing in app
producers; the venerable Sand Hill Road firm has earmarked
$100 million for the market.

Health-Care Technology

The challenge of streamlining patient care through
digitized medical records, e-prescription programs, and
online hospital communication, is just now gaining
momentum, giving younger companies a chance to make
inroads. The federal stimulus bill pledged $19 billion to the
development of a health-information tracking system. Based
on that level of funding, employment in the field is expected
to grow by 18 percent between now and 2016, according to
data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. One up-and-comer:
Phreesia, a New York City business that makes electronic
patient check-in tablets for doctors offices, recently closed
$11.5 million in Series C funding, and has secured $25
million in funding to date.

Beer, Wine, and Liquor Wholesale

Even as consumers cut back on their consumption of
premium alcoholic beverages, sales of booze at lower price
points have risen significantly over the last year. As a result,
beer, wine, and liquor wholesaler profits have grown 18
percent and sales have grown 5 percent over the past year,
according to Sageworks. And the Distilled Spirits Council
estimates exports of U.S. distilled spirits grew by 8 percent
last year, to $1.1 billion, led by robust demand for American
whiskeys.

Home Health Care

Perhaps the sector likely to benefit the most from the
aging baby boomer generation is the home health-care
industry. An increasingly popular alternative to nursing
homes, home health-care services tend to offer patients lower
costs while affording them the dignity of being able to
remain in their homes. Industry employment is expected to
increase 4.5 percent annually through 2016, the third-highest
rate of growth recorded by any industry, according to the
Bureau of Labor Statistics. The industry has spawned dozens
of promising niches, including companies that specialize in
cognitive-fitness computer programs, which help exercise the
mind. Total revenue for companies in the cognitive-fitness
market topped $265 million in revenue in 2008, up from
$100 million in 2005, according to the market research firm

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SharpBrains. Total sales are expected to hit $2 billion by
2015, the firm estimates.

Technical and Trade Schools

With unemployment numbers up to 8.9 percent, it's no
surprise that technical and trade schools are experiencing a
surge in business. Revenue at these for-profit schools rose an
average of nearly 8 percent over the 12-month period ending
in May, according to Sageworks, a financial analysis
company. While thousands of Americans are trying to set
themselves apart from other job applicants, others are
switching careers as the realization hits that their former
industries may have permanently contracted.

Fast-Casual Dining

This year might be the worst ever for the food-service
industry as a whole, but the emerging fast-casual segment --
which falls between fast food and full-serve restaurants --
continues to shine. Sales for the top 100 fast-casual
restaurant chains grew by nearly 11 percent in 2008, to $16.7
billion, according to Technomic, a Chicago-based restaurant
industry research and consulting firm. Panera Bread led the
segment with $2.6 billion in sales in 2008, representing 16
percent growth, while Chipotle Mexican Grill totaled $1.3
billion in revenue, good for a nearly 21 percent growth. For
those without the capital to start a restaurant, food industry
watchers are seeing a growing trend in food trucks, with
those that offer one type of food -- tacos, waffles, and even
Korean barbecue -- all the rage on the streets of major cities.

Green Construction

The construction industry may be in a slump, but
companies that specialize in green building are bucking the
trend. The overall green building market is expected to more
than double from $49 billion today to approximately $140
billion by 2013, according to a report from McGraw-Hill. A
growing consumer awareness of the advantages of
sustainable homes and buildings, along with the increased
government focus on environmental initiatives, will only
bring more opportunities in this arena. Businesses that
position themselves as both eco-friendly and affordable stand
to benefit even more.

Education Technology

The education-technology industry has been gaining
momentum for years and the $650 million allocated to it in

UNIT 19 COMPANIES
163
the recently-passed federal stimulus bill should only
accelerate the transformation inside U.S. schools and school
districts. Companies such as Promethean USA, eInstruction,
and Luidia have already capitalized on growing demand,
carving out market share in the emergent interactive-
whiteboard industry. Then theres Schoolwires, a company in
State College, Pennsylvania, that designs content
management systems for school districts. The business plans
to increase its workforce 60 percent this year. Don Knezek,
CEO of the International Society for Technology in
Education, says when it comes to technology in classrooms,
the U.S. is still an "emerging market."
(inc.com)


19.4. ndrumar pentru autoverificare


The Best Companies To Work For
Boston-based consulting giant Bain & Co. finds itself at the top of several prestigious
rankings. It is No. 1 on Vaults Consulting 50, and has been named the Best Firm to Work For
by Consulting Magazine for nine consecutive years. Today, Bain holds a new title.
Glassdoor.com, a jobs and career community where people share information and
opinions about the places where they work, has just unveiled its fourth annual Employees
Choice Awards, which lists the top 50 best places to work based on surveys collected from
employees throughout 2011. Of the 50 employers honored, 13 have been on the list for all of
the last four years, including Bain, and 17 are newcomers. J. Crew (No. 24), Starbucks (No.
34) and Coach (No. 37) are among those making their debuts.
Unlike many workplace-related awards, which require companies to self nominate, the
Employees Choice Awards rely solely on the input of employees, who anonymously provide
feedback through a survey. The survey goes only to employees in the U.S., but many of the
companies have workers around the world.
The magic of Glassdoor is that we get to hear stories from employees in their own
words, says Glassdoors founder and chief executive officer, Robert Hohman. I think,
especially in these times, it is a worthy and noble thing to recognize companies like these. The
Employees Choice Awards is truly about what the employees think.
The ranking of the top companies was determined by taking cumulative average ratings
from all the employees who responded to the 20-question survey between Dec. 1, 2010, and
Nov. 23, 2011. The survey addressed eight workplace topics: work-life balance, career
opportunities, communication, compensation and benefits, fairness and respect, employee
morale, recognition and feedback, and senior leadership.
In this economy, or for that matter in any economy, its important for companies to stay
in sync with whats working well with their employees and with things that can be improved,
says Samantha Zupan, a Glassdoor spokesperson. Every company is unique, but we often see
that employees are receptive to those employers who continually work hard to communicate a
clear company vision, goals, and direction of the company.
Bain & Co. edged out a competitor, McKinsey & Co. (No. 2), and the social network
giant Facebook (No. 3). It led the pack with an overall company rating of 4.7 out of a possible

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5, while the companys chief executive, Steve Ellis, earned a 96% approval rating from his
employees.
A senior associate consultant at the firm who participated in the survey praised the
environment and the people at Bain & Co., writing, Amazing firm culture with smart, fun,
passionate yet down-to-earth people. Amazing training where you get to meet peers from all
over the world. Partners and managers who really care about you and your development.
Zupan says Bain is invested in career growth opportunities for employees. At Bain & Co.
we constantly see in reviews employees speaking positively about the exposure they receive
to a variety of projects, as well as the training and mentorship they receive to further refine
their skill set, she says.
McKinsey & Co., another leading consulting firm and competitor of Bain & Co., is
second on the list, with a 4.3 company rating and a 100% approval rating for its chief
executive, Dominic Barton. Its also the most improved company among those on both the
2012 and 2011 list, with a significant rise from last years rating of 3.7. In 2011, McKinsey
held the No. 18 spot on the list.
With a network of about 9,000 consultants in 98 locations all over the world, McKinsey
prides itself on hiring employees with leadership potential, integrity, a sharp analytical mind,
creativity, and the ability to work with people at all levels in an organization, the website
says. In addition, the company strives to provide its staff with unrivaled growth opportunities.
One McKinsey employee wrote in the survey that the firm offers an opportunity to work
on exciting, high impact projects with teams of intelligent and interesting people while having
a relatively high compensation.
A New Jersey-based engagement manager for McKinsey wrote: Great visibility to clients
and senior leadership. Strong brand name and great compensation and benefits.
In the No. 3 spot, with a 4.3 rating, is Facebook, which led the pack in 2011. Its chief
executive, Mark Zuckerberg, received a mediocre 89% approval rating this year, down from
96% last year. Despite the slight decline it ratings, Facebook employees are still extremely
satisfied with the company.
Paid vacation days, free food and transportation, $4,000 in cash for new parents, dry
cleaning, day care reimbursement, and photo processing services are just some of the perks of
working at Facebookbut one employee says the companys educational environment and
growth opportunities are what make it one of the best places to work.
That Facebook applications operations engineer wrote: There are a lot of very smart
people working at Facebook and this makes it a great place to work if you enjoy learning.
There are regular presentations and tutorials from some of the best in the business. The work
is challenging and once you have proved yourself there is also good opportunity to move to
other positions and projects.
Others that rank in the top 15 best companies to work for include Google (No. 5), REI
(No. 8), Apple (No. 10), and General Mills (No. 11).
Further down on the list youll find other big names like Southwest Airlines (No. 17),
Johnson & Johnson (No. 28), Goldman Sachs (No. 41), and FedEx (No. 50).
Being selected as a Best Place to Work by current employees is a tremendous honor, as it
can help with recruiting top talent and also serve as a point for pride throughout the
company, Zupan says. For employees or job seekers, the ratings and reviews on Glassdoor
and on the Best Places to Work list are a gateway to asking, What is it that makes these
companies the best places to work? or Why do employees give the company this rating?
Its about finding out what these companies do well, what they can improve upon and then
considering if these companies are right for you based on your personality, skill set, and
desired career path.
(forbes.com)

UNIT 19 COMPANIES
165

Concepte i termeni de reinut

Companii
The best company to work for
What is the best company






Teste de evaluare/autoevaluare

What company would you like to
work for
Describe the best company you know
Describe a company you like



Bibliografie:

Pipo, Cristina, Tania Muina, Limba englez, Workbook, Editura Aula, Braov, 2006
Pipo, Cristina, Tania Muina, Ramona Han, Gabriela Osanu, Limba englez
evaluarea competenelor lingvistice de comunicare, Braov, Aula, 2011
Redman, Stuart, English Vocabulary in Use, pre-intermediate & intermediate, Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge, 1997
Cotton David, Falvey David, Kent Simon, New Market Leader, Intermediate Business
English coursebook, Pearson Education Limited, Edinburgh, 2002

























LIMBA ENGLEZ

166



UNIT 20 PAST TENSES

167





PAST TENSES

20.1. Introducere
20.2. Obiectivele unitii de nvare timp alocat
20.3. Past Teses
20.4 ndrumar pentru autoverificare
20.5 Teste


20.1. Introducere

Pentru nelegerea i utilizarea ct mai clar
a limbii engleze verbul are un rol deosebit de
important



20.2. Obiectivele unitii de nvare



Studierea verbului
nelegerea verbului
Utilizarea verbului n context




Timpul alocat unitii de nvare

Pentru unitatea de nvare Limba
englez, timpul alocat este de 2 ore.







UNIT 20


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20.3. Coninutul unitii de nvare



Past Simple

Regula de formare a lui Past Simple
(Rule of formation for Past Simple)

Forma afirmativ (affirmative form)
Subiect + Verb la forma 2 / -ed
I travelled to New York.
He came to show me the pictures.

Forma interogativ ( interrogative form)
Did + Subiect + Verb la infinitiv
Did you offer him a coke?
Did you know the answer to my question?

Forma negativ (negative form)
Subiect + Did + not+ Verb la infinitiv
He did not /didnt feel very happy.
They did not/ didnt fly over the Pacific.

ntrebuinarea lui Past Simple (Past Simple Use):

1. O aciune nceput i ncheiat n trecut (an action that
started and was completed in the past).
I phoned him yesterday.

2. O aciune repetat n trecut (a repeated action in the
past)
They went for a walk once a week last year.

Exercises

I.Rescriei propoziiile modificnd verbele i alte cuvinte
pentru a exprima o aciune trecut (Rephrase the sentences
changing the verbs and other words in order to express a past
action):

Example:
I travel to India this year.
I travelled to India last Year.

1. I realise that I have to go and see a doctor.


UNIT 20 PAST TENSES

169
....................................................................
2. I consider visiting Lincolnshire while I am I England.

...............................................................................
3. I hear somebody talking about Brad Pitts last movie.

..............................................................
4. They get up at 5 oclock every morning.

........................................................
5. We believe there is a ghost somewhere in the house.

.......................................................
6. He chooses some postcards for his parents.

...........................................................
7. She goes to the park to get some fresh air.

...............................................................
8. The old mans teeth fall out.

..............................................................
9. The tube workers decide to go on strike.

...........................................................
10. I hear his footsteps very close to the entrance door.

...............................................................

II.Trecutul cu used to exprim o stare a trecutului sau un
obicei aparinnd trecutului. Este folosit cu used to +
construcii infinitivale (The past with used to expresses a state
in the past or a habit in the past. It is used with used to +
infinitival constructions):

Completai propoziile cu verbul potrivit pentru a exprima
obiceiuri sau stri ale trecutului. (Complete the sentences
using the correct verb in order to express habits or states in
the past):

1. When I was five me and my parents in a flat
in New Cross.
2. Mary and Gina . good friends a while ago.
3. Tom computer games every day until his
parents forbade him to play.
4. Tom .. football when he was younger but he hasnt
played for such a long time now.
5. Nigel ... clubbing every Saturday night when he
was a teenager but not now.
6. Jasper . cartoons when he was three but he does

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170
not like them any more.
7. John ..... stamps when she was seven but he threw
them away a few years ago.
8. Tom .his grandparents twice a year when
he was a teenager.
9. I ...a lot of water when I was
a child.
10. Tina tennis when she was in high school.

III.Completai cu verbul corect din caset la forma de
Past Simple. (Fill in with the correct verb from the box into
the Past Simple form):

begin be mean think change realize
assume have appear

When the European Community. (1) to
increase in size, several guidebooks
..(2) giving advice on international
etiquette. At first many people.. (3)
this (4) a joke, especially the British
who..(5) that the widespread understanding
of their language (6) a corresponding
understanding of English customs. Very soon they
.(7) their ideas, as
they.. (8) that
they (9) a lot to learn about how to
behave with their foreign business friends.
(Norman Ramshaw, How not to behave badly abroad)

IV.Urmtorul extras vorbete despre un biat. Numele lui
este George. El spune cteva lucruri despre sine i prietenii
lui. Reformulai propoziiile folosind Past Simple (The
following excerpt is about a boy. His name is George. He says
a few things about himself and his friends. Rephrase the
sentences using Past Simple):

1. This is my friend Julia. She is a student in London.


2. This is my flat in London. Its a big flat, its quite old.

..
3. This is John. He is a teacher and he is from USA.

..
4. This is my car. Its new but its very small.

.
5. These are my friends Bill and Graham. Theyre from

UNIT 20 PAST TENSES

171
Australia.




Past Continuous

Regula de formare a lui Past Continuous (Rule of
formation for Past Continuous)

Forma afirmativ (affirmative form)
Subiect + was/were + verb cu terminaia ing
She was ironing her skirt.

Forma interogativ ( interrogative form)
Was/were + Subiect + verb cu terminaia ing
Were you reading the newspaper?

Forma negativ (negative form)
Subiect + was/were +not + verb cu terminaia ing
They were not / werent dancing at the party.

ntrebuinarea lui Past Continuous (Past Continuous
use):

1. O aciune n desfurare la un anumit moment din
trecut (an action in
progress at a certain moment in the past)
He was talking on the phone at 3 am.

2. Echivalent trecut pentru Present Continuous (past
equivalent for Present Continuous)
Tom was asking me these questions.

3. Aciuni viitoare vzute din perspectiv trecut (future
actions seen from a past perspective)
George was leaving the next day.

Exercises

I. Alegei forma corect a verbelor (Choose the correct
form of the verbs):

1. I was talking/ talked on the phone when he arrived.
2. He was running / ran out of time when she sent him the
e-mail.
3. George was playing / played football when I looked at
him last time.
4. Hellene was crying/ cried when I met her.
5. Mr. Roger was coming / came towards me when I

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172
started to scream.
6. She was running / ran into the kitchen when her
husband got home.
7. It was raining / rained when I got out the house.
8. I was answering/ answered his questions when Tom
arrived home.
9. Gina was coming / came to the meeting when she heard
that terrible noise.
10. I was writing / wrote an e-mail when you came in.

II.Scriei ntrebri i rspunsuri pentru cuvintele date mai
jos (Write questions
and answers for the words given below):

1. 10 oclock /on Tuesday
.............................................
..........................................................
2. at lunch / yesterday

.........................................................................
3. on 5
th
of May/ last year

..........................................................................
4. at midnight/ last Saturday

.........................................................................
5. at 7pm/ the day before yesterday

........................................................................................


Past Perfect Simple

Regula de formare a lui Past Perfect Simple (Rule of
formation for Past Perfect Simple)

Forma afirmativ (affirmative form)
Subiect + had + verb la forma 3 / -ed
He had talked to me.
We had cut the string.

Forma interogativ ( interrogative form)
Had + Subiect + verb la forma 3 / -ed
Had you talked to him?
Had they cut the string?

Forma negativ (negative form)
Subiect + had + not + verb la forma 3 / -ed
We had not / hadnt mowed the lawn.
You had not / hadnt spoken on the phone.

UNIT 20 PAST TENSES

173

ntrebuinarea lui Past Perfect Simple (Past Perfect
Simple use):

1. Aciune ncheiat n trecut naintea unei alte aciuni
trecute (An action finished
in the past before another past action)
They had left the disco before the party ended.

2. Aciune care a nceput naintea unui moment din trecut
(An action that started before a past moment)
The show had started long before 1990.

Exercises

Spunei ce au fcut studenii nainte de a merge la examen
(Say what had
the students done before they went for their exams):

Example:
They borrowed some books from the library.
The students had borrowed some books from the library.

1. They had breakfast.

..............................................................
2. Sarah wrote an e-mail and searched on the net for more
information.

...........................................................................
3. Chris met his friends and went for a ride on their
bicycles.

......................................................
4. Alison played a song on her new piano.

..........................................................
5. Mimi decided to tidy up her room.

.....................................................
6. James went for a walk.

.......................................................
7. Sam watched the MTV channel.

...........................................................
8. Tim played computer games.

..............................................................
9. George read a poem about the blue sky.

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174

.............................................................
10. Tina looked for a dress for a weekend party.

....................................................................

II.Citii situaiile din propoziiile de mai jos i alctuii
propriile voastre propoziii folosind Past Perfect Simple
i
cuvintele din paranteze (Read the situations in the
sentences
below and write your own sentences using Past Perfect
Simple and the words in the brackets):

1. Tom went to Johns office but he was not there.
(he/leave/early)

...............................................................
2. You met your friend after ten years. (she/change/a lot)

..................................................................
3. You lost your bus and arrived late at school. (the
class/start/already)

...........................................................
4. I met Jim and asked him to join me for breakfast.
(he/have/breakfast)

..........................................................
5. The house Susan lived in was very dirty.
(she/not/clean/in years)

..............................................................
6. You visited your old town. (it/have/not/same)

.........................................................................
7. You talked on the phone to an old friend.
(you/not/talk/for 2 years)

...................................................
8. Tom moved into a house of his own. (he/have/home/ in
years)
.
.................................................................
9. I decided to drink a coffee. (I / have/ coffee /for hours)

...................................................................
10. Johnny Depp decided to make an announcement. (He/
never/make/ before)


UNIT 20 PAST TENSES

175
...........................................................


Past Perfect Continuous

Regula de formare a lui Past Perfect Continuous
(Rule of formation for Past Perfect Continuous)

Forma afirmativ (affirmative form)
Subiect + had + to be (forma 3 = been) + verb cu
terminaia ing
I had been thinking of you proposal.

Forma interogativ ( interrogative form)
Had+ Subiect+ to be (forma 3 = been) + verb cu
terminaia ing
Had she been reading my book?

Forma negativ (negative form)
Subiect + had + not to + be (forma 3 = been) + verb cu
terminaia ing
I had not/ hadnt been answering the phone all morning.

ntrebuinarea lui Past Perfect Continuous (Past
Perfect Continuous use):

O aciune nceput n trecut, naintea momentului vorbirii
n trecut,
care continu n acel moment al vorbirii din trecut i este
posibil
a continua i dup aceea (An action that began in the past
before
a moment of speaking in the past, and continues in that
moment of
speaking and is possible to continue after that):

I had been living there when he came to visit us.

Exercises

I.Rspundei urmtoarelor ntrebri folosind Past Perfect
Continuous (Answer the following questions using the
Past Perfect Continuous):

1. Why did he have to go and see a doctor? (feel /ill)

......................................................................
2. Why did you feel dizzy? (stay up / night)

......................................................................

LIMBA ENGLEZ

176
3. How did she win the prize? (practise / more than five
years)


4. Why was he exhausted? (jog / morning)


5. How did they get sunburnt? (lie / in the sun all day)


6. Why were all these people annoyed? (queue / all day)


7. Why was the baby crying? (sleep / all night)


8. Why did you fell so exhausted? (work/ garden/ all
morning)


9. Why didnt you answer my phone call? (watch/ movie)


10. How did you two meet? (walk/ on the canal path)



II.Citii situaiile din propoziiile de mai jos i alctuii
propriile
voastre propoziii folosind Past Perfect Continuous cu
ajutorul
cuvintelor din paranteze (Read the situations in the
sentences below
and write your own sentences using Past Perfect
Continuous with
the help of the words in the brackets):

1. I was exhausted when I arrived at the exam. (I/learn/all
night)


2. I had a stomach ache last evening. (I/eat/junk food)


3. George was very tired when he got home. (he/jog/more
than five hours)


4. When I got home Tina and Emma were so angry.
(they/quarrel/ the whole afternoon)

UNIT 20 PAST TENSES

177


5. When Tom arrived he was wearing a coat that did not
smell very nice. (Tom/smoke)


6. Yesterday morning when I woke up all the houses were
white. (it/snow)


7. Laurel knew the answers to all the questions his teacher
asked him. (he/learn)


8. When I met Tina she was carrying so many bags. (she
/shop)


9. George was at the auction looking for a painting. (he/
search)


10. She was showing us the wedding ring. (she /flaunt /for
years)







20.4. ndrumar pentru autoverificare



Change the verbs in the following sentence into past tense.
1. Yesterday, I go to the restaurant with a client.
2. We drive around the parking lot for 20 minutes in order to find a parking space.
3. When we arrive at the restaurant, the place is full.
4. The waitress asks us if we have reservations.
5. I say, "No, my secretary forgets to make them."
6. The waitress tells us to come back in two hours.
7. My client and I slowly walk back to the car.
8. Then we see a small grocery store.
9. We stop in the grocery store and buy some sandwiches.
10. That is better than waiting for two hours.




Concepte i termeni de reinut

LIMBA ENGLEZ

178

Tenses
Past Tenses
Rules of formation and Use of Past Tenses





Teste de evaluare/autoevaluare


Correct the mistakes in the following sentences:
1. Last night, Samantha have pizza for supper.
2. My pet lizard was died last month.
3. Yesterday I spend two hours cleaning my living room.
4. This morning before coming to class, Jack eats two bowls of cereal.
5. What was happened to your leg?

Conversation Practice
1. Tell your partner or classmates what you did yesterday. Remember to use past tense.
Example,
Yesterday, I went to the mall.
I bought some shorts and a baseball cap.

I spent almost $20.
2. Ask your partner what he/she did last weekend. Respond with related questions.
For example,
What did you last Saturday?
I stayed home and cleaned my room.
Did you do anything fun?
Not really.
3. Tell about a childhood experience.
One day, when I was about 7 years old, there was a knock on our door.
When I opened the door, I saw that nobody was there.
I felt something was wrong, so I called my mother. . .

Bibliografie:

Pipo, Cristina, Tania Muina, Limba englez, Workbook, Editura Aula, Braov, 2006
Pipo, Cristina, Tania Muina, Ramona Han, Gabriela Osanu, Limba englez
evaluarea competenelor lingvistice de comunicare, Braov, Aula, 2011
Redman, Stuart, English Vocabulary in Use, pre-intermediate & intermediate, Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge, 1997
Cotton David, Falvey David, Kent Simon, New Market Leader, Intermediate Business
English coursebook, Pearson Education Limited, Edinburgh, 2002




UNIT 21 ALL TIME EXPRESSIONS

179





ALL TIME EXPRESSIONS

21.1. Introducere
21.2. Obiectivele unitii de nvare timp alocat
21.3. All time expressions
21.4 ndrumar pentru autoverificare
21.5 Teste


21.1. Introducere

Pentru nelegerea i utilizarea ct mai clar
a limbii engleze expresiile sunt foarte necesare,
utilizarea corect a limbii engleze fiind deosebit
de important.



21.2. Obiectivele unitii de nvare

Studierea expresiilor
Studierea formei expresiilor
Utilizarea n context a expresilor
Aplicaii





Timpul alocat unitii de nvare

Pentru unitatea de nvare Limba englez, timpul alocat este de 2 ore.








UNIT 21


LIMBA ENGLEZ

180

21.3. Coninutul unitii de nvare



Funcii comunicative ale limbii engleze
(Communicative Functions of the English Language)


1. Iniierea, ntreinerea i ncheierea unui
dialog/conversaii (Initiate, continue a conversation
and closing a dialogue/conversation):
- Hello, sir/madam
- How are you today?
- Could I help you?
- Are you ok?
- You all right?
- Sorry, I was wondering if
- Im so sorry to bother you but
- Thank you
- You are very kind, thank you.
- Ok, Ill see you soon.
- Speak to you soon
- Im afraid I must go now, thank you.
- Bye, bye.
- See you soon.
- See you in a minute.
- Talk to you in a minute.
- Youve been very kind, thank you.

2. Exprimarea opiniei (Expressing opinion):
- In my opinion
- In my view
- From my point of view...
- To my mind.
- I reckon.
- I feel
- If you ask me
- To be honest with you
- As far as Im concerned
- I believe that
- I think that
- It seems to me that
- I consider that
- The way I see it
- I am totally against
- I fully support


UNIT 21 ALL TIME EXPRESSIONS

181
3. Exprimarea acordului/ dezacordului fa de opiniile
altora (Expressing agreement/disagreement towards
others opinions)
- I agree with you
- I totally agree
- I completely agree
- I think you are right
- I do not agree
- I disagree
- I completely/totally disagree
- I believe you are wrong
- I do not believe that
- I am unconvinced that
- I think you do not know the facts

4. Exprimarea satisfaciei/insatisfaciei fa de un punct
de vedere (Expressing satisfaction/dissatisfaction
towards a point of view):
- I am satisfied with
- I/you/we did a good job
- I/you/we did well
- Well done
- You did this right
- You did this very well
- You did this wrong
- I am disappointed in what youve done
- You could have done this much better
- I thought you could do this but I was wrong

5. Exprimarea refuzului/argumentarea refuzului
(Expressing refusal/argumentation of a refusal):
- No, thank you
- I do not want this, thank you
- I definitely do not need this, you are too kind
- I kindly thank you but no
- I do not need this because
- I dont think so, you know

6. Contrazicerea prerilor altora (Contradicting others
opinions)
- I totally disagree with you
- Look from a different perspective
- I must say that I do not agree

7. Comentarea prerilor (Comment on opinions)
- I think she should have done this
- He did not do
- Its very nice of them

8. Solicitarea repetrii i reformulrii (Asking someone

LIMBA ENGLEZ

182
to repeat or rephrase):
- Could you say this one more time?
- Could you repeat your last words...?
- I was wondering if you could rephrase the sentence
- Do you mind repeating?
- Repeat please
- Say this again
- What did you say?
- What?
- I did not understand.
- I did not hear exactly

9. Exprimarea presupunerilor (Expressing
suppositions):
- I assume that
- I suppose that.
- I presume that
- I think that
- You may guess what
- They can estimate.
- I thought
- I understand that
- I guess that.
- I speculate that

10. Solicitarea de informaii (Asking for information):
- Could you help/ tell me?
- Could you find out?
- I need some information about
- Im sorry to disturb you but I was wondering
- I need some help
- Do you know by any chance where is?
- Do you happen to know?
- Excuse me, is there anyone?
- Im interested in
- Im looking for
- Im calling to find out
- Id like to

11. Oferirea i confirmarea /infirmarea de informaii
(Offering and confirming/ denial of information):
- Yes, of course
- The information youve requested is
- I can tell you that the information
- Im afraid your information is not correct but I could
- We feel obliged to inform you that
- I am happy to announce you
- I am delighted to inform you

12. Solicitarea confirmrii / infirmrii unor informaii

UNIT 21 ALL TIME EXPRESSIONS

183
(Asking for confirmation or rejection of information):
- I need to find out if my information
- I am asking you to tell me everything you know about
- Tell me this is not true
- Could you confirm to me that?
- I need to verify this information

13. Formularea de propuneri i sugestii (Making
propositions and suggestions):
- I have a proposition for you
- Ive got an offer for you, its interesting
- I suggest you
- I advise you to
- I recommend you to

14. Solicitarea de sugestii (Asking for suggestions):
- Tell me what should I do
- Could you suggest something?
- Would you?
- Please recommend me

15. Exprimarea de condiii (Expressing conditions):
- I agree if you
- My first condition is
- Due to the circumstances Ill do what you ask if

16. Formularea de sfaturi (giving advice):
- If I were you
- You should do as you are told
- You ought to
- Take my advice and
- Listen to me
- Im counselling you to

17. Exprimarea preferinelor, inteniilor (Expressing
preferences, intentions):
- I prefer
- I like
- I adore
- I intend to
- I am going to
- Id rather
- Id rather you did not do that.

18. Solicitarea i acordarea / refuzul permisiunii (Asking
and giving/denying permission):
- May I
- Might I
- Can I .
- Could I

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184
- I was wondering if I
- Yes, you may
- Your permission is denied
- You are not allowed to
- You may not

19. Formularea de invitaii (Making invitations):
- I invite you to
- Please come and join us
- We are asking you

20. Exprimarea de mulumiri (Expressing gratitude):
- Thank you
- You are very kind
- Thank you very much
- Im grateful

21. Exprimarea surprizei, curiozitii, temerilor, ndoielii
(Expressing surprise/ curiosity, fear, doubt):
- Thats fantastic
- Its incredible
- I cant believe it
- Great
- What is happening?
- Whats this?
- Im afraid things might go
- Im frightened
- I doubt that
- I cannot say for certain that
- Im not really sure that
- Its difficult to say exactly

22. Formularea de comparaii (Making comparisons):
- He is as as
- Its not like
- Its better than
- Its not as as
- In comparison to
- Compared to

23. Formularea de persuasiuni (Persuations):
- Please, let me
- Allow me to
- I want to convince you that
- Let me tell you how

24. Exprimarea diverselor grade de certitudine
(Expressing different degrees of certainty):
- Im sure that
- Im not sure that

UNIT 21 ALL TIME EXPRESSIONS

185
- Im unsure about



Formal vs. informal language

Formal language is what we call literary language, the
sort of language we use when we write or when we try to
express our highest language knowledge. Formal language
uses more complex grammatical constructions. It is
characterised by accuracy. Used in scientific papers,
documents

On the other hand, the informal language is that
language we use in every day speech when we try to
communicate as fast and as easy as we can the information
our conversation partner needs. The grammatical
constructions are not complex and it lacks accuracy.
You can find informal language in e-mail writing or in
advertisements, in family, among friends.
6


Example of formal language:

The basic procedure here is to intend to be repeated with
different types of writing, but only one type should be dealt
with at a time. We suggest that you have to hand examples of
various types of text, and every so often slot the activity
into
7


Example of informal language:

I think we can go for walk. Its sunny today and I feel
happy. Lets go.
I dont know, I dont feel like coming, you go ahead and
if I want Ill call you later.
Fine, lets go, see you later.

Another example of using informal and formal language

6
Limbajul formal este ceea ce numim limbaj literar, acel fel de limbaj folosit atunci cnd scriem sau
ncercm a ne exprima cele mai bune cunotine ale limbii. Limbajul formal folosete structuri gramaticale
complexe. Este caracterizat prin acurateea lui. Folosit n lucrri tiinifice, documente...
De cealalt parte, limbajul informal este acel limbaj folosit n vorbirea de zi cu zi atunci cnd ncercm a
comunica ct mai repede i mai uor putem informaiile de care partenerul nostru de convesaie are nevoie.
Construciile gramaticale nu sunt complexe, i lipsete acurateea. Acest fel de limbaj este ntlnit n
corespondena prin e-mail n reclame, limbaj folosit n familie, ntre prieteni.
7
Ron White Process writing


LIMBA ENGLEZ

186
is in the following diagram:

Formal Parsimonious
^ Ungenerous
^ Mean
^ Stingy
Informal Tight arse



21.4. ndrumar pentru autoverificare


I. n urmtorul fragment Tom vorbete despre vreme. Completeaz cuvintele care lipsesc
din caset. (In the following text Tom is talking about weather. Fill in with the missing words
given in the box):

blizzard, sun, hurricane, mist, storm,
flood

Today I decided to talk about the weather. It all came to me when I remembered about a
weekend I spent with my parents in the middle of an empty country road. Our car got stuck in
the 1 and we couldnt get out of the car for two days, our cell phone was dead and
there was nowhere we could get help from. At other time we decided to go to California but a
few hours after our arrival a 2..began to tear the roofs of the houses down so we were
again trapped inside. In another holiday because of too much rain there was a serious
3.. in the area and we couldnt get out of there for several days.
From now on I think its better to go to 4.. places, where you can feel the
breeze and swim in the water.
I need to mention other situations we can find ourselves in and we should know about
them like: 5and 6... These are just a few natural phenomena that we
encounter on Earth.

Concepte i termeni de reinut

Expresii utile
Limbaj formal
Limbaj informal









UNIT 21 ALL TIME EXPRESSIONS

187

Teste de evaluare/autoevaluare



II. Citii extrasul dintr-o relatare a unui meci de fotbal i completai cuvintele lips din
casetu (Read the excerpt from a football game commentary and fill in with the missing
words in the box):

goal keeper / dribble/ goal / tackle/ send off / shoot/ penalty/
score

The player 1. and finds his way towards the middle of the field. The 2
comes and 3 him, gets his ball and 4... Its 5... But no, the goal
keeper is 6, with a red card. The goal was not a valid one. There is 7. for the
guests. They send their best player who 8..

III. Schimbai cuvntul dat astfel nct s se potriveasc propoziiei (Change the word
given in such a way as to fit in the sentence):

1. There were times in history, especially during the wars when there was such a
.. of food that people had to queue. SHORT
2. My sister has a very nice .., she is a shop assistant. OCCUPY
3. Its to get to him now, he is so busy. POSSIBLE
4. Bill Gates its probably the most . businessman in the world. SUCCESS
5. His .. in the play this evening was remarkable. PERFORM
6. Discussing politics is many peoples occupation. DAY
7. I was .. of his behaviour in public. SHAME
8. Its becoming dangerous to go to the Middle East nowadays. INCREASE
9. The . of the electric bulb changed our lives. INVET
10. I was compelled to stay all night to finish my project. WAKE

Bibliografie:

Pipo, Cristina, Limba englez, Workbook, Editura Aula, Braov, 2006
Pipo, Cristina, Limba englez evaluarea competenelor lingvistice de comunicare,
Braov, Aula, 2011
Redman, Stuart, English Vocabulary in Use, pre-intermediate & intermediate, Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge, 1997
Cotton David, Falvey David, Kent Simon, New Market Leader, Intermediate Business
English coursebook, Pearson Education Limited, Edinburgh, 2002











LIMBA ENGLEZ

188



UNIT 22 GREAT BUSINESS IDEAS

189




GREAT BUSINESS IDEAS


22.1. Introducere
22.2. Obiectivele unitii de nvare timp alocat
22.3. Marketing
22.4 ndrumtor pentru autoverificare
22.5 Teste


22.1. Introducere

Pentru nelegerea i utilizarea ct mai clar
a limbii engleze vocabularul are un rol deosebit
de important




22.2. Obiectivele unitii de nvare

Studierea vocabularului pentru business idead
nelegerea vocabularului
Utilizarea vocabularului n context




Timpul alocat unitii de nvare

Pentru unitatea de nvare Limba englez, timpul alocat este de 2 ore.







UNIT 22


BUSINESS ENGLISH COMMUNICATION

190

22.3. Coninutul unitii de nvare


Women closing gender gap among entrepreneurs

The GEM survey, compiled by London Business School
and Babson College in the US, calculates the percentage of
the working population engaged in start-up activity or running
their own fledgling company. It found that British rates of
entrepreneurship were similar to those in other European
countries, but lagged behind those of Australia, New Zealand,
the US and Canada. Entrepreneurial levels had declined in the
US, Germany, Japan, Italy and Canada.
Britain's relatively steady levels of entrepreneurship
compared to its peers was attributed to the relative health of
the economy during the past decade.
Patricia Hewitt, trade and industry secretary, seized on the
figures as evidence that government initiatives aimed at
encouraging enterprise were working. "We want to create a
culture that means wherever you live and whatever your
background you can turn your great ideas into business
successes," she said.
However, fears about debt and failure continue to plague
the UK, according to the survey. The risk of failure was cited
by 32.9 per cent of respondents as a reason for not starting a
company, compared with 21.2 per cent of Americans.
The survey also found a narrowing in the north-south
divide following a fall in total entrepreneurial activity in
London and a rise in other regions, most notably the east
Midlands. But London's decline in start-ups was partly offset
by a four-fold rise in the percentage of owner-managers of
companies less than 42 months old. And despite the
narrowing of the north-south divide, there remained a 3
percentage point difference between total entrepreneurial
activity in Scotland and London.
The survey's results paint a complex picture of attitudes.
For instance, 25 to 34 year olds are most likely to be
considering starting a company, but they also display the
highest fear of failure.
Although the total proportion of UK entrepreneurs has
barely changed over the past year at 6.3 per cent of the
working population, the proportion of women increased as the
proportion of men fell. For every 100 male entrepreneurs,
there were 46 women in 2004, compared with 43 women a
year earlier.
Rebecca Harding, director of GEM UK and associate
director at Deloitte, said: "There is a visible change in

UNIT 22 GREAT BUSINESS IDEAS

191
attitudes among women to their own potential. Business
women are starting to feel less unusual."
The narrowing of the gender divide among entrepreneurs
was part of a broader cultural change, said Ms Harding.
She added that female entrepreneurs tended to move into
lifestyle businesses, focused on practical services, such as
nursery care. Men, according to Ms Harding, tended to be
more interested in making money. She pointed to the
declining levels of male entrepreneurship across the G7
nations as economic confidence has ebbed in recent years.
Sarah Willingham, managing director of the Bombay
Bicycle Club, an upmarket Indian restaurant and delivery
service chain, became an entrepreneur to take control of her
work schedule.
Her daily hours tend to spill over into the evenings
because that is when the restaurants are open. However, Ms
Willingham said she preferred this because she was not a
morning person. "Between 7pm and 11pm this evening I will
be in one of my restaurants, but I wouldn't class that at work."
Ms Willingham is used to being the only woman. At her
last role at Pizza Express, she reported to a male chief
executive and finance director. "I do think the [gender] gap is
closing, if ever there was one. But I have certainly never
found it a hinderance."

(ft.com)


22.4. ndrumar pentru autoverificare


Small-Biz Owners are Stressed and Tired, But Still Optimistic
When the going gets tough, small-business owners get going. At least that is what
research by Hiscox, a specialty insurance provider, found in a recent survey of small-business
owners and their outlook on the prospects for their business in the coming year.
Despite being in what was considered a down economy, with 57 percent of small
businesses in the United States reporting little or no revenue growth in the last year, 47
percent of small-business owners remain optimistic about the upcoming year, according to the
DNA of a survey of entrepreneurs. A little over a quarter of respondents, 26 percent, were not
optimistic about the future, while 27 percent were not sure about prospects for the upcoming
year.
"Small-business owners are pumping life blood into the global economy," said Bronek
Masojada, CEO at Hiscox. "The strength and resilience of entrepreneurs continue to shine
through. Every day, small businesses have to assess and manage a wide variety of risks at
different levels of intensity. Our study highlights their concerns over threats from the global
economic environment, which are often very hard to control or even predict. However, it also
showed that they are optimistic and believe they can succeed despite this backdrop."

BUSINESS ENGLISH COMMUNICATION

192
According to the survey, small-business owners remain optimistic about the future despite
the following findings:
50 percent of small-business owners report more stress.
29 percent report lack of sleep and sleep problems.
33 percent of American small businesses were likely to be denied by banks when
asking for more money or easier terms to fund their business.
61 percent of small-business owners in the United States said the current tax system is
an impediment to people setting up their own business.
39 percent of business owners report customers paying bills later.
More than half of respondents said the federal government was not a help to their
business.
Small-business owners in the United States work an average of 41 hours a week.
While the statistics seem to stack the deck against businesses, 26 percent of business
owners still believed that running their own company was a better option than working for
someone else. Additionally, 55 percent of respondents in the United States stated that the
driving force behind starting their business was the desire to be their own boss.
The information in the "DNA of an Entrepreneur" study was based on the responses of
3,000 small-business owners or partners in business with 50 or fewer employees. The study
also drew responses from businesses all around Europe.


Concepte i termeni de reinut

Joburi
Tipuri de joburi
Aplicatii pentru joburi



Teste de evaluare/autoevaluare





IV. Citii explicaiile din dicionar i gsii cuvntul lips (Read the dictionary
explanations and find the word):

1. A sign that something is probably happening or that something is probably true
2. Lack of interest or concern
3. Pain that you get when your stomach cannot deal with foot that you have eaten
4. Feelings of anger and surprise because you feel insulted or unfairly treated
5. Not by the fastest, easiest or straightest way
6. Ill and therefore unable to be present
7. Similar things, you cannot see any difference between them
8. Considered separately from other people or things in the same group
9. Something that that cannot be separated or divided into parts
10. Into or inside a building
11. To let yourself do something you enjoy



UNIT 22 GREAT BUSINESS IDEAS

193
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
0

1
1



Bibliografie:


Pipo, Cristina, Tania Muina, Limba englez, Workbook, Editura Aula, Braov, 2006
Pipo, Cristina, Tania Muina, Ramona Han, Gabriela Osanu, Limba englez
evaluarea competenelor lingvistice de comunicare, Braov, Aula, 2011
Redman, Stuart, English Vocabulary in Use, pre-intermediate & intermediate, Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge, 1997
Cotton David, Falvey David, Kent Simon, New Market Leader, Intermediate Business
English coursebook, Pearson Education Limited, Edinburgh, 2002

























BUSINESS ENGLISH COMMUNICATION

194



UNIT 25 LETTER WRITING

195



MARKETING


23.1. Introducere
23.2. Obiectivele unitii de nvare timp alocat
23.3. Marketing
23.4 ndrumtor pentru autoverificare
23.5 Teste



23.1. Introducere



Pentru nelegerea i utilizarea ct mai
clar a limbii engleze vocabularul este foarte
necesar, utilizarea corect a limbii engleze
fiind deosebit de important.



23.2. Obiectivele unitii de nvare

Studierea vocabularului de englez de
afaceri: marketing
nelegere vocabularului n context
Utilizarea vocabularului n context





Timpul alocat unitii de nvare

Pentru unitatea de nvare Limba
englez, timpul alocat este de 2 ore.








UNIT 23


LIMBA ENGLEZ
196

23.3. Coninutul unitii de nvare








Business has only two functions marketing
innovations.
Peter F. Drucker

A. The four Ps form the basis of marketing mix. If you
want to market a product successfully, you need to get
this mix right.
Match the Ps (1-4) to the definitions (a-d).
1. Product
2. Price
3. Promotion
4. Place

a. the cost to the buyer of goods or services
b. informing customers about products and persuading them
to buy them
c. where goods or services are available
d. goods or services that are sold

Think of some products you have bought recently.
Why did you buy them?
Tell your partner about a marketing campaign that
impressed you.


A. For each group of words (1-5)

a) Fill in the missing vowels.
b) Match the words to the definitions (a-c)

1. Market

r_s_ _rch a)the percentage of sales a company has

UNIT 25 LETTER WRITING

197
s_gm_nt b) information about what customers want and
need
sh_re c) a group of customers of similar age, income
level and social group

2. Consumer
b_h_v_ _ _r a)description of a typical customer
pr_f_l_ b)where and how people buy things
g_ _ds c) things people buy for their own use


3. Product
l_ _ nch a) introduction of a product to the market
l_f_ cycl_ b) length of time people continue to buy a
product
r_ng_ c) set of products made by a company

4. Sales
f_r_c_st a)how much a company wants to sell in a
period
f_g_r_s b) how much a company thinks it will sell in a
period
t_rg_t c) numbers showing how much a company has
sold in a period

5. Advertising
c_mp_ _ gn a) a business which advises companies on
advertising and makes ads
b_dg_t b) an amount of money available for
advertising during a particular period
_g_ncy c) a programme of advertising activities
over a period, with particular aims

Concepte i termeni de reinut

Marketing
Marketing strategies
Marketing and consumers


23.4. ndrumar pentru autoverificare


Marketing fails to resonate with shoppers

The way marketing is supposed to work is that you can sell the sizzle for the steak
without worrying about the human impact of the sizzle or the steak. Orthodox marketing is

LIMBA ENGLEZ
198
very much about creating a myth, and whether it comes true is much less important than
whether that resonates with consumers.
Hernan Sanchez Neira, chief executive of Havas Media Intelligence, said: Brands need to
rethink their communications. They need to rethink which different characteristics of their
products and services they are putting in front of the consumer.
There had been a great deal of soul-searching in marketing over the last several years,
Mr Haque said, but the time, energy and budgets spent on positioning brands as socially
responsible appeared to have had a moderate impact.
The focus on brands resonance on a wider set of measures suggested that a very large
number of consumers are willing to have a different relationship with brands, he added. This
presented a huge opportunity through the use of social media,
Mr Sanchez Neira noted that social media had changed the balance of power between
brands and consumers. Marketing has been thought of as something from the corporation to
people, but now we see that people are the ones really controlling this, he said.
Havas Media plans to extend the research to examine whether people will pay more for
brands they deem meaningful, Mr Sanch ez Neira said.

Consumers believe that only one in five brands has a notable positive impact on their
quality of life, suggesting that marketing strategies are failing to resonate at a time when
shoppers are rewarding brands they deem meaningful.
A study of 50,000 consumers in 14 markets by the media buying network of Havas, the
French marketing services group, found most would not care if 70 per cent of brands ceased
to exist.
The research shows far stronger faith in brands in faster-growing markets, with
respondents in Latin America saying 30 per cent of brands made a notable positive
contribution to their lives, compared with 5 per cent in the US and 8 per cent in Europe.
Havas Media is using the research as the basis for a meaningful brand index to show
clients the level of consumer attachment to their brands and to alert them when they are
failing to connect with the market for their products. Ikea, Google, Nestl and Danone rank at
the top of an index calculated by surveying brands impact on factors including health,
happiness, values, financial security, society and the environment.
Samsung, Microsoft and Sony beat Apple in the index. Coca-Cola, which comes near the
top of many brand surveys, comes 20th in the index because only 35 per cent of people think
it expands their quality of life.
Only 20 per cent of brands have notable positive impact. Thats something that should be
sending big smoke signals to boardrooms, said Umair Haque, director of the Havas Media
Lab.

Teste de evaluare/autoevaluare

Alegei varianta corect (Choose the correct structure):

1. Tom was accused for/ of stealing from peoples cars.
2. I am accustomed to/with my daily routines.
3. Tina is afraid from/of spiders.
4. Im angry with/ against him because he is so annoying.

UNIT 25 LETTER WRITING

199
5. We believe to / in you, go and do what you want.
6. Our group is composed of / from three persons.
7. The woman was cured of / from cancer.
8. He cook divided the cake into/in 12 parts.
9. The made an exception to/of their so very strict rule and let us in.
10. She married to/with him in spite of everyone.

Bibliografie:

Pipo, Cristina, Tania Muina, Limba englez, Workbook, Editura Aula, Braov, 2006
Pipo, Cristina, Tania Muina, Ramona Han, Gabriela Osanu, Limba englez
evaluarea competenelor lingvistice de comunicare, Braov, Aula, 2011
Redman, Stuart, English Vocabulary in Use, pre-intermediate & intermediate, Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge, 1997
Cotton David, Falvey David, Kent Simon, New Market Leader, Intermediate Business
English coursebook, Pearson Education Limited, Edinburgh, 2002



































LIMBA ENGLEZ
200





UNIT 25 LETTER WRITING

201





MERGERS AND TAKEOVERS



24.1 Introducere
24.2 Obiectivele unitii de nvare timp alocat
24.3. Mergers and Takeovers
24.4 ndrumtor pentru autoverificare
24.5 Teste




24.1. Introducere

Pentru nelegerea i utilizarea ct mai clar
a limbii engleze vocabularul are un rol deosebit
de important



24.2. Obiectivele unitii de nvare

Studierea vocabularului pentru mergers i
takeovers
nelegerea vocabularului
Utilizarea vocabularului n context



Timpul alocat unitii de nvare

Pentru unitatea de nvare Limba
englez, timpul alocat este de 2 ore.






24.3. Coninutul unitii de nvare


UNIT 24


UNIT 23 MARKETING

202
Mergers and acquisitions and takeovers: Buying
another business is easy but making the merger a success
is full of pitfalls

The easiest task in management is buying another
business. You only need to identify the target, work out how
much you want to pay, and make your offer. True,
complications may follow. The other party may resist,
forcing you into a costly takeover battle. Investors may not
take kindly to the proposal. But since some investors (those
in the target business) will benefit, you will not be acting in a
uniformly hostile climate. Like BMW buying Rover, or
Daimler-Benz buying Chrysler, or Ford buying Volvo cars,
you can hope to complete the transaction to general
hosannas.
As the BMW-Rover case has shown so dramatically, the
cheering can soon change to jeering. BMW has invested 2.8
billion in a business which at last report was losing 360,000
annually. Doing the deal, the easy part, leads directly into
making the merger or acquisition work, which can be very
hard indeed. The difficulty starts with the strategic objective.
Why do you want the other business in the first place? If the
objective is wrongly chosen, the next logical question,
whether the chosen purchase will help to achieve that aim, is
irrelevant. The deal is bound to fail.
There's nothing wrong with buying a business in
principle. Some of the perfectly acceptable purposes are to
acquire new turnover (and probably new customers): to
obtain new facilities, from factories to shops; to add new
products; to purchase new technology; to enter new markets.
All these laudable aims could be achieved by organic means,
but acquisition is quicker and easier - provided you obey the
rules. Any deal should be able to pass stringent tests. Would-
be purchasers, no matter what the size of company that's
buying or being bought, need to answer these questions:
1. What strategic aims must be achieved for this purchase
to be justified? Why do I really want it?
2. If those aims are achieved, what financial benefits
(making profits and/or preventing losses) will be realised?
Have I done my sums?
3. Do the benefits represent an attractive return on the
costs? Does it make financial sense?
4. What are the chances of the aims not being achieved?
Are they acceptable? Can I live with any outcome?
5. If the proposed purchase vaults the above hurdles, how
is the merger to be implemented and by whom? Do I have a
plan?
6. What framework will be established for the combined
venture? How will the buy be fitted in?
7. How quickly can the buy be integrated and the benefits

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203
start to be won? Will I have to wait too long for it to work?
INTENSIFIED RISKS
The last question is clearly critical. If you're buying to
save time, it makes no sense to get tangled up in a long and
costly process of integration. The risks involved in mergers
are intensified if this question and the other six do not get
proper answers. In the BMW-Rover case, the strategy was to
broaden the buyer's product line. But the first combined
product, the Rover 75, is directly competitive with BMW's
mid-range models. The other Rover cars were too old and
uncompetitive to broaden anything: and the task of replacing
them has been left far too late.
The task of getting any financial benefits, let alone
adequate ones, was made exceedingly difficult by the fact
that Rover's reported profits, once submitted to BMW's
accounting principles, were turned into large losses. If the
Germans did sufficient 'due diligence' before buying Rover
from British Aerospace, they must have had a sublimely
optimistic view of their chances of achieving their financial
aims.
That optimism, of course, flew in the face of the evidence
from past mergers. Successful combinations are far
outweighed by the number that either fail demonstrably or
produce inadequate returns. It's an interesting reverse of the
demerger coin. When a company sells a business which
proceeds to establish a far higher capital value in only a year
or two, that must mean that the vendor management either
under-managed the business, or sold it too cheaply, or most
likely both. Vodafone, the mobile telephone supplier, for
instance, was spun off from Racal. It is now valued at $33.6
billion, which is 33 times the valuation of its erstwhile
parent.
The value in Vodafone was unlocked by unlocking the
business. In fact, the record of spin-offs looks to be far better
than that of acquisitions. ICI and Zeneca provide another
example where the parent is now worth far less than the
child: 25 billion against a mere 4 billion. Both these two
mighty mites, interestingly, are now engaged in massive
mergers: Zeneca with Astra, Vodafone with its US
counterpart, Airtouch. The deals could extend the companies'
triumphant runs: more likely, the great increase in size and
the complications of any acquisition will offset some, if not
all, of the benefits.

DIFFERENT CULTURES
Why should this be the case? Sheer enlargement provides
part of the answer. The management span at the top becomes
much wider, which imposes new strains. The managers'
chances of coping successfully with their new burdens are
reduced by the inevitable difficulties of accommodating two

UNIT 23 MARKETING

204
different cultures and pushing through downsizing measures
which are bound to be resented by those affected - including
those who stay behind. The upheavals of the early negative
measures then exhaust the appetite for change, and needed
positive action is postponed
Delay is deeply dangerous after acquisitions. In Rover's
case, as one senior BMW manager told the Financial Times,
'We set out targets, but left them to get on with it. But
nothing much happened'. But without developing the new
models on which it has made so little progress, Rover cannot
possibly hope to meet any worthwhile targets. The expert
acquirer, if the bought business has such evident problems,
plans the onslaught on the deficiencies before the takeover.
The takeover ace then implements the planned actions with
ruthless speed as soon as closer inspection has confirmed the
plans.
However, Walter Hasselkus, the German installed at
Rover by BMW, took much care in handling the 'very strong
culture' at Rover - probably excessive care. He told Elizabeth
Marx, author of Breaking Through Culture Shock, that 'At
Rover we set our goals very high with the expectation that
we will not quite hit them. If we hit 80%, that's OK. This is
completely unacceptable to BMW. At BMW (maybe typical
of a German organisation) the goals are clearly defined, and
the expectation is that you reach these goals. Your goals may
not be as high, but they are realistic'.
Frankly, this passage does much to explain just why
Hasselkus lost his job, to be followed in a now celebrated
boardroom putsch by the chief executive who appointed him,
Berndt Pischetsrieder. Setting goals which you never meet is
low-grade management in any language, including English.
Allowing such behaviour to continue is fully as
unacceptable. A company that meets only 80% of its goals,
and is allowed to do so, will operate well below 100% in all
aspects of its operations.
The 80% phenomenon helps to explain the success of
spin-offs and the unsuccess of large multi-business
companies. Subsidiary managements, even in growth
businesses like mobile telephony and pharmaceuticals,
negotiate the easiest targets they can. If the group
management imposes higher numbers, the chances are that
the targets will be missed. The group then faces an
unpleasant choice between replacing the failed management
or putting up with the failure. Even if the numbers are on
target, they may well conceal poor performance in some of
the subsidiary operations.
This was the case with Zeneca, where one 930 million
division was making only 2.8% on sales under ICI
management. That cannot have been the only case of under-
management within the sprawling chemicals empire. So you

UNIT 25 LETTER WRITING

205
have to wonder about the chances of much the same ICI
managers successfully executing their very different master
strategy. It sounded perfectly sensible. Spin off Zeneca to
take advantage of the inflated price-earnings ratios of
pharmaceuticals, and switch out of bulk chemicals, where
margins are intrinsically low, and into speciality chemicals,
where customers are relatively indifferent to price.
(thinkingmanagers.com)




24.4. ndrumar pentru autoverificare

A MERGER occurs when two companies combine to form a single company. A merger is
very similar to an acquisition or takeover, except that in the case of a merger existing
stockholders of both companies involved retain a shared interest in the new corporation. By
contrast, in an acquisition one company purchases a bulk of a second company's stock,
creating an uneven balance of ownership in the new combined company.
The entire merger process is usually kept secret from the general public, and often from
the majority of the employees at the involved companies. Since the majority of merger
attempts do not succeed, and most are kept secret, it is difficult to estimate how many
potential mergers occur in a given year. It is likely that the number is very high, however,
given the amount of successful mergers and the desirability of mergers for many companies.
A merger may be sought for a number of reasons, some of which are beneficial to the
shareholders, some of which are not. One use of the merger, for example, is to combine a very
profitable company with a losing company in order to use the losses as a tax write-off to
offset the profits, while expanding the corporation as a whole.

Takeover
A corporate action where an acquiring company makes a bid for an acquiree. If the target
company is publicly traded, the acquiring company will make an offer for the outstanding
shares.

There are several different types of takeover. The main types are:
'Friendly Takeover' - the company bidding will approach the directors of the other
company to discuss and agree an offer before proposing it to the shareholders of that
company.

The bidding company will also have an opportunity to look at the accounts of the
business they want to buy - a process known as due diligence.
'Hostile Takeover' - the company bidding has their offer rejected or does not
approach the board of the company they wish to buy before making an offer to
shareholders.

This also means they will not have access to private information about the company -
increasing the risk of the takeover. Banks are usually more cautious about lending
money for hostile takeovers.

UNIT 23 MARKETING

206
'Reverse Takeover' - the final common type of takeover is the reverse takeover. This
happens when a private (not traded on the stock market) company buys a publicly-
traded company as a means of acquiring public status without having to list itself.
There are a number of possible reasons for corporate takeovers. Some of the most
common are:
Expanding into a new market sector by buying a company that already has a strong
position in that market
By combining the strengths of the two companies, greater growth (and profits) are
possible than either company could achieve separately
Eliminating competition by purchasing it
Bidding companies may takeover companies to gain access to their products, services
or geographical coverage
In the end, it all comes down to profit - either increasing it or defending it from the
competition.



Concepte i termeni de reinut

Vocabular engleza de afaceri pentru mergers i takeovers
Diferente si asemnri
Utilizarea corect n context a vocabularului studiat


Teste de evaluare/autoevaluare




Find and give examples of famous takeovers and/or mergers

Bibliografie:

Pipo, Cristina, Tania Muina, Limba englez, Workbook, Editura Aula, Braov, 2006
Pipo, Cristina, Tania Muina, Ramona Han, Gabriela Osanu, Limba englez
evaluarea competenelor lingvistice de comunicare, Braov, Aula, 2011
Redman, Stuart, English Vocabulary in Use, pre-intermediate & intermediate, Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge, 1997
Cotton David, Falvey David, Kent Simon, New Market Leader, Intermediate Business
English coursebook, Pearson Education Limited, Edinburgh, 2002





UNIT 25 LETTER WRITING

207





LETTER WRITING



25.1. Introducere
25.2. Obiectivele unitii de nvare timp alocat
25.3. Letter writing
25.4ndrumtor pentru autoverificare
25.5Teste




25.1 Introducere

Pentru nelegerea i utilizarea ct mai clar
a limbii engleze vocabularul urmat de scrierea
corect sunt foarte necesare, utilizarea corect a
limbii engleze fiind deosebit de importan.




25.2 Obiectivele unitii de nvare

-Studierea redactrii scrisorilor
-Studierea formei scrisorilor
- Redactarea propriu-zis a scrisorilor






Timpul alocat unitii de nvare

Pentru unitatea de nvare Limba
englez, timpul alocat este de 2 ore.






UNIT 25


UNIT 24 MERGERS AND TAKEOVERS
208

25.3 Coninutul unitii de nvare



Planning by itself is not enough to assure you of a
positive response from your reader. There are, however,
essential components of any letter that can multiply the
chances of its effectiveness.
Before you begin to worry about the basic mechanics of
a letter (structure, appearance, and grammar), think seriously
about the attitude you wish to convey. Your attitude is
conveyed through your choice of language, tone, and focus of
attention. Each of these individual components is as
important as anything else that goes into making up a
successful letter.
The attitude conveyed in your letter can make the
difference between a letter that is tossed aside and one that is
read, understood, and reacted to favorably. It is basically very
simple to convey a reader-oriented attitude.
Remember as you write your letters that you are
addressing a specific reader. Your language, tone, and focus
of attention must capture the readers interest for your letter
to be successful.

LanguageClarity vs. Ambiguity

Language is a means of communication. This may seem
like a foolishly simple observation to
make, but remember that for communication to be
completed successfully a sender must convey his or her
message so that the receiver not only receives, but also
understands, the message. If language is not used clearly and
accurately, the communication process cannot be
successfully completed.
A simple rule to remember is that the English you use in
your every-day business should be the same good English
used by people in all walks
of life. Granted, there may be terms intrinsic to your
industry, but there is not a special type of business
English to be learned and used when writing business
letters. Good English is good English.

Be clear and straightforward in your letters. Write
what you mean.
Dont write in circles, making your reader guess what
you mean.


UNIT 25 LETTER WRITING

209
Be as direct as possible in your letter writing. If
you can convey your message in five words instead
of ten, do so. You dont have a great deal of space in
a letter to convey your thoughts. You are not writing a
novel or a treatise on the economy. The idea is to get
your message across clearly and directly.

Avoid the use of pompous or inflated language in
your letters.

Be clear, direct, and unambiguous in your letter
writing.

TonePersonality

The tone or personality of a letter can help you get a
positive reaction from a reader. The tone should be
set at the very start of a letter and maintained
throughout. The tone of any business letter should be
courteous and friendly, and written as if you were
talking with the reader.

You dont want to get too technical in a letter. Write
in language that the reader can understand.

Length

The length of any letter affects its appearance.
Professionals or customers who receive a lot of
correspondence every day are not going to react favorably to
three-page letters that could have been written in one page.
Come right to the point in your letters. They should be
concise and limited to one page if possible.
Begin discussing the main topic or topics of your letter in
the first paragraph. If you do, your reader will know what to
expect as soon as he or she begins to read.
Planning and clarity in your ideas can help to limit the
length of your letter. Paragraphs should not be too long and
difficult to follow. You should not, however, use a string of
one-sentence paragraphs, which can result in a staccato-like
reading. A concise paragraph with a few sentences that come
right to the point should keep the length of your letters
manageable.

Dateline

Every letter should have a dateline. The date appears on a
single line two to eight lines below the letterhead or the top
margin of the page. With the exception of the simplified-
letter format, three lines down from the letterhead is the usual

UNIT 24 MERGERS AND TAKEOVERS
210
space allotted in most letter formats. Because a letter should
be well framed on a page, the placement of the dateline is
flexible.
The order of the dateline is month, day followed by a
comma, and year.
May 5, 20X4

Reference Line

The reference line is optional. It is a number or a series of
numbers and letters referring to previous correspondence. It
is usually included for the benefit of a person who must file
all correspondence dealing with the same issues or topics.
The number is aligned with and typed directly below the
dateline. It is usually typed one to four lines beneath the date
unless your company policy stipulates that it be placed
elsewhere.
If your letter is to be more than one page long, the
reference number must be carried over to all continuation
sheets. On these sheets, the location of the reference line
should correspond to its location on the first sheet, or as
indicated by company policy.

Personal or Confidential Note

The inclusion of a personal or confidential note is
optional. When such a notation is used, however, it should
always be because the writer wants the letter to remain
confidential between him or her and the reader. If such
notations are used as gimmicks to attract a reader to a letter,
they will lose their effectiveness. Except with the official-
style format, the personal or confidential note should be
located four lines above the inside address. It does not need
to be underlined or typed in all capital letters. If a writer feels
it necessary to underline or capitalize, he or she should
choose one or the other but not Both.
Personal
PERSONAL
Personal
The personal note is rarely used in the official-style
format because this format is usually reserved for personal
letters. Should you decide it is necessary to include a
personal note in the official-style format, it should be typed
four lines above the salutation.

Inside Address

The inside address of a letter addressed to an individual
should include
that individuals courtesy title and full name, professional

UNIT 25 LETTER WRITING

211
title, company
name, and full address. If a womans courtesy title is
unknown, Ms.
should be used.
Ms. Nancy Simons
Production Supervisor
Bethany Bagel Company
25 Francis Avenue
Boston, Massachusetts 02222

Attention Note

If you are addressing a letter to a company but wish to
direct it to the attention of a specific person, you may include
an attention note. The attention note is typed two lines below
the last line of the inside address and two lines above the
salutation.
The attention note can be written with or without a colon
(:) following the word attention. The first letter of the
main elements of the attention note should be capitalized.

Salutation

The salutation appears in all letters but those using the
simplified-letter format. It is usually typed two to four lines
below the inside address or the attention note (if there is one).
Two spaces is most typical. In the official-style format, the
salutation is typed four to six lines below the dateline, since
the inside address appears at the bottom of the letter in this
format. The word Dear before the persons courtesy title
and name is standard. The phrase My Dear is no longer in
style. The D in the word Dear should be capitalized.
The word should be typed flush with the left margin. If
the letter is informal, you address the person by his or her
first name in the salutation. Courtesy titles such as Ms. and
Mr. should be used where appropriate. Professional or
academic titles (e.g., Dr.) take precedence over courtesy
titles for both men and women. A comma before the
abbreviations Jr. and Sr. depends upon the preference
of the individual being addressed. The most conventional
ways of addressing a group consisting of males and females
are: Ladies and Gentlemen: or you can simply use the title of
the person youre addressing. For example:
Dear Editorial Director:
Dear Sales Manager:
Dear Customer Service Representative:
The simplified-letter format contains no salutation. As a
result, this format can be used if the letter writer wishes to
avoid the problems of sexist language that sometimes exist in
choosing the appropriate salutation for a letter.

UNIT 24 MERGERS AND TAKEOVERS
212

Subject Line

The subject line identifies the content of a letter and is an
optional addition to all but the simplified-letter formats. The
simplified letter always includes a subject line typed three
lines below the last line of the inside address. In the full-
block, block, semiblock, or hanging-indented formats, the
subject line is typed either two lines above or below the
salutation. It is typed either flush with the left margin or
centered, and consists of the word subject followed by a
colon and the subject to be covered in the letter.
The subject line can be typed in all capital letters or with
each important word capitalized. Sometimes when just the
important words are capitalized, the whole subject line is
underlined. When the subject line is typed in all capital
letters, it is never underlined.
Subject: Proposed Distribution Arrangement Subject:
Proposed Distribution Arrangement
SUBJECT: PROPOSED DISTRIBUTION
ARRANGEMENT The subject line is generally used when
only one subject is covered in a letter.
The difference between full-block and semi block is easy:
In full-block format, nothing is indented.
In semi-block format, the senders address, date and
closing salutation are indented.
In semi-block format, it is also permissible to indent
the paragraphs, but it is not necessary to do so.

Paragraphs

Long quotations should be blocked in the letter,
setting the quotation off by indenting all of it five
spaces and keeping it single-spaced. Long paragraphs
should be avoided in letters. Of course, the use of
brief paragraphs should not be carried to a ridiculous
extreme by writing a letter full of one-sentence
paragraphs that cause it to sound like a machine gun
because of the staccato rhythm. Be sensible about
paragraph length. Say what you have to say and move
on; avoid any padding or inconsequential information.
The first paragraph should introduce a letters subject
or refer to a previous correspondence or conversation
to which you are responding.
The following paragraphs of your letter should
elaborate on the subject set
up in the first paragraph. The closing paragraph
should briefly summarize
the topic and close on a positive note, encouraging a
positive working

UNIT 25 LETTER WRITING

213
relationship with the letters reader.
The complimentary close must be included in all but
the simplified-letter format. It is typed two lines
below the last line of the body of the letter.
In the full-block format, the complimentary close
should be flush with the left margin. In the block,
semiblock, official-style, and hanging-indented
formats, the complimentary close should start at the
center of the page, directly under the dateline, about
five spaces to the right of center, or at a point that
would put the end of the longest line at the right
margin.
However, note that it should never cross over the
right margin. The simplified letter has no
complimentary close.
The first letter of the first word of the complimentary
close should be capitalized. The entire complimentary
close should be followed by a comma.
The choice of the proper complimentary close
depends upon the degree of formality of your letter.
Among the complimentary closes to choose from are:
Yours sincerely,
Very sincerely yours,
Sincerely yours,
Sincerely,
Cordially,
Most sincerely,
Most cordially,
Cordially yours,
A friendly or informal letter to a person with whom
you are on a first name basis can end with a
complimentary close such as:
As ever,
Best regards,
Kindest regards,
Best wishes,
Regards,
Signature Block
Directly below the typed business name should be the
signature. Four lines below the typed business name,
the letter writers name should be typed. If the
business name is long, it can be centered beneath the
complimentary nclose in the block and semiblock
format letters.

UNIT 24 MERGERS AND TAKEOVERS
214





25.4. ndrumar pentru autoverificare


Write a letter in which you are applying for a new school.

Dear Sir,

I wish to apply for a place in your school. I have been studying up to now at St. Johns
College, but the school is too far from my new home, and it is impossible for me to keep
attending my present school classes.
As you can see from the accompanying copy of my school record, I have done quite well
at school.

UNIT 25 LETTER WRITING

215
I have studied chemistry and I loved it, I even earned a medal at a local contest for the
best experiment. I do hope I will have the opportunity to participate in your school contests as
well.
Looking forward to hearing your response.

Respectfully yours,

George Valtz

Concepte i termeni de reinut

scrisori - form
scrisori utilizare corect
scrisori redactare



Teste de evaluare/autoevaluare





Write a letter following all the guidelines presented above

Bibliografie:

Pipo, Cristina, Tania Muina, Limba englez, Workbook, Editura Aula, Braov, 2006
Pipo, Cristina, Tania Muina, Ramona Han, Gabriela Osanu, Limba englez
evaluarea competenelor lingvistice de comunicare, Braov, Aula, 2011
Redman, Stuart, English Vocabulary in Use, pre-intermediate & intermediate, Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge, 1997
Cotton David, Falvey David, Kent Simon, New Market Leader, Intermediate Business
English coursebook, Pearson Education Limited, Edinburgh, 2002


















UNIT 24 MERGERS AND TAKEOVERS
216



UNIT 26 LETTER WRITING

217





BUSINESS LUNCH


26.1. Introducere
26.2. Obiectivele unitii de nvare timp alocat
26.3. Business Lunch
26.4 ndrumtor pentru autoverificare
26.5 Teste




Introducere

Pentru nelegerea i utilizarea ct mai
clar a limbii engleze vocabularul are un rol
deosebit de important








26.2 Obiectivele unitii de nvare

Studierea vocabularului pentru business
lunch
nelegerea vocabularului
Utilizarea vocabularului n context





Timpul alocat unitii de nvare

Pentru unitatea de nvare Limba
englez, timpul alocat este de 2 ore.



UNIT 26


LIMBA ENGLEZ
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26.3 Coninutul unitii de nvare


Examples of letters

Write a formal letter asking information about a summer course. Ask for specific
details. Dont use your real name.

December Blvd.
Brasov City 52919
Romania

Sutton School of English
Sutton Coldfield
Birmingham
BA8 22f
16 May 2010

Dear Sir/ Madam,

I recently saw your advertisement for Summer Intensive Courses and I would like some
more information.
Firstly, can you tell me the specific dates of the course during June and July? Secondly, do
you know how many students will be in one class?
Finally, can you tell me if you arrange accommodation with local families or is that
something I have to do myself?

Yours faithfully,

George Balasescu


Write a formal email inviting Mr. Thomas to dinner. Dont use your real name.

Dear Mr. Thomas,

I would like to invite you to dinner after your visit to our company next week, if you have
time. Our Managing Director, Alison McDermott, will also come.
I will book a table at a Chinese restaurant in Nightingale Road, for 7, 30 p.m. on Friday
evening. The restaurant is next to your hotel in Blueberry Road.
I hope you can join us. Please, can you let me know this week?

Best wishes,
John Smith

John Smith - Head of PR
Thompson Welding

UNIT 26 LETTER WRITING

219
Box 79
London B2



Write an informal email to a colleague offering information about a new product your
company sells.

Hello Sandra,

I made an interesting contact at the seminar last week. Paul Young is in charge of the
Acquisition Department at HMC in Dublin. He is very interested in our new product and
wants you to contact him.
At this time I think it is a very happy situation for us to receive such demands for our
products. I am really happy I can help and be sure that every time I will meet a possible client
I will put him/ her in contact with you.

Here is his e-mail address:
paulyoung@hmc.com

Hope its useful for you!
CU
Tina



Write a letter offering a position in your company to a person that came to an interview.
Dont use your real name.

73 West Street
London BC2
Mr. Gary Thompson
64 Thames Rd
Alton-on-Thames
Surrey
6T63FR

7 February 2010

Dear Mr. Gary Thompson,
We are pleased to inform you that you have been successful in your application for the
position of PR assistant in our company.
As agreed in the interview, we would like you to start on 1 March in our Central office.
Your starting salary will be 32,000 per annum.
Please sign and return a copy of the contract enclosed to confirm acceptance of this offer.
We look forward to hearing from you soon.

Sincerely yours,
Patrick Smith
HR Manager

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220



Write a formal letter answering to an offer to live in a different city for a while. Dont
use your real name.

Dear Mrs. Johnson,
Thank you very much for the letter. I am very pleased that Ive won the prize. I would like
to go to Washington because I have never been to the USA before.
Still, there are several questions I would like to ask.
First of all, I would like to know whether the return flight is a direct flight or not. I would
like to book a direct flight because it is so much easier for me.
Secondly, I would like to know for how many hours we are going to study every day and
of course if there are classes in the morning or in the afternoon.
Finally, I would like to ask you if it is possible for me to stay at school for an extra week.
If thats possible, please let me know the price I have to pay.
I want to thank you in advance for your assistance and Im looking forward to hearing
from.
Faithfully yours,
Michaela James



26.4. ndrumar pentru autoverificare


Write a letter in which you praise a restaurant for the quality of their food and the
improved menu.

Dear Manager,
I am a reporter from the News Weekend. Because of the demand of my work, I often
come to London to take interviews. Your hotel is one of my favourites, because of the
comfortable living conditions, and the good facilities and, of course, especially for your
excellent food.
The restaurants in your hotel have many dishes such as Chinese food, Japanese food, and
French food. Choosing from all these delicious dishes, I must say like the Beijing Toast Duck
best, not only because of its Chinese characteristics but also because of its special taste.
Consequently, every time I come here I always choose this course.
Furthermore, what impressed me most is the high quality service. It always makes me feel
at home. Waiters and waitresses are so kind and warm-hearted that they always earnestly
recommend every new or special food of the restaurant. I will recommend your hotel and
restaurant to my friends without any hesitation.
I hope your hotel and restaurant will be even more prosperous in the future.

Sincerely yours,
Tom Jones
01.03.2010


UNIT 26 LETTER WRITING

221

Concepte i termeni de reinut

Business letter writing
What to write in a business letter
What to expect from a business letter



Teste de
evaluare/autoevaluare



Write a letter of request asking for information about facilities offered for a party.

Dear Sirs,
We are planning a full day party to celebrate the completion of our Business Language
Training Course on July 27, 2010.
One of our professors has suggested your hotel for our celebratory party informing us
about the many recreation facilities offered by your hotel. Therefore, we would like to make
your hotel the venue for our party. We would like to reserve the following rooms: a big
meeting room, the entertainment room and also 20 standard rooms. We would also want a
buffet lunch including soft drinks, sweets and champaign.
Let me offer you more information about the party. It starts at 10:00. The president of our
institute is delivering an opening speech. After lunch it comes the singing and dancing show,
followed by sweets and champagne celebration at 17:00. Karaoke and disco begin at 18:30
and end at about 12:30. There are 40 to 50 attendees for the event and half of them will stay
overnight at the hotel.
Please let us know the term of payment and other useful information. Should you have
further questions, please feel free to contact me. Tel: (8610)68882150/68882151 Fax:
(8610)68882250 Thank you for your kind assistance we are looking forward to your reply.

Yours faithfully,
Tina Jones
Celebration Party Preparation Committee



Bibliografie:

Pipo, Cristina, Tania Muina, Limba englez, Workbook, Editura Aula, Braov, 2006
Pipo, Cristina, Tania Muina, Ramona Han, Gabriela Osanu, Limba englez
evaluarea competenelor lingvistice de comunicare, Braov, Aula, 2011
Redman, Stuart, English Vocabulary in Use, pre-intermediate & intermediate, Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge, 1997
Cotton David, Falvey David, Kent Simon, New Market Leader, Intermediate Business
English coursebook, Pearson Education Limited, Edinburgh, 2002




LIMBA ENGLEZ
222



UNIT 27 LETTER WRITING

223




BUSINESS VOCABULARY PRACTICE


27.1. Introducere
27.2. Obiectivele unitii de nvare timp alocat
27.3. Business vocabulary practice
27.4 ndrumtor pentru autoverificare
27.5 Teste



27.1 Introducere

Pentru nelegerea i utilizarea ct mai clar
a limbii engleze vocabularul este foarte necesar,
utilizarea corect a limbii engleze fiind deosebit
de importan.


27.2 Obiectivele unitii de nvare

Studierea elementelor de vocabulary de
afaceri
Studierea vocabularului
Utilizarea n context a elementelor de
vocabular
Aplicaii




Timpul alocat unitii de nvare

Pentru unitatea de nvare Limba
englez, timpul alocat este de 2 ore.







UNIT 27


LIMBA ENGLEZ
224

27. 3 Coninutul unitii de nvare


Alegei (Choose the correct sentence):

1. Ive got to go and take my exam.
1. Ive got to go and give my exam.
2. They went for a walk.
2. They made a walk.
3. Im anxious to mount the horse you promised.
3. Im anxious to ride the horse you promised.
4. When I get home Ill make a shower.
4. When I get home Ill have a shower.
5. The reporter asked personal questions.
5. The reporter made personal questions.
6. They gave me a discount of 5%.
6. They made me a discount.

VIII. Mai jos putei gsi cteva expresii folositoare cu
have. Aici have are alte sensuri dect cel de a avea.
ncercai i punei-le n propoziii (Below you can find some
useful expressions with have. Here have has other meanings
that to own. Try and put them into sentences of your own):

1. have a bath/ shower
2. have dinner/ lunch
3. have a drink
4. have something to eat
5. have (an) experience
6. have fun
7. have a holiday
8. have an operation /have a party
9. have a picnic
10. have a rest
11. have time

..................................................

..................................................

..................................................

..................................................

..................................................



UNIT 27 LETTER WRITING

225






IX. Care sunt substantivele derivate din urmtoarele
verbe? (Can you write the nouns derived from the following
verbs?)

1.abolish
.
......................................................................
2.
accuse
.........................................................
3.
apply
...........................................................
4.
attend
....................................................
5.
civilise
......................................................
6.
compete
...........................................................
7.
conserve..
...........................................................
8.
demonstrate
............................................................
9.to become
extinct.
..............................................................................
10.imagine.
...................................................
11.
inflate
........................................................
12.
inspire
.................................................................
13.
oppose
..............................................................
14.
revise..

LIMBA ENGLEZ
226
.........................................................

Complete each of the following sentences with in, on or
for. There are two possible answers for number 2. You can
make similar sentences about yourself and your job.
1. Olga Blanc is .computers.
2. She has been working .a big computer
company for five years.
3. She is based ..Paris.
4. She works the external communications
department.
5. At the moment she is working .the
design of the companys website.
6. . She is responsible the development of an
important part of the site.
7. 7. She is very interested .Website design.
8. 8. She depends the web and on personal
contacts for new ideas.
9. 9. She spends one or two hours every day on the Web
getting information..all the latest
developments.
10. 10. She is happy because there is a big demand
. good website designers at the moment.

Tenses the work
You use the present simple to talk, for example, about
where you work or what you do: I work
You use the present continuous to talk about current
projects:
I am working
External communications means how the company
communicates with the outside world. Internal
communications means how people inside the company
communicate with each other.

Fill in the missing words in the sentences below. Choose
from the words in the box. You can then use similar sentences
to talk about your company.
Company competitors customers employees leader
products profit share shareholders share price subsidiaries
turnover
I work for a ..called Kwikshoe.
Our main.are sports shoes.
Kwikshoe is a worldin the tennis shoe
sector.
It has a national market.of 23%.
It has 2,500 in this country.
It has seven..in five different countries.

7. Its main.are young people and people

UNIT 27 LETTER WRITING

227
who do sport.
8. Its main .are in Britain an the USA.
9. Its main..are banks and pension
funds.
10. Itslast year was $1.2 billion.
11. Its ..last year was 16 million.
Its ..today is $57.

If you are the number one in a market, sector or region, you
can say:
We are the leader in the sector
We are the biggest in the market.
If you are the number two or three, you can say:
We are a leader in the provision of.
We are the second / third / forth biggest in the region.

Lorenza Muller is telling her partner about her day at the
office. Match the beginning of each sentence on the left (1-13)
with a phrase on the right (a-m). You can then make similar
sentences to talk about your day at work.
1. I looked at a) the monthly figures to Mr
Kazoulis.
2. I wrote .. b) an appointment with a client.
3. I made .c) the minutes of the meeting.
4. I went to .d) a representative of safety committee.
5. I took . e) the company magazine.
6. I fixed..f) three of four replies.
7. I met g) two or three telephone calls.
8. I had h) the office Christmas party with Cynthia.
9. I read i) a $10 million deal.
10. I discussed .j) my e-mails.
11. I presented . k) lunch with Tom in Accounts.
12. I negotiated . l) tired but happy.
13. I came home .m) the weekly departmental meeting.

Choose one word or phrase underlined to complete each
sentence.

Boss /CEO /colleague /customer /director /investor /leader
/manager /opposite /number /owner /shareholder /supplier

My names John Power. Power Enterprises belongs to me.
Im the .(1) I also manage the company myself. Im the
..(2)
Im John Powers sister. I sit on the board of his company.
Im a (3)
Im Mr. Powers secretary. Hes my (4)..
I hold equity in this company. I am a (5).
John Power is a friend of mine. I have put some of my own
money into Power Enterprise. Im an (6)

LIMBA ENGLEZ
228
This company buys things from me. Im a
(8)
Im the head of a team in a technical department.
Im a team (9)..
I have lunch every day with the woman at the desk next to
mine. She is my (10).
Im the marketing director of Power Asia Pacific. Jim
Poom is the marketing director of Power Europe. Hes my
(11).
I work for Power Enterprises. I head a department of about
50 people. Im a (12)..



27.4. ndrumar pentru autoverificare

Put these sentences in the best order. Put a number, 1-4, in the space.

1 A Very well, thanks. Lets get down to business, shall we?
B Im fine, thanks. How are you?
C Hello again! How are you getting on?
D Yes, all right.
2 A Miss Smith, Id like you to meet Mrs Jones.
B Oh, please call me Liz.
C How do you do, Mrs Jones?
D And Im Claire.
3 A Oh, yes. Ive heard of you.
B The names Alex White.
C Id like to introduce myself.
D Pleased to meet you.
4 A I wondered if I might take Friday off?
B Yes. Tony, of course.
C Oh, Fridays rather difficult.
D Mrs Lang, could I have a word please?
5 A What do you think?
B Yes, sure, Bob.
C Geoff, could you come over here a minute?
D Aha, yes, youve put a lot of work into it.











UNIT 27 LETTER WRITING

229
Concepte i termeni de reinut

Elemente recapitulative



Teste de evaluare/autoevaluare



Choose the best word to fit the gap.

1 There is always a lot of to attend to on a Monday morning.
A letters B correspondence C communications D information
2 Please leave a message on the answer phone if you need to contact us office hours.
A outside B over C through D against
3 The annual general meeting was in the conference centre.
A conducted B provided C run D held
4 One of the advantages of writing over talking to someone face-to-face is that you can
take your time.
A remaining B related C relative D relevant
5 Make sure that the addressees job is correct.
A title B description C name D type
6 A well laid out letter always gives a good .
A idea B reaction C impression D effect
7 If you are in attending, please let me know as soon as possible.
A concerned B pleased C sure D interested
8 You must your application by the end of the week.
A submit B subject C subscribe D subcontract
9 There has been a agreement to supply Texmills with our products and services.
A long-winded B long-lasting C long-standing D long-lived
10 Managers should staff to maintain the no-smoking policy throughout the building.
A suggest B encourage C support D co-operate

Bibliografie:

Pipo, Cristina, Tania Muina, Limba englez, Workbook, Editura Aula, Braov, 2006
Pipo, Cristina, Tania Muina, Ramona Han, Gabriela Osanu, Limba englez
evaluarea competenelor lingvistice de comunicare, Braov, Aula, 2011
Redman, Stuart, English Vocabulary in Use, pre-intermediate & intermediate, Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge, 1997
Cotton David, Falvey David, Kent Simon, New Market Leader, Intermediate Business
English coursebook, Pearson Education Limited, Edinburgh, 2002









LIMBA ENGLEZ
230







UNIT 28 BUSINESS VOCABULARY PRACTICE

231




BUSINESS VOCABULARY PRACTICE


28.1. Introducere
28.2. Obiectivele unitii de nvare timp alocat
28.3. Business Vocabulary Practice
28.4 ndrumtor pentru autoverificare
28.5 Teste



28.1 Introducere

Pentru nelegerea i utilizarea ct mai clar
a limbii engleze vocabularul este foarte necesar,
utilizarea corect a limbii engleze fiind deosebit
de important.




28.2Obiectivele unitii de nvare


Studierea vocabularului recapitulativ
nelegerea vocabularului
Utilizarea vocabularului n context






Timpul alocat unitii de nvare

Pentru unitatea de nvare Limba
englez, timpul alocat este de 2 ore.









UNIT 28


LIMBA ENGLEZ
232

28.3 Coninutul unitii de nvare


The euro zones illness is returning. A cure requires
more integration, but Germany isnt keen

WHEN the editors of the German tabloid Bild met Mario
Draghi recently they gave him a Pic kelhaubea spiked
helmetto remind the Italian that they had last year depicted
him in Prussian garb as the most Germanic of candidates to
run the European Central Bank. It may come in useful:
hardliners are taking shots at Mr Draghi for spraying banks
with 1 trillion ($1.3 trillion) of cheap money. This
powerful drug may have side-effects, he says, but it works:
The worst is over for the euro zone.
Dont be so sure. The fever has been rising again in Spain
after the government wildly overshot its deficit target last
year. The Italian prime minister, Mario Monti, expressed
alarm (which he later withdrew) that the Spanish illness
might harm his own countrys convalescence. Portugal and
Ireland are in recession, and may need second bail-outs;
Greece will probably require a third rescue (and the
restructuring of official debt).
As fear returns, so have calls to boost the euro zones
rescue funds. The mother of all firewalls should be in place,
strong enough, broad enough, deep enough, tall enoughjust
big, says ngel Gurra, secretary-general of the OECD, the
rich-world think-tank. But Germany prefers a slow,
incremental response. The latest signal is that it will agree, at
a meeting of finance ministers in Copenhagen on March 30th
and 31st, to raise the firewall somewhat. The temporary
rescue fund, the European Financial Stability Facility
(EFSF), would be allowed to overlap with the permanent
new European Stability Mechanism (ESM), which is to be
activated this summer. By combining the two funds, perhaps
only for a year, the lending capacity could be raised from
500 billion to about 740 billion.
This may be enough to persuade the Chinese, the
Americans and others to allow the IMF to increase its
resources, so helping the defences, but it is hardly the
overwhelming force Mr Gurra seeks. Germany worries that
reducing the pressure on weak states will lead to
complacency. The Germans think that the only way to make
countries reform is to dangle them out of the window, says
one diplomat. This only reinforces the belief in the markets
that the euro zone is on the edge of disaster.
One worrying sign for Germany was Spains partly

UNIT 28 BUSINESS VOCABULARY PRACTICE

233
successful attempt to loosen its deficit target this year.
Another is growing trouble over the fiscal compact, a
treaty signed by 25 European Union countries to toughen
budget discipline. Ireland, with a history of awkward votes
on EU treaties, holds a referendum on May 31st. The
Socialist front-runner in the French presidential election,
Franois Hollande, wants to renegotiate the deal to include
more focus on growth. Germanys opposition Social
Democrats are making similar noises. In the Netherlands the
opposition Labour Partywhich is supposed to support the
minority government on European issuesthreatens to block
ratification if the government imposes austerity to meet next
years deficit target of 3% of GDP. (Ill-disciplined countries
that have received a tongue-lashing from the Dutch are
savouring the irony.)
Even assuming all these difficulties are resolved, the fate
of the euro will remain uncertain. Raising the firewall and
ratifying the compact will address only some of the
symptoms. A cure requires treating the whole patient, as
set out recently in a clear-eyed paper by Jay Shambaugh for
Brookings, an American think-tank. It says the euro zone is
afflicted by three ills: a banking crisis, a sovereign-debt crisis
and a growth crisis. Dealing with one often makes the others
worse.
A big problem is that the euro zone is only partly
integrated. Its members have given up economic tools, such
as currency devaluation and monetary policy, yet lack
federal instruments to cope with shocks. The problem is
not so much the budget deficit (though Greece was certainly
profligate) as the net foreign borrowing by all actors, public
and private (say to finance a trade deficit). The euro zone has
only small internal transfers, and its workers tend not to
move far for work. Fiscal stimulus is impossible for most
governments, given their indebtedness. Structural reforms to
promote growth can take years to work.
So redressing the imbalances must come through
internal devaluation: bringing down real wages and prices
relative to competitors. This was easier before 1991, when
inflation around the world was higher, but has rarely been
achieved since then (Hong Kong is one exception). With the
ECB determined to keep inflation at around 2%, internal
devaluation brings severe recession, even depression. And
falling GDP wrecks the debt ratio.
Mr Shambaugh offers some advice. Deficit countries
could cut payroll taxes to reduce labour costs and raise VAT
to discourage imports; the effect would be magnified if
surplus states did the opposite. Germany could help by
stimulating its economy, or at least slowing down its budget
consolidation. The ECB could let inflation run higher,
especially in Germany, and could declare that it stands fully

LIMBA ENGLEZ
234
behind solvent sovereigns. The EFSF/ESM could recapitalise
weak banks. A Europe-wide bank-deposit insurance scheme
would help. Mutualising part of the national debts would
create a risk-free European asset.
The German problem (again)
All these options ultimately run into the same obstacle:
Germany. It does not want to bear bigger liabilities, it wants
to set an example of budget discipline, it refuses to
compromise its competitiveness, it is allergic to inflation, it
does not want the ECB to print money and it thinks
Eurobonds create moral hazard.
There is little sign that the chancellor, Angela Merkel, is
ready to do much beyond tweaking the firewall and pushing
through the fiscal compact. She talks of a future political
union. If she really wants to save the euro, she will have to
put on a Pick elhaube and lead the way to greater fiscal
federalism.
(economist.com)


28.4. ndrumar pentru autoverificare

Answer the following questions

Whats your job?
Where are you from?
Who do you work for?
Where are you based?
Where do you come from?
What does your company do?
Would you like something to eat?
Would you like to use the phone?
Where is the reception area?
Where are the toilets?
Is there a bank near here?
What time does the bank close?
Are there any taxis?
Do you know any good restaurants near the hotel?
Can I use your pen, please?
Could I have your telephone number?
Sorry, can you repeat that?








UNIT 28 BUSINESS VOCABULARY PRACTICE

235
Concepte i termeni de reinut

Elemente de recapitulare



Teste de evaluare/autoevaluare





Read about the company Cobra Beer and ask your partner questions in order to
complete the text.
Quick Work Elementary activities 2

Activities 2
Karan Bilimoria left Cambridge University in 1988. He had no money and
owed his bank _________. He wanted to make money. But how? Bilimoria
liked Indian food but he didnt like the fizzy beer in Indian restaurants.
So, he decided to produce a new beer.He started Cobra Beer in _______.
Now Cobra Beer has a turnover of 45 million at retail value.
94% of Cobra Beers turnover is in Great Britain. Only ____% of the turnover
comes from exports. What is the reason? More than _____% of British
people eat Indian food once a week. 55% eat Indian food once every two
weeks.There are ______ Indian restaurants in Britain and about 5,000 of the
restaurants sell Cobra Beer.
Karan Bilimoria graduated from Cambridge University in _______. He had no
money and owed his bank 20,000. He wanted to make money. But how?
Bilimoria liked Indian food but he didnt like the fizzy beer in Indian
restaurants. So, he decided to produce a new beer.He started Cobra Beer in
1991. Now Cobra Beer has a turnover of ____________ at retail value.
_____% of Cobra Beers turnover is in Great Britain. Only 6% of the turnover
comes from exports. What is the reason? More than 25% of British people
eat Indian food once a week. _____% eat Indian food once every two weeks.
There are 8,500 Indian restaurants in Britain and about _____ of the
restaurants sell Cobra Beer.
How much ?
When ?
What is ?
What percentage ?
How many ?










LIMBA ENGLEZ
236
Bibliografie:

Pipo, Cristina, Tania Muina, Limba englez, Workbook, Editura Aula, Braov, 2006
Pipo, Cristina, Tania Muina, Ramona Han, Gabriela Osanu, Limba englez
evaluarea competenelor lingvistice de comunicare, Braov, Aula, 2011
Redman, Stuart, English Vocabulary in Use, pre-intermediate & intermediate, Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge, 1997
Cotton David, Falvey David, Kent Simon, New Market Leader, Intermediate Business
English coursebook, Pearson Education Limited, Edinburgh, 2002