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Conf. univ. dr.

CAMELIA FIRIC


LIMBA ENGLEZ
Curs n tehnologia ID-IFR



















































Editura Fundaiei Romnia de Mine, 2014
http://www.edituraromaniademaine.ro/
Editur recunoscut de Ministerul Educaiei, Cercetrii, Tineretului
i Sportului prin Consiliul Naional al Cercetrii tiinifice
din nvmntul Superior (COD 171)


Descrierea CIP a Bibliotecii Naionale a Romniei
FIRIC, CAMELIA
Limba englez: curs n tehnologia ID-IFR autor/Camelia Firic - Bucureti, Editura Fundaiei
Romnia de Mine, 2014
Bibliogr.
ISBN





Reproducerea integral sau fragmentar, prin orice form
i prin orice mijloace tehnice,
este strict interzis i se pedepsete conform legii.



Rspunderea pentru coninutul i originalitatea textului revine exclusiv autorului/autorilor.



















Redactor: Constantin FLOREA
Tehnoredactor: Magdalena ILIE
Coperta: Magdalena ILIE
Bun de tipar:
Editura Fundaiei Romnia de Mine
Str. Fabricii; nr. 46 G, Bucureti, Sector 6
Tel./Fax: 021/444.20.91; www.spiruharet.ro
e-mail: editurafrm@yahoo.com



UNIVERSITATEA SPIRU HARET
FACULTATEA DE DREPT I ADMINISTRAIE PUBLIC CRAIOVA






CAMELIA FIRIC







LIMBA ENGLEZ
Curs n tehnologie ID/IFR





Realizatori curs n tehnologie IDIFR
Conf. univ. dr. FIRIC CAMELIA


















EDITURA FUNDAIEI ROMNIA DE MINE
Bucureti, 2014






















5
TABLE OF CONTENTS








INTRODUCERE .. 9


UNIT 1
INTRODUCING ONESELF AND GREETING PEOPLE

1. 1. WHAT IS YOUR NAME? HOW OLD ARE YOU?......................................................................... 12
1.1. 1. Grammar focus. Exercises ............................................................................................................. 13
1.1.1.1. The indefinite article.................................................................................................................... 13
1.1.1.2. Possessive adjectives.................................................................................................................... 14
1.1.1.3. The present indicative of the verb to be........................................................................................ 14
1.1.1.4. The plural of nouns - I................................................................................................................... 15
1. 2. LOCATIONS AND DIRECTIONS. WHAT IS THIS? WHAT ARE THOSE?............................... 18
1.2.1. Grammar focus Exercises ................................................................................................................. 21
1.2.1.1. The definite article........................................................................................................................ 21
1.2.1.2. The zero article.............................................................................................................................. 22
1.2.1.3. Demonstrative adjectives and pronouns........................................................................................ 23
1.2.1.4. There is, there are constructions.................................................................................................... 24
1. 3. EXPRESSING POSSESION. I HAVE GOT MY DICTIONARY. WHOSE IS THIS?.................... 24
1.3. 1. Grammar focus Exercises................................................................................................................ 26
1.3. 2. The present indicative of the verb to have....................................................................................... 26
1.3. 3. Possessive pronouns......................................................................................................................... 27
1.3. 4. Interrogative pronouns and adjectives: who, what, which............................................................... 27

UNIT 2
DESCRIBING THINGS, PEOPLE. WHAT ARE THINGS MADE OF? WHAT ARE THEY
LIKE?


2.1. WHAT ARE YOU LIKE?................................................................................................................... 29
2.1.1. Grammar focus. Exercises............................................................................................................... 30
2.1.1.1. The plural of nouns II.................................................................................................................... 30
2.2. RELATIVES. ALL ABOUT MY FAMILY........................................................................................ 33
2.2.1. Grammar focus. Exercises................................................................................................................ 34
2.2.1.1. Place of adjective........................................................................................................................... 34
2.2.1.2. The genitive case............................................................................................................................ 34
2.3. DAILY ACTIVITIES. WHAT I USUALLY DO EVERY DAY........................................................ 36
2.3.1. Grammar focus. Exercises ............................................................................................................... 37
2.3.1.1. The simple present ........................................................................................................................ 37
2.3.1.2. Reflexive and emphasising pronouns............................................................................................. 38

UNIT 3
WORK, PROFESSIONS, OCCUPATIONS, TRADES. WHATS YOUR ROFESSION

3.1. HOW DO YOU EARN YOUR LIVING?........................................................................................... 42
3.1.1. Grammar focus. Exercises .............................................................................................................. 44
3.1.1.1. Indefinite pronouns and adjectives. Compounds of some, any, no 44
3.2. EXPRESSING TIME. WHAT TIME IS IT? WHATS THE TIME.. 47
3.2.1. Grammar focus. Exercises................................................................................................................ 49
6
3.2.1.1. The cardinal numeral. 49
3.3. EXPRESSING DATE. WHAT DATE IS IT?..................................................................................... 54
3.3.1. Grammar focus. Exercises................................................................................................................ 55
3.3.1.1. The ordinal numeral... 55

UNIT 4

THINGS YOU CAN, MUST AND MAY DO

4.1. CAN YOU SPEAK ENGLISH?.......................................................................................................... 59
4.1.1. Grammar focus. Exercises................................................................................................................ 60
4.1.1.1. Modal Verbs... 60
4.1.1.2. Personal Pronouns in Dative and Accusative 62
4.1.1.3. The Imperative Mode. 62
4.2. LEISURE ACTIVITIES AND SKILLS.. 66
4.2.1. Grammar focus. Exercises................................................................................................................ 67
4.2.1.1. The Indefinite Participle 67
4.3. WHAT ARE THEY DOING?............................................................................................................. 70
4.3.1. Grammar focus. Exercises................................................................................................................ 71
4.3.1.1. The Present Continuous. 71
4.3.1.2. Near Future 74

UNIT 5


SEASONS AND WEATHER. WHAT SEASON DO YOU LIKE BEST?

5.1. WHAT SEASON DO YOU LIKE BEST?.......................................................................................... 78
5.1.1. Grammar focus. Exercises ............................................................................................................... 80
5.1.1.1. Past tense of the verb to be; Past tense of the verb to have; Past tense of the verb can ............. 80
5.1.1.2. The Adjective - Degrees of Comparison ...................................................................................... 81
5.2. HOLIDAYS AND CELEBRATIONS ................................................................................................ 85
5.2.1. Grammar focus Exercises ................................................................................................................ 87
5.2.1.1. The simple past ............................................................................................................................. 87
5.3. TRAVELLING BY AIR. AT THE AIRPORT ................................................................................... 90
5.3.1. Grammar focus. Exercises ............................................................................................................... 91
5.3.1.1. The past tense. Continuous Aspect ............................................................................................... 91
5.4. TRAVELLING BY LAND. AT THE RAILWAY STATION ... 93
5.4.1. Grammar focus. Exercises ............................................................................................................... 94
5.4.1.1. Past Participle 94
5.4.1.1.The present perfect. Common aspect ............................................................................................. 95

UNIT 6
A BUSY WORKING DAY

6.1. A BUSY WORKING DAY 97
6.1.1. Grammar focus. Exercises .............................................................................................................. 98
6.1.1.1. The Present Perfect Tense. Continuous aspect ............................................................................ 98
6.2. CITY TRAFFIC .. 100
6.2.1. Grammar focus. Exercises ............................................................................................................... 102
6.2.1.1. The Future Tense. Common aspect. The Adverb ......................................................................... 102
6.3. SHOPS AND SHOPPING. WHERE DO YOU SHOP? ........ 104
6.3.1. Grammar focus. Exercises ............................................................................................................... 106
6.3.1.1. The Future Tense. Continuous Aspect .......................................................................................... 106
6.4. FOOD. MEALS IN ENGLAND ......................................................................................................... 107
6.4.1. Grammar focus. Exercises................................................................................................................ 109
6.4.1.1. The Past Perfect Tense. Common Aspect. The Past Perfect Tense. Continuous Aspect . 109

UNIT 7
GETTING READY FOR AN INTERVIEW. WRITING FOR PROFESSIONAL PURPOUSE

7.1. GETTING READY FOR AN INTERVIEW. The curriculum vitae. Having an interview................. 111
7.2. CORRESPONDENCE KEEPS RELATIONS ALIVE. Writing for professional purposes. Formal
and informal English in business writing .................................................................................................
116
7.3. BRITISH AND AMERICAN ENGLISH - Differences; Spelling rules ............................................. 124
7.4. PARTS OF A FORMAL LETTER. LETTER FORMAT .................................................................. 126












































7
INTRODUCERE


Includerea n planul de nvmnt a unui curs de Limba englez nu mai trebuie justificat n
contextul actual internaional cnd fenomenul globalizrii lingvistice dar i politica de promovare intens,
din ultimii ani de ctre Uniunea European dar i de fiecare stat membru n parte, a multiculturalismului,
sunt att de vizibile.

Obiectivele cursului

Cursul Limba englez se axeaz pe activiti prevzute s contribuie la perfecionarea abilitilor de
citire, ascultare, exprimare, interaciune i scriere ale cursanilor i la atingerea unui nivel ridicat de
cunotine de limba englez. Vocabularul nou i problemele de gramatic vor fi introduse prin intermediul
unor fragmente extrase dintr-o varietate de surse, cursanii fiind astfel ncurajai s reacioneze la texte i
contexte diferite i s devin din ce n ce mai contieni nu doar de aspectele lingvistice, dar i de cele
culturale ale nvrii unei limbi strine. Cursul va include, de asemenea, activiti de traducere, de
comunicare i prezentare a unor situaii, cu aplicare direct n activitatea viitoare a cursanilor.

Competene conferite

Prin promovarea acestui curs, studenii i vor dezvolta capacitatea de a comunica n scris i oral,
de a nelege diferite mesaje in situaii variate i de a se face la rndul lor nelei n cadrul unei
comunicri. Astfel se vor dobndi competene teoretice i practice privind:
capacitatea de a iniia i susine conversaii pe subiecte familiare dar i juridice, exersnd prin
conversaii/dialoguri pe diverse teme;
exprimarea i argumentarea propriilor opinii n mod corect i coerent n limba englez;
identificarea ideilor eseniale ale unui mesaj scris sau oral, selectarea i sintetizarea informaiei
necesare dintr-un text dat;
cunotinele de gramatic;
vocabularul de specialitate n domeniul juridic;
elaborarea de texte pentru o varietate de scopuri;
strategiile necesare diverselor situaii comunicaionale.

Resurse i mijloace de lucru

Cursul dispune de un manual scris, supus studiului individual al studenilor, precum i de material
publicat pe Internet sub form de sinteze, teste de autoevaluare, aplicaii necesare ntregirii cunotinelor
practice i teoretice n domeniul studiat. n timpul convocrilor, n prezentarea cursului sunt folosite
echipamente audio-vizuale, metode interactive i participative de antrenare a studenilor pentru
conceptualizarea i vizualizarea practic a noiunilor predate. Activiti tutoriale se pot desfura dup
urmtorul plan tematic, prin dialog la distan, pe Internet, dezbateri n forum, rspunsuri online la
ntrebrile studenilor n timpul e-consultaiilor:
1. Introducing oneself and greeting people. (4 ore)
2. Work, professions, occupations, trades. (4 ore)
3. A busy working day. Getting ready for an interview. Having an interview (4 ore)
4. Correspondence keeps relations alive. Writing for professional purposes. (4 ore)


10
Structura cursului n tehnologie IFR
Cursul este compus din 7 uniti de nvare:

Unit 1. INTRODUCING ONESELF AND GREETING PEOPLE
Unit 2. DESCRIBING THINGS, PEOPLE. WHAT ARE THINGS MADE OF?
WHAT ARE THEY LIKE?
Unit 3. WORK, PROFESSIONS, OCCUPATIONS, TRADES. WHATS YOUR
PROFESSION
Unit 4. THINGS YOU CAN, MUST AND MAY DO
Unit 5. SEASONS AND WEATHER. WHAT SEASON DO YOU LIKE BEST?
Unit 6. A BUSY WORKING DAY
Unit 7.
GETTING READY FOR AN INTERVIEW. HAVING AN INTERVIEW.
WRITING FOR PROFESSIONAL PURPOUSE

Teme de control (TC)

Desfurarea activitilor tutoriale va fi structurat pe prezentri i dezbateri pe unitile de nvare
programat i aplicaii practice, simulri de teste, dup tematica de mai sus.

Bibliografie:

1. Firic, Camelia. 2013. Limba englez, Craiova, Universitaria
2. Firic, Camelia. 2009. Brush up on your everyday English, Craiova, Universitaria
3. Firic, Camelia. 2006. Curs de limb englez - partea I, II, Craiova, Sitech
4. Barbu, A., Chirimbu, S. 2006. English language for daily use, Bucureti, Editura Fundaiei
Romania de Mine
5. Stefan R., Vasilescu R., Marcoci S., Beldea E., 2005. Come along, Editura Fundaiei Romnia de
Mine, Bucuresti
6. Georgiana Gleanu-Frnoag, Ecaterina Comiel. 2002. Gramatica limbii engleze, Bucureti,
Lucman
7. Gheorghe Bic, Camelia Firic, Cristian Firic, 2004, A dictionary of Legal and Law Issues,
Craiova, Editura Sitech
8. Academia Romn. 2004. Dictionar Englez-romn, Bucureti, Univers Enciclopedic

Metoda de evaluare:

Examenul final se susine sub form electronic, pe baz de grile, inndu-se cont de activitatea i
evaluarea pe parcurs la seminar/proiect a studentului.
UNIT 1

INTRODUCING ONESELF AND GREETING PEOPLE

Contents:

1.1. WHAT IS YOUR NAME? HOW OLD ARE YOU?
1.1. 1. Grammar focus. Exercises
1.1.1.1. The indefinite article.
1.1.1.2. Possessive adjectives
1.1.1.3. The present indicative of the verb to be
1.1.1.4. The plural of nouns - I
1. 2. LOCATIONS AND DIRECTIONS. WHAT IS THIS? WHAT ARE THOSE?
1.2.1. Grammar focus. Exercises
1.2.1.1. The definite article
1.2.1.2. The zero article
1.2.1.3. Demonstrative adjectives and pronouns
1.2.1.4. There is, there are constructions
1.3. EXPRESSING POSSESION. I HAVE GOT MY DICTIONARY. WHOSE IS THIS?
1.3.1. Grammar focus. Exercises
1.3.2. The present indicative of the verb to have
1.3.3. Possessive pronouns
1.3.4. Interrogative pronouns and adjectives: who, what, which.


Unit Objectives and competences:
- Brush up on your knowledge about how to (1) introduce
yourself and greet people; (2) give direction and describe locations;
(3) express possession;
- Practise grammar issues: indefinite, definite, zero articles;
possessive adjectives and pronouns; present indicative of the verbs to
be, to have; plural of nouns; numeral; demonstrative adjectives and
pronouns; there is, there are constructions; interrogative pronouns and
adjectives.


Lets Talk!
Introduce yourself by answering the following questions. What
is your first name? What is your second name? Have you got a middle
name, a nickname, or a name day? What are you? Whats your
occupation? What are your parents names? What is your marital
status - are you married, single, divorced? Have you got siblings?
What are their names? What are they?
About age! How old are you? How old are your parents? How
old is your girl/boy friend?
About where someone is from. What city are you from? What is
the name of your country? Is Romania a foreign country for you?
What is the capital of your country? What is your mother tongue?
How many inhabitants are there in your country?
About friends. Have you got a girlfriend/boyfriend? How old is
she/he? What is her/his name? Have you got friends abroad?

11
About greeting someone. What do you say when you meet
someone for the first time? How do you greet your friends? What are
the greetings in English?


1. WHAT IS YOUR NAME? HOW OLD ARE YOU?

READING. Read and pay attention to the use of the
phrases and change the following indirect questions into direct ones
according to the model:
Model: Ask me what I am. - What are you?
Ask who they are. - Who are they?
Ask who she is. Ask who the lawyer is.
Ask me how old I am. Ask how old men are. Ask how old the
lawyer is.
Ask if it is late or early. Ask if the students are usually late or
early.
Ask if the child is afraid of his parents. Ask what people are
afraid of.
Ask me where the man is from. Ask me where I am from.

- Good morning! Let me introduce myself to you. My name is
Sandra Law and I am a teacher. I am your teacher of English. You are
students. You are all my students. You are all freshmen. You are not
teachers. You are all present for our first class. Im happy to see that
nobody is absent. She is a girl and he is a boy. She is not a woman
and he is not a man. We are all in the classroom. It is our classroom. It
is not their classroom.
- Lets have a talk in English, to know one another better. Please
answer my questions, will you?
- What are you?
- We are students.
- What is my name and what am I?
- Your name is Mrs. Law and you are our English teacher.
- What are they?
- They are students, too. They are our colleagues.
- What is your name?
- My name is David.
- What is her name?
- Her name is Mary.
- What is his name?
- His name is Dan.
- What are their names?
- Their names are David, Mary and Dan.
- Who are you?
- I am Martin.
- How old are you, Mary?
- I am twenty years old. Im young. We are all young people.
- Who is he?
- He is Dan. He is my colleague and friend, too.
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13
- How old is Dan? Is he twenty, too?
- No, he is not. He is not twenty. He is nineteen years old.
- How are you today?
- Im fine, thanks. We are all very well.
- How is your girl friend, today, David?
- She is not so well, Im afraid. She is ill, right now.
- Im sorry to hear that. How are your colleagues? How are they?
- Oh, they are all right.
- Where is the teacher, Jane?
- The teacher is in the classroom, and so are we all.
- What country are you from, and what is your native language?
- Im from England and English is my native language, of course.
- Where is Martin from and what is his mother tongue?
- He is from Romania and Romanian is his language. English is a
foreign language for him. Martin is from Bucharest. I know
Bucharest is the capital of Romania, as London is the capital of
England and Paris is the capital of France. Bucharest lies in the
middle of large fields and it is situated on the banks of the river
Dmbovia, in the Danube Plain. My girlfriend is from France.
France is a European country; its people are French and their
language is called French too. The people of the United States of
America are Americans but their language is English, too.
- I have friends in Italy and their language is Italian, and in Spain and
they speak Spanish. They are my pen friends. The people of
Germany are German and they speak German, the people of Greece
are Greek and their language is Greek. Turkish people are from
Turkey and their language is Turkish. Danes are from Denmark and
their language is Danish as Dutch people are from Holland and their
language is Dutch. Norway is inhabited by Norwegians. Its
inhabitants speak Norwegian. Chinas inhabitants are Chinese and
Chinese is their mother tongue.
- Very well, thank you.


GRAMMAR FOCUS

THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE

Articolul nehotrt n limba englez este: a / an i prezint
urmtoarele caracteristici:
se plaseaz naintea substantivului pe care l determin: a teacher,
a headmaster, a student, a classroom;
are forma a i se pronun [ei] cnd este accentuat i [] cnd
cuvntul care urmeaz ncepe cu un sunet consonantic, semivocalic
(w, y), o vocal cu sunet consonantic sau naintea unui cuvnt care
ncepe cu u cnd acesta se pronun precum 'you' n 'youth.':
a good teacher, a woman, a year, a European county, a unit
of measurement;
are forma an i se pronun [n] cnd cuvntul care urmeaz
ncepe cu un sunet vocalic, cu h mut (n cuvintele hour, heir, honour):
an English book, an accountant, an ice cream, an apple; an
hour;
are aceiai form indiferent de genul i cazul substantivului pe
14
care l determin;
nu precede substantive la numrul plural.
Articolul nehotrt se folosete:
naintea substantivelor care denumesc o profesie, o meserie,
naionalitatea, religia i n faa cuvintelor: man, woman, child:
I am a teacher. He is an Englishman. My husband is
not a Catholic. Our teacher is a woman not a man. They have
a child.
cnd se face referire la o persoan necunoscut sau fr
importan:
A Mr. Brown looked for you yesterday. Un oarecare
domn Brown te-a cutat ieri.
cnd se face o asemnare, o alturare:
She considers herself to be a Queen Victoria. Se crede o regina
Victoria
dup: such (att de), what (ce), half (jumtate):
Such a beautiful weather! O vreme aa frumoas!
What a stupid thing to do! Ce lucru prostesc s faci!
We talked for half an hour. Am vorbit timp de o jumtate de or.
n expresii care conin un numr sau o cantitate:
a dozen eggs, a hundred books, a million years, a litte money.

POSSESIVE ADJECTIVES

PERSON
SINGULAR
PLURAL
I My Our
II Your Your
III His
Her
Its
Their

Adjectivul posesiv prezint urmtoarele caracteristici:
nsoete ntotdeauna un substantive, precedndu-l:
my book, your exercise books, his friend, her room;
are form invariabil indiferent de genul i numrul substantivului
pe care l determin;
adjectivele nsoite de un adjectiv posesiv nu sunt articulate:
my English book, your good teachers, her bad language.

THE PRESENT INDICATIVE OF THE VERB TO BE

Affirmative Negative Interrogative
I am / Im I am not/ Im not Am I?
You are/ youre You are not/ arent Are you?
He is/ hes He is not/ isnt Is he?
She is/ shes She is not/isnt Is she?
It is/ its It is not/ isnt Is it?
We are/were We are not/ arent Are we?
You are/youre You are not/ arent Are you?
They are/ theyre They are not/ arent Are they ?

15
TO BE este verbul care se folosete, n mod normal, pentru a denota
existena, starea sau profesiunea unei persoane sau a unui lucru.
The students are diligent. Studenii sunt silitori.
He is a driver. El este ofer.
Gold is yellow. Aurul este galben.
Atenie! Acest verb este ntotdeauna folosit pentru exprimarea
vrstei n limba englez:
How old are you? Im 20. Im 20 years old (niciodat nu vom
spune doar: Im 20 years.)
How old is your son? He is 25. He is 25 years old.
How old are your children? They are both eleven. They are
both eleven years old
Exprimarea preului n limba englez se face tot cu ajutorul
verbului to be.
How much is this book? Ct cost aceast carte?
Its 2 dollars. Cost 2 dolari.
How much are these shoes? Ct cost aceti pontofi?
They are 100 dollars. Cost 100 de dolari.
To be nsoit de un verb la infinitivul lung (cu particula to) poate
exprima:
un plan viitor:
The teacher is to give a lecture next week. Profesorul
urmeaz s in o conferin sptmna viitoare.
o necesitate, un ordin:
You are to stay here untill I come! S stai aici pn vin!
They are to obey the rules. Ei trebuie s respecte regulile.
Atenie! Singura situaie n care verbul to be se conjug cu
auxiliarul to do este cnd verbul to be este folosit la modul imperativ
negativ:
Dont be late to school! Nu ntrzia la coal!
Dont be sorry! S nu-i par ru!

Verbul to be intr n componena unor expresii:
to be hungry, to be thisrty, to be cold, to be hot, to be warm,
to be right, to be wrong, to be sorry, to be afraid, to be at a loss, to be
late, to be early, to be over, to be about to.



THE PLURAL OF NOUNS - I

n mod obinuit, n limba englez, pluralul substantivelor se formeaz
prin adugarea terminaiei s la forma de singular a acestora:

SINGULAR PLURAL
student students
teacher teachers
book books

Substantivele terminate n ch, sh, s, ss, x, zz i o precedat de o
consoan formeaz pluralul prin adugarea terminaiei es:

16
SINGULAR PLURAL
bench benches
bush bushes
boss bosses
box boxes
buzz buzzes
potato potatoes

n cazul substantivelor terminate n ch pronunat [k] se adaug doar desinena de
plural, s:

SINGULAR PLURAL
Czech Czechs
epoch epochs

Cuvintele de origine strin i abrevierile terminate n o formeaz pluralul doar
prin adugarea terminaiei s:

SINGULAR PLURAL
piano pianos
photo photos
kilo kilos

Substantivele compuse exprimate n scris printr-un singur cuvnt
adaug terminaia de plural la cel de-al doilea termen:


SINGULAR PLURAL
classroom classrooms
schoolboy schoolboys
schoolgirl schoolgirls

Substantivele compuse care se termin n ful formeaz pluralul
adugnd terminaia s la sfritul cuvntului compus: -

SINGULAR PLURAL
cupful cupfuls
handful handfuls
tablespoonful tablespoonfuls

Cuvintele compuse, scrise cu sau fr cratim, formate dintr-un
substantiv urmat de un adjectiv sau orice alt expresie calificativ
adaug desinena de plural la substantiv:

SINGULAR PLURAL
brother-in- law brothers-in-law
attorney-general attorneys-general
notary public notaries public

Dac nici unul din elementele componente ale unui substantiv compus
nu este substantiv, pluralul se formeaz prin adugarea terminaiei s
la ultimul cuvnt:

SINGULAR PLURAL
grown-up grown-ups
break- in break-ins

Cuvintele compuse cu substantivele man i woman, cunoscute ca
avnd plural neregulat, vor forma pluralul cu men i women dar vor
aduga i terminaia s la cellalt substantiv:

SINGULAR PLURAL
manservant menservants
womandoctor womendoctors




1. Put a or an before each of the following, paying attention to the
silent h:
old lady, university, hospital, aeroplane, elephant, egg,
bad egg, attorney, arm, hotel, history book, honest
man, house, ear, eye, hobby, oil can, actor, auction,
honour, great honour.

2. In the following sentences replace the verb must with the
corresponding form of to be according to the model. Translate the
new sentences.
Model: I must leave tomorrow. - I am to leave tomorrow.
1. I must see the headmaster at noon. 2. Must I see him in his office?
3. When must they meet the manager? 4. They must meet him on
Monday. 5. They must not meet him on Sunday. 6. Must they know
that their friends are not coming? 7. We told her she must not make
the same mistake again. 8. The student must do the spelling exercise
again. 9. You must not do that. 10. You must be at the station at 8
p.m.

3. Make sentences with the following verbs expressing prohibition,
according to the pattern:
Model: touch You mustnt touch my papers.
You are not to touch my papers.
The verbs are: disturb people, talk too loud, smoke, eat many
sweets, break law, make noise, cross the street, sing, shout at the
judge, drink, miss your classes, be late, waste time.

4. Make up a series of sentences illustrating different uses of the verb
to be.

5. Complete the sentences with my, your, his, her, its, our, your, and
their:
1. My daughter is doing ... homework in ... room.
2. Do they live with ... parents?
3. Does your brother live with ... parents-in-law?
17
4. I live in ... flat and I have new furniture. I love ... flat.
5. Clerks are in ... offices. This accountant is not in ... office.
6. London is famous for ... Big Ben.
7. London is also famous for ... changeable weather.
8. Ben, is this ... penknife?
9. Mother, its raining cats and dogs! Have you got ... umbrella?
10. When we go to ... friends at the seaside we sleep in ... room.

6. Complete these sentences with names of the inhabitants of the
country in brackets:
1. (England) are famous for being calm and fond of drinking tea.
2. I am to meet a group of (Bulgaria) at the seaside this summer.
3. Most (Hungary) visit North Transylvania.
4. There are lots of (America, Italy) and (Germany) business people
present at the auction.
5. Some (Austria), we are to meet at the Olympic Games, visit our
country after the competition.
6. (Romania) are peace-loving and very hospitable people.
7. The (Greece), we are to live at, when we visit Greece, have a
chain store.
8. The people who live in Finland are (Finland) and their language
is Finnish, and those who live in Norway are (Norway) and they
speak Norwegian.
9. (Holland) speak a difficult language - Dutch.
10. (France) speak a beautiful language - French.



2. LOCATIONS AND DIRECTIONS.
WHAT IS THIS? WHAT ARE THOSE?

READING. Read and pay attention to the use of the
phrases and then ask question according to the model:
Model: Show your colleagues your pen and ask what it is. - What
is this? This is a pen.
Show the wall and ask what it is. - What is that? That is the wall.
Show your colleagues some books / some sheets of paper and ask
what they are.
Show those desks and the chairs and ask what they are.
Show this window and ask what it is.
Show that door and ask what it is.
Ask if there is a computer in the classroom.
Ask if there are pictures and maps on the walls.
Ask if there are many people in the street.
Ask if there are many new words in the new lesson.

- What is this?
- This is an office. This office is large, clean and bright. It is very
modern, too. There are a lot of things in this office: two desks and two
chairs for the clerks, two shelves and two computers on each desk.
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19
One computer is on, one is off. This is the door and that is the
window. The door is closed; the window is open and it is opposite the
door. This is the floor and that is the ceiling. There are not carpets on
the floor but there are lamps on the ceiling above the desks. There are
lamps on the desks too. The floor is down, the ceiling is up. The floor
is under our feet, the ceiling is above our heads. Those desks are in
front of the window and those chairs are behind the desks. There are
shelves in this office, too. These two shelves are against the wall and
between them there is a modern clock that tells the right time. There
are pots with plants all over this office. The place is very welcoming.
- What are these, and what are those?
- These are the sheets of paper and those are the files. These
sheets of paper are in this drawer and those files are on those shelves.
Oh, look! Heres a drawer full with envelopes, stamps, labels, glue,
paste, paper clips and folders. There are fountain pens, pencils,
ballpoint pens, rubbers and rulers on the desks. There are not
inkstands or inkpots on the desks because nowadays people rarely
write in ink using an old fashioned pen with nib.
- There is a calendar on the wall, but there arent pictures.
- Is there a map, too?
- No, there isnt. There isnt any map in this office.
- Is that the computer?
- Yes, it is. That is the computer
- Are these the clerks and secretaries?
- Yes, they are. These are the clerks and secretaries.
- Are those their desks and chairs?
- No, these are. Those arent theirs.

ASKING FOR DIRECTIONS GIVING DIRECTIONS
- Excuse me, can you tell me
the way to the hospital?
- Go straight on.
- Go straight ahead.
- I beg your pardon, how do I
get to the Art Museum?
- Go down this road and take
the third turning on the
right/left.
- You can take the bus and get
off at the second/at the third/at
Patria station.
- Pardon me! How do I get to
the nearest Post Office?
- How can I get to the nearest
Post Office? Can I get there by
car/by bus/by taxi?
-You go straight along this road
and take the second turning on
the left/right.
- Keep straight on past the
school and turn to the left/
right.
- Go back for about... metres
theres the bus stop.
- Am I on the right way to
University?
-Yes, you are./No, you are not.
- Where is the Ministry of
Education?
- Its right down the street.
- Its on the right/left hand side
of the street.
- How can I reach to the Follow this street to the end.
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nearest Police Station?
- Is this the way to the City
Hall?
You are going on the right/
wrong way.
- You are going in the opposite
direction. Go back and take a
taxi/the bus/the tube and get off
at ... station.

Prepositions of location

Preposition Examples
across The railway station is across the street.
after The police run after the robber.
among I enjoy being among my friends.
at The secretary is sitting at her desk.
behind The orchard is behind the house.
below The poster is below the window.
between The lawyer is sitting between the two
witnesses.
in They live in a new district.
in front of Who is that in front of your door?
nearby There is no supermarket nearby.
next to / beside
/ by
The university is next to/beside/by the
National Theatre.
on There is a clock in the wall. Have a seat on
this chair.
over/above The sign hanging above the door reads 'No
smoking'.
Airplanes fly over the buildings.
under / below

The temperature this winter was below 0.
Dont look below!

Prepositions of movement

Preposition Example
to He rushed to work.
through They drove through the tunnel.
across There is no bridge across the river.
along You have to walk along that path.
down He fell down the slope.
over They walked over the bridge.
round The hands move round the clock.
into I poured water into the glasses.


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GRAMMAR FOCUS

THE DEFINITE ARTICLE

Articolul hotrt este, n limba englez, the i se folosete
pentru toate cele trei genuri i ambele numere - singular i plural.
Articolul hotrt are urmtoarele caracteristici:
se plaseaz naintea substantivului pe care l determin;
se citete [] cnd precede un cuvnt care ncepe cu un sunet
consonantic, semivocalic (w, y), u n silab separat i cnd precede
cuvntul one: the chair, the window, the year, the United States, the
one;
se citete [i] cnd precede un cuvnt care ncepe cu un sunet
vocalic sau cnd se dorete sublinerea cuvntului respectiv: the
economist, the English dictionary, the is an article;
folosirea acestui articol este obligatorie naintea substantivelor
nsoite de prepoziie: on the table, in the classroom, in front of the
table, behind the desk.

Anumite categorii de substantive sunt precedate n mod
obligatoriu de articol hotrt:
nume de ape curgtoare, oceane i mri: the Danube, the Atlantic
Ocean, the Black Sea;
nume de lanuri muntoase i dealuri: the Carpathians, the Alps, the
Cheviot Hill;
nume de instituii: the British Museum, the National Theatre, the
City Hall;
nume de hoteluri: the Intercontinental Hotel, the Savoy, the
Merriot;
nume de nave: the Titanic, the Transilvania;
nume de ziare: The Daily Mirror, The Times, The New York
Times, The Guardian;
nume de deerturi, golfuri, capuri i nume proprii formate cu
cuvntul of: the Sahara, the Persian Gulf, the Gulf of Mexico, the
Cape of Good Hope, the United States of America;
nume de familie la plural: the Browns, the Smiths.
substantive ale pluralitii (formate din alturarea articolului the
la un adjectiv obinndu-se astfel reprezentarea unei clase de
persoane); the poor sracii, the rich bogaii, the dead morii, the
old btrnii; the blind orbii;
substantive abstracte unice: the beautiful frumosul, the good
binele, the sublime sublimul;
substantive unice: the Sun Soarele, the Moon Luna, the Earth
Pmntul, the sky cerul, the universe universul, the present
prezentul the past trecutul, the future viitorul;
substantive care desemneaz o clas de animale sau lucruri
(substantivul man folosit ca referire la rasa uman nu se articuleaz);
the lion leul, the fir tree bradul , the whale balena;
titluri care conin n denumirea lor cuvntul of (nu se folosete i
naintea altor titluri sau ranguri); the Duke of Normandy, the Queen of
England, dar vom spune: Lord Nelson, Captain Hook.
nume de instrumente muzicale: to play the piano, to play the
22
violin, to play the guitar;
Folosirea articolului hotrt este de asemenea obligatorie cu
numeralele ordinale, cu adjectivele i adverbele la gradul superlativ
relativ i cu cuvntul only: the first primul, prima, the second al
doilea, a doua, the best way cea mai bun cale/ modalitate, the only
way singura cale/ modalitate.

THE ZERO ARTICLE
Folosirea articolului zero este obligatorie n cazul:
numelor proprii de locuri sau persoane cu excepia celor
menionate la articolul hotrt; Romania, Buchares, Mary;
unui substantiv nsoit de adjectiv posesiv: my book, their books,
his dictionary;
substantivelor care denumesc mesele zilei: Breakfast, lunch,
dinner and supper are the four meals of the day. Micul dejun, prnzul
i cina sunt mesele zilei.
substantivelor ce denumesc nume de jocuri: to play football, to
play golf, to play tennis;
cuvintelor bed, church, hospital, court, prison, school, college,
university, institute cnd aceste locuri sunt folosite pentru sensul lor
primar; to bed to sleep, to church to pray, to hospital as patients
or doctors, to prison as prisoners, to school/ university/ college/
institute as students/ pupils/ teachers;
cuvintele university i institute sunt totui cel mai adesea folosite
cu articol.
NOT! Cnd aceste locuri sunt vizitate n alte scopuri, folosirea
articolului hotrt este obligatorie. Cu verbele to be, to get back, to
leave substantivele de mai sus se folosesc nearticulate: to be at
hospital, to get back to prison, to leave university;
cuvntului home atunci cnd acesta este folosit singur
(neprecedat de ali determinani): Are you at home?Eti acas?
zilelor sptmnii, lunilor anului (acestea se scriu totdeauna cu
majuscul) i anotimpurilor:
Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday,
Sunday are the days of the week. Luni, Mari, Miercuri, Joi, Vineri,
Smbt, Duminic sunt zilele sptmnii.
January is the first month of the year. Ianuarie este prima lun a
anului.
I like spring because it is a beautiful season. mi place primvara
pentru c este un anotimp frumos.
substantivului mankind;
Mankind is struggling for peace. Omenirea lupt pentru pace.
numelor de continente, ri i state, provincii i orae: Europe,
Australia, France, Canada, California, Transylvania, Moldavia,
Bucharest.
Excepii: the Argentina, the Congo, the Sudan, the United States, the
Hague, the Netherlands.
Substantivelor care denumesc substane, materiale, culori:
Chalk is a white substance white. Creta este o substab alb.
Gold and silver are precious metals. Aurul i argintul sunt metale
preioase.
Yellow is my favourite colour. Galbenul este culoarea mea
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favorit.
numelor de persoan nsoite de atributele adjectivale: young, old,
little, poor, dear, honest, pretty, lazy, silly: poor John, dear Kitty,
lazy Jim.
substantivelor care denumesc numele limbilor i obiectelor de
studiu:
English is not an easy language. Engleza nu este o limb uoar.
We study English at school. Studiem engleza la coal.
substantivelor abstracte: life (via), happiness (fericire), death
(moarte), knowledge (cunoatere, tiin, cunotine):
Life is beautiful. Viaa este frumoas.
Happiness is relative. Fericirea este relativ.
Death is inevitable. Moartea este inevitabil.
Knowledge is power. tiina nseamn putere.
prepoziiei by i mijloacelor de transport: by car cu maina, by
bus cu autobuzul, by train cu trenul, by tube cu metroul;
substantivelor comune asociate cu numerale cardinale: Lesson 2;
Room 34; Floor 4.
NOT. Substantivele care denumesc zilele sptmnii, lunile anului,
anotimpurile, substane, materiale culori, obiecte de studiu, limbi i
noiuni abstracte, nume de persoane nsoite de adjectivele young,
old, little etc. sunt articulate cu articolul hotrt dac sunt determinate
(se specific ceva n legtur cu ele):
Sunday is a dull day for me but the Sunday we spent toghether
was a wonderful day. Duminica este o zi plictisitoare pentru mine dar
duminica pe care am petrecut-o mpreun a fost o zi minunat.
Life is difficult but the life of this poet is impressive. Viaa este
dificil dar viaa acestui poet este impresionant.
Chalk is white but the chalk on the blackboard is red. Creta este
alb dar creta de pe tabl este roie.
Breakfast is usually a light meal but the English breakfast is the most
important meal of the day. Micul dejun este o mas uoar dar micul
dejun englezesc este cea mai important mas a zilei.
The poor Mr. Black whom we all know died last week. Srmanul
domn Black pe care toi l cunoatem a murit sptmna trecut.
substantivelor nenumrabile: sugar, coffee, oil, chocolate, milk.
substantivelor: father, mother, grandfather, grandmother.
substantivelor luate n sens generic: I like coffee. Imi place
cafeaua. Sugar is sweet. Zahrul este dulce. Children love toys.
Copiilor le plac jucriile.

DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES AND PRONOUNS

DEMONSTRATIVE
PRONOUNS
DEMONSTRATIVE
ADJECTIVES
THIS [is] Read this! Read this book!
THESE [i:z] Read these! Read these books!
THAT [t] Take that! Take that book!
THOSE [ouz] Take those! Take those books!

Adjectivele demonstrative, ca de altfel toate adjectivele n limba
englez, preced ntotdeauna un substantiv.


THERE IS, THERE ARE CONSTRUCTIONS

AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE
There is There is not Is there
There are There are not Are there

Aceste construcii se traduc prin exist, se afl, este, sunt, se gsete,
se gsesc i sunt urmate de subiectul logic al propoziiei din care fac
parte i cu care se acord n numr.




1. Insert the definite and indefinite articles (a, an, the):

I and my family live in ... Canada. .... house in which we live in is
old. .... students study. ... students you see in ... street are going to ...
university. We are at ...university. At ... university ... students have
...big library. ... Richard! Come to ... blackboard and put down ...
following examples. ... doctors and ... nurses work in hospitals. ...
doctors in this ... hospital are ... best. We go to ... hospital to visit a
friend.
I always wash my hands before having ... breakfast, ... lunch or ...
dinner. ... breakfast we had yesterday was too large. Ill never forget
... dinner we had at ... restaurant on my birthday last year. I enjoy ...
stories. ... story you are telling now is such ... funny one. This summer
we are going on ... trip to ... seaside. We like ... trips very much. ...
trip we are planning to make seems exciting. Today is ... Friday ...12
th

of ... October. ... October is ... autumn month. What ... beautiful
autumn weather!
... Sahara is a desert in ... Africa. ...Atlantic Ocean lies between
...Europe and ...America. ... Carpathians are high, beautiful ...
mountains. ... Danube flows into Black Sea.

2. Your pen friend has decided to come to your town and visit you.
Write a letter indicating the best way to follow from the railway
station to your house.



3. EXPRESSING POSSESION
I HAVE GOT MY DICTIONARY. WHOSE IS THIS?

READING. Read and pay attention to the use of the
phrases and then change the following indirect questions into direct
ones:
Ask your colleague if he has got a text book.
24
25
Ask someone if he has siblings/a spouse.
Ask who has got an extra pen/sheet of paper.
Ask if the manager has a partner.
Ask your colleagues if they have a good or thin time on week-
ends.
Ask your desk mate if he/she has his/her meals regularly.

- David, what have you got on your desk?
- I have got a dictionary. Its an English- Romanian dictionary.
- Whose dictionary is it?
- It is my dictionary. It is mine.
- Whose conversation guidebook is this? Is it your conversation
guidebook? Is it yours?
- Yes, it is mine, too. It is my conversation guidebook.
- My daughter has got a computer at home. She has not got a
typewriter. It is her computer. It is hers. What has she got?
- Your daughter has got a computer.
- What has your boy friend, Maria?
- He has a car. He has got a car. It is his car. It is his. His car is
new.
- Whose car is that? Is that car yours? Is it yours? Is that car
yours?
- No, it isnt mine. It is his car. It is his.
- We have got a laboratory at the University. This is our
laboratory. What have we got?
- We have got a lab. It is a phonetic lab. We listen to English
tapes here. This is our phonetic lab. This lab is ours. Our University
has also got a library with lots of books in it. We borrow books and
dictionaries from our Universitys library, in order to study them. The
librarian lends us books and takes care that we return them in due
time.
- My neighbours have a new house. Their house is cosy and
beautiful.
- Whose house is that?
- That is their house. It is theirs. Listen to its description:
- We live in a new house and I want to tell you about this. Let
me show you around our house!
- Our house is on a quiet street, It has two storeys the ground
floor and the first floor. On the ground floor we have the dining-room,
the living- room or sitting-room, as the Americans say, the kitchen,
the hall and a lavatory.
- On the first floor there are the three bedrooms, for the children
and for the parents, and the bathrooms.
- We have new, modern furniture in every room. We also have
all the modern conveniences in our house: electricity, gas, running
water, central heating and a telephone. Its roof is made of tile.
- The house has a garden in front of it and a small orchard at the
back of it, where we plant flowers and fruit trees.
- Has your house a garage?
- Of course it has, at one side of it.



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GRAMMAR FOCUS

THE PRESENT INDICATIVE OF TO HAVE

AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE
I have/ Ive I have not/ havent Have I?
You have/ youve You have not Have you?
He has/ hes He has not/ hasnt Has he?
She has/ shes She has not Has she?
It has/ its It has not Has it?
We have/ weve We have not Have we?
You have/ youve You have not Have you?
They have/ theyve They have not Have they?

Verbul to have, care exprim ideea de posesiune, poate avea i forma
to have got foarte uzitat n engleza vorbit.
I have got a pen friend. = I have a pen friend.
What has he got? = What has he?
What have you got there? = What have you there?
Aceast regul nu este valabil n cazul n care verbul to have este
folosit n expresii care-i schimb sensul de posesiune.
They have lunch in town. Ei iau prnzul n ora.
I have a headache. M doare capul.
Ca i n cazul verbului to be, negativul i interogativul verbului to
have se formeaz prin inversiune, respectiv prin adugarea negaiei
not la forma de afirmativ.
Atenie! n varianta american a limbii engleze, se folosete totui
auxiliarul to do pentru formarea interogativului i negativului
verbului to have.
De asemenea acest verb poate exprima i ideea de necesitate
fiind astfel o alternativ a verbului modal must a trebui.
The child has to drink milk. = The child must drink milk
We have to be there in time. = We must be there in time.
Asemenea verbului to be, verbul to have intr i el n componena
unor expresii. Pe lng cele deja menionate la capitolul n care se
vorbete despre articolul hotrt mai trebuiesc amintite cele care se
refer la servitul principalelor mese ale zilei: to have breakfast (a lua
micul dejun), to have dinner (a lua cina), to have lunch (a lua
prnzul), to have supper (a lua cina), to have meals (a mnca).



POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS

Pronumele posesiv are forma adjectivului posesiv cruia i se
adaug terminaia s, cu excepia persoanei I singular, unde are form
diferit de cea a adjectivului posesiv.
La persoana a III- a singular, masculin, forma his este comun att
adjectivului ct i pronumelui posesiv.
Trebuie remarcat faptul c n cazul adjectivului posesiv nu se
folosete apostroful.
ATENTIE! Trebuie evitat greeala foarte comun de a scrie
pronumele posesiv its cu apostrof deoarece its este forma scurt a lui
it is.

PERSON SINGULAL PLURAL
I Mine Ours
II Yours Yours
III
His
Hers
Its
Theirs


INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS AND ADJECTIVES: WHO,
WHAT, WHICH

CASE
N. WHO? Who comes? (pron.)
G.
WHOSE? Whose is that ruler? (pron) Whose
ruler is that? (adj.)
D.
(TO) WHOM? To whom are you giving the
ruler? (pron.) or Whom are you giving the ruler
to? (pron.)
Ac. WHOM?/WHO? Whom do you know? (pron.)
WHAT? What is your friend? (pron.) What food
do you like? (adj.)
WHICH? (implies selection) Which of these
persons do you know? (pron.) Which person is
the manager? (adj.)



1. Imagine you talk with a friend and you know different things. Ask
questions as in the model and ask your friend to answer you:
Mo del: You know that something gives him headaches.
What gives you headaches?
1. You know that something happens every night. 2. You know that
someone calls him every night. 3. You know that someone helps him
with his work. 4. You know that something causes his happiness. 5.
You know that something makes him angry. 6. You know that
someone invites him abroad. 7. You know that somebodys friend is
ill. 8. You know some people come to dinner. 9. You know that
somebody troubles him. 10. You know he spends much on books. 11.
You know that someone in his family drinks much coffee.
2. Fill in the blanks with who, whom, what, which, whose:
1. There are two roads to the station. ...road shall we take?
2. ... is the man you are talking to?
3. ... would you like to do next weekend?
4. ... you are telling me is not true.
5. The girl ...we met at the post- office is my cousin.
6. ...of these three teams is the best?
7. ...have you invited to your birthday party?
8. ...have you been to the cinema with?
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9. At first, she couldnt understand... the boy wanted with her.
10. ... is the secretary typing?

3. Write the sentences with the correct possessive pronouns and
adjectives:
1. I love ... town but ... is bigger and cleaner (I / you).
2. She doesnt like ... boss. Whats ... like? (she / you ).
3. We can see... car in the street but where is ... (we / you).
4. Is that ... pen or ... (you / I)?
5. I think its ... Ive put ... in the pencil case (you / I).
6. This is ... typewriter and this is (he / she).
7. Whose desk is this? Its ...(we).
8. The girls ate ... chocolate but the boys didnt eat ... (they /
they).
9. ... television set has a larger screen and a better picture than ...
(we / they).
10. Shall I fetch you ... scarf? This is ... (you / she).




Bibliografie obligatorie:

1. Firic, Camelia. 2013. Limba englez, Craiova, Universitaria
2. Firic, Camelia. 2009. Brush up on your everyday English, Craiova, Universitaria
3. Firic, Camelia. 2006. Curs de limb englez - partea I, II, Craiova, Sitech



UNIT 2

DESCRIBING THINGS, PEOPLE. WHAT ARE THINGS MADE OF? WHAT ARE THEY
LIKE?

Contents:

2.1. WHAT ARE YOU LIKE?
2.1.1. Grammar focus. Exercises
2.1.1.1. The plural of nouns II
2.2. RELATIVES. ALL ABOUT MY FAMILY
2.2.1. Grammar focus. Exercises
2.2.1.1. Place of adjective
2.2.1.2. The genitive case
2.3. DAILY ACTIVITIES. WHAT I USUALLY DO EVERY DAY
2.3.1. Grammar focus. Exercises
2.3.1.1. The simple present
2.3.1.2. Reflexive and emphasising pronouns


Unit Objectives and competences:

- Brush up on your knowledge about (1) how to describe you,
other people and things; say what things may be made of; (2)
relatives and family members; (3) daily activities;
- Practise grammar issues: the plural of nouns II; adjectives; the
genitive case; the simple present tense of verbs; reflexive and
emphasising pronouns.



Lets Talk!
We all come under different appearances. We all have
strengths and weaknesses. Comment on these.
Describing what someone is like. Describe yourself from the
point of view of your character and appearance. Who do you take
after, your mother or your father? What are your family members
like? What qualities do you appreciate in people? Do you consider
that appearance counts more than moral traits? Do you judge people
by their look? Did it happen to you to misjudge people? How did you
feel about this?

1. WHAT ARE YOU LIKE?
READING Read the text and then change the following
indirect questions into direct ones:

Ask your desk mate what the English course is like.
Ask someone what his girl friend is like.

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30
Ask someone what his children / parents are like.

When we speak about things or persons we refer to their shape,
size, colour or materials they are made of.
The buildings of a town are high or low, big or small, new or old,
modern or old fashioned, ugly or beautiful. The height of some
buildings may be really astonishing or breathtaking. So are the
skyscrapers in New- York.
The rooms of a building are large or small, dark or bright, square
or rectangular. The doors and windows of a room are wide or narrow,
open or shut.
Furniture is made of wood, metal or straw.
Some figures are round, or oval, or rectangular or square, or
triangular.
Lines are straight or curved, long or short, thick or thin.
A triangle has three angles and its angles are sharp, or right or
obtuse.
Exercises are easy or difficult but an attach-case is heavy if it is
full and light if it is empty.
Colours are light or dark, pale or loud. The sky is light- blue at
noon, on a summer day, and dark- blue at night. Grass and leaves are
green but flowers are white, blue, yellow, red, pink or violet. Oranges
are orange, but blackboards are black or grey. The Romanian flag is
blue, yellow and red. The English one is blue and white and red.
People can be young, old, tall or short, fat (plump, stout) or thin
(lean, skinny, bony), strong or weak, ugly or beautiful or handsome.
Men are usually strong and women and children are almost always
weak. I know a lot of people and they are very different from one
another. Some of the people I know are happy, some are unhappy,
some are merry and some are sad, some are good, some are bad,
some are brave, some are coward, some are calm, and some are
impatient, some are interesting and some are awfully boring, some
are bold and some are shy (coy, timid), some are quiet others are
noisy or talkative, honest or dishonest, clumsy or skilful, tidy or
untidy, careful or careless, stupid or clever (smart, intelligent), lazy or
hardworking (diligent or industrious).
Children may take after their parents, and may be like their father
and mother. Sometimes grandchildren look like their grandparents. If
children are twins they are as like as two peas.
Things are made of different materials. My watch is made of
gold. It isnt made of silver, iron or steel, or plastic. It is waterproof
or shockproof.
My shoes and handbags are made of leather or patent leather but
hoses, or the soles of the footwear and tires are made of rubber. Some
shoes are handmade.
Clothes may be made of cotton, silk, wool, plastic materials.
Gloves may be made of leather, lace, silk or wool. Mirrors and
windowpanes are made of glass. Books, notebooks, newspapers are
made of paper.
Buildings are made of brick, stone, wood, concrete, glass,
prefabricated panels.
Cutlery may be made of silver, stainless steel or plastic; plates
and cups are made of china or porcelain.
31

GRAMMAR FOCUS

THE PLURAL OF NOUNS II

Unele substantive n limba englez nu formeaz pluralul prin
adugarea terminaiei s, es. Ele provin din engleza veche, au form
diferit pentru plural, sunt n numr de zece i sunt cunoscute sub
denumirea de substantive de origine englez cu plurale neregulate:

SINGULAR PLURAL
MAN brbat MEN brbai
WOMAN femeie WOMEN femei
CHILD copil CHILDREN copii
FOOT laba piciorului FEET labele picioarelor
TOOTH dinte TEETH dini
GOOSE gsc GEESE gte
MOUSE oarece MICE oareci
LOUSE pduche LICE pduchi
DIE zar DICE zaruri
OX bou OXEN boi

Dousprezece substantive care se termin la singular n -f sau - fe
formeaz pluralul prin schimbarea acestor terminaii n - ves. Alturi
de acestea trebuie avut n vedere i particula self- cu forma de plural
selves care se folosete pentru formarea pronumelor i adjectivelor
reflexive: myself, yourself, himselfy, herself, itself cu formele de
plural: ourselves, yourselves, themselves.

SINGULAR PLURAL
CALF viel CALVES viei
ELF spiridu ELVES spiridui
HALF jumtate HALVES jumti
KNIFE cuit KNIVES cuite
LEAF frunz LEAVES frunze
LIFE via LIVES viei
LOAF pine LOAVES pini
SHEAF snop SHEAVES snopi
SHELF raft SHELVES rafturi
THIEF ho THIEVES hoi
WIFE soie WIVES soii
WOLF lup WOLVES lupi

Restul cuvintelor terminate n -f, -fe formeaz pluralul prin adugarea
terminaiei s la forma de singular: beliefs, chiefs, cliffs, safes, roofs,
proofs, etc.
Unele cuvinte terminate n - f, - fe au amndou formele pentru
plural:
SINGULAR PLURAL
SCARF earf SCARFS, SCARVES
HOOF copit HOOFS, HOOVES

Substantivele terminate n - y precedat de o consoan transform pe -
y n - i i adaug terminaia es cnd formeaz pluralul:

SINGULAR PLURAL
CITY CITIES
FACTORY FACTORIES
PARTY PARTIES

Transformarea nu are loc:
dup vocale: boy boys, play plays, day days;
n substantive proprii: the Kennedys;
n substantive compuse: stand by stand bys.



1. Write the words in brackets in the plural:
1. Take care! Those (knife) and (penknife) are sharp.
2. What drawer are the (scarf) and the (handkerchief) in?
3. Ill tell the (child) a fairy tale with (elf) and (dwarf).
4. Did the police catch the (thief)?
5. Lets buy some (potato) and (tomato)! We havent any left.
6. (Louse) and (flea) are insects; (mouse) and (rats) are animals.
7. We had a party and we enjoyed (ourself).
8. (Hundred) and (hundred) of (man) and (woman) are gathered
in the square.
9. Its a beautiful autumn. The (leaf) turned yellow and now
they are falling down.
10. The (dictionary) are on those (shelf) over there.
11. Two (wolf) attacked the (calf) on the farm.
12. Who said The (die) are cast?
13. (housewife) have to do all the housework.
14. I buy two (brush) one for my hair and one for my (tooth).
15. How many (t) are there in butter?

2. Make the following sentences plural. Make changes where
necessary:
1. The car factory is near the town. 2. That car is of the latest design.
3. A big city is crowded and noisy. 4. My child and the other boy,
who is with him, are crossing the street carefully. 5. This child is his
familys first born. 6. The bench near the pillar-box is less
comfortable. 7. This man is our regular customer for many years. 8.
That woman runs an enterprise quite successfully. 9. A mouse is a
harmful rodent small animal that can cause much trouble. 10. A louse
is a parasite.

3. Fill in the definite or indefinite articles where necessary:

1. This students paper is best.
2. Theres new match between former and latter
team on May 26
th
.
3. How many bridges are there across Thames in
London?
32
4. oak tree is a tall tree.
5. Can you drive lorry?
6. Can she ride bike?
7. Mont Blank is highest mountain in Alps.
8. Mount Everest is highest one in Himalayas.
9. I do not know about Rockies and I am not very sure about
Andes.
10. My father-in-law travelled from Germany to Romania
during Second World War.



Lets Talk!
About family members: Speak about your family. Say if you
have siblings, where they live, how old your siblings are, what they
do and what they are like, what their likes and dislikes are. Say if
they are your seniors or juniors. Speak about your wife/husband,
about your children and in- laws if you are a married person. Who is
the person in your family you feel attached to?


2. RELATIVES. ALL ABOUT MY FAMILY


READING. Read the text to remember the words that
describe family relationship and comment on the sayings: A good
friend is my nearest relation. A good friend is another self.

Let me introduce you to my family today!
This is my family: my wife, my daughter, my son and I. I am Mr.
Black. My wife is Mrs. Black. I am Mrs. Blacks husband. We have
two children: a boy and a girl. The boys name is Robert and the
girls name is Mary Ann. My son is seventeen years old and my
daughter is ten. They are both pupils, go to school and learn very
well. Robert is Mary Anns brother and Mary Ann is Roberts sister.
Robert is Mary Anns senior by seven years and Mary Ann is his
junior by seven years. Our son is a handsome teenager and our
daughter is a very pretty girl. I am Robert and Mary Anns father and
my wife is their mother. We are their parents.
We have a very big house and we live with my wifes parents.
They are my parents-in-law. My father-in-law and my mother-in-
law, who are old people, are retired on pension. They are very gentle
persons and they are very fond of our children, who are their
grandchildren. We respect their old age and seniority. My son is their
grandson and my daughter is their grand daughter.
Children love their grandmother and grandfather very much. My
parents- in- law have two children: a daughter my wife, and a son
my brother-in-law, whose name is John. I am their son-in-law, and
their sons wife is their daughter-in-law.
My brother-in-law is our childrens uncle and godfather at the
33
34
same time and his wife is their aunt and godmother, too. They
havent got children, so Mary Ann is their favourite niece and
goddaughter, and Robert is their beloved nephew and godson.
On Sundays we, the men of the family, watch a football match on
TV or go fishing and the women do the housework and then chat
over a cup of coffee or tea.
We are a happy family. Our daughter is a little sad because she
has no cousins to play with. Nevertheless, she has a very good friend,
the same age, our neighbours daughter, Carla. Carla is as old as our
daughter and they are not only good friends but also schoolmates.
They both attend the same secondary school.




GRAMMAR FOCUS

PLACE OF ADJECTIVE
Adjectivul calificativ are urmtoarele caracteristici:
se plaseaz n limba englez naintea substantivului pe care l
calific;
rmne invariabil fie c substantivul pe care-l calific este
masculin, feminin sau neutru, fie c este la numrul singular sau
plural:
a handsome teenager (un adolescent chipe), a pretty little girl (o
eti drgu), the right answer (rspunsul corect), round figures (
guri rotunde); old grandparents (bunici n vrst); etc.
Iat cteva din puinele cazuri n care adjectivul se plaseaz dup
substantiv:
n unele titulaturi: Attorney General, Lieutenant General;
n expresii: Court martial, first/ second/ third person singular,
Asia Minor, A major (muz.), Paradise Lost;
cnd adjectivul urmeaz dup unul din verbele: to be, to become,
to seem, to feel, to get/grow (= to become), to make, to look (to
appear), to turn;
This man is bad. The manager became rich in a few years time.
Your friend seems sad. I feel cold. She made her parents happy. The
woman looks bored. The clerk got/grew impatient. The girl turned
pale.

THE GENITIVE CASE

In limba englez cazul genitiv se exprim n dou moduri:
1. Genitivul prepoziional (analitic) care are urmtoarele
caracteristici:
se red cu ajutorul prepoziiei of;
ordinea cuvintelor n sintagma genitival este:
substantivul ce denumete obiectul posedat (precedat de articolul
hotrt the) + prepoziia of + substantivul ce denumete
posesorul (precedat de articolul hotrt the);
Genitivul prepoziional se folosete n urmtoarele cazuri:
cu substantive nume de obiecte sau cu nume de animale mici:
the colour of the flower culoarea florii; the title of the book titlul
35
crii, the cover of the textbook coperta manualului; the tail of the
mouse- coada oarecelui;
cu denumiri geografice urmate de un nume propriu: the City of
London, the Tower of London, the Gulf of Mexico;
cu substantive nume de persoan, n cazul n care substantivul
determinat este precedat de articol nehotrt sau demonstrativ: I am a
great fan of this actor. Sunt un mare fan al acestui actor.
2. Genitivul sintetic care are urmtoarele caracteristici:
se red prin s (apostrof i s) sau doar prin (apostrof);
ordinea cuvintelor n sintagma genitival este:
substantivul care denumete posesorul + s sau + substantivul
care denumete obiectul posedat;
Genitivul sintetic se folosete:
cu substantive la numrul singular sau plural (care nu se termin
n s), cnd numele posesorului este exprimat prin:
substantive nume proprii de fiine: Toms brother (fratele lui
Tom), Marys friend (prietena Mariei);
substantive comune care definesc fiine: the schoolgirls name
(numele colriei), the teachers book (cartea profesorului), the
cats name (numele pisicii) a mans job (meseria unui brbat),
childrens room (camera copiilor);
substantive nume de ri sau continente: Romanias population,
Englands inhabitants, Europes countries;
iniiale: the MPs secretary (secretara parlamentarului), the
VIPs escort (escorta vip-ului);
substantive care exprim noiuni cronologice, msuri, distane,
valori: todays newspaper (ziarul de azi), a five days trip (o excursie
de cinci zile), a five miles distance (o distan de cinci mile), a
twenty minutes delay (o ntrziere de 20 de minute), yesterdays
meeting (edina de ieri), tomorrows departure (plecarea de mine),
a ten minutes break (o pauz de zece minute);
substantive care denumesc animale mari: the lions mane
(coama leului), the elephants ears ( urechile elefantului);
n expresii: for goodness sake (pentru numele lui Dumnezeu),
for pitys sake (de/ din mil), for forms sake (de dragul formei); to
be on a razors edge (a fi pe muchie de cuit), to my hearts content
(dup placul inimii mele), a birds eye view (o privire de ansamblu).
In cazul n care dou substantive sunt posesorii aceluiai obiect
marca genitivului se plaseaz dup ultimul substantiv care
desemneaz posesorul:
Mary and Dans parents. Prinii Mariei i ai lui Dan.
In cazul n care cel de-al doilea termen al sintagmei genitivale
(obiectul posedat) este exprimat prin unul din cuvintele shop, house,
museum, store, acestea sunt omise din exprimarea genitival
folosindu-se doar substantivul care denot posesorul n cazul genitiv:
at the bakers (= at the bakers shop la brutrie), at the butchers
(= at the butchers shop la mcelrie), at Bills (= at Bills house
acas la Bill), at Madam Tussauds (= at Madam Tussauds Wax
Figures Museum la Muzeul figurilor de cear al doamnei
Tussaud), at Selfridges (= at Selfridges store la Selfridge).
n cazul substantivelor compuse sau a celor formate din mai multe
cuvinte, marca genitivului sintetic s se va aduga ultimului cuvnt:
my sister-in-laws parents prinii cumnatei mele, Henry the
Eighths wives soiile lui Henry al VIII-lea.
Dup substantive la numrul singular sau substantivele cu plural
neregulat se folosete s, (mens cars, childrens toys) dar dup
substantivele la numrul plural, sau terminate n s cazul genitiv se
marcheaz numai cu apostrof: the students hostel (cminul
studenilor), the Smiths car (maina familiei Smith), Dickens
literary works lucrrile literare ale lui Dickens.



1. Make compound adjectives according to the model and translate
them into Romania:
Model: with blue eyes > blue eyed; with long hair> long haired.

with short hair, with fair hair, with dark hair, with narrow mind,
with broad mind, with broad shoulders, with long legs, with short
legs, with green eyes, with ill temper, with cold blood, with hot
blood, with heavy heart, with hard heart, with kind heard, with hot
head, with cool head, with five fingers, with five toes, with black
coat, with short trousers, with bad manners, with good manners.




Lets Talk!
About daily activities. Speak about your daily program, your
job and responsibilities. Are the other members of your family busier
than you are? How do you usually spend your weekends?
Do you treasure time? Comment on: Time is money.



3. DAILY ACTIVITIES. WHAT I USUALLY DO EVERY
DAY

READING. Read and pay attention to the use of the
phrases and then change the following indirect questions into direct
ones:
Ask your desk mate what the weather is like today.
Ask someone what his girl friend is like.
Ask someone what his children / parents are like.
Ask your desk mate what his/her house/car is like.
Ask what the Romanian flag is like.

Every weekday, from Monday through Friday, we are very busy
and we work from morning till night.
My husband is a businessman and he runs a factory. He has great
responsibilities towards his employees and their families. Hes
36
37
fortunate his best friend assists him with his work, and his assistance
is very helpful to my husband. The period to come is going to be hard
for them, as their factory is about to merge with a smaller one.
As for me, I am a journalist and I work for a local newspaper. A
journalists work is very exciting as I consider a journalist is like an
explorer. He always has to find out new exciting facts or data; he has
to sort the false ones from the true ones. The following qualities are
considered to be essential for a journalist: he has to be prompt in
finding out the news and transmitting them, he has to be self-
confident, reliable, impartial, vigilant, alert, open- minded, accurate.
As a matter of fact the press in general should be impartial,
objective and prompt. Moreover, when a journalists words or
statements annoy somebody he has to be able to prove their rightness
and justify them. Once the newspaper printed, nothing can be deleted,
cut out or replaced. A journalists style ought to be concise, attractive
and direct. It mustnt be floppy. My fellow workers and I always
correct the articles we write.
As we have to be at our offices at eight oclock, we always wake
up at a quarter to seven when we hear the clock strike, we get out of
bed. My husband does his morning exercises and the children go to
the bathroom, wash themselves and brush their teeth, while I put on
my dressing gown and slippers open the windows to air the
bedrooms, make the beds, go to the bathroom and put on my clothes.
I cook breakfast while my husband takes a shower or a bath, shaves
himself, combs his hair and dresses himself. It takes us about forty
five minutes to wake up and get ready. We generally eat bread and
butter, ham, cheese or marmalade, or bacon and eggs, and drink
coffee for breakfast but our children drink milk, tea or orange juice.
We leave home at a quarter to eight and go to work by car or by
tram. We cant walk to work, as theres a long distance to our places
of work and offices. Children come home at noon, have lunch and,
after a short rest, do their homework. After that, they ride their bikes,
play tennis or games or go for a walk with their friends. My husband
and I have lunch in town. Lunch is a proper time to discuss business
so my husband often has to meet some client and have lunch with
him or her in town. If the day is busy our lunch means just a
sandwich. We come back from work at about five in the afternoon
and all the family has dinner in the evening. After dinner we spend
the evening talking with our children, watching TV, or reading
something. At about ten oclock we are dead tired and sleepy so we
take off our clothes, put on our pyjamas, set the alarm clock to ring
and go to sleep.
We all keep early hours during the week but sometimes, on
weekends, we meet some friends, go to a restaurant or to the theatre.









38

GRAMMAR FOCUS

THE SIMPLE PRESENT

AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE
I write I do not write Do I write?
You write You do not write Do you (not) write?
He writes He does not write Does he (not) write?
She writes She does not write Does she (not) write?
It writes It does not write Does it (not) write?
We write We do not write Do we (not) write?
You write You do not write Do you (not) write?
They write They do not write Do they (not) write?

In conjugare verbul, la timpul prezent, aspectul comun, primete
terminaia s sau es la persoana a III a singular. Terminaia es se
adaug verbelor terminate n ch, sh, ss, x, o.
Timpul present, aspectul comun se folosete pentru a reda:
o aciune care are un caracter repetat. Folosirea acestui timp este
impus de urmtoarele adverbe i locuiuni adverbiale: usually
(de obicei), generally, often (adesea), always (totdeauna), ever,
never, every day/ week/ month/ year/, as a rule (de regul), etc.
aciuni sau caracteristici generale, adevruri universale:
The Moon moves round the Earth. Luna se nvrte n jurul
pmntului.
Dogs bark. Cinii latr.
o aciune viitoare care este urmarea unui program prestabilit la
nivel oficial:
The tourists visit Bucharest tomorrow. Turitii viziteaz mine
Bucuretiul.
orarul de lucru, mersul trenurilor, avioanelor etc;
data: Tomorrow is the 26
th
of May.
viitorul n propoziii conditionale i temporale n care folosirea
viitorului nu este permis n limba englez:
The manager will be mad if we are late. Directorul va fi furios
dac vom ntrzia.
We shall call you when / as soon as he arrives. Te vom suna
cnd/ de ndat ce el va sosi.
ATENIE! Este obligatorie folosirea formei de afirmativ a
verbului dac n propoziie se afl un adverb negativ.
We never go to University in weekends. Niciodat nu mergem la
universitate n weekend.
In cazul expresiilor: to have breakfast/ lunch/ dinner/ meals, to have
a good/ thin time, to have fun, to have a walk, to have a rest, to have
a cold, to have a chat n care verbul to have nu are sensul a poseda, a
avea interogativul i negativul se formeaz cu auxiliarul to do.
Do you have fun when you meet your friends? Te distrezi cnd i
ntlneti prietenii?
What time do you have breakfast in the morning? La ce or iei
micul dejun dimineaa?
NOT: In varianta american a limbii engleze interogativul i
negativul verbului to have cu sensul a avea se formeaz cu auxiliarul
to do.

REFLEXIVE AND EMPHASISING PRONOUNS

PERSON SINGULAR PLURAL
I myself ourselves
II yourself youselves
himself
herself III
itself

themselves

Pronumele reflexive arat faptul c aciunea exprimat de verb se
rsfrnge asupra subiectului acestuia.
We enjoy ourselves at her birthday party. Ne distrm la
petrecerea dat de ziua ei de natere.
Pronumele de ntrire au form identic cu pronumele reflexive
dar se deosebesc de acestea prin faptul c sunt accentuate i
subliniaz substantivul sau pronumele pe care l nsoesc. Ele se
plaseaz la sfritul propoziiei dar dac sunt aezate dup subiect ele
dobndesc o valoare mai accentuat.
We saw them ourselves. Noi nine i-am vzut.
He himself did this. El nsui a fcut asta.
NOT! n cazul n care este precedat de prepoziia by pronumele de
ntrire se traduce prin singur, singur, singuri, singure.
I do the homework by myself. mi fac temele singur.
The children dont wake up by themselves unless the alarm clock
rings. Copii nu se trezesc singuri dac nu sun ceasul detepttor.



1. Change the verbs in the following text into the third person
singular of the Present Tense. Common Aspect. Make the necessary
changes:
On weekdays I wake up at seven oclock in the morning. I brush my
teeth, comb my hair and then I get dressed. I have breakfast or just
drink a cup of coffee while I read the morning newspapers and
afterwards I leave my house to get to my office. I walk to my office,
as I love walking.
On my way to work I often meet a friend and we chat about all kinds
of things. I reach my office at ten minutes to nine and I get ready to
start work. I work about eight hours a day but sometimes I have to
work more. I work more when I have to check the sales figures or
when I discuss with different suppliers. In the afternoon I take a bus
back home, as I am a bit tired. I have my meal and I take a nap. In the
evening I watch TV, listen to the wireless or read a book.

2. Change the marked words to singular and make all the necessary
changes inside the sentences:
1. They make toys that look like animals.
2. My friends grow vegetables in the countryside; they bring them
to the market and sell them.
3. Parents give their children presents when they are good.
4. Our friends love fishing; they catch a lot of fish when they go
39
40
fishing to the Danube Delta.
5. The workers wash their hands and dry themselves on a towel.
6. My nephews go to the kindergarten in the morning.
7. Their children play in the morning and take a nap in the
afternoon.
8. These farmers keep cows and we buy milk from them.
9. These old women often stand at the window and watch people
walking in the street.
10. Your sons-in-law spend a lot of money on interesting books.
11. The best students in this university speak English very well and
now they understand almost every English book they read.
12. Young birds leave their nests when they learn to fly.
13. Those families live in cottages about three miles away from the
centre of the town.
14. My nieces enjoy their week-ends in the mountains.
15. We find these men interesting.

3. Rewrite each sentence as a negative or interrogative one according
to the instructions in brackets:
1. The students take notes when their lecturers teach.
(interrogative).
2. We study two foreign languages. (negative)
3. They enjoy all the subjects they study. (interrogative)
4. They borrow books from the universitys library. (interrogative)
5. The secretary types English letters.(negative)
6. The manager rings up foreign clients.(interrogative)
7. He meets them later.(interrogative)
8. He takes the clients about the county.(interrogative)
9. The employer employs economists and assessors.(negative)
10. The applicants hand in the applications to the clerk.
(interrogative)
11. Your fellow workers often agree on the problems you have to
solve. (interrogative)
12. The accountant signs the papers in time. (interrogative)

4. Use the corresponding reflexive or emphatic pronouns in the
sentences below:

1. I cut ... when making sandwiches for the picnic.
2. People must help ... in this small bar.
3. A lot of children enjoy ... in the Disney Land.
4. The hiker finds ... alone on a winding path in the woods.
5. If you eat so many sweets you will make ... ill.
6. Nowadays people find it easy to express ... in a foreign language,
particularly English.
7. I nourish the baby and than I ... have my meal.
8. The little girl tries to see ... in the mirror.
9. Humble people never talk about ...
10. They like to live by ... in that spooky, large manor house.
11. The wife knows her husband better than he knows ...
12. You must have a picture of ... somewhere in these drawers.
13. The child cut ... with a razor blade.
14. The banker ... is on a razors edge.
41
15. He ... is not much of a reader.
16. The office ... is large and bright.
17. The Smiths ... send us greeting post cards every Christmas.
18. The secretary ... writes this document in English.
19. The porter offers to carry that heavy luggage ...
20. I ... have not been there for more than a year.
21. Did she hurt ... when she opened the gate?
22. People protect ... from rain with umbrellas.
23. They say it ...
24. We excuse... and leave the meeting room.
25. Their daughter shut ... in her own room.
26. If you cannot do the work by... you must find someone to help
you.
27. I often ask ... why on Earth I dont give up.
28. One must do the work ... if he wants it well done.
29. One can lose ... quite easily in this rain forest.
30. All the people he ... appeals to greatly support him.

5. Change the following sentences to the negative:
Model: If we hurry, we shall be in time.
If we dont hurry, we shall not be in time.
1. If she goes to the theatre, she will have a good time.
2. If we leave the house at 6 o clock, we shall get there in time.
3. If you open the window, it will be too cold.
4. If you listen to the teacher, you will understand the lesson.
5. If he arrives early, we shall see him.
6. If you work hard, you will finish before 10 o clock.
7. If he invites us, we shall go.
8. If she studies hard, she will get good marks.
9. If it rains, we shall go by bus.
If it snows for two or three days, there will be enough snow for
skiing.


Bibliografie obligatorie:

1. Firic, Camelia. 2013. Limba englez, Craiova, Universitaria
2. Firic, Camelia. 2009. Brush up on your everyday English, Craiova, Universitaria
3. Firic, Camelia. 2006. Curs de limb englez - partea I, II, Craiova, Sitech

UNIT 3

WORK, PROFESSIONS, OCCUPATIONS, TRADES. WHATS YOUR PROFESSION

Contents:

3.1. HOW DO YOU EARN YOUR LIVING?
3.1.1. Grammar focus. Exercises
3.1.1.1. Indefinite pronouns and adjectives. Compounds of some, any, no
3.2. EXPRESSING TIME. WHAT TIME IS IT? WHATS THE TIME
3.2.1. Grammar focus. Exercises
3.2.1.1. The cardinal numeral
3.3. EXPRESSING DATE. WHAT DATE IS IT?
3.3.1. Grammar focus. Exercises
3.3.1.1. The ordinal numeral


Unit Objectives and competences:

- Improve your knowledge about (1) work, professions,
occupations, trades; (2) expressing time and date;
- Practise grammar issues: compounds of some, any, no; the
cardinal numeral; the ordinal numeral.


Lets Talk!
About career fulfilment. Why is it important to find out
everything you can about your future career or the job you want to
obtain? What do you know about your future job? Do you consider
this profession will give you satisfaction and you will be truly
successful in performing it? To what extent do you consider that the
working environment is important? Explain what you imagine
lawyers, judges, prosecutors do.
About job security. Enlarge upon the advantages of working
for an established organization, upon the promotion opportunities a
position must grant. Why is it important to find out everything about
the company that employs you?


1. HOW DO YOU EARN YOUR LIVING?

READING. Read and then answer:
Where you would like to work after graduation.
Which is, according to your opinion, the most interesting job?
What else would you like to be if you hadnt chosen to study
law?
Name as many traders as you know and the services they offer
their clients or customers.

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43

- What is your profession? What kind of work do you do?
- I am a teacher. I teach foreign languages in a language school.
The teaching profession also includes schoolmasters, lecturers,
professors. Teaching is a beautiful profession that brings a lot of
satisfaction.
- I am a chief accountant. I keep the books for a big company.
Economists are specialists in economic problems. My husband is an
electro- technical engineer. He works in a factory. Others are civil,
mechanical or electrical engineers.
- I, on the other hand, am a doctor, a physician, and my wife is a
medical nurse but the medical profession includes surgeons, dentists,
radiologists, biologists, family doctor, general practitioner, eye and
throat specialists, cardiologists, paediatrician, psychiatrist,
pharmacists, veterinarians and so on. They all take care of sick
people and help them to be healthy again or get well soon. Doctors
help people by operating on them, making tests, or by prescribing
them pills. We must not forget to mention the work of our colleagues
the vets, who take care of animals or peoples pets.
- I am a shorthand typist and I work as a secretary in an office. I
can type, shorthand, work on computer and I speak French, English
and a little German. All this knowledge is important to find a proper
job. My office hours are from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. but whenever it is the
case I work more than that. I have got a full time job but other clerks
have part time jobs. My boss is an engineer and a manager, too. He
runs a profitable business in the food industry and he does a lot of
fieldwork.
- I am a lawyer and I defend my clients but the profession of law
includes solicitors, barristers, assessors and judges.
- I am a carpenter. I build houses and make furniture, but a
building site also employs bricklayers (or masons), plumbers,
painters, glaziers and locksmiths. All these are called skilled workers
and I think these jobs are very important, too. Can you imagine life
without these artisans work? I consider it unimaginable.
- I am a journalist and a writer, too. I write articles for a daily
newspaper. As to the books I write, I give them to a publisher after I
correct them. The publisher has a publishing house where printers
print the text books, the grammar books, the guide books, the poetry
books, the essay collections, the novels, the albums and so on and the
bookbinders bind the books in covers. Then, the booksellers sell my
books in bookshops and the librarians, who buy them for the public
libraries, lend them to the readers.
- Some traders offer their services to their clients and customers:
these are tailors, dressmakers, furriers, shoemakers, cobblers, barbers,
hairdressers, watchmakers, photographers, dyers, dry cleaners,
waiters, cooks, shop assistants, merchants, bakers, butchers, grocers,
greengrocers, florists.
- Actors, actresses, musicians, conductors, players, singers,
conjurers, tamers, clowns, rope walkers they all entertain people
when they go to the theatre, cinema, opera or circus.
- Anyone who drives a car, a bus, a taxi is a driver, but a train has
an engine driver.
- The profession of arms, also very important because the army
44
provides security for our native land ever since the world began,
includes officers in the Navy, the Army, the Air Forces and the Police
Force. Someone who serves in these institutions is called a sailor, a
soldier, a fireman, an airman, a policeman or a customs officer.
- I think no one has a profession as beautiful as mine. I am a
farmer and I have my own farm. The farm I owe is in a plain region
and it is very large. I tend and harvest the crops of wheat and maize, I
grow pigs, cows, sheep that give meat, milk and wool and I plant fruit
trees.
- I am a stockbroker. I am a car dealer. I am a freelance writer. I am
a sales representative. I have a small business of my own.
- I am unemployed at the moment. Im looking for a job right now.



GRAMMAR FOCUS

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS AND ADJECTIVES

Affirmative
Sentence
Interrogative
Sentence
Negative
Sentence
Some Any No
Any Some Any

COMPOUNDS OF SOME, ANY, NO

BODY ONE THING WHERE
SOME Somebody
cineva (af.,
neg.)
Someone
cineva (af.,
neg.)
Something
ceva (af.,
neg.)
Somewhere
undeva (af.,
neg.)
ANY Anybody
cineva (int.)
nimeni
(neg.)
oricine (af.)
Anyone
cineva
(int.)
nimeni
(neg)
oricine
(af.)
Anything
ceva (int.)
nimic (neg)
oricine (af.)
Anywhere
undeva (int.)
nicieri
(neg.)
oriunde (af.)
NO Nobody No one Nothing Nowhere

Some i compuii lui se folosesc:
n propoziii afirmative att ca pronume ct i ca adjective;
n propoziii interogative pentru a sugera c se ateapt un rspus
pozitiv sau c exist o presupunere, un dubiu:
Didnt she tell you something about me? Nu i-a spus ceva
despre mine?
Cnd se pune accentul pe o parte din obiectele menionate:
Did you do some of the exercises the teacher asked us to do?
Ai fcut vreunele din exerciiile pe care ne-a cerut profesorul
s le facem?
Any i compuii lui se folosesc:
n propoziii interogative ca sinonime ale lui some i compuii
lui:
Is there anybody here? Este cineva aici?
Have you anything in your hand? Ai ceva n mn?
n propoziii afirmative cu sensul: oricare, orice, oricine;
n propiziii negative cu neles negativ i cu verbul la negativ:
I cannot hear anything. Nu pot auzi nimic.
No i compuii lui se folosesc:
n propoziii negative cu verbul la afirmativ:
He knows nothing. El nu tie nimic.
We go nowhere. Nu mergem nicieri.
I hear nobody. Nu aud pe nimeni.
I have nothing in my hand. Nu am nimic n mn.



1. Nouns denoting professions, occupations or the agent of an action
are formed from verb + -er/ -or. Others are formed from noun + -er/
-or. Make up nouns adding the suffixes -er/ -or to the following verbs
according to the model and translate them :
Model: to sing singer cntre
to collect collector colecionar; ncasator; agent fiscal
to play, to write, to read, to dance, to teach, to build, to paint, to
learn, to do, to make, to go, to look, to employ, to keep, to trade, to
work, to clean, to drink, to run, to sell, to drive, to walk, to kidnap, to
receive, to rap, to commute, to defend, to explore, to organise, to win,
to fly, to think, to dine;
to assess, to operate, to create, to credit, to deposit, to conduct, to
invent.

2. Guess the occupations:
1. I work in an office. I type letters and answer the phone.
2. I go to court and defend peoples rights.
3. I work in a hospital and take care of sick people.
4. I work in a school and help people learn.
5. You pay me when you buy something at the store.
6. I take care of sick animals.
7. I put out fires.
8. I wear a uniform and a badge. I help keep your neighborhood safe.
9. I help keep your teeth clean.
10. I deliver letters and packages to your home.

3. Read quickly in the singular:
These employees say that when they get home every afternoon
they change their clothes, have some food because they are hungry
and rest.
My friends, who live in the countryside, tell me that when they
come to town for a few days they always get very tired and sleep
badly and find it difficult to get up in the morning. They just idle,
visit their friends and eat. In the countryside, they say, they are so
busy that time passes quickly and they enjoy the evenings, when they
rest, read or talk. They never open an eye all night and feel fresh
when they begin a new working day.

4. Complete the sentences below with some, any, no and their
compound forms:
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46
1. I hear (ceva/ cineva/nimic) at the door.
2. Can you hear (ceva)?
3. They know (ceva/nimic/orice) about this subject.
4. Do they have (ceva) for breakfast?
5. Do you go (undeva) during the winter holidays?
6. I dont go (nicieri). I go (nicieri).
7. Do they go (undeva) with (cineva)?
8. Can you see (ceva/pe cineva) in the dark?
9. I can see (nimic). I cannot see (nimic). I can see (orice), as my
sight is good.
10. Would you like (nite) coffee?
11. Would you like (ceva)?
12. The woman had (ceva/orice/nimic) in her shopping bag.
13. She bought (nimic/ceva). She didnt buy (nimic).
14. Say (ceva/nimic/orice).
15. Dont say (nimic).
16. Dont go (nicieri). Stay indoors and do (ceva) useful.
17. My old neighbour likes to play the piano (cteodat).
18. (Orice) child likes to play. (Nimeni) likes work.
19. I like (nite) snacks when I watch TV.
20. (Nicieri) is better than home.
21. (Nimic) is better than an ice-cream in summer.
22. (Orice) is better than rancid butter.
23. (Nimic) is worse than to lose (pe cineva) dear.
24. A parent gives his child (orice).
25. He gives his girl-friend (ceva/nimic/orice).

5. Complete the following sentences with some, any, no:
1. I want to ask you thing.
2. Dont ask me thing. I have no time to talk.
3. Give me thing to drink, thing but water.
4. We cannot understand her: she never tells body thing.
5. He will not listen (nu vrea s asculte) to one who has thing
to say.
6. You may find my son where in the garden.
7. She may go where she pleases.
8. She may go where, tonight. She is grounded.
9. There is one at the door asking if theres one at home.
10. Do you know thing about one here?
11. No, I know thing about body.
12. I feel like going where to talk to body.

6. Change the following indirect questions into direct ones according
to the model:
Model: Ask mother if she needs something from the shop.
Mother, do you need anything from the shop?
Ask if there is any bread and butter for breakfast.
Ask if there is something on the table.
Ask if there is somebody in the office.
Ask if there are some secretaries in the faculty.
Ask your colleague if he goes somewhere on holiday.
Ask why he goes nowhere.
Ask why nobody comes to the courses.
Ask your colleague if he has something in his hand.
Ask if there is any dean in the office.
Ask if someone knows about the missing students.

7. Fill in the blanks with the words in the box:

library, bookshop, back cover, title, publishing house,
introduction, author, front cover, illustration, table of contents,
chapters, to lend, librarian, from cover to cover, best seller.

1. One can borrow books from the but one can buy them from
a .
2. The person who works in a library is called .
3. The librarian books to people.
4. The person who writes a book is a writer or an .
5. I dont know the title of the book but I can tell it by the .
6. Read this book from to . Its a .
7. Usually one may find out what the book is about, by reading the
, that part in which the author speaks about the subject.
8. The parts the books are divided into are .
9. A book may have several chapters, whose titles you may find by
reading the .
10. are parts of story books especially. Good illustrations
must be illustrative of the subject.
11. Other authors interesting opinions about a book may be read on
the .
12. Since 1990 numerous appeared all over the country and
they printed innumerable publications.




Lets Talk!
About how to tell the time in English. How can people know
the time of the day? How can they tell the right time? How did people
use to measure time in ancient times? Do you wear a watch? Where
do you wear it? Can you tell the time in English? What is the most
particular rule about telling the time in English? What is the time by
your watch now? What happens when your watch is slow or fast?
Do you know what GMT stands for? If you dont, how would
you ask about this in English?


2. EXPRESSING TIME. WHAT TIME IS IT?


READING. Read and pay attention to the use of the
phrases and then:
Go round the clock and give all the five minutes from three
oclock to four oclock.
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48
Match each definition with a word: a.m., day, digital, half-hour,
hour, midday, minute, minute hand, morning, night, noon, o'clock,
p.m., quarter-hour, second, sunset, today, tomorrow, yesterday:
1. The time elapsed between sunset and dawn.
2. The sixtieth part of a minute.
3. Midday.
4. The Latin phrase post meridiem.
5. The part of a watch or clock that measures the minutes.
6. A type of watch or clock which uses numerals to tell the
time.
7. The day before today.
8. The sixty seconds.
9. The period between sunrise and sunset.
10. Thirty minutes.
11. Sixty minutes.
12. A word placed at the end of the phrase giving the time.
13. The earliest part of a day.
14. A clock or watch with hands for seconds, minutes, hours.
15. The moment the sun disappears from the sky.
16. Fifteen minutes.
17. The middle part of the day.
18. The latin phrase ante meridiem.
19. The day after today.
20. The present day.
21. The time between noon and evening

People can tell the time by a clock or a watch. A clock is big and
it usually hangs on the wall or stands on the mantelpiece above the
fireplace. Some clocks are very big, for example Big Ben, the clock
on the House of Parliament in London.
The minute hand of Big Ben is fourteen feet long, and the hour hand
is nine feet long. We can hear Big Ben every night on the wireless at
nine oclock when it strikes and its sound goes all over the world.
A watch is small; we can put one in our pocket or we wear it on the
wrist as it has a strap. On the dial, under the glass we see twelve
Roman or Arabic figures. The figures round the dial mark the hours
and minutes. Each hour may be divided into two halves and four
quarters. A quarter of an hour has fifteen minutes and half an hour
has thirty minutes. A full hour has sixty minutes. Each minute has
sixty seconds. There are three hands on the dial: a short hand for the
hours, a long hand for the minutes and a very long one for the
seconds. The wheels and spring, which are inserted inside the case,
move the hands.
My watch keeps good time and only stops when I dont wind it up
and then I set it right by the radio signal. When my watch is out of
order I take it to the watchmaker, who repairs it. Otherwise, my
watch is neither fast, nor slow.
I dont consider it is difficult to tell the time in English. First of all,
lets deal with the hours: we say its one oclock sharp, two oclock
sharp, three oclock and so on. We use the letters a.m. (a short form
of the Latin words ante meridiem meaning before noon) and p.m. (a
short form of the Latin words post meridiem meaning after noon).
Twelve oclock may refer to midnight or to midday.
49
For the quarters we say: its a quarter past five, half past five, and a
quarter to six. We can also say five fifteen, five thirty and five forty-
five when we refer to the times of trains or aeroplanes, shops etc.
Going round the clock and giving all the five minutes from twelve
oclock to one oclock we say: five past twelve, ten past twelve, a
quarter past twelve, twenty past twelve, twenty- five past twelve,
thirty past twelve, twenty- five to one, twenty to one, a quarter to one,
ten to one, five to one.
Thus we use the preposition past for the former half hour and the
preposition to for the latter half hour.
- What time is it by your watch? Whats the time by your watch?
- By my watch it is two to two, but my watch is wrong.
- Is your watch fast or slow?
- Sometimes it is a few minutes fast and sometimes it is a few
minutes slow. It does not keep good time. Sometimes it loses,
sometimes it gains. I must take it to the watchmaker to have it
mended.
- Listen! The clock in the tower is just striking four oclock and
now I can set my watch correctly.
- Is it four already? Is it that late? Is it as late as that? We have no
much time left to go to the library before the math class so, lets
go at once.
- You are right. Lets.


GRAMMAR FOCUS

THE CARDINAL NUMERAL

Numeralele cardinale ntre 13 19 se formeaz adugnd
numeralelor de la 3 9 sufixul teen:

13 thirteen
14 fourteen
15 fifteen
16 sixteen
18 eighteen
19 nineteen

Numeralele 13-thirteen [':ti:n] i 15-fifteen ['fifti:n] prezint
deosebiri ortografice i de pronunie fa de numeralele 3 - three i 5 -
five de la care s-au format.
Numeralele 20, 30, 40 ... 90 se formeaz adugnd la numeralele
cuprinse ntre 2 i 9 sufixul ty.

20 twenty 60 sixty
30 thirty 70 seventy
40 forty 80 eighty
50 fifty 90 ninety

Intre zeci i uniti se pune liniu: twenty-one, thirty-four,
ninety- nine.
Particulariti ortografice i de pronunie prezint numeralele 20 -
twenty ['twenti], 30 - thirty [':ti], 40 - forty ['fo:ti], 50 - fifty ['fifti].
Intre sute, mii i milioane i cifrele care denumesc zeci i uniti
se folosete conjuncia and:
two hundred and thirty -230, two thousand and nine -2009.
Numeralele hundred, thousand i million nu primesc terminaia
catacteristic pluralului cnd sunt plasate dup un numeral cardinal:
nine hundred - 900, two thousand -2000, three million -3 milioane.
Dac sunt folosite la numrul singular ele vor fi nsoite de articolul
nehotrt sau numeralul one: a/ one hundred -100, one thousand -
1000, one million two hundred and nine -1. 200 009.
Aceste numerale primesc desinena de plural:
cnd sunt folosite ca substantive:
Hundreds come to the library every day. Sute vin la
bibliotec zilnic.
cnd sunt urmate de prepoziia of:
Hundreds and hundreds of people are in street. Sute i sute
de oameni sunt pe strad.
Thousands and thousands of books are gathered in our
universitys library. Mii i mii de cri sunt adunate n biblioteca
universitii nostre.
Two millions of people live in this city. Dou milioane de
oameni locuiesc n acest ora.
Billion nseamn miliard n engleza american.
In locul punctului se folosete virgula pentru separarea cifrelor,
punctul indicnd zecimalele: 2,029 (two thousand and twenty nine).
Numeralele cardinale se folosesc pentru exprimarea orei i a datei
(anilor);
Anii se citesc n dou maniere:
n stilul oficial: 1999 one thousand nine hundred and ninety -
nine;
n engleza vorbit: 1999 nineteen ninety-nine (se citesc cifrele
luate dou cte dou).
n exprimarea operaiunilor aritmetice,
Two plus two is/ are four.
Four minus two makes/ make/ is two.
Two multiplied by two is/ are four
Four divided by two is/ are two.
pentru citirea numerelor de telefon, unde trebuie remarcat faptul
c 0 (zero)se citete [ u]:
NOT! Dac primele sau ultimele dou cifre sunt identice se
folosete cuvntul double, dar aceast regul nu se aplic i n cazul
n care cifrele din mijloc sunt identice.
My phone number is 116603 double one six six oh three
[d bl w n siks siks u ri].




1. Read the following years:
1066, 1172, 1391, 1601, 1735, 1877, 1918, 1944, 1955, 1956,
1978, 1989, 2000, 2003.

50
51
2. Translate into English:
Sute de studenii, ase sute de studeni, mii de cri, trei mii de
cri, milioane de oameni, multe milioane de oameni, douzeci de
milioane de locuitori, zeci de profesori, multe zeci de profesori,
miliarde i miliarde de lei pagub.

3. Rewrite the following sentences using infinitives:
Model: I have nothing I can wear.

1. Have you anything you want to say?
2. The police have no evidence they can offer.
3. The secretary has a lot of letters she must write.
4. I have a lot of work I must do.
5. Cant you find something better you could do?
6. She buys a hat she can wear at that party.
7. The doctor has tens of patients he must see.
8. We have a lot of friends we must visit.
9. We havent much money we can spend.
10. Has he anything he wants to add?
11. She is sorry that she missed the beginning of the concert.
12. We must wait till we hear the examination results before we
make holidays plans.
13. She is happy that she finds such a pleasant place to live in.
14. Mother is happy that she has good, obedient children.
15. I am horrified that I have to see her again.

4. Rewrite these sentences omitting the underlined adverbs and
using the words provided in brackets:
1. He always gets up before sunrise (occasionally).
2. They will soon arrive (in a few minutes).
3. The old man often goes out in the evening (once a week).
4. Their children usually go to school by bus (five times a week).
5. They rarely visit their parents (about twice a year).
6. They frequently go to visit their father at the hospital (once a day).
7. I sometimes spend a weekend in the mountains (every other month).

5. Rewrite these sentences adding the words very much in the
appropriate positions:
1. Young people nowadays like modern music.
2. I hope you have time to attend the concert.
3. He is surprised to hear that I speak German.
4. Does it matter if we arrive a few minutes after the party begins?
5. Mr. Lean regrets that it is not possible for him to accept your
invitation.
6. The news about the damage is exaggerated.
7. They are impressed by his good behaviour, arent they?
8. The wife is hurt by her husbands words, isnt she?
9. The chairman is annoyed because of the great loses.
10. They are concerned about their childrens future.

6. Complete the following sentences with the appropriate reflexive
pronouns:
1. Behave mother tells her children every day.
52
2. Dont be too sure of my boy the father keeps telling his son.
3. VIPs like to read about in the papers.
4. The history teacher says: History repeats .
5. She goes out every Saturday and enjoys .
6. She bought a new coat.
7. Who made it? He made it .
8. Does he think of other people? No he only thinks of . He
only takes care of .

7. Answer the questions:
1. How long does it take you to get to University?
2. How long does it take you to wash, dress yourself and eat your
breakfast?
3. How long does it take your mother to prepare breakfast?
4. How long does it take you to graduate this university?
5. How long does it take you to read a magazine?

8. Match each definition with a words:
a.m., analog, day, digital, elapsed, half-hour, hour, midday, minute,
minute hand, morning, night, noon, o'clock, p.m., quarter-hour,
second, sunset, today, tomorrow, yesterday
1. The hours of darkness between sunset and dawn.
2. A very short period of time equal; the sixtieth part of a minute.
3. Twelve o'clock in the daytime; midday.
4. The Latin phrase post meridiem which means after midday.
5. The part of an analog clock which measures the minutes.
6. When time has passed
7. A type of clock which does not have hands but rather uses
numerals to display the time
8. The day before today
9. The sixtieth part of an hour; sixty seconds.
10. the period between sunrise and sunset or between two
successive nights.
11. A period of time lasting thirty minutes.
12. A unit of time equal to sixty minutes; the twenty-fourth part of a
day
13. A word that is used when giving the time.
14. The earliest part of the day, beginning about sunrise and ending
about noon.
15. A type of clock that tells the time by means of hands moving on
a dial plate.
16. The moment each day when the sun disappears below the
western horizon.
17. A period of fifteen minutes.
18. The middle part of the day or the time near or around the middle
part of the day.
19. The Latin phrase ante meridiem which means before midday.
20. The day after today.
21. The present day.
22. The time of day between noon and evening

9. Select the definition that most nearly defines the given word.
time
53
a) the middle part of the day or the time near or around the
middle part of the day.
b) a particular moment measured by hours, minutes, and
seconds on a clock.
c) when time has passed
d) a period of fifteen minutes.
a.m.
a) twelve o'clock at night.
b) a very short period of time equal; the sixtieth part of a
minute.
c) the Latin phrase ante meridiem which means before midday.
d) the period between sunrise and sunset or between two
successive nights.
sunset
a) the Latin phrase post meridiem which means after midday.
b) a period of time lasting thirty minutes.
c) the day before today
d) the moment each day when the sun disappears below the
western horizon.
morning
a) the part of an analog clock which measures the minutes.
b) a particular moment measured by hours, minutes, and
seconds on a clock.
c) the earliest part of the day, beginning about sunrise and
ending about noon.
d) the sixtieth part of an hour; sixty seconds.
noon
a) twelve o'clock in the daytime; midday.
b) the hours of darkness between sunset and dawn.
c) the time of day between late afternoon and nightfall.
d) the time of day between noon and evening
midnight
a) the present day.
b) twelve o'clock at night.
c) the part of an analog clock which measures the minutes.
d) a type of clock which does not have hands but rather uses
numerals to display the time
day
a) twelve o'clock in the daytime; midday.
b) a type of clock that tells the time by means of hands moving
on a dial plate.
c) the moment each day at which the sun first becomes visible
above the eastern horizon.
d) the period between sunrise and sunset or between two
successive nights.
midday
a) a word that is used when giving the time.
b) a unit of time equal to sixty minutes; the twenty-fourth part of
a day
c) the middle part of the day or the time near or around the
middle part of the day.
d) the moment each day when the sun disappears below the
western horizon.
clock
a) the moment each day when the sun disappears below the
western horizon.
b) a particular moment measured by hours, minutes, and
seconds on a clock.
c) the day after today.
d) a machine that tells the time.
half-hour
a) a period of time lasting thirty minutes.
b) the earliest part of the day, beginning about sunrise and
ending about noon.
c) the present day.
d) a period of fifteen minutes.
second
a) a type of clock that tells the time by means of hands moving
on a dial plate.
b) a very short period of time equal; the sixtieth part of a
minute.
c) the moment each day at which the sun first becomes visible
above the eastern horizon.
d) when time has passed
sunrise
a) the day after today.
b) the Latin phrase ante meridiem which means before midday.
c) twelve o'clock at night.
d) the moment each day at which the sun first becomes visible
above the eastern horizon.





Lets Talk!
How can people keep track of days, weeks, and months? Who
made our calendar? How many years are there in a century? What
century are we in? What year did our century begin in? When does it
end? What do you call the year when February has 29 days?


3. EXPRESSING DATE. WHAT DATE IS IT?


READING. Read the text and tell the following dates
in English:

1 aprilie 2003, 25 august 1768, 12 ianuarie 1243, 2 iulie 1645, 3
mai 1159, 14 februarie 1989, 8 martie 2000, 25 decembrie 1967,
31 decembrie 1979, 20 septembrie 1978, 9 iulie 1978, 4 martie
1977, 1 octombrie 2005

54
55
As the clock is for the time, the calendar is for the date.
We measure time by seconds, minutes, hours, by days, weeks,
months or years, by decades or centuries, by millenniums.
There are twelve months in a year. Here are their names and
their successive order: January- the first, February- the second,
March- the third, April- the fourth, May- the fifth, June- the sixth,
July- the seventh, August- the eighth, September- the ninth, October-
the tenth, November- the eleventh and December- the twelfth.
Some months have thirty days, others have thirty-one. February
has only twenty- eight days, but every fourth year, in a leap year, it
has twenty- nine days.
Our calendar was made by Sosigenes at the special request of
Julius Caesar. The month of July was named after Caesars name.
Later Augustus named the month of August after his name and he
decided to make August as long as July. He took an extra day off
February that was shortened by one day.
There are fifty- two weeks in a year, or three hundred and sixty-
five or sixty- six days. Seven days, five working-days (weekdays)
and two holidays form a week. Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday,
Thursday, Friday, Saturday and Sunday are the days of the week.
Monday is the first day of the week and Sunday is the last. The
English consider Sunday as being the first day of the week so when
they start to enumerate the seven days they start with Sunday not with
Monday. Two weeks make a fortnight.
A day has twenty- four hours. A day is the time it takes the
Earth to move right round its own axis while a year is the time it
takes our planet to move round the Sun. There are two parts in one
day- the day and the night. The period of twenty- four hours is
divided into morning, afternoon, evening and night. A day begins in
the morning and ends in the evening. In the morning the sun rises, in
the evening it sets. The middle of the day is called midday while
midnight is in the middle of the night. We refer to this day as today.
The day before today is called yesterday and the day before yesterday
is called the day before yesterday.
We call the day after today tomorrow, and the day after tomorrow
the day after tomorrow. In the morning, until 12 oclock a.m., when
we want to greet people whom we are not friends with, we say Good
morning, in the afternoon, between 12 a.m. and 6 p.m., we say Good
afternoon, in the evening, after 6 p.m. till late at night, we say Good
evening. If it is night, and we leave or go to bed we have to say Good
night.
The 1
st
of January is the first day of the year. December 31
st
is the
last and it is called New Years Eve. One of the greatest holidays for
the Christians, Christmas, is on the 25
th
of December (or December
25
th
). People celebrate the birth of Jesus Christ, our Saviour or
Redeemer.
A year may also be divided into four seasons: spring, summer,
autumn or fall as the Americans say, and the season of snow- winter.
Ten years form a decade and one hundred years form a century.
One thousand years or ten centuries form a millennium. The third
millennium of mankinds history has just begun.
At present we are living in the first decade of the twenty- first
century A. D. The twentieth century ended some years ago.

GRAMMAR FOCUS

THE ORDINAL NUMERAL

Numeralele ordinale se formeaz adugnd sufixul - th la
numeralul cardinal corespunztor (cu excepia numeralelor 1, 2, 3)
precedat de articolul hotrt the:
the fifth (al cincilea, a cincea), the seventh (al aptelea, a
aptea), the hundredth (al o sutlea), the one thousandth (al o
miilea).
Numeralele ordinale corespunztoare numeralelor cardinale
1, 2, 3 sunt: the first, the second, the third.
Particulariti ortografice prezint numeralele: the fifth, the eighth,
the ninth, the twelfth.
La numeralele terminate n ty, y se transform n ie i primete
sufixul th:
twenty the twentieth, thirty the thirtieth, forty the fortieth, fifty
the fiftieth, sixty the sixtieth.
In cazul numerelor compuse numai ultima cifr este un numeral
ordinal: 32
nd
the thirty second, 328
th
the three hundred and
thirty eighth, 1001
st
the one thousand and first.
n limba englez exprimarea datei se face cu ajutorul numeralului
ordinal.




1. Read the following dates in English:

1 aprilie 2003, 25 august 1768, 12 ianuarie 1243, 2 iulie 1645, 3 mai
1159, 14 februarie 1989, 8 martie 2000, 25 decembrie 1967, 31
decembrie 1979, 20 septembrie 1978, 9 iulie 1978, 4 martie 1977, 1
octombrie 2005

2. Study this list of jobs. Some of them are said to be a mans job;
others a womans job. Give your own opinion:
bus driver, lorry driver, nurse, cook, bank manager, vet, secretary,
typist, professional footballer, garage mechanic, babysitter, train
driver, beauty expert, chef.

3. A woman is talking to a clerk. Look at the dialogue and do the
same, but mind the main verb:
Model: Clerk: I dont know.
Woman: Dont you? Well, is there someone here who does?
1. I dont want to serve you.
2. I dont want to tell anything about this problem.
3. I cant help you.
4. I cant explain the situation to you.
5. Im not assisting customers.
6. I havent got any time.
7. I am not able to answer to your question.
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57
8. I must not wash the wash basin.
9. I cant speak English.
10. I am not able to spell in English.

4. Ask questions the same as the woman does:
Model: I dont suppose you know how much the coat is?
1. What size the coat is.
2. What the dress is made of.
3. Where the salesgirl is.
4. Where the public phone is.
5. When the store closes.
6. Who that strange man is.
7. When the next plane to Paris is.
8. When it arrives to the destination.
9. If its on time.
10. If its usually very full.

5. Replace whose with of which in the following sentences:
Model: Dont take the chair whose leg is broken.
Dont take the chair the leg of which is broken.
1. We live in a house whose owner is abroad.
2. The librarian gives me a book whose author is completely
unknown.
3. They live in a village whose name I cannot remember.
4. My garden is the one whose gate is painted green.
5. He uses a dictionary whose cover has come off.
6. Their house is the one whose roof is green.
7. Our house is the one whose windows are open.
8. Our car is the one whose tyre is flat.
9. Her computer is the one whose screen is dusty.
10. His overcoat is the one whose buttons are loose.

6. Change the following sentences using there is aor there are
someaccording to the model:
Model: A shelf on the wall. There is a shelf on the wall.
Shelves on the walls. There are some shelves on the walls.
1. Men and women in the shop.
2. A clerk in this office.
3. Children in the playground.
4. A calendar on the desk.
5. Footsteps in front of the door.
6. Geese in the farmyard.
7. A lawyer in the court.
8. Two mice in the box over there.
9. Dice under the tablecloth.
10. Several scarves and handkerchiefs in the drawer.
11. A doctor near the pacient.
12. Many factories in this town.
13. Two wolves behind the sheaves in that field.
14. Yellow leaves in the street.
15. A number at the bottom of the page.

7. Comment on the following statements using BE + NEVER/
58
ALWAYS + ADJECTIVE.
Model: My brother is not cold.
Well, you know your brother, hes never cold.
He is tired.Well, you know him, hes always tired.
1. Our neighbours are late again.
2. They are not in a hurry.
3. These hens are hungry again.
4. Isnt father hot?
5. He is thirsty again.
6. The boss is angry again.
7. He is not in a good mood.
8. These clerks are hard working people.
9. George is at a loss again.
10. He doesnt know what to do.
11. That man is rude again.
12. Mary is afraid of our dog though he knows her.
13. My sister is being careless again.
14. The Browns are noisy again.
15. Mother is having a headache.
16. The teacher has a cold again.
17. These students dont do their task.
18. This old lady doesnt like anything.
19. She is never pleased.
20. She is always complaining about something.




Bibliografie obligatorie:

1. Firic, Camelia. 2013. Limba englez, Craiova, Universitaria
2. Firic, Camelia. 2009. Brush up on your everyday English, Craiova, Universitaria
3. Firic, Camelia. 2006. Curs de limb englez - partea I, II, Craiova, Sitech
UNIT 4

THINGS YOU CAN, MUST AND MAY DO

Contents:

4.1. CAN YOU SPEAK ENGLISH?
4.1.1. Grammar focus. Exercises
4.1.1.1. Modal verbs
4.1.1.2. Personal pronouns in Dative and Accusative
4.1.1.3. The imperative mode
4.2. LEISURE ACTIVITIES AND SKILLS
4.2.1. Grammar focus. Exercises
4.2.1.1. The indefinite participle
4.3. WHAT ARE THEY DOING?
4.3.1. Grammar focus. Exercises
4.3.1.1. The present continuous
4.3.1.2. The near future

Unit Objectives and competences:
- Learn and practice vocabulary referring to (1) expressing
ability, permission, obligation and some school regulations; (2)
leisure time and how you spend it; (3) having breakfast with family.
- Practise grammar issues: modal verbs, personal pronouns in Dative
and Accusative, the imperative mode, indefinite participle, the
present continuous, near future
.

Lets Talk!

Talking about abilities. Every person is good at doing something.
What can you do best?
Talking about allowed and banned things. Every person is
forbidden to do certain things in public places or at work. What are
you forbidden to do at university, at home or in public places? And
what must you do? Should mobiles phones and camera phones be
banned inside places of education? What are the things you may do
at university and in public places?

1. CAN YOU SPEAK ENGLISH?

READING.
- Can you speak English?
- No, I cannot, but I can understand it a little.
- Can your colleagues read and write in English?
- Some of them can do this very well, some cant.
- What about you?

59
60
- Im afraid I cannot write very well in English. My spelling in
English is not good but I can work hard to learn more.
- May I ask you a question, if you please?
- Yes, you all may ask any question you want.
- Tell us please, must we buy any dictionaries or conversation
guide- books?
- Yes, you must. You need a dictionary. It may be very useful
because you can find any new words in it. You need not buy
grammar books or other English books yet. Now, lets speak only
English.
- Can you drive a car?
- Yes, I can, as I have a driving licence.
- What must you do when you are at the faculty?
- We must attend courses and seminars, we must come in time, we
must abide by university rules and regulations, we must complete
tasks and assignments.
- What are you not allowed to do?
- We are not allowed to disturb classes, missbehave, be impolite, or
miss classes.
- It is true, and if someone commits more serious ofends such as
bringing illegal drugs, alcohol, or weapons, which are prohibited, he
or she will be charged with a serious violation of the rules and law as
well.



GRAMMAR FOCUS

MODAL VERBS

CAN a putea, a fi n stare, a fi capabil (arat abilitatea fizic sau
mental de a ndeplini o aciune);
MAY a putea, a avea voie, a avea permisiunea (arat
permisiunea, probabilitatea);
MUST a trebui (arat o obligaie, o necesitate);
SHALL, SHOULD, WILL, WOULD, NEED, OUGHT (TO),
DARE.
Se numesc verbe modale pentru c exprim atitudinea subiectului
fa de aciunea sau starea descris de verbul care le urmeaz. Spre
deosebire de celelalte verbe, au numai dou timpuri i moduri, i
anume Indicativ Prezent i Condiional Prezent. Aceast
caracteristic le atrage i denumirea de verbe defective. Verbele can,
may, must precum i alte verbe defectiv- modale prezint o serie de
particulariti care le deosebesc de verbele obinuite i anume:
nu sunt precedate la forma de infinitiv de particula to;
verbele care le urmeaz sunt la forma de infinitiv scurt (fr
particula to);
I can learn. Sunt capabil s nv./ Pot nva.
I may leave. Am voie s plec.
We must be there. Trebuie s fim acolo.
COMPARAI CU!
I want to learn. Vreau s nv.
I want to leave. Vreau s plec
61
I want to be there. Vreau s fiu acolo.
nu primesc terminaia s la persoana a III-a singular aa cum se
ntmpl n cazul verbelor predicative obinuite;
He can read. Poate citi.
He may come in. Poate intra
He must study. Trebuie s studieze.
nu formeaz interogativul i negativul cu verbul auxiliar to do ci
prin inversiune i respectiv prin simpla adugare a negaiei not:
Can he swim? tie/ Poate s noate?
He cannot / cant swim. Nu tie/ nu poate s noate.
May I take this? Pot/Am voie s iau asta?
You may not/ maynt take that. Nu poi s-o iei.
Must we go there? Trebuie s mergem acolo?
We must not/mustnt go there. Nu trebuie s mergem acolo.
ATENIE! Forma de negativ a verbului can se scrie ntr-un cuvnt
- cannot.
nu au toate timpurile i modurile: can are forma de trecut i de
condiional could, may are forma de trecut i de condiional might,
must are numai form de prezent (dar aceast form poate fi folosit
ca i form de trecut n propoziiile subordonate). Pentru celelalte
timpuri se folosesc expresii echivalente cunoscute sub denumirea de
echivaleni ai verbelor modale:
Can se nlocuiete cu to be able to
May se nlocuiete cu to be allowed to, to be permitted to
Must se nlocuiete cu to have to, to be obliged to
ATENIE! Pentru a cere ngduina se pot folosi deopotriv att
may ct i can.
May I leave? mi dai voie s plec?
Can I leave? Pot pleca?
Verbul may la negativ exprim lipsa permisiunii: nu- i dau voie, nu-
i ngdui:
No, you may not leave. Nu-i dau voie s pleci.
Verbul must la negativ exprim interdicia este interzis, nu este
permis:
You must not smoke in the babys room. Nu ai voie s fumezi
n camera copilului.
Need are nelesul de este nevoie, este necesar.
Intrebarea este nevoie? i rspunsul negativ nu este nevoie se
redau prin intermediul acestui verb atunci cnd se ateapt un rspuns
negativ:
Need we buy any dictionaries? Este nevoie s cumprm vreun
dicionar?
No, you need not/ neednd. Nu-i nevoie/ Ne este necesar.
Rspunsul afirmativ se va reda cu verbul must:
Yes, you must. Da, trebuie.
Obligaia impus de o planificare anterioar se exprim prin
intermediul verbului to be to urmat de infinitivul scurt (fr particula
to) al verbului de conjugat. Acest verb se poate folosi att la timpul
prezent ct i la trecul.
We are to meet them at noon. Urmeaz s-i ntlnim la
amiaz.
We were to meet them at noon. Urma s-i ntlnim la amiaz.
62
Deoarece verbul modal can are aceiai form - could - att
pentru timpul trecut ct i pentru modul condiional, vom folosi
echivalentul to be able to pentru a indica o realizare n trecut:
I was able to read the whole report. Am fost n stare/ Am
putut s citesc tot raportul.



PERSONAL PRONOUNS IN DATIVE AND ACCUSATIVE

NOMINATIVE DATIVE ACCUSATIVE
I (to) me mie me
you (to) you ie you
he (to) him lui him
she (to) her ei her
it (to) it it
we (to) us nou us
you (to) you vou you
they (to)them lor them

n limba englez, n propoziiile afirmative, ordinea
cuvintelor este:
subiect + predicat + complement indirect + complement direct
I can lend you my pen. Ii pot mprumuta stiloul meu.
Dac complementul direct este plasat naintea celui indirect,
acesta din urm va fi, obligatoriu, precedat de prepoziia to:
I can lend my pen to you. Ii pot mprumuta stiloul meu.


THE IMPERATIVE MODE

Modul imperativ exprim un ordin la afirmativ sau negativ i
are o singur form, persoana a II-a singular i plural, identic cu
infinitivul scurt al verbului de conjugat:
Come! Go! Wait! Stop!
Forma negativ a modului imperativ se formeaz cu auxiliarul to do
conform schemei:
Do + not + verb (la infinitiv)
Do not / Dont come late! Nu veni trziu!
Dont go there alone! Nu te duce acolo singur!
Dont wait for me! Nu m atepta!
Dont be cheeky! Nu fi obraznic!
Pe de alt parte, putem vorbi de forme ale imperativului i la celelalte
persoane. La persoanele I i a III-a singular i plural se folosete
construcia cu verbul auxiliar let urmat de pronume n cazul acuzativ
i verb de conjugat la infinitiv scurt conform schemei:
Let + pronume (me, him, her, it, us, them) + verb
Aceast construcie se traduce prin (hai) s...
Let me see! (Las- m) S vd!
Let us/ Lets go. S mergem!
Negativul se construiete cu ajutorul verbului to do:
Do + not (dont) +let + pronume + verb.
Dont let them leave early! Nu-i lsa s plece devreme!
NOT: In vorbirea indirect propoziiile imperative se vor reda cu
infinitivul verbului de conjugat dac propoziia este afirmativ, i cu
not + infinitivul verbului dac propoziia este negativ.
Astfel, propoziiile imperative:
Take a sheet of paper! Luai o bucat de hrtie!
Write down after dictation! Scriei dup dictare!
Dont look in your colleagues papers! Nu v uitai n
lucrarea colegului!
vor fi introduse prin unul din verbele to tell, to order, to ask, dup
cum este cazul, urmate de infinitivul verbelor take i write (pentru
cele dou propoziii afirmative) i respectiv not + infinitivul verbului
look (pentru propoziia negativ):
The teacher tells us to take a sheet of paper. Profesorul ne
spune s lum o bucat de hrtie.
The teacher asks us to write down after dictation! Profesorul
ne cere s scriem dup dictare.
The teacher asks us not to look in our colleagues papers.
Profesorul ne cere s nu ne uitm n lucrrile colegilor.



1. In the following sentences replace the verbs must, can, may with
the corresponding forms of to have to, to be able to, to be
allowed to, to be permitted to:
a) We must work hard to learn English. I must leave now to catch the
plane. This sick man must see the doctor tomorrow. I must get up
very early as I live very far from the university. They must finish
their work as it is very late. You must not eat so much. You must not
drink too much coffee in the evening.
b) Their child can swim better this year. The driver cannot drive any
more as he is too tired. Can you speak any foreign language? Can
your daughter cook? Who can do this translation at once? The
football player cannot play football because his leg hurts. This man
can lift that heavy box. That old man can ride a horse. What do you
think can he ride a bike, too?
c) May I open the window, please? You may open the window if you
think its too stuffy in here. You may not smoke in this room. May I
leave earlier, teacher? You may not take my car, you cannot drive
well. He may not take my fountain- pen. He is careless. May I ask
why you are late?

2. Can + be + adjective has the meaning of capacity.
a) Change the following sentences into this construction, omitting
the underlined adverbs:
Model: Little Mary is sometimes very annoying.
Little Mary can be very annoying.
1. She is sometimes very sarcastic.
2. Children are sometimes very naughty.
3. He is quite amusing when he wants to be.
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64
4. Smoking so much is often bad for the health.
5. This drug is occasionally useful in the treatment of pneumonia.
6. People are sometimes very rude.
7. Some persons are sometimes extremely helpful.
8. Women are very curious most of the time.
9. Women are talkative most of the time.
10. Husbands are occasionally nosy.

b) Replace the words that are underlined, using can together with
the words given in brackets.
Model: Swimming is not always easy. (sometimes tiring)
Swimming can be sometimes tiring.
1. Learning a foreign language isnt always easy (sometimes
difficult).
2. The old mistress doesnt always remember everything (quite
forgetful).
3. Holidays abroad arent necessarily expensive (quite cheap).
4. In this University discipline is not generally lax (quite strict).
5. The poor old man is not miserable all the time (occasionally quite
merry).
6. September isnt by any means a bad month for taking a holiday
in England (wonderful).
7. The English method of numbering the houses isnt always as
clear as it might be for a stranger (very confusing).
8. Accounting is not easy at all (very tiresome).

3. Change the following sentences using can + infinitive and translate
them into Romanian:
1. It is possible for me to help you but I dont want to.
2. It is possible for you to make greater efforts to learn better.
3. We know it is possible for him to paint so beautifully.
4. It is not possible for the telegram to come so soon.
5. It is not possible for this accountant to make a mistake.
6. It is possible for him to keep god accounts.
7. It is possible for all the graduates to pass the final examination.
8. It is possible for them to buy a house in the central area.
9. It is possible our friends to succeed in business.

4. Change the form of the following sentences using may and can:
1. Will you give me the permission to borrow this book?
2. Have I your permission to sit next to you?
3. Will you allow us to play next time?
4. Will you allow me to help you?
5. Will you let me see your paper?
6. Do you mind if I take her address?
7. Do you mind if I use your phone?
8. Will you allow me to talk to her again?
9. Have I your permission to come a little later?
10. Do you mind if I invite them for the weekend?

5. Change the following sentences using may not:
1. I will not allow you to go out alone.
2. I will not give you permission to borrow my glasses.
65
3. I will not permit my children to stay out after l0.
4. We are not allowed to say what we think.
5. She is not allowed to spend that much on clothes and make-up.
6. The child is not allowed to use the computer all day long.
7. A lawyer is not allowed to speak about his clients problems.
8. You are not permitted to forget to send the invoice.
9. I am not allowed to forget to pay the instalments for the fridge.
10. Nobody is permitted to deny my rights.

6. Change the following sentences using may:
1. It is possible my cousin is coming next week.
2. I shall possibly not be at home when you arrive.
3. It is possible he is telling the truth.
4. Take your umbrella; it is possible it is raining.
5. It is possible they stay for a week in Paris.
6. It is possible he will not be able to pay you back.
7. It is possible the weather improves.
8. Perhaps the reports are wrong.
9. It is possible the answer is simple.

7. Give the opposite of the following, implying theres no necessity:
1. They must come to school tomorrow.
2. I must be back home by 10 oclock in the evening.
3. You must pay the tailor today.
4. Students must answer every question on the sheet of paper.
5. The sales agent must do field work next week.
6. We must not be there earlier.

8. Change the following using to be to:
1. All passports must be shown to the customs officer.
2. You must say nothing about this.
3. They mustnt use the car without my permission.
4. She must not argue with the teacher over the problem.
5. The work must be finished by next month.
6. The accountants must not leave their work unfinished.
7. They must not disobey the rules.
8. Every person must obey his or her countrys law.
9. If you want a proper job you must prove you are the best.

9. Complete with the corresponding personal pronouns:
1. Loot at (I)! Dont look at (she)! Look at (we) all.
2. Tell (we) your sorrow! Dont tell (they)!
3. Dont lie (she)! Tell (she) the truth!
4. Dont leave (they)! Stay with (he) and (she)!
5. Love (we)! Dont hate (I) and (she)! Dont scold (she)!
6. Give that to (we)! Dont give that to (he)!
7. Write to (we)! Dont forget (we).
8. Listen to (he) not to (she)!
9. Follow (we)! Dont follow (they)!
10. Remind (I) to tell you something about (he)!
11. Urge (they) to read more!

10. Turn the sentences above into Indirect Speech.
66

11. Following the model, what would you say if you offered to do the
following things?
Model: Let me help you with your suitcase.
- carry a young ladys shopping bag;
- help to put books on the shelf;
- take her to a party;
- show her around your house;
- tell her a joke;
- introduce her to the librarian;
- see her home;
- give her a lift in your car.



2. LEISURE ACTIVITIES AND SKILLS

What do you prefer to do in your leisure hours? Are you fond
of indoors or outdoors activities? Name some of these.
What are your skills? Have you any hobbies? Speak about
them. Henry David Thoreau said: "It's not enough to be busy. The
question is: What are we busy about? Comment on this.

All the week round we are busy working or studding but on
weekends we relax and enjoy ourselves and we choose to spend our
spare time in different ways.
If the weather is fine we drive our car out of town to the
woods, near a lake where we can go boating, swim, fish, sunbathe
and have a picnic. Shady places under the trees invite you to long
appeasing walks and I enjoy walking about the woods, picking
flowers, berries and mushrooms, and listening to little birds twitter.
Children love playing games like hide-and seek, leap frog,
blind mans hood, tennis and football, and running about to gather
wood for the bonfire. When in the open air, they cry and laugh so
loudly that they split our ears. This wouldnt be pleasant at all if you
had a splitting headache. If the branches or logs the children find are
too thick, my husband takes a little axe, he always keeps in the cars
truck in his toolbox, and chops and splits them.
If we choose to spend the weekend at home I love gardening,
digging, planting and watering the flowers in the little garden we
have in front of the house. I have to tell you that we even have a
small greenhouse (hothouse) where we grow flowers and vegetables
in winter. Im fond of looking after plants and vegetables and, by
keeping them in the greenhouse in winter, we save them from dying.
My husband loves reading books, listening to music, going to
a football match or working on computer. If he is very much
interested in the book or magazine he reads, he peruses it or,
otherwise, he only browses its pages or only skims the publications
table of contents.
During the summer holiday we enjoy hiking so we go to the
mountains, as climbing mountains is our favourite pastime and in
winter we love skiing or skating, or simply playing with snowballs
and making snowmen together with our children. Oh! Its lovely to
67
see the rows of snow-covered fir trees rising themselves towards the
sky, like endless straight columns.
If the weather is bad we choose to go to a concert, to a theatre
play, or to the cinema. It depends on what play or movie is on. If it is
a first night on at the National Theatre we never miss the opportunity
to see it. When we feel like dancing, you know we love tangoing and
waltzing, we invite some friends to a restaurant and spend the
evening dancing, chatting and watching people.

Dialogue:

- Which do you prefer: driving a car yourself or being a passenger?
- Well, that depends. I enjoy driving, especially on long empty
roads where I can go nice and fast. But Im not very fond of
sitting in traffic jams waiting for light to change and things like
that. I suppose I dont mind being a passenger but only if the
other person can drive properly.
- So you dont really like being in other peoples cars?
- Well, as I say, Its all right with a good driver. Then I can relax
sitting on the back seat and enjoying the scenery. But yes, you
are right, on the whole, I certainly prefer driving to being a
passenger.
- Tell me what are you good at?
- I am very good at sports. Im a brilliant footballer, you know in
fact Im very good at ball games in general. Im not bad at skiing,
either. The funny thing is that my brother is completely different.
He is a hopeless footballer and skier but he is terrific at chess.
Very good at using his brains.


GRAMMAR FOCUS

THE INDEFINITE PARTICIPLE

Participiul nedefinit (sau prezent) al verbelor se formeaz
adugnd terminaia ing la infinitivul scurt al verbului de conjugat:

to read reading citind
to listen listening ascultnd
to pick picking culegnd

Cnd primesc terminaia ing:
Verbele terminate la infinitiv n e pierd acest e final:

to write writing scriind
Verbele monosilabice terminate ntr-o consoan precedat de o
vocal scurt dubleaz consoana final:

to stop stopping oprind
to sit sitting stnd

Verbele terminate n l dubleaz aceast consoan final:

to travel travelling cltorind

Verbele terminate n y l pstraz pe acesta neschimbat,
indiferent dac este precedat de consoan sau vocal:

to play playing jucnd
to try trying ncercnd

Verbele terminate n ie transform aceast terminaie n y i
apoi adaug terminaia ing:

to lie lying zcnd
to die dying murind

REMEMBER

THINGS YOU LIKE TO DO!

I like
I enjoy
I love
I hate
Im fond of



Mm!
I dislike



Verb + ing

THINGS YOU DONT LIKE TO DO!

I dont like
I dont enjoy
I dont love
Ugh!
Im not fond of
Verb + ing




1. Supply the ing form of the verbs in parentheses:
1. They have stopped (speak) to each other.
2. We shall appreciate (hear) from you.
3. Do you mind (come) back a little later?
4. We both enjoy (dance).
5. He is not going to stop (study) English.
6. He says he doesnt mind (wait) for us.
7. He couldnt avoid (hit) the other car.
8. They have finished (eat).
9. Nobody can go on (live) without some belief.
10. You must excuse my (be) so noisy.
11. It is difficult to imagine him (sit) silently.
12. She cannot sleep without (see) you and (speak) to you once more.
13. She does not like the thought of (leave) you.
14. He is disturbed by some (knock) at the door.
15. Do you mind (give) me your name and telephone number,
68
please?
16. Well, its no use my (tell) you a lie.
17. I like (skate) better than any other sports.
18. On (enter) the hall he noticed something strange in the corner.
19. I dont like (sing), I prefer (dance).
20. Dont worry, I shall not forget (write) to you.
21. Your (speak) so angrily makes me feel very sad.

2. Supply the correct preposition and the gerund form of the verb in
parentheses:
1. She is thinking ... (go) to Bucharest.
2. I am interested ... (study) English.
3. He got tired ... (wait) for her.
4. We have no intention ...(speak) to him.
5. She has little experience ...(drive) an automobile.
6. He needs more practice ... (speak).
7. We are both fond ... (dance).
8. He insists ... (go) with us.
9. There is no chance ...(see) her today.
10. It is a question ...(find) the right man.
11. We are looking forward ... (meet) her.
12. He is excited ...(go) to the seaside.

3. Translate into English according to the model following the
pattern: enjoy + verb + ing:
Ne place s cltorim pe uscat, pe mare, dar i pe calea aerului. Ne
place s vizitm locuri cu peisaje minunate. i place s asculte muzic
indiferent dac este simfonic sau uoar. V place s v ntlnii
prietenii des? Ii place s priveti filme de groaz? mi place s m
scol dimineaa devreme i s beau o ceac de cafea fierbinte dup ce
m spl pe dini i fac un du. Ce fel de cri i place fiului tu s
citeasc? Ii place s citeasc romane, biografii i nuvele tiinifico-
fantastice. Soului ei i place s se plimbe cnd plou cu gleata.
oferilor nu le place s ofeze cnd este cea sau cnd este burni.
Copiilor le place s mnnce fructe exotice.

4. Translate into English:
Cine locuiete n vila aceea? A cui este acea vil? Al cui magazin
este acela? Cui dai aceste dosare? Cui d aceste coli de hrtie? Pe cine
poi vedea n aceast fotografie? Cu cine vorbeti acum? Care dintre
cei doi pictori este favoritul tu? Care dintre capodoperele lui i place
cel mai mult? Ce mrfuri producei? Ce mrfuri export aceast
firm? Pe cine ateptai? De cine v este fric? Cu cine vorbeti?
Cine este brbatul care vorbete cu secretara? Cui i-ai mprumutat
acea sum imens de bani?

3. WHAT ARE THEY DOING?
READING. Read and pay attention to the use of the
phrases and then change the following indirect questions into direct
ones:
69
70
Ask if the students are watching TV.
Ask if the secretary is writing the report.
Ask what the accountant is calculating.
Ask your colleague if he/she is working on computer.
Ask what the dean is speaking about.

Its ten oclock on a Sunday morning. Father is in the dining
room. What is he doing? He is sitting in an armchair, smoking and
reading this mornings newspaper. He is not watching television. My
brother is in his bedroom. He is opening the window and he is doing
his morning exercises right now. The cassette- recorder is on and he
is listening to his favourite band playing.
What am I doing? I am in the bathroom. First, Im turning on the
cold and hot water taps and now Im washing my face my hands and
my body. Im brushing my teeth with my toothbrush and my
toothpaste. Now Im drying myself with a towel and Im combing my
hair. Next, Im going to tidy up the rooms. I want to give a helping
hand to my mother who is in the kitchen now cooking breakfast.
What is she doing exactly? She is boiling water for tea or coffee,
frying some bacon and preparing some scrambled eggs. She is
making some orange juice, too. Im cutting some bread in thin slices,
and Im going to toast the slices.
Now we are laying the table in the dining room. Im spreading
the table cloth on the table and Im putting the cups, the saucers, the
plates, the knives, the forks, the little spoons, the paper napkins. Im
not going to put spoons for breakfast. Father is also giving a helping
hand now and he is bringing in the breadbasket. Mother is bringing
the tray with the coffee pot, the teapot and the jug with orange juice.
She is pouring the hot drinks in the cups and right now she is
buttering the toast. Im going to bring in a jar of jam and mother is
going to bring the scrambled eggs, the bacon and some cheese. At
this very moment my brother is coming into the dining room.
- Mm! It smells good. What is there for breakfast Mummy?
- Thanks God, theres always something to eat for breakfast. Have a
seat and Enjoy your meal.
- Im so hungry that I could eat a horse! And Im thirsty, too. Will
you pass me some slices of bread? You know, Im not so very fond
of toast. Mm! The bread is soft. I hate hard bread. May I have
another helping of bread and butter with jam?
- Of course you may. Here you are. Help yourself.
- This coffee is excellent. It tastes excellent. It is hot and strong, but
I think it needs more sugar. I dislike cold, weak, bitter coffee.
- Everything is tasty except for the bacon, which is rather salty and
overdone.
- My dear, mother says to fathers remark, they say that Earth is
teeming with ungrateful husbands and you are one of them. Is
anyone going to have some more orange juice? It is sweet, it is not
sour and it is fresh.
- I am, my dear, and please excuse me. I was not going to be rude.
Now that we have finished our breakfast your son and I are going to
clear the table, to do the washing up and dry the dishes. You know,
they say One good turn deserves another.

71
GRAMMAR FOCUS

THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS

AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE
I am writing I am not writing Am I writing?
You are writing You are not writing Are you you writing
He is writing He is not writing Is he writing?
She is writing She is not/ writing Is she writing?
It is writing It is not/writing Is it writing?
We are writing We are not writing Are we writing?
You are writing You are not writing Are you writing?
They are writing They are not writing Are they writing?

Timpul prezent. Aspectul continuu se formeaz cu ajutorul
verbului auxiliar to be la timpul prezent urmat de participiul
prezent (sau nedefinit - forma ing a verbului) al verbului de
conjugat.
Acest timp este cerut de adverbele: now, at the moment, in this
very moment, today, this week/ month/year..., these
days/weeks/months etc.
Acest timp se folosete pentru a exprima:
o aciunee n curs de desfurare n momentul vorbirii:
What is going on here? Ce se ntmpl aici?
Who is making such a noise? Cine face aa o glgie?
The professor is giving a lecture. Profesorul ine o
prelegere.
o aciune care urmeaz s aib loc ntr-un viitor apropiat
fa de momentul vorbirii:
What are you doing tonight? Ce facei ast sear?
We are meeting our friends at 7 oclock and we are going
to the theatre. Ne ntlnim cu prietenii la ora apte i
mergem la teatru.
o aciune care se desfoar n prezent pe o perioad
limitat de timp:
She is teaching at a university in the USA this year. Anul
acesta pred ntr-o universitate din Statele Unite.
o aciune repetat care devine suprtoare i care este
dezaprobat de vorbitor (n astfel de cazuri folosirea
adverbelor de timp de genul always, forever, constantly,
continually devine necesar):
This pupil is always forgetting his exercise book! Elevul
acesta i uit ntotdeauna caietul!
You are always complaining about something! Venic te
plngi de cte ceva!
She is forever getting late. Venic ntrzie.
They are coming only when Im busy! Ei vin numai cnd
sunt eu ocupat!
72
VERBE CARE NU SE FOLOSESC LA ASPECTUL CONTINUU

VERBELE MODALE: can, may, must, shall, should, will,
would, ought to, need, dare.
VERBUL TO BE a fi, a exista;
EXCEPTIE: verbul to be poate fi folosit la aspectul
continuu cnd este folosit pentru a se face o caracterizare de
moment a subiectului:
You are being boring! Eti plictisitor!
You are being cheeky! Eti obraznic!
He is being rude! Este nepoliticos!
She is being very realistic! Este foarte realist!
VERBUL TO HAVE a avea, a poseda;
EXCEPTIE: verbul to have poate fi folosit la aspectul
continuu cnd este folosit n expresii unde nu are sensul a avea:
We are having fun at the party. Ne distrm la petrecere.
He is having breakfast now. El mnnc micul dejun acum.
VERBELE CARE DENOT SENTIMENTE: to love, to like,
to dislike, to hate, to prefer, to wish, to please, to hope, to
refuse, to regret, to worship (a adora);
VERBE CARE DENOT ACTIVITI MENTALE: to know,
to understand (a nelege), to agree (a fi de acord), to disagree
(a nu fi de acord), to believe (a crede), to think (that) (a crede
c, a socoti c), to suppose, to fancy (a-i imagina, a-i
nchipui, a socoti, a crede), to imagine, to intend, to mean (a
vrea s spun, a se referi la, a avea n vedere), to notice (a
observa), to recognize, to remember, to forget, to seem, to
surprise, to require, to realize (a-i da seama), to recall (a-i
reaminti), to expect (a se atepta ca, a spera, a ndjdui), to
mind (a se supra, a avea ceva mpotriv).
ATENTIE! O parte din aceste verbe se pot folosi la
aspectul continuu cnd au urmtoarele nelesuri:
TO THINK a (se) gndi:
I am thinking about/of you every day. M gndesc la tine n
fiecare zi.
TO EXPECT a atepta:
We are expecting news from him. Ateptm veti de la el.
VERBE CARE DENOT PERCEPII SENZORIALE: to feel,
to taste, to smell (cnd acestea arat o calitate permanent cu
sensurile aproximative de a fi cumva la pipit, la gust, la
miros), to see, to hear, to look (a arta cumva):
Silk feels soft. Mtasea este moale la pipit
Roses smell good. Trandafirii (au) miros frumos.
Pizza tastes good. Pizza are gust bun.
Can you see that ship at the horizon? Vezi vaporul acela la
orizont?
Can you hear noise at the door? Auzi un zgomot la u?
The clerk looks tired. Funcionarul arat obosit.
73
ATENIE! Aceste verbe pot fi folosite la aspectul
continuu cnd denot activitatea efectiv: to feel (a atinge, a
pipi, a (se) simi), to smell (a mirosi), to taste (a gusta), to see
(a avea ntlnire, programare, a conduce pe cineva acas, la
u...), to hear (a avea veti de la cineva), lo took (a privi):
I am feeling the fabric. Pipi estura.
He is feeling tired. Se simte obosit.
The girl is smelling the roses. Fata miroase trandafirii.
The cook is tasting the food. Buctreasa gust mncarea.
Im seeing the interviewer tomorrow. M ntlnesc cu cel
care ia ienterviuri mine.
Hes seeing his guests to the gate. Ii conduce musafirii la
poart.
Youll be hearing from me soon. Vei avea curnd veti de
la mine.
Why are you looking at me like this? De ce te uii aa la
mine?
VERBE CARE DENOT O ACIUNE DE MOMENT: to
stop, to end, to finish, to begin, to start;
ALTE VERBE CARE NU SE FOLOSESC LA ASPECTUL
CONTINUU sunt: to deserve (a merita), to own (a poseda, a
avea, a stpni ), to possess, to matter (a conta, a avea
importan), to belong to (a aparine), to contain, to keep (a
continua s), to concern (a privi, a interesa), to signify, precum
i:
TO COST a costa:
This car costs a lot of money. Maina asta cost o groaz de
bani.
EXCEPIE: cnd verbul to cost are semnificaia de a se
scumpi:
Food is costing more and more these days. Mncarea se
scumpete din ce n ce mai mult.
TO DEPEND ON a depinde de:
This depends on him. Asta depinde de el.
EXCEPIE: cnd verbul to depend on are semnificaia de
a conta pe, a se baza pe:
Everybody is depending on him. Toat lumea conteaz
pe el.
TO HOLD a conine:
This box contains 2o kilograms of flour. Lada asta
conine 20 de kg de fin.
EXCEPIE: cnd verbul to hold are semnificaia de a
ine:
The little child is holding his mothers hand. Copilul i
ine mama de mn.



THE NEAR FUTURE

Viitorul apropiat, de intenie sau be going to future
cum mai este denumit, este folosit pentru a exprima o aciune
pe care vorbitorul intenioneaz s o desfoare ntr-un viitor
apropiat fa de momentul vorbirii.
Se formeaz din prezentul continuu al verbului to go i
infinitivul lung (cu particula to) al verbului de conjugat.
Se traduce prin am de gnd s..., intenionez s..., urmeaz
s..., voi...
S urmrim conjugarea verbului to leave la viitorul
apropiat:

AFFIRMATIVE
I am going to leave
You are going to leave
He is going to leave
She is going to leave
It is going to leave
We are going to leave
You are going to leave
They are going to leave

ATENIE! INTEROGATIVUL I NEGATIVUL acestui
timp se vor forma conform regulilor de formare a negativului i
interogativului verbului to be (prin inversiune i respectiv
simpla adugare a negaiei not la forma de afirmativ).




1. Change the following indirect questions into direct ones
according to the model:
Model: Ask me if I am watching TV.
Are you watching TV?
Ask what mother is doing/ cooking/ reading.
Ask what the children are having for dinner.
Ask where father is sleeping/ reading the newspaper.
Ask what your friend is speaking about.
Ask when the interviewer is seeing the interviewees.
Ask who is seeing you to the door.

2. Make these sentences interrogative and negative:
1. The weather is getting colder and colder.
2. The wind is blowing.
3. It is pouring. / It is raining cats and dogs.
4. The sun is shining in the sky.
74
5. I am ironing my husbands shirts.
75
g her nails.
he manager.
a glass of beer in the pub.
mirror.
et.
ictionary.
one
. Put in the Present Tense. Common Aspect or the Present
6. That man is beating his pet.
7. That nervous woman is bitin
8. The clerks are attending a meeting with t
9. That gentleman is knocking at our door.
10. The maid is answering the door.
11. The two friends are chatting over
12. Pedestrians are crossing the road now.
13. The little girl is looking at herself in the
14. The typist is counting the words in the work- she
15. The milkman is filling the bottles with milk.
16. I am browsing my new English - Romanian d
17. The schoolboy is labelling his books and copybooks.
18. The secretary is moving the files and folders from
drawer into another.

3
Tense. Continuous Aspect of the verbs in brackets:
1. I my breakfast everyday but I it now. (eat, not
eat)
2. You to bed every night at half past ten but you

to bed now. (go, not go)
3. The housewife often a lot of things but she
anything at the moment. (buy, not buy)
4. It often in autumn and it cats and dogs today.
ief accountants usually
(rain)
5. The ch reports about the
financial situation of the firm but this month they
any report. (draw up, not draw up)
6. The country housewives the poultry twice a day and
this one the poultry right now. (feed)
7. Simon is three. He himself every morning. (dress).
8. What he now? (do)
9. Right now he his clothes. (put on)
10. It always something terrible in their life!
. Make up sentences of your own using the verbs below both
, to see,
. Fill in the spaces with the right tense of the verbs in the
to walk Look at that old man in rags!
(happen)

4
in the Present Tense Common and Continuous Aspect:
to be, to have, to feel, to think, to taste, to smell, to hold
to hear, to hold, to contain, to think.

5
margin:

He into the Commercial Bank
right now.
to go hat he I wonder w to do.
to sit down, He on a chair, he his
76
to take glasses out of his pocket.
to start
to head to
He to write something on a sheet of
paper. It is a pre-printed form.
He the pay desk now.
to give,
to hand
He the form to the woman clerk
and he
her a large amount of money, too.
to count,
to deposit
The woman clerk the money and
she is surprised that the old man
so much money.
to think, to be,
to have
She : Shabby as he , he still
that money!

6. Comment on the use of Present Tense. Continuous Aspect in
something strange!
astic claim.
are poor but they dont
ust being silly.

sy!
. Insert the Present Tense Common or Continuous Aspect:
r to
(to save) nine.
han sound.
sister in the yard (to
nderstand)
sting scientific film.
grow) and the

ore
s.
. Give answers to the following questions, using the Present
? This Sunday... but
the following sentences:
1. You are always seeing
2. They are certainly not admitting such a fant
3. Im just thinking it may be a good idea.
4. Are you forgetting your manners?
5. They are always complaining they
take up work.
6. Now, you are j
7. Your friend is being too nosy!
8. These children are being too noi
9. Why are you being obnoxious?
10. This child is being naughty!

7
1. You must wait, my friend, before you (to get) an answe
that question.
2. A stitch in time
3. Light (to travel) more quickly t
4. He who (to laugh) last (to laugh) best.
5. Actions (to speak) louder than words.
6. The woman who (to speak) with my
be) our neighbour who (to live) across the street.
7. I (to listen) very attentively, but still I (not to u
what he (to drive) at.
8. It (to be) a very intere
9. In it you can (to see) how the grass (to
flowers (to unfold) their petals right before your eyes.
10. I (to look) at the barometer and (to see) it (to fall) now.
11. And now my written story (to end). I look back, once m
for the last time before I (to close) the book.
12. I (to see) our children and our friends round u

8
Tense. Common or Continuous Aspect:
1. Where are you going this Sunday
77
see us? He... Friday night but most
gation of physicians is arriving by plane to night,
at from Constantza coming? It ... in half an

o you usually have for breakfast? I usually ... boiled
re you waiting for? I ... for the shop to open but it ... till 9
. Translate into English:
a parter se joac numai n timpul
tajul doi exerseaz la pian zi i noapte!
sntatea ei
nu-i tergi picioarele pe pre cnd este vreme
ru face ncontinuu promisiuni pe care nu le poate
gnd s dormi toat ziua? Cnd ai de gnd s-i faci
tri au totdeauna probleme cu maina
usually on Sundays...
2. When is he coming to
often ...
3. The dele
isnt it? Yes, it ... at the Otopeni airport; all the foreign
delegations ...
4. When is the bo
hour, as it is late tonight, but regularly it ... at 8 p.m. sharp.
5. When is the night train from Bucharest leaving? It ... in a
quarter of an hour. It ... at 15,15 according to the time-
table.
6. What d
eggs.
7. What a
a.m.

9
1. Copilul vecinilor de l
orelor de odihn!
2. Fetia celor de la e
3. Cei care stau vizavi de noi, dau ntr-una petreceri!
4. In blocul nostru cineva repar tot timpul ceva!
5. Ah! Femeia asta se plnge totdeauna de
ubred!
6. Niciodat
ploioas!
7. eful nost
ine!
8. Ai de
ordine n camer?
9. Nite prieteni de-ai no
cnd trebuie s mergem undeva mpreun! De aceea trebuie
s-i lum n maina noastr totdeauna. Sunt nite zgrcii!
Nu am de gnd s mai suport asta.


Bibliografie obligatorie:
1. Firic, Camelia. 2013. Limba englez, Craiova, Universitaria
aiova, Universitaria


2. Firic, Camelia. 2009. Brush up on your everyday English, Cr
3. Firic, Camelia. 2006. Curs de limb englez - partea I, II, Craiova, Sitech









78
UNIT 5
SEASONS AND WEATHER. WHAT SEASON DO YOU LIKE BEST?

Contents:
.1. WHAT SEASON DO YOU LIKE BEST?
se of to have; Past tense of the verb can.
5.2
5.3 . AT THE AIRPORT
aspect



5
5.1.1. Grammar focus. Exercises
5.1.1.1. Past tense of to be; Past ten
5.1.1.2. The adjective - degrees of comparison
. HOLIDAYS AND CELEBRATIONS
5.2.1. Grammar focus. Exercises
5.2.1.1. The simple past
. TRAVELLING BY AIR
5.3.1. Grammar focus. Exercises
5.3.1.1. The past tense. Continuous
5.4 LWAY STATION
ect. Common aspect


. TRAVELLING BY LAND. AT THE RAI
5.4.1. Grammar focus. Exercises
5.4.1.1. Past participle
5.4.1.1.The present perf
Unit Objectives and competences:
- Spea ; (2) holidays and
celebr
ve
and c
ets Talk!
easons, favourite months and holidays. What are the
, particularly, in our country. How

1. WHAT SEASON DO YOU LIKE BEST?

k about: (1) seasons and weather
ations; (2) means of transport - travelling by air and by land;
- Practise grammar issues: past tense of the verbs to be, to ha
an; adjectives - degrees of comparison; the past tense simple; the
past tense continuous; past participle; the present perfect - common
aspect.


L
About s
seasons of the year? What season do you like best and why? Describe
your last summer/winter holiday.
About weather in general and
would you describe the climate in your country? But at the North
Pole? And at the Equator? Would you like to live in such places? Do
you consider we are privileged to have all the seasons in our country?

READING. Read the text and then give the degrees of
comparison

of the following adjectives: dry, sly, shy, common, honest,
handsome, noble, narrow, pleasant, polite, profound, able, clumsy,
clever, severe, sincere, wholesome, shallow, humble, remote, startling,
79
Spring, summer, autumn and winter are the four seasons into which
the
e 21 of
Ma

par
the holiday season, too,
com
was bright, the sky
wa
. What a beauty!
h trees were full
wit
n comes in. It begins on the 21 of
Sep
healthy, worthy, tender, convenient, inner.

year is divided and each of it lasts for about three months.
Spring, the most beautiful season of the year, begins on th
st
rch and the spring months are March, April and May. Nature comes
to life after the long, cold winter and the days grow longer. Trees bud
and blossom, put on new leaves, the fields and meadows dress in
green, fat grass. Snowdrops, the most gentle flowers, the first spring
flowers raise their tiny heads in the woods. Then the forget-me-not
flowers, the lilies of the valley and the violets appear. Blue, pink and
white hyacinths fill the air with their scent. How lovely they are! Birds
return from the warmer countries and start building their nests again.
The mild air is full of their songs and chirps, of bees hum, and of the
beautifully coloured butterflies dance. Farmers dig and toil the soil,
sow the seeds and plant fruit trees. April rains are good for the crops.
Last spring we had a busy time as we were in the country at my
ents. We could help them with their work in the garden and in the
orchard. Children had a good time picking snowdrops in the forest,
running after butterflies in the fields, watching birds building their
nests in the trees or under the roofs. We were all very happy there but
we were a little sad when holidays were over.
Summer the hottest season of the year and
es after spring and we are in summer from June 22
nd
to September
21
st
. In June, the most pleasant month of the year, called Leafy June
or The Month of Roses because trees are in leaf and roses in bloom,
the days are the longest and the sun rises early, earlier than ever, and
sets late in the evening. When July begins the weather is the hottest;
the sun shines brightly in the blue, cloudless sky. However, now and
than dark clouds gather, cover the sun and, out of the blue, it begins to
pour with large, heavy raindrops. We have now storms with lightning
and thunder called thunderstorms. In the heat of the sun fruit ripe in
the orchards and crops are ready for the harvest.
Last summer we were at the seaside. The sun
s clear, the seawater was warm so we could lie in the sun on the
beach, we could swim, and the children could play in the sand making
sand castles, or picking pebbles and shells. From time to time there
were summer showers and after them the air was fresher. We had lot
of fun and it was a lovely holiday.
Then we went to the countryside
The cherry trees, the apricot trees and the peac
h ripe fruit and we could pick and eat them. The fields were yellow
with wheat and maize, and in the gardens there were big juicy melons
and watermelons. Some days were stuffy, dry and dusty, as there were
not many rains last August.
Summer is gone, autum
st
tember. September is the calmest and loveliest of months when
pears, apples, plums, nuts, grapes and berries are ripe. But the days
gradually become shorter and the nights longer. The weather is already
cool, the wind blows and it rains very often. The leaves are no longer
green, they turn yellow or red, or brown and they fall down. Its rather
sad to see the trees strip of their leaves. Rainy winds, cloudy weather
sets in.
80
times it is raining cats and dogs, sometimes it is foggy and
the
near. Most birds no longer sing, but fly away to
wa
d so we
cou
Some
fog is very thick. So was the weather last November and it was
more pleasant to stay indoors, as the streets were muddy and there
were too many pools of rainwater in the streets and you couldnt see
anything in front of you. People were cold and wet and they were in a
hurry to get to their homes. Some were slipping and sliding, losing
their foothold. They were not happy to be in the street on such an
awfully bad weather.
Winter is drawing
rmer countries. The wind is blowing from the North. It is not warm,
it is cold. It is freezing more and more often and the weather is frosty.
Winter, the season of frost, is here. The days are getting shorter and
shorter and the nights are longer and longer. There are no flowers in
the gardens now and the trees are bare. The sun gives light for only
eight hours and it doesnt heat the Earth at all. Water turns into ice,
rivers freeze, snow falls thick and covers the houses, the fields, the
trees, everything. Icicles hang on the eves of the houses. It is
wonderful to watch the big, fat snowflakes, which are falling thick and
fast. Sparrows and crows look for their food in vain. Its more and
more difficult for them to find something to feed themselves.
Last winter we were at the mountains. The snow was goo
ld ski on the ski slopes, we could skate at the skating rink, and we
could make snowmen or play with snowballs. When we were cold we
had hot drinks by the fireplace.



GRAMMAR FOCUS
PAST TENSE OF THE VERB TO BE

AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE
I, he, she, it WAS I, he, she, it AS I, he, she, it?
You, we, you, they u, they WERE you, we, you,

PAST TENSE OF THE VERB TO HAVE

AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE
I, you, h e, H ,

PAST TENSE OF THE VERB CAN

AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE INRROGATIVE
it, e, it, CO e,


WAS NOT
W
WERE
You, we, yo
WERE NOT they?

e, she, it, we,
you, they HAD
I you, he, sh
it, we, you,
they HAD
NOT
AD I, you, he, she, it
we, you, they?
I, you, he, she,
we, you, they
COULD
I, you, he, sh
we, you, they
COULD NOT
ULD I, you, he, sh
it, we, you, they?
81
THE ADJECTIVE - DEGREES OF COMPARISON
Forma pe care o ia adjectivul pentru a marca asemnarea sau
z de la gradul
silabice:
POZITIV COMPARATIV DE SUPERLATIV


deosebirea dintre nsuirile unui obiect sau fiine se numesc grade de
comparaie. Acestea sunt: gradul pozitiv (care reprezint forma
iniial a unui adjectiv), gradul comparativ (de superioritate, de
egalitate i de inferioritate) i gradul superlativ (relativ i absolut).
In limba englez gradele de comparaie ale adjectivelor se formeaz n
funcie de tipul acestora monosilabice sau plurisilabice. Vom avea
astfel comparaia sintetic i comparaia analitic.
COMPARAIA SINTETIC care se formea
pozitiv al adjectivului de comparat la care se alipete sufixul er
pentru comparativul de superioritate i est pentru superlativul
relativ, se aplic:
adjectivelor mono

SUPERIORITATE RELATIV
big- mare big the b mai ger - mai mare iggest- cel
mare
tall - nalt taller -mai nalt allest- cel mai the t
nalt
short -
curt
shorter -mai hortest- cel mai
scund, s scund, scurt
the s
scund, scurt

Observai c la gradul superlativ relativ adjectivul este n mod
adjectivelor bisilabice terminate n ow, -le, -er, -some, i -y
POZITIV COMPARATIV DE SUPERLATIV

obligatoriu nsoit de articolul hotrt the.


(precedat de o consoan):

SUPERIORITATE RELATIV
pretty- drgu - cel mai prettier - mai drgu the prettiest
drgu
narrow- ngust narrower - mai ngust rowest - cel the nar
mai ngust
humble- umil humbler - mai umil est - cel the humbl
mai umil
clever - iste cleverer mai iste rest cel the cleve
mai iste
handsome- handsome -mai chipe omest - cel
chipe
the hands
mai chipe

OT: Aceste adjective pot avea i forme analitice de comparativ i
ativul de egalitate se formeaz cu adjectivul la gradul
fel de nalt ca; as short as -
la gradul
N
superlativ.
Compar
pozitiv precedat i urmat de conjuncia as:
as big as - la fel de mare ca; as tall as - la
la fel de scund/scurt ca; as handsome as -la fel de chipe ca.
Comparativul de inferioritate se formeaz cu adjectivul
pozitiv precedat de not as/so i urmat de as:
82
/as tall as- nu aa de nalt
a;
comparaie se mai poate forma i cu less urmat de
ai puin interesant ca...
tiv la gradul pozitiv
irea sufixelor comparaiei:
ipirea
large larger the largest
not so/as big as- nu aa de mare ca; not so
c not as/so short as- nu aa de scund ca; not as/so handsome as- nu
aa de chipe ca.
Acest grad de
adjectiv la gradul pozitiv i than. Se folosete cu precdere pentru
adjectivele plurisilabice:
less interesting than...- m
Superlativul absolut se formeaz din adjec
precedat de adverbele very, not very, quite (ct se poate de,
foarte), extremely, terribly, etc.
Modificri ortografice cauzate de alip
adjectivele terminate n e pierd aceast terminaie la al
sufixelor -er, -est:

adjectivele silab inate ntr-o consoan precedat de o
red redder the reddest
mono ice term
vocal scurt dubleaz consoana final:

hot hotter the hottest

adjectivele terminate n -y precedat de consoan schimb pe
dry drier the driest
-y n -i naintea alipirii sufixelor comparaiei:


COMPARAIA ANALITIC, care se aplic adjectivelor
POZITIV COMPARATIV DE SUPERLATIV

plurisilabice, se realizeaz prin adugarea n faa adjectivului la


gradul pozitiv a adverbelor more pentru comparativul de
superioritate i most precedat de articolul the pentru
superlativul relativ:

SUPERIORITATE RELATIV
beautiful utiful more beautiful the most bea
interesting more interesting the most interesting

Comparativul de egalitate i superlativul absolut se formeaz
adjectivelor se
ei unele adjective se pot compara att sintetic ct i analitic totui
sintetic la adjectivele bisilabice terminate n y sau
entul pe
terminate n dou
radele de comparaie ale punctelor cardinale:

conform regulilor expuse la adjectivele monosilabice.
Regulile de formare a gradelor de comparaie ale
aplic i adverbelor.

D
este preferat:
comparaia
ly: cloudy, misty, lovely, clumsy, lucky, angry, sleepy;
comparaia analitic la adjectivele bisilabice cu acc
prima silab: active, common, hostile, pleasant, stupid, sau pe
ultima silab: remote, precise, severe, polite.
comparaia analitic la adjectivele bisilabice
consoane: correct, exact;

G
83
northern more northern northernmost/ northmost
southern more southern southernmost / southmost
eastern more eastern easternmost /eastmost

western more western westernmost / westmost


IRREGULAR COMPARISON

nele adjective i adverbe nu formeaz gradele de comparaie conform
POZITIV COMPARATIV DE SUPERLATIV
U
regulilor deja cunoscute, ci au forme separate pentru gradele
comparativ de superioritate i superlativ relativ.

SUPERIORITATE RELATIV
good - bun be i the be
well- bine
tter- mai bun, ma
bine
st- cel mai bun,
cel mai bine
bad, ill- ru
badly
worse- mai ru mai ru the worst- cel
much- mult more- mai mult, mai the most- cel mai mult,
many- muli muli cei mai muli
little- puin less- mai puin ai puin the least- cel m
far- deprtat, rtat,
,
i
cel mai
departe
farther- mai dep
further- deprtat
suplimentar
the farthest- cel ma
deprtat
furthest-
deprtat
late- trziu, later- de mai trziu,
cel de-al
st- cel mai

recent mai recent
the latter-
doilea, acesta din urm
(dintre doi)
the late
ntrziat, cel mai recent
the last- ultimul (dintre
mai muli)
old- btrn, trn, mai
mai n vrst (se
the oldest- cel mai
n
vechi
older- mai b
vechi
elder-
folosete numai
atributiv pentru
membrii aceleai
familii)
btrn, cel mai vechi
the eldest- cel mai
vrst
near-
t,
mai apropiat, the nearest- cel mai
urmtorul
apropia
apropiat
nearer-
mai aproape apropiat
the next-

Expresia cu ct...cu att... se red n limba englez prin dou
e.
vor veni
n ce mai..., tot mai se red prin repetarea

comparative de superioritate precedate de articolul the:


The sooner, the better. Cu ct mai curnd cu att mai bin
The later they come the worst it will be. Cu ct mai trziu
cu att mai ru va fi.
Expresia din ce
comparativului de superioritate i conjuncia and. In cazul
adjectivelor lungi la care comparativul se formeaz cu more
84
nd colder. Se face din ce n ce mai frig.
.
ce n ce mai
u
se poate reda i prin ever + comparativde
r better, ever more beautiful, ever less interesting.
: Dac adjectivele much i far se plaseaz naintea adjectivului
beautiful / far more beautiful than her sister. Ea
e departe mai frumoas.
REMENBER! Dac se compar doar dou noiuni, superlativul
. Dintre cele dou
the more beautiful and the
the worse but the more intelligent
ATENIE!
ercepie senzorial look, smell, sound, taste, feell sunt
rth se folosesc numai cu valoare
ern, western, northern, southern precum i cele
respectiv less aceste dou adverbe se vor repeta i se vor lega prin
conjuncia and:
Its getting colder a
Im reading better and better. Citesc tot mai bine.
She is more and more beautiful. E tot mai frumoas
The book is less and less interesting. Cartea este din
p in interesant.
Acelai sens
superioritate:
ever colder, eve

NOT
la gradul comparativ ele vor ntri sensul exprimat de adjectiv. Acelai
lucru se va ntmpla i n cazul n care un adjectiv la gradul comparativ
este urmat de by far.
She is much more
este mult mai frumoas dect sora ei.
She is more beautiful by far. Este d

absolut se va reda n limba englez prin comparativul de


superioritate precedat de articolul hotrt the:
Of the two girls the thinner one is the prettier
fete cea mai slab este cea mai drgu.
Of these two dresses the white one is
cheaper, too. Dintre cele dou rochii cea alb este cea mai frumoas
i cea mai ieftin de asemenea.
Of the two deans the taller is
and the better manager at the same time. Dintre cei doi decani cel mai
nalt este cel mai ru dar i cel mai inteligent i cel mai bun manager
n acelai timp.

Verbele de p
urmate de adjective nu de adverbe ntocmai ca i verbele be, see,
grow, get, turn, become, keep.
Adjectivele ill, well, drunk, wo
predicativ.
Adjectivele east
terminate n -en (golden, woollen, wooden, silken) pot fi folosite
numai cu valoare atributiv.




. Make sentences according to the patterns:
r/ my father

my brother.
r;
1
a) Model: tall/ my brother/ my mothe
My brother is tall.
My mother is taller than
But my father is the tallest of all.
high/ house/ block of flats/ sky scrape
rich/ I/ he/ she;
85
er/ my niece/ my Goddaughter;
e
b) Model: expensive fur coat/ she/ to see
seen.
t;
o spend
duced;
n to;

Lets Talk!
celebrating birthdays or name days. When is your
and Christmas. Which are the seasons
nice/ my daught
cheap/ a tie/ a pair of socks/ a handkerchief;
fat/ a turkey/ a pig/ a cow;
tasty/ an apple/ an ice-cream/ a chocolat


This was the most expensive fur coat she had ever
exciting view/ we / to admire:
frightening snake/ they/ to mee
wonderful holiday/ the children/ t
dangerous peak/ the climbers/ to climb;
difficult task/ the accountant/ to solve;
handsome actor / the woman/ to be intro
amusing joke/ the entertainer/ to tell.
educated person/ the audience/ to liste
northern place/ the discoverers/ reach.



About
birthday? Do you usually celebrate your birthday? How? What is the
most common wish the celebrated person hears on his or her birthday?
Do you have a name day, too?
About celebrating Easter
of the great religious events? Why are they important? How do people
celebrate them? Speak about the customs related to these holidays.
Make a list of facts, symbols, and key words associated with Christmas
and Easter.


2. HOLIDAYS AND CELEBRATIONS


READING. Read and then change the following indirect
questions int
he celebrated his/her birthday last year.

Birthdays and holidays are days when people celebrate
differen
o direct ones:
Ask someone how he/s
Ask someone when he/she celebrated it.
Ask someone if he/she celebrated it at a restaurant.
Ask someone if he/she invited many guests.
Ask what they ate and drank.

t events. A birthday is the day when somebody was born a
certain time ago. Along the centuries, all over the world, birthdays
were considered special days and the peoples of the ancient times
nourished the strong belief that, on a birthday, good spirits as well as
bad spirits could influence a persons destiny by helping or harming
him or her. According to this belief, it became customary that all the
86
wadays but, nevertheless, it is
customa
day, too
rought the birthday cake in with all the candles lit, my son
how some people feel, but to me, as to all Christians,
many
and at some friends.
cember 31 , at midnight, when the New Year began, we wished
relatives and friends, the celebrated person had, should gather together
for protection against the evil. They say this was the beginning of the
birthday parties. It is from the ancients - namely Greeks that the
custom of putting lit candles on a birthday cake comes. Among the
many gods and goddesses that the Greeks used to celebrate there was
the goddess of the Moon, called Airtimes whose birthday was
celebrated monthly. The worshipers used to take round cakes, with lit
candles on them, to the goddess temple. The round cakes were
supposed to represent the bright Moon.
These beliefs are less known no
ry for people to celebrate their birthdays with their families
and their best friends and to blow out the candles on the birthday cake.
Yesterday was Sunday and it was my sons birthday and name
, as it was Palm Sunday. He was 15 yesterday and he wanted
to have a little party so, my husband and I prepared everything. As we
had to do some shopping we woke up early, took some shopping bags
and some money and went shopping. First we drove at the butchers to
buy some salami and some pork, then we stopped at the dairy to buy
some butter, pressed cheese and cream, at the greengrocers to buy
some vegetables and fresh fruit, at the bakers for some loaves of bread
and at the grocers for mineral water, juice and coke. When the
shopping was over we came home and, while my husband arranged
and decorated the yard for the party, it was supposed to be a garden
party, you know, I cooked and baked a birthday cake and made
sandwiches. By the time my sons guests arrived everything was
ready. All the guests brought presents and my son was anxious to open
the parcels and admire the presents. They talked, listened music,
danced, played, ate and drank. One of the boys told funny jokes and
they laughed a lot. They enjoyed themselves and had a good time
together.
When I b
didnt find it difficult to blow them all out at one go. Everybody sang
Happy birthday, to you Florin and wished him Many happy returns
of the day.
I dont know
Christmas and Easter are the most important holidays of a year.
Christmas is the day when Jesus Christs birth is celebrated. Not
people know that the name of this holiday comes from the words
Christs Mass, a religious service that honours our Saviour, and the
custom of giving presents to the beloved ones has its origin in the fact
that the Magi brought presents to the baby Christ.
We spent last Christmas (Xmas for short) in Engl
On Christmas Eve (the evening before Christmas 24
th
December)
children decorated a tall fir tree, the Christmas tree, and they hung
their special stockings by the fireplace. We sang carols, special songs
that tell about Christs birth. Santa Claus, dressed in red clothes came,
in a sleigh drawn by reindeer and brought the children toys and sweets.
In the morning we said to our friends We wish you a Merry
Christmas and they answered The same to you or We wish you the
same. On Xmas day there was a traditional dinner. Roast beef, turkey
and plum pudding are the customary dishes of an English Christmas
day.
On De
st
87
Easter. The Bible teaches us that
one another A happy new year.
A greater holiday than Christmas is
on a Friday, called Good Friday, our Saviour died on the cross, to
redeem our sins. According to the Christian religion the following
Sunday, the Redeemer resurrected. People of the same religion
celebrate Christs Resurrection on Easter Day. They eat traditional
Easter food, painted eggs and lamb that symbolises Jesus and wear
new clothes.



GRAMMAR FOCUS
THE SIMPLE PAST
Timpul trecut, aspectul comun - afirmativ al verbelor regulate se
LONG INFINITIVE PAST TENSE


formeaz, pentru toate persoanele, prin adugarea terminaiei ed la
forma de infinitiv i este identic cu participiul trecut al acestor verbe:

to work worked
to play played

Dup c se poate observa din conjugarea celor dou verbe la timpul
onjugarea unui verb regulat (to work) la Past Tense
AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE
um
trecut, aspectul comun, negativul i interogativul se vor forma cu
ajutorul auxiliarului to do la trecut (did) i infinitivul scurt al
verbului de conjugat.

C

I, you, he, she, it, I,

did e,
we, you, they
worked
you, he, she,
it, we, you, they
did not work
I, you, he, she, it, w
you, they work?


Conjugarea unui verb neregulat (to wtite) la Past Tense. Common
AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE
Aspect

I, you, he, she, it, it, e,
we, you, they
wrote
I, you, he, she,
we, you, they
did not write
did I, you, he, she, it, w
you, they write?

erbele neregulate nu urmeaz o anumit regul de formare a timpului V
trecut sau a participiului trecut, aspectul comun. Verbele neregulate au
forme diferite pentru infinitiv, trecut i participiu trecut (deci nu
formeaz aceste timpuri prin adugarea terminaiei caracteristice ed).
Aceste verbe i formele lor de trecut i participiu trecut ( past tense
and past participle) se menioneaz n tabele speciale. n cazul acestor
verbe forma a doua din respectivele tabele corespunde timpului trecut,
aspectul comun, n timp ce forma a treia corespunde participiului
trecut al verbului:

88
INFINITIVE PAST TENSE PAST PARTICIPLE
to write wrote written
to go went gone
to be was, were been
to have had had
to do did done

pul trecut, aspectul comun este folosit pentru a exprima:
nici o
ine the other day. Am
n c eek/
at dou interviuri
ery much today. Astzi toi am muncit foarte
n p iile condiionale n locul timpului condiional prezent:

/ If I were you, I wouldn'd do that. Dac
He wou ed him. i-ar mprumuta bani

Tim
o aciune ncheiat ntr-un moment n trecut care nu are
legtur cu prezentul dar care poate fi asociat cu un anumit moment
din trecut exprimat printr-un adverb de timp sau locuiune adverbial
de timp ca de exeplu: yesterday, last night/ week, month, year, a few
minutes ago, once (odat), once upon a time (o dat de mult), the
other day (deunzi), sau cu perioade de timp trecute fa de momentul
vorbirii: in childhood, in youth, in 1999 etc.:
I received a letter from a friend of m
primit o scrisoare de la o prieten de-a mea mai deunzi.
azul adverbelor i locuiunilor adverbiale: today, this/ w
month/ year se folosete Past Tense. Common Aspect dac perioada
de timp definit prin aceste adverbe este ncheiat:
He gave two interviews this week. A d
sptmna asta.
We all worked v
mult.
ropozi
If I had money I should travel abroad. Dac a avea bani a
cltori n strintate.
If I were in your place
a fi n locul tu nu a face asta.
ld lend you the money if you ask
dac i-ai cere.



. Read the followi g paragraphs in the Past Tense Simple and make
happens every morning. We wake up at seven oclock I
until my wife
nd nephews learn English as a foreign language.
o months.
et their friends, they tell
annoying.
-by the way to the hospital.
1 n
changes where necessary. Use the list of irregular verbs at the end of
the course:
1. This
wash and shave while my wife cooks breakfast.
2. We eat in the kitchen. I feed the cat and the dog
gets ready.
3. Our nieces a
A woman teacher teaches them twice a week.
4. My children love parties.
5. They give a party every tw
6. They have a lot of fun when they me
jokes and laugh, they dance and sing.
7. Some of them drink and smoke too much and this is
8. This blind man has a stick.
9. He walks with its help.
10. He cannot see.
11. He asks a passer
89
and the poor man
eports.
k in front of her.
y.
. Make the following sentences interrogative:
station.

ir overalls.
ith one of her former colleagues.
March 1 .
n the gas.
.
. Read the following sentences in the:
gative;
uarter.
lasses.
ash them.
ter to eight.
ol bus stop.
ays.
rk hard every day.

Lets Talk!
an people travel from one place to another? What do you
? But for custom? Have
12. The passer- by explains him how to get there
thanks him heartily.
13. The typist types the r
14. The typewriter lies on the des
15. The porters load and unload the luggage every da

2
1. We saw some interesting animals at the zoo.
2. The husband arrived late at home last night.
3. The woman left the house and walked to the
4. The porter carried my suitcase because it was heavy.
5. The cook made some sandwiches and gave us a drink.
6. We ate all the sandwiches.
7. We drank all the wine.
8. The masons took off the
9. They put them on the pegs.
10. Her elder sister fell in love w
11. The travellers missed the train.
st
12. It snowed heavily this spring on
13. The hikers went riding.
14. The chef forgot to turn o
15. The baby cried when he was sleepy

3
a) Present Tense Simple Interro
b) Past Tense Simple Negative.
1. They wake up at seven oclock.
2. They have breakfast at half past q
3. His wife gives him a cup of coffee.
4. He takes it. He drinks it slowly.
5. The two children eat hungrily.
6. They empty the plates and the g
7. They give the dishes to their mother to w
8. Mother washes up quickly.
9. They open the door at a quar
10. They leave the house in a hurry.
11. The two children walk to the scho
12. Their parents drive to their offices.
13. It happens every morning on weekd
14. My son learns two foreign languages.
15. Two women teachers teach them.
16. The members of the committee wo
17. My partner spends a lot of money on useless things.



How c
understand by means of transport? What are the means of
transport people nowadays? Which is the fastest means of transport?
Have you ever flown? Do you travel a lot?
What is the Romanian for customs
90
3. TRAVELLING BY AIR. AT THE AIRPORT
you ever gone through customs? What happened there, or what do you
know it usually happens?



READING. Read the text and pay attention to the use of
tenses. One
own.
I suddenly fell down.
1.
our order now?
at you.
shouted: Whats going on here?
the front door.
Travelling by air is one of the fastest means of transport but it
also
most expensive form of transport.
isit London, we
trave
n airport, handles more international
fligh
r their
passp
ople were standing at the inquiry office, speaking
to a
irport who were carrying
suitc
of these things must have happened to you once. Say what
you were doing at the time:
Model: You suddenly fell d
I was climbing a tree when
It started to rain cats and dogs.
2. The waitress said: May I have y
3. The alarm went on.
4. The lights went off.
5. A dog began to bark
6. You ran into a friend.
7. Your boss came in and
8. You began to feel very cold.
9. Your friend burst into tears.
10. You heard a terrible knock at

has the reputation of being dangerous or unpleasant if you happen
to have airsick.
It is also the
Last January when we had the chance to v
lled back home by plane.
Heathrow, Londons mai
ts than any other airport in the world so, when we arrived there,
crowds of people were teeming to and fro, coming from different
places or leaving in all directions inside the country or abroad.
There were hundreds of passengers who were waiting fo
orts to be checked by the customs officers; other inspectors were
checking, weighing and putting labels on the passengers luggage.
Labels are pasted on suitcases so that they could be found easier, you
know. The customs officers were especially looking for prohibited
items on large quantities, or for commercial goods, which fall under
customs restriction. We saw an old lady who was arguing with an
inspector over some valuable things. She hadnt known that she had to
pay duty on them, so she was rather puzzled as she was short of
money. It seemed she had spent all she had had and there wasnt
enough money left.
Some young pe
woman who was giving them information about a planes
departure time, which seemed to be much delayed because of the
foggy and rainy weather. Their conversation was rather difficult as the
travellers knowledge of English was poor.
There were also porters inside the a
ases and boxes but some young men were managing their luggage
91
sitting on chairs or
armc
oms formalities were over we kissed our friends
good
by themselves using some trolleys. It was such a crowd as there were
many English people who were seeing their friends off or others who
were waiting and welcoming friends or relatives.
In the waiting hall the passengers were
hairs, reading, talking or merrily watching the airfields through
the windows. We could see planes that were landing or taking off and
we even could watch the pilots and stewardesses who were getting on
or off the aircrafts.
When the cust
bye and promised to write and then a special bus took us to the
jet. We got on, made ourselves comfortable, fastened our seatbelts and,
at the exact time we took off. We had a lovely flight home.




GRAMMAR FOCUS

THE PAST TENSE. C NTINUOUS ASPECT
AFFIRMATIVE NEGAT INTERROGATIVE
O

IVE
I, he, she, it
was writing
I, s W t
g
he, she, it wa
not writing
as I, he, she, i
writin ?
You, we, they ey,

, we, they (not)
were writing w
You, we, th
ere not writing
Were you
writing?

Acest timp se formeaz din timpul trecul al verbului auxiliar to be i
ul;
te pentru a exprima:
o a ,
genul: at ...oclock, at that time,
raov. Sptmna
alt
ren were still arguing when mother arrived home.
ac
ife while she was cooking. Vorbea cu

participiul prezent a verbului de conjugat conform schemei;
se traduce n limba romn cu imperfectul;
se traduce n limba romn cu imperfect
Past Tense. Continuous Aspect se folose
ciune n desfurare la un anume moment n trecut
moment ce poate fi indicat prin:
una din expresiile adverbiale de
this time yesterday,/ last week,/ last month, etc.
This time last week we were travelling to B
trecut pe vremea asta cltoream spre Braov.
aciune:
The child
Copii nc discutau n contradictoriu cnd a sosit mama acas.
iuni paralele n trecut:
He was talking to his w
soia lui n timp ce ea gtea.




. Combine these pairs using while:
went out while it was raining.
kle.
1
a) Model: It was raining. I went out. I
1. The young man was skiing. He had an accident.
2. He was lying in the snow. He felt a pain in the an
92
e customs officers checked
he other way. Someone hit my shoulder.
Julia
e man saw the mistress of the house. She was standing on
. She was talking feebly.
rning.
er purse.
ut paying.
ologise.
on.
.
.
. Imagine you are telling a friend the story of The Titanic. Look at the
oing very fast. It was dangerous.

unsinkable.
foolish.
hed the
er ship just sailed away. It terrified the passengers.
was
ople gave their places in the lifeboats to other people.
ople fought wildly to get into the boats. This
wn and over a thousand lives were lost.
. Put the verbs into the correct tense (Simple or Continuous Past):
3. He was crying loudly. A group of tourist came.
4. He was lying there. He saw them.
5. Porters were carrying luggage. Th
the passports.
6. I was looking t
b) Model: Robert heard Julia. She was laughing. Robert heard
laughing.
1. Th
the terrace.
2. He heard her
3. He smelt something. The stable was bu
4. We heard the woman. She was shouting.
5. We noticed the burglar. He was stealing h
6. I watched a couple. They were dancing.
c) Model: She left. She did not pay. She left witho
1. She came in. She did not knock.
2. She left the office. She did not ap
3. She sat down. She did not ask for permissi
4. He walked several miles. He did not stop.
5. He spoke for ten minutes. He did not pause
6. I lay in bed for two hours. I did not fall asleep

2
model and do the same:
Model: The Titanic was g
The Titanic was going very fast which was very dangerous.
1. It was very big. It seemed very safe.
2. It was well provided. It seemed to be
3. It was not carrying enough lifeboats. This was very
4. The other ship did not stop. This surprised everybody.
5. The other ship didnt help the shipwrecked. It astonis
crew.
6. The oth
7. Everybody was having a good time on the ship. This
normal.
8. Some pe
This was brave.
9. A lot of other pe
was understandable.
10. The Titanic went do
This shocked the world.

3
1. The two of them (go out) and (join) the
wounded man who (sit) at one end of the porch by
himself.
2. The poor widow (walk) through the blowing snow.
Suddenly a man with his hat pulled over his eyes (bump)
into her.
3. I was told that an acquaintance of mine (sit) at the bar
one evening when a man with a scar on his cheek (hit)
him plump in his head.
4. At about 4 a.m. I (awake and see) that it (be)
still night and the stars and the moon (shine) brightly
in the sky.
5. He (take) his breakfast earlier than usual but (linger)
in the parlour till his relatives finished their meal and (left).
6. When we (hear) the deafening noise we (wake up)
and (jump) out of bed.
7. Pleased as she (be), when she (find) her purse, the
poor woman (burst) into tears and (hug) the first
person who (pass) near by.
8. The commuters (shelter) themselves under the eaves of
the houses while they (wait) for the bus to come.
9. The old man (doze) in the darkest corner of the
room, when the doorbell (ring).
10. The electric power (go off), while they (enter) the
ets Talk!
u often travel by train? Do you travel by train because you
4. TRAVELLING BY LAND. AT THE RAILWAY STATION

concert hall.

L
Do yo
like it or because you have no other means of transport available?
Where in the world have they the most efficient rail transport? What
do you think about rail transport in Romania? Compare it to that of
Japan or France.



READING. Read the following text:

eople who choose to use slow, fast or express trains from the
vario
tation is a full of life place with platforms where
passe
rough train with a Diesel locomotive, several first
class
ff. The persons standing on the platform near the
carri
P
us means of transport they have at their disposal must go to the
railway station.
A railway s
ngers and goods trains come in or leave from. Look! A train has
just arrived on platform 1. Many people have got off the train and
many others are getting on it at the moment. Some porters have
already taken the new comers luggage and have carried them out of
the station to the bus, trolley or taxi stations. Those people who have
already got on the trains have taken their seats in smoker or non-
smoker compartments, but there are also some latecomers who hurry
to catch their trains. Have they found vacant seats? Some have but
some have not.
This is a th
or second class passenger carriages, a luggage van, a restaurant
car (dining-car) and even some sleeping cars as this is a long distance
train not a local train. The guard has waved his flag and has already
blown his whistle.
The train is o
ages are friends or relatives who have come to see someone dear
off. They have kissed one another good-bye and now, as the engine has
93
94
look
roun
ggage office there, on the left side of the
platf
stand
ok at that man who is running along the platform 2.
He i
started and the train is moving away, they are waving good-bye.
Now, as our train has disappeared in the distance, lets
d the railway station.
We can see a left lu
orm, where passengers have deposited their suitcases, bags,
rucksacks. At the moment some are waiting to withdraw their luggage.
The booking office is a little further and many travellers are
ing in queues to buy single or return tickets for their journeys.
Those who have bought their tickets beforehand, and who travel light
are now comfortably sitting in armchairs in the waiting room over
there, on the right. Their train is due out later and they while their time
away reading the magazines or newspapers they have bought at the
bookstall, or booklets about various resorts of the country they have
found at hand on the little tables. Others are in the refreshment room
eating their meal.
Oh, dear! Lo
s desperate. Unfortunately he has missed his train. Now he is
looking at the time table. Poor him!



GRAMMAR FOCUS

PAST PARTICIPLE
Participiul trecut al verbelor regulate se formeaz adugnd terminaia
adugarea terminaiei ed:
erbele terminate n e pierd acest e final:
to dictate dictated

ed la infinitivul verbului.
Modificri ortografice aprute dup

V


erbele monosilabice terminate ntr-o consoan precedat de o vocal
to drop dropped
V
scurt dubleaz consoana final:


erbele plurisilabice terminate ntr-o consoan precedat de o vocal
to prefer preferred
V
scurt dubleaz consoana final numai dac accentul cade pe ultima
silab:

erbele terminate n -l dubleaz consoana final indiferent de accent:
to travel travelled
V


a verbele terminate n -y precedat de o vocal, -y rmne neschimbat:
to play played
L


a verbele terminate n -y precedat de consoan acesta se schimb n -i L
i se adaug terminaia -ed.
95
r neregulate este dat n tabele cu verbe
to be was, were been
Participiul trecut al verbelo
neregulate i corespunde formei a treia din aceste tabele:

to have had had
to have had had


THE PRESENT PERFECT. COMMON ASPECT

AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE

I, you, we, they
have written
I, you, we, they
have not written
Have I, you, we, they
written?
he, she, it
tten
, she, it
has written
he, she, it
has not wri
Hasnt he
written?

Present Perfect. Commom Aspect exprim o aciune trecut care are
t se formeaz cu verbul
este n curs de desfurare n
ars. Familia
ss conference for an
O a trecut, a fost n curs de desfurare n
e pn
The m been cleaning the house all day long. Menajera a fcut


legtur cu prezentul, fie prin efectul sau consecinele sale, fie prin
faptul c aciunea continu nc n prezent.
Timpul Present Perfect. Commom Aspec
auxiliar to have la prezent i participiul trecut al verbului de conjugat.
I have written the letter. Am scris scrisoarea.
The teacher has arrived. Profesorul a sosit.
Acest timp este folosit pentru a reda:
o aciune nceput n trecut care
momentul vorbirii i probabil va continua i n viitor.
My family has been living in this city for thirty ye
mea locuiete n acest ora de 30 de ani.
The mayor has been attending the pre
hour. Primarul particip la conferina de pres de o or. (Este
acolo de acum o or).
ciune care a nceput n
trecut i s-a terminat cu puin nainte de momentul vorbirii:
He has been reading the reports so far. A citit rapoartel
acum.
aid has
curat toat ziua.



Read the following sentences in the: Present Perfect Simple. Make
. He keeps a very large house.
.
le.
s the cats food.
l.
all the necessary changes:

1
2. He has a cat and a dog as pets
3. The cats feet are always dirty.
4. It comes in and jumps on the tab
5. He feeds his pets daily.
6. The dog constantly steal
96
girl friend laughs.
s and meat at the butchers.
ldren.
vity.
ccur in all stages of
from the seller to the buyer.
lace of
produce merchandise in large quantities.
or by
. Complete the sentences with for or since:
1. The Chief Executive Officer has waited
7. He kicks the dog and the dog barks.
8. It bites his masters leg.
9. The master shouts but his
10. The grocer owns a small shop.
11. We buy groceries at the grocer
12. The baker cuts a loaf in thin slices.
13. He gives the slices to some poor chi
14. He cuts himself. It hurts.
15. Commerce is a human acti
16. Endless delays and hindrances o
commerce.
17. Goods move
18. Goods are usually produced far from the p
consumption.
19. Manufacturers
20. Transport concerns the moving of goods by land, by sea
air.

2

two hours to see
s been here
you.
2. He ha 9 oclock.
anged 3. The cash flow statement hasnt ch several months.
4. The budget hasnt been valued last year.
5. The bank office has been staffed it came into being.
6. They have cancelled the bond issue the day before
rs of this body of principles have settled it
yesterday.
7. The founde the

enterprise was founded,
8. They have finished several hours.
9. The clerks have worked in this office 20 years.
10. Many things have changed we were children.
11. The central heating has been on October.
12. Her husband has been very patient with her she got ill.
13. The workers strike has lasted three weeks.
14. The police have looked for the thieves they stole the
lost weight
jewels.
15. She has that tragic accident in which her baby
nt eaten anything
died.
16. I have twenty four hours.



Bibliografie obligatorie:
1. *** Dicionar englez-romn, 1974/2006, Bucureti, Ed. Academiei.
ditura Universitaria
,



2. Firic, Camelia, 2013, Limba englez, Craiova, Editura Universitaria
3. Firic, Camelia, 2009, Brush up on your every day English, Craiova, E
4. Gheorghe Bic, Camelia Firic, Cristian Firic, 2004, A dictionary of Legal and Law Issues
Craiova, Editura Sitech
97
UNIT 6
A BUSY W RKING DAY

Contents:
.1. A BUSY WORKING DAY
es
. Continuous aspect

O

6
6.1.1. Grammar focus. Exercis
6.1.1.1. The Present Perfect Tense
6.2
us. Exercises
on aspect. The Adverb.
. CITY TRAFFIC
6.2.1. Grammar foc
6.2.1.1. The Future Tense. Comm
6.3
uous Aspect
6.4
. SHOPS AND SHOPPING. WHERE DO YOU SHOP?
6.3.1. Grammar focus. Exercises
6.3.1.1. The Future Tense. Contin
. FOOD. MEALS IN ENGLAND
6.4.1. Grammar focus. Exercises
6.4.1.1. The Past Perfect Tense. Common Aspect. The Past Perfect Tense. Continuous

Aspect

Unit Objectives and competences:
- Learn : (1) work; (2) city
traffic
uous
aspec
and practice vocabulary referring to
; (3) shops and shopping; (3) food and meals in England.
- Practise grammar issues: present perfect tense - contin
t; the future tense simple and continuous; the adverb; the past
perfect tense - common and continuous aspect.


1. A BUSY WORKING DAY
READING. Read the following text and mind the use
of the presen
My friend works as a chief accountant in one of subsidiaries of
the
whole working day! He has
got

t perfect tense continuous:

German-Romanian Bank and he is just the man for his job that
fits him like a glove. He is a conscientious, hard working employee,
very appreciated by his employers and superiors. He gave an
interview and was employed several months ago when the subsidiary
in his town was opened and he has been working there ever since.
Some of the clerks on the staff havent been working at that bank
since the beginning; they are newcomers but they have quickly got
acquainted with the working conditions.
Now, lets follow my friend along his
up, done his morning exercises, and hes been in the bathroom for
a few minutes. He had turned on the cold water tap, as he is going to
take a shower. He enjoys having cold showers in the summer
mornings and now he has already been having his morning shower
for a while. He has just shaved, brushed his teeth, combed his hair
98
hen since she has
wo
kirts of the town
and
reached his place of work after a long
driv
n typing for some
tim
and hes putting on his clothes at this very moment.
His wife has been preparing breakfast in the kitc
ken up. They are sitting down at table. Its a quarter to eight now
and they have been eating breakfast for ten minutes.
My friend is in his car now. They live on the outs
theres a rather long way to his office. He has been driving for
twenty minutes. The traffic is heavy in the morning and there are
traffic jams as everybody wants to get somewhere, busy with their
current affairs.
Our character has finally
e. Piles of business letters and documents were on his desk,
waiting for an answer or signature, and my friend has been dictating
the necessary answers to the secretary for an hour.
Now its almost noon and the secretary has bee
e. Meanwhile my friend wrote some reports; for a while he has
been verifying some balance sheets, charts of account and statements
of account. He has to take all the papers to the manager to have them
signed. Because the manager isnt in his office, he has been attending
a meeting with some foreign businesspeople since morning, my
friend had to leave the papers with the managers secretary. Its two oc
The tiring working day is over. Although he has been working hard
so far, my friend is not tired. One never gets tired of what he loves to
do.



GRAMMAR FOCUS
HE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE. CONTINUOUS ASPECT
AFFIRMATIVE NEGATI E INTERROGATIVE

T

V
I, you, we, they hey
have been writing
I, you, we, t
have not been
writing
Have I, you, we, they
been writing?
He, she, it has , it has Has he, she, it (not)
been writing

He, she
not been writing been writing

Timpul Present Perfect. Aspectul Continuu se formeaz din timpul
for an hour. Profesorul pred de o
te n curs de desfurare n
rs. Familia
s conference for an
O a trecut, a fost n curs de desfurare n
Present Perfect. Common Aspect al verbului to be i participiul
prezent al verbului de conjugat.
The teacher has been teaching
or.
Acest timp este folosit pentru a reda:
o aciune nceput n trecut care es
momentul vorbirii i probabil va continua i n viitor.
My family has been living in this city for thirty yea
mea locuiete n acest ora de 30 de ani.
The mayor has been attending the pres
hour. Primarul particip la conferina de pres de o or. (Este
acolo de acum o or).
ciune care a nceput n
trecut i s-a terminat cu puin nainte de momentul vorbirii:
99
artele
aid has been cleaning the house all day long.
Mena

He has been reading the reports so far. A citit rapo
pn acum.
The m
jera a fcut curat toat ziua.


1. Complete the following sentences with the Present Perfect Simple
1. I
or Continuous of the verbs you will find in the second part of each
sentence in italics:

this pen for several years but Im not using it any
hew
more.
2. My nep a student in Mathematics for about three
years, and he still is.
3. I the Browns for ages and I think I know them
usins
well.
4. My co in the same block of flats for fifteen
years but they are not living in the same block any more.
5. The postman that old bicycle since he was
young and he still rides it every day.
6. My niece that old car of her parents for four
years but she is not driving it any more.
7. Our grandchildren the same secondary school
for two years and they are still attending the same school.
8. The old plumber hard for nearly fifty years and
tors t
he still works hard.
9. The Board of Direc he Article of
Association for several hours and they are still analysing it.
10. The employees large amounts of money, and they
2. Insert the Present Tense Continuous or Present Perfect
1. I
still earn a lot.

Continuous:

(wait) here all morning to see either the assistant

manager or the chief executive officer.
2. My dear fellow, what (think about).
3. I (search) the streets of the town to find you for
e, as a joint stock company we have problems, but
successfully since they occurred.
two years and this is the first time Ive admitted it even to
myself.
4. Of cours
we
(handle) them
5. She moved easily and said: I (not feel) well for the

last ten days.
6. We hear you (look for) a new building for your
to live for, but my children? Its you and the
prosperous firm.
7. What else have I
rest of them that (work) and (make)
plans for all these years.
8. The van (make) a curious noise ever since it
100

ran out of oil.
9. The wireless (play) since dawn. I wish someone
. Replace the infinitives with the Present Perfect Simple or
1. I
turned it off.

3
Continuous:

(not to see) my neighbours since they returned
friend. I
from abroad.
2. She is my best (to like) always her.
3. I (to want) for a long time to give you this pen as a

present.
4. He (to be) awfully fond of you for quite a long time.
5. All her relatives know that she (to correspond)
with him for the last four months.
6. She cant remember her aunts address because she (not
to hear) from the old woman for two years.
7. We often (to hear) people say how disappointed
they will be if they never see a certain place which
they (to dream) of for years.
8. A great poet is he who always (to feel) most of the
things that move peoples hearts and who always
(to understand) them most deeply.
9. It (to rain) for two hours and the football ground is
too wet, so that the match just (to be) postponed.





Lets Talk!
urban means of transport. What can you say about city
when traffic is very heavy?
ou drive? Have you ever been in the
2. CITY TRAFFIC
About
transport? Name some means of transport. Which do you consider
the fastest? What other synonyms do you know for tube? Is there
such a means of transport in your town?
What do you call the part of the day
And what is the opposite of this?
About driving skills. Can y
position of avoiding a car accident just because you were driving
carefully?


READING. Read and then give answers to the
following qu
?
pe the report?
ld offices?
estions according to the pattern:
Model: When are you going to paint the house
Ill have to paint it next summer.
1. When are you going to ty
2. When are you going to refurbish these o
3. When is he going to fix the fax?
101
cheque in?
the economic
affic is awfully heavy in big cities because cars, busses, lorries,
van
blem in big cities.
pedestrians
wil

vis
ing is a pleasant, useful but serious matter; it can be also
dan
lly those who
exc
ving test and obtain a
driv

4. When are they going to hand the
5. When is the government going to make
decisions on a daily basis?


Tr
s, taxies and trolley buses run wildly along the straight
thoroughfares, boulevards or winding main streets during the
morning and afternoon rush hours, when thousands of people hurry
home or are busy with daily tasks.
Traffic jams will always be a pro
Distances are long and those who do not drive the
l have to walk fast along the crowded pavements and will have to
wait at the zebra crossings or on islands near the bus, tram or trolley
bus stops. They may also use the tube or underground if theres one
in the city. At the big crossroads one will find subways for
pedestrians and along the wide or narrow streets one will notice
lampposts, road- signs and traffic lights at the corners. When the red
traffic light is switched on the vehicles will drive and the pedestrians
will wait for the vehicles to cross. Those who are late will be
impatient for the moment when they will be allowed to cross safely.
In all European countries traffic keeps on the right but if someone
its England he will notice that vehicles drive on the left side of the
roads.
Driv
gerous and a car will always be your enemy if you dont handle it
properly and carefully. There have been too many car accidents
lately, too many deaths and too many people injured.
On one hand, drivers are to be blamed especia
eed the speed limits and disobey the traffic rules without any
consideration for the others, drivers who think they are safe at the
steering wheel even when they have drunk. On the other hand the
pedestrians are to be blamed too; they step off the pavement
carelessly, without looking to the left or right.
I think I shall never be able to pass a dri
ing licence so, Ill always get on the bus or tram. Ill pay my fare
for the ticket to the conductor and, if I find a vacant seat, Ill sit down
and patiently look out of the window; if not, Ill hold on a strap to
keep from falling; when my stop comes Ill get off the bus or tram
safe and sound, thanks God. So I shant have to take care not to hit or
run over careless pedestrians, I shant have to read all those terrible
traffic signs, and I shant have to deal with those unconscious drivers
who think the whole road is theirs.









102

GRAMMAR FOCUS
THE FUTURE TENSE. COMMON ASPECT

AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE

I, we shall write I, We shall not
write
Shall I, we write?

You, he, she, it, e, she, it, they ill you, he, she, it,
they will write
You, h
will write
W
they write?

impul viitor. Aspectul Comun se formeaz cu ajutorul verbelor
e there on time. Vom fi acolo la timp.
e.
moment viitor fa de
lui viitor n care se va petrece aciunea se va
MBER!
Ver care este i verb modal n acelai timp(a
eit.

mit).
In p ingular i plural shall
of water? S-i aduc un pahar cu
I open the window? S deschid fereastra?
In v losi la toate
nd se face referire la
u vrea s se deschid.
ATEN
timpul
get up late. O s pierzi trenul
T
auxiliare shall (pentru persoana I singular i plural) i will pentru
persoanele a II- a i a III- a urmate de infinitivul scurt al verbului de
conjugat.
We shall b
He will not come earlier. El nu va veni mai devrem
When will you go there? Cnd vei merge acolo?
Acest timp se folosete pentru a exprima:
O aciune care va avea loc ntr-un
momentul vorbirii:
Precizarea momentu
face cu ajutorul adverbelor sau locuiunilor adverbiale de timp:
tomorrow, the day after tomorrow (poimine), next/ week,
month, year, soon (curnd), in a months time, in three weeks
time etc.
REME
bul auxiliar will,
vrea), folosit la persoanele I singular i plural va exprima
intenia sau hotrrea vorbitorului de a svri o anumit
aciune n timp ce verbul auxiliar shall, care este i verb modal (a
trebui), folosit la persoanele a II- a i a III-a singular i plural va
exprima un ordin, o promisiune ferm:
I will come. Voi veni/ am s vin negr
I will help you. Te voi ajuta (sunt hotrt).
He shall come. (El) va veni (negreit, i pro
You shall help him. Trebuie s-l ajui.
ropoziii interogative, la persoanele I s
va avea sensul (trebuie) s...i se va folosi pentru a cere un sfat
asupra svririi unei aciuni:
Shall I fetch you a glass
ap?
Shall
arianta american a limbii engleze will se va fo
persoanele pentru formarea timpului viitor;
La persoanele a III- a singular i plural, c
lucruri, will va avea sensul vrea, vor:
The window wont open. Fereastra n
IE! TIMPUL VIITOR NU SE FOLOSETE N:
Propoziii condiionale, n care viitorul se va reda prin
prezent al verbului de conjugat:
Youll miss the train if you
103
nless I learn. Nu voi trece examenul
NOT: negativ dac nu, i verbul
fi nlocuit
pul prezent dac cele dou aciuni din propoziia regent i
r when I come. Vom discuta
Tim aciunea din propoziia
mework.
THE A RB
Adverbul este partea de vorbire care arat o caracteristic a
unei ac
a
area adverbelor:
Adv time): before, now, then, after,
): ever, never, often,
: here, there, outside, inside,
of manner): slowly, rapidly, carefully,
ormarea adverbelor de mod:
Majoritatea adv adugarea sufixului

dac te vei scula trziu.
I shant pass the exam u
dac nu voi nva.
Unless este o locuiune cu sens
care-i urmeaz va fi obligatoriu folosit la forma afirmativ.
Propoziii circumstaniale de timp n care viitorul va
cu:
Tim
cea temporal sunt simultane:
Well discuss this matte
problema aceasta cnd voi veni.
pul Present Perfect dac
subordonat temporal este anterioar celei din regent:
Ill go to the cinema after I have finished my ho
Voi merge la cinema dup ce-mi voi termina temele.



DVE

iuni, a unei stri sau a unei caliti. Adverbul are grade de
comparaie i ndeplinete funcia sintactic de complement
circumstani l.
Clasific
erbe de timp (Adverbs of
today, tonight, tomorrow, the day after tomorrow, yesterday, the
day before yesterday, late, lately, lastly etc.;
Adverbe de frecven (Adverbs of frequency
seldom, rarely, occasionally, usually, sometimes, always, daily,
weekly, once, twice, ten times etc.;
Adverbe de loc (Adverbs of place)
near, far, everywhere, upstairs, downstairs, nowhere, southward
(nspre sud), northward(s) (nspre nord), eastward(s) (nspre
est), westwards (nspre vest), (on the) east of (la est de), (on the)
north of (la nord de) etc.;
Adverbe de mod (Adverbs
fluently, badly, beautifully, quickly, well, fast etc.;

F
erbelor de mod se formeaz prin
ly la un adjectiv sau substantiv:

distinct distinctly
rapid rapidly
day daily
week weekly

general adugarea sufixului ly nu modific forma iniial a
ixului
streaz naintea
In
cuvntului dup cum se poate observa n exemplele anterioare.
Totui urmtoarele fapte lingvistice au loc dup adugarea suf
adverbial i acestea nu trebuie scpate din vedere:
Dac adjectivul se termin in -e acesta se p
104
entire entirely
sufixului -ly:
extreme extremely

xcepii:
true truly
E
due duly
whole wholly

Dac adjectivul se termin n -l adverbul va avea -ll prin
beautiful beautifully

adugarea terminaiei -ly:




Adjectivele terminate n ll pierd un l:
full fully



Adjectivele terminate n -y l transform pe acesta n -i naintea
happy happily

sufixului -ly:


OT: cuvintele friendly, likely, lonely, lovely sunt adjective i nu
ul adjectivului good este well.
N
adverbe. Exprimarea lor ca adverbe se face cu ajutorul altor adverbe
sau locuiuni adverbiale: in a friendly way, in a lovely way, probably,
alone.
Adverb




3. SHOPS AND SHOPPING. WHERE DO YOU SHOP?


READING.

There are shops where we buy things to eat and others where we
buy
or men and the
dre
things to wear or things we use in every day life.
The tailor, for instance, makes clothes to measure f
ssmaker makes clothes for women. The hatter sells gentlemans
hats and the milliner makes and sells hats for ladies. The draper sells
stockings, socks, underwear while the shoemaker makes and sells
shoes, sandals, boots and a cobbler repairs them. The bookseller sells
books (novels, science- fiction books, detective stories or short
stories, thrillers, poetry books, autobiographies, essay books,
memoirs), dictionaries, magazines; the tobacconist sells tobacco,
cigarettes and cigars, the stationer sells copy books, exercise books,
notebooks, pens, fountain pens, pencils, coloured pencils, ink, writing
105
heir shopping at the big self-
ser
ind
hopping is my hobby and pastime at the same time.
Wh
bakers counter sells loaves of white or brown bread, rolls,
bun
of
goo
ll call at the butchers. The counters that
sell
paper, stamps, envelopes, postcards, the chemist (or the
pharmaceutical chemist) sells not only medicines (or drugs) but also
cosmetics and toilet supplies.
Nowadays people prefer doing t
vice supermarkets or department stores which are always well
supplied or well stocked and where goods are visibly displayed at
hand in different departments and counters, rather than wander from
one shop to another which, after all, proved to be a waste of time.
A self- service system offers lots of advantages: customers can f
in one and the same store a wide range of goods which are ready-
weighed, ready-packed, ready-bottled and price- marked so that they
can examine and select them, they can pay at the same cash- desk.
All these make shopping faster, easier and customers save their
precious time.
As for me s
ether I have something to buy or not I love wandering alone
through all the shops, rather early in the morning, right after 10
oclock when they open. I love the large, beautifully decorated shop
windows, which display all sorts of goods and invite you in. Ive
made up my mind for tomorrow. As I have some spare time and
theres no food supplies in the larder- I like it well stocked, you
know, and weve run out of foodstuff- I shall be going shopping
tomorrow morning at about a quarter to eleven. The shopping- area,
which is in the centre of the town, isnt too far away from the house
so Ill be walking to the biggest supermarket in our town and Ill be
calling at all sorts of shops on my way: the boot-store, the drapers,
the haberdashers, the stationers, the chemists, at those shops that
sell furniture, electrical appliances, knitwear, fabrics, chinaware and
glassware, carpets. As soon as I reach the four- storied supermarket I
shall be visiting all the counters. The first one where Ill be going to
will be the ready-made clothes where they display light or dark
coloured blouses, skirts, dresses, coats and overcoats. They are all of
an exceptionally good quality and Ill be looking for a skirt for
winter. Then Ill be trying a pair of low heeled, leather shoes at the
footwear department and, at the leatherwear department, Ill be
looking for a pair of gloves. Finally Ill shop at the food department.
Lets begin at the dry groceries counter where one can buy: flour,
maize flour, rice, semolina, castor sugar, lump sugar, powder sugar,
oil, corn flakes, oat flakes, noodles, vermicelli, macaroni, spices,
vinegar, ready- ground coffee, instant coffee, instant soup, but Ill
only be buying two kilos of castor sugar, one kilo of rice, coffee, tea,
a pack of noodles, half a kilo of semolina, some instant soup and
flour.
The
s, crescents, cheese pies, apple pies, meat pies, but I only need
two loaves of sliced white bread and some cheese pie from here.
The next counter will be the dairy one. Oh, what a variety
ds they are displaying: butter, margarine, cream, whipped cream,
yoghurt, cheese, pressed cheese, bottled milk, sour milk, powder
milk. Ill buy from each of these dairy products which we enjoy very
much as they are healthy.
As I need some meat I
meat and poultry are well supplied, too. They sell beef, pork,
106
at the greengrocery department
but

mutton, lamb, duck, goose, turkey, chicken and even game here, but
Ill only take some veal and poultry.
I shant buy fruit and vegetables
Ill stop at the market on my way home because I love walking
among the rows of counters where piles of tomatoes, potatoes,
cucumbers, cabbages, French beans, eggplants, onions, garlic,
apricots, peaches, nuts, melons, water melons and oranges are
displayed and one can chose anything he or she wants. After all these
shopping all the money will be gone and the shopping bags full so,
Ill be taking a taxi to come back home tomorrow about noon...

GRAMMAR FOCUS

THE FUTURE TENSE. CONTINUOUS ASPECT
AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE
I, we shall be
writing
I, we shall not be ?
writing
Shall I, we be writing
You, he, she, it, You, he, she, it, Will you, she, he, it,
they will be
writing
they will not be
writing
they be writing?

Timpul viitor. Aspectul continuu se formeaz cu ajutorul verbului
u a exprima:
urare ntr-un anume
e tomorrow I shall be shopping. O s fac
lock tonight. Ce vei face
O a o anumit perioad de timp n viitor:
Voi

auxiliar to be precedat de verbele modale shall/ will i participiul
prezent al verbului de conjugat.
Acest timp se ntrebuineaz pentr
O aciune de durat care va fi n desf
moment n viitor; caracterul progresiv al aciunii viitoare fiind
exprimat printr-unul din adverbele sau locuiunile adverbiale de timp
referitoare la viitor: at...oclock, then, by that/ the time, this time
tomorrow/ next week/ next month/, from...to (de la ...la), all the
week/ month/ year through (pe durata ntregii sptmni/ luni /
ntregului an).
This tim
cumprturi mine pe vremea asta.
What will you be doing at eight oc
ast sear la ora 8?
ciune care va ocupa
I shall be teaching tomorrow between 9 and 12 oclock.
preda mine ntre orele 9-12.



. Put the verbs in brackets into the Future Tense Simple or
a report all day tomorrow and then the
t week.
sit) in the

1
Continuous:
1. He (draw up)
secretary (type) it the day after tomorrow.
2. He (read out) the report at the meeting nex
3. The man thinks that this time next month he (
107
robably the kids (sleep) and a bright fire
ner in half an hour.
my husbands
silk dress.
resting lecture on English
at about noon?
t opening the day after
randparents for the
o Paris in two weeks now.
rrow about this time.
r
omorrows meeting.
e tomorrow.

4. FOOD. MEALS IN ENGLAND

chairmans chair.
4. When we arrive p
(burn) in the fireplace.
5. The maid (serve) us din
6. Some friends are coming to see us tonight.
7. We (drink) champagne and (toast) for
successful business.
8. I (wear) my smart new
9. The professor (deliver) a new inte
literature next semester.
10. What you (do) tomorrow
11. You (meet) those new foreign partners?
12. You (have lunch) with them in town?
13. I (see) the sales manager at the marke
tomorrow and we (discuss) the problem.
14. My nephew and nice (stay) with their g
summer holidays.
15. Their parents (fly) t
16. We (not hear) from them for a while.
17. The new investor (take the floor) tomo
18. The delegates of the political party (gather) for their regula
conference next month.
19. The chairman (preside) t
20. He (provide) the required explanations.
21. The secretary (take) the minutes this tim

READING.
Read te following text and tell:
tantial meal of the day in England?
What
A friend of mine who visited England last summer told me he had
nev
alw
in at a small inn,
in t
irst morning after his arrival, on a Sunday morning,
my
- What is the most subs
do the English usually have for breakfast? What does a
continental breakfast consist of?

er imagined that he would be ever beaten by an English breakfast.
Between you and me, my friend is such a greedy fellow, and he is
ays as hungry as a wolf, that I didnt believe him. Nevertheless it
seems it really happened. The story goes like this.
When my friend arrived in Brighton, he checked
he neighbourhood of which his best friends, that had invited them
to England, had their residence. He had politely declined the
invitation to stay in his friends house during his visit, as he didnt
want to trouble them too much and be a nuisance. However, he
accepted their invitation to spend most of the time together and have
meals together.
So, the very f
friend went to his friends place to have breakfast together and go
for a ride afterwards. They sat down at the large table in the kitchen
108
ted in finding out further information about
e world, English drink a lot of
tea
glish gather all at home in the evening so dinner is the
mo
most substantial meal of
the
and started to eat while the housewife was still preparing some food
on the stove, in one corner. The two children of the host and hostess
started with some cornflakes with milk or cream and castor sugar or
salt, while the husband started with a plateful of porridge. To be
polite, my friend, who was not at all familiar with this particular dish,
asked for some porridge too and, although he did not enjoy it very
much, he emptied the plate, hungry as he was, you know. As he
didnt know what the hostess had in store for him, he felt at ease
when he saw the second course coming. This was a rather substantial
one: a large helping of sausages and scrambled eggs for the two men,
and bacon and poached eggs for the children. The lady of the house
had some fried herrings. Afterwards slices of bread and toast, butter
and orange marmalade and a huge pot of milk and coffee appeared on
the table. My friend was already amazed and dumb with surprise at
this enormous quantity of food, and he had to struggle hard to eat
everything he had been given. After such a meal it was a torture for
him to go sightseeing.
As I was very interes
meals in Britain, and as my friend was in the position to inform me, I
listened to him giving all the details about the subject. He told me
that lunch- which is usually served at one oclock consists of two
courses: a plain, simple- cooked dish and a sweet or pudding. The
first course is some meat (beef, veal, mutton, lamb, pork, chicken,
duck, game) or poultry and some vegetables (potatoes, carrots, peas,
French beans, cabbage, cauliflower or spinach) usually boiled or
roast to go with. Usually ale is drunk with the first course. Puddings,
which are of various types are the second course, but sometimes
apple tarts, cheese and biscuits, stewed fruit or fresh fruit like apples,
pears, apricots, peaches, grapes, oranges are preferred. Coffee, black
or white, is served to end lunch with.
As it is already known all over th
so five oclock tea is considered the third meal of the day. It is
served between four and five. A pot of tea, a jug of milk and a basin
with castor or lump sugar, cups and saucers, thin slices of bread and
butter, chocolate cakes, strawberry jam and cream are all brought in,
on a tray.
The En
st substantial meal of the day, served at about seven oclock.
Dinner begins with tomato-soup for example and is followed by fish
or a joint of meat with vegetables and rice.
The dessert is the last to come. As the
day, dinner is sometimes served in the middle of the day, instead
of lunch and in this case, a light supper is served in the evening. This
is generally the case with country people and some people in town.
So, some English people have breakfast, dinner, tea, supper while
others have breakfast, lunch, tea and dinner.







109

GRAMMAR FOCUS
THE PAST PERFECT TENSE. COMMON ASPECT
AFFIRMAT E NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE



IV
I, you, he, she, it, I, you, he, she, it, ad I, you, he, she, it,
we, you, they had
written
we, you they had
not written
H
we, you, they written?

st Perfect Simple se formeaz cu timpul Past Tense al verbului to
erfectul.
ei aciuni n trecut:
O a
tul citise
O a in naintea unei alte aciuni trecute:
O a ngnd
ft for America for a few months when the Second
n v ilor, pentru a nlocui
ork, mother said.
rked hard.
In p ondiional perfect:

Folosire p hardly, scarcely, no sooner:
PPIMA PROPOZIIE A DOUA PROPOZIIE
Pa
have + participiul trecut al verbului de conjugat.
Se traduce n limba romn cu timpul mai mult ca p
Acest timp este ntrebuinat pentru a reda:
O aciune trecut, ncheiat naintea alt
They had settled all the problems when the manager arrived.
Rezolvaser toate problemele cnd a venit directorul.
ciune trecut ncheiat naintea unui moment trecut:
The committee had read the report by noon. Comite
raportul pn la amiaz.
ciune trecut ncheiat pu
We had just taken our seats when the performance began. Ne
ocupaserm deja locurile cnd a nceput reprezentaia.
ciune trecut, anterioar unei alte aciuni trecute dar aju
pn la aceasta (cu adverbe de timp: for, since, till, until, by the
time, when):
He had le
World War began. Plecase n America de cteva luni cnd a
nceput cel de-al doilea rzboi mondial.
orbirea indirect i n concordana timpur
Present Perfect sau Past Tense, cnd verbul din propoziia
principal este la un timp trecut:
I have finished all the housew
Mother said she had finished all the housework.
I worked hard, she added.
Mother added that she had wo
ropoziiile condiionale n locul timpului c
He would have helped them if they had asked him. I-ar fi
ajutat dac l-ar fi rugat.
a timpului Past Perfect du

HA + + W RDLY + had + subiect
verb la participiul trecut
HEN + verb la Past Tense
SCARCELY + had + subiect + WHEN + verb la Past Tense
+ verb la participiul trecut
NO SOONER + had + + THAN + verb la Past Tense
subiect + verb la participiul
trecut
110
ardly had I entered the door when some guests arrived.
De abia
alled him
back at
gas than the stove
exp
THE PAST PERFECT TENSE. CONTINUOUS ASPECT

AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE

H
/tocmai am intrat pe u cnd nite oaspei au sosit.
Scarcely had the surgeon taken a nap when they c
the hospital again. De abia a apucat chirurgul s trag un pui
de somn cnd l-au i chemat la spital din nou.
No sooner had they switched on the
loded. Nici nu au apucat s aprind bine gazul cnd a explodat
soba.

I, you, he, she, it, I, it H
we, you, they had
been writing
you, he, she,
we, you, they had
not been writing

ad I, you, he, she, it,
we, you, they been
writing?

cest timp se folosete pentru a reda:
n la un anume moment n
d been arguing for several hours when the headmistress

A
O aciune trecut care continu p
trecut:
They ha
suddenly declared the meeting closed. Discutaser n
contradictoriu timp de mai multe ore pn cnd directoarea colii
a declarat edina nchis.


Bibliografie obligatorie:
1. Firic, Camelia. 2013. Limba englez, Craiova, Universitaria
aiova, Universitaria




2. Firic, Camelia. 2009. Brush up on your everyday English, Cr
3. Firic, Camelia. 2006. Curs de limb englez - partea I, II, Craiova, Sitech


















111
UNIT 7

GETTING READ N INTERVIEW. Y FOR A
WRITING FOR PROFE AL PURPOUSE SSION


Contents:

NG READY FOR AN INTERVIEW. The curriculum vitae. Having an interview
.2. CORRESPONDENCE KEEPS RELATIONS ALIVE. Writing for professional
T
7.1. GETTI
7
purposes. Formal and informal english in business writing
7.3. BRITISH AND AMERICAN ENGLISH - SPELLING RULES
7.4. PARTS OF A FORMAL LETTER. LETTER FORMA


Unit Objectives and competences:
- Learn things that will help you (1) prepare for an interview, what
must and terview, (2) write a
By what means can one person find out about a vacant job? What
ies or firms do whenever they want to employ somebody?
ent? Have you ever had the opportunity to apply for a job,
1. GETTING READY FOR AN INTERVIEW
what must not be done during an in
curriculum vitae and a letter of intention, (3) master the general
points and conventions to be followed in professional writing; (4)
understand the differences between British and American
English, (5) write a business letter.

Lets talk:

do compan
What is the presumed employee supposed to do as soon as he/she
finds out about a vacant job? What do you call the person who asks
for the job and what do you call the paper by which they apply for
the job?
What do you consider to be the most important step in the act of
employm
or have you ever attended an interview? According to your opinion,
what qualities must an applicant display?



READING.
As soon as a person comes to the end of his or her courses at a
college or u e starts to ask himself or herself what is to
be
tising, or lab our power office is perusing all columns in all the
new

niversity he/sh
done after getting a university degree in the field he/she trained
for.
The best means of information, except from hearsay, or television
adver
spapers that advertise for possible jobs. A young graduate will
consider himself/herself lucky and happy if he/she comes upon with
the opening of finding a job and he/she should consider the idea of a
112
nt for what is considered to be a proper job so, here are
som
ation, a Rsum or a
Cu
to
wri
about your
car
Pop
mployment Manager
.
. Pop,
s advertisement, published in The Journal
newspaper, has drawn my attention to your need for a licensed
modest start as a trainee in his/her domain, following that after hard
work and proof of his/her skills and abilities, he might become a
junior or even senior executive with the company or firm he/she
works for.
There are several steps to be followed after finding the
advertiseme
e pieces of advice for you as an applicant.
The first step is considered as the first contact with a potential
employer and it consists of a Letter of Applic
rriculum Vitae. If your application form will rouse the employers
interest in you then you may consider it a success and start getting
ready for the Interview which plays a prominent part in the act of
employment. One should remember that the letter of application, the
rsum, the curriculum vitae and the interview are as many
opportunities to show ones written and oral communication skills.
The Letter of Application is your visiting card as it represents
you and introduces you to a future possible employer. If you chose
te a comprehensive letter of application, and not a letter of
application with a rsum of your experience and background
enclosed, your letter must contain all the pieces of information that
can show you at your best. Your letter of application must show a
proper appreciation of your qualification - in case you have the
proper qualification which is necessary for the job, - and your
experience, -if any - in the field. You must draw up your letter in a
persuasive, convincing, attractive, especially truthful and
straightforward style and way of expression. You shouldnt be
modest or humble in your estimation but self- conceited either. That
is why it is imperative to say I can, I am good in stead of I think I
can or I am quite good. Your firm, loyal personality, your attitude
towards work (readiness and willingness to shoulder responsibilities,
ability to stick to a task and see it solved, initiative), your outlook on
life (your determination to achieve your personal goals by honest,
sustained work) are key points of interest for an employer, are the
merchandise you want to sell for the best of prices and, thats why,
you must stress and point them out. Stress and point out your
commitment to hard work, responsibility and professionalism and
dont even mention in this letter of application about salary and
holidays as they may make an unfavourable impression.
Address your letter correctly, spell it properly and type it well and
clean (misspelling and a sloppy sheet of paper talk
elessness) and give it a business like aspect. look at the example
below:

Mr. Dan
E
Pop & Son Ltd
24, Long Avenue
Bucharest
Dear Mr
Your Company
113
uated from the Faculty of Law and Public
ith the Marcus& Marcus Law
and I have a taste for
rs me better opportunities to distinguish myself and
any is ready to pay me.
of testimonials and letters of

Ana Barb
THE CURRICULUM VITAE

A persons Cu e most important
docum at a person writes to give account for his/her education
and
cula vitae.
ional background
tha
es career
fea
lawyer and, as soon as I saw the advertisement, I felt that was the
kind of job Ive trained myself for, and for which I have the proper
qualification.
I have a Licentiates degree in Law, which I got six years ago
when I grad
Administration, Craiova University.
I have the necessary practical experience in the field of law as I
have been working for three years w
firm. During this period of time I entered the Bar Association of Dolj
County and obtain a Masters degree. At present I passed the
examination for a doctors degree as well.
I am positive that my qualification will meet your requirements.
Im highly experienced, I enjoy teamwork
responsibility.
I intend to change my present place of work as I feel that I must
find one that offe
advance. I must also honestly admit that the firm I work for doesnt
offer attractive promotion prospects. I am sure your company and the
job you advertise for can give me the very scope Im looking forward
to meet.
My present wages is 700 Euros a month but I will accept any salary
your comp
I enclose thereto my rsum with the details about my education
and experience as well as copies
recommendation from my present employer and Head of Department
whom I have already informed about my decision.
In case you are interested in granting me an interview I hope
youll let me know in time.
Yours sincerely,


rriculum Vitae (CV) is among th
ents th
professional life or achievements.
In order to produce an effective CV, one needs to know about
both the functions and language of curri
A CV is a record of ones educational and professional history. It
is information about past educational and profess
t demonstrate ones suitability for activities to be fulfilled in
future. Details concerning a persons education and qualifications are
essential, but other information should be carefully selected as well.
It should be written in a concise but comprehensive form.
A good curriculum vitae does not merely present the facts of
ones life to a potential employer. It also highlights on
tures (facts that show his/her personal characteristics - 'This is
what I am like', 'This is what I have done') and benefits (the
advantages one might bring to a company if it employs him/her 'This
is what I can do for your company').
Essentials of a Curriculum Vitae
Before you put down your CV, take time to outline a self-
114
ass abilities as well as your work essment. Note down your skills and
experience and the extracurricular activities. This will make it easier
to prepare a complete document.
The Content of a Curriculum Vitae
All information related to the way you can be contacted should go
at t (first name - in full - and he top of the curriculum vitae: name
last/family name), address, telephone and fax number, e-mail address.
Do not give your nicknames and take care to make your e-mail
address sound professional, avoiding an inappropriate one.
Objective or Summary
Some curriculum forms ask that an objective of writing the document
tell the potential employer what sort of position you are looking for
or what work you're hoping to do. So you must be specific about
what you want.
Educational background
In this part you will give details about your education, schools or
higher educational institution attended and graduated, degrees
obtained, fields you majored in. The most recent schools graduated
will be listed first.
Work Experience
Give the employer a brief overview of previous jobs, whether
-time or part-time, mention your responsibilities,
job
paid or unpaid, full
title and information about the place of work. Include your work
experience in reverse chronological order - that is, put your last job
first, title of position, location (town, county), dates of employment.
Describe your work responsibilities with emphasis on specific
skills and achievements.
You may add other information as well related to:
Particular skills, competencies and qualifications (solid
man experience,
ing, location, date, year
le, date,
agerial and administrative experience, leadership
ability to manage multiple tasks in a pressured environment;
versatility and adaptability, dedication, energy, a hard-working
individual; communication abilities and team-building skills.
Volunteering is very appreciated!)
Publications: Name(s), title, journal, page and year;
Seminars: Name, title, meet
Patents: Patent publication location, serial number, tit
year
References
If references are required and you can provide them, you must
ask, those you think to appeal to, if they agree to serve as references
before you give their names to a potential employer. You may specify
at the end of the document: "References will be furnished on
request."
The following tips will make your curriculum vitae easier to read:

Use white (not coloured!), good quality paper.

Print on one side of the paper.

Do not underline, italicize or bold any word;

In case you post your curriculum vitae, put it in a large


envelope and do not fold it.

The Curricula Vitae language
There are some things yo must do - the DOs - and others u
115
you m rriculum vitae:
Write in a concise, easy to read way so that the reader can screen
the document quickly and un important facts.
tress upon
wha he reader can clearly
und
ployment.
gineering), name of university, city
of u
!. Misspelling may disqualify you!
Don't write more than two pages.
Avoid personal pronou
past jobs. Employers expect
suc
military service, membership to organizations
unr
mber and gender of kids, sex,
reli
for business marketing documents and such
deta
HAVING AN INTERVIEW

Lets talk:
What is an interview? What is the interview good for?
do you call the person who takes an applicants
? What
pearance
ust not do - the DON'Ts - of a cu

The DO'S
derstand the
Summarise everything in one or two pages.
Emphasize your skills and past accomplishments, s
t want to do and what you're good at so that t
erstand them properly. You may use a bulleted style.
List your jobs and educational background in reverse
chronological order.
Give details about: title/position you held; name, city of
employer; dates of em
Information about education must include: name of degree
(Bachelor of Law/Science/Art/En
niversity, graduation year.
The whole aspect is important: neatness and correctness. Mind
the spelling, proofread carefully
And most important, be always honest!

The DON'TS
ns (I, my, me).
Don't leave out the place of your
h information.
Don't mention high school!
Don't include
elated to the job you apply for.
Don't include a photograph of yourself or information about your
height, weight, marital status, nu
gion, political affiliations, reasons for leaving previous job(s),
salary information.
Don't include hobbies musical instruments you play, sports you
enjoy inappropriate
ils may be considered superfluous or trivial.
Don't ever lie on your curriculum vitae.




What
interview? What is, in your opinion, the interviewers aim
attitude, must an interviewer display during the interview?
The person giving an interview is called interviewee. What are
the qualities an interviewee must display? What must his ap
and behaviour be?

READING.
If a person is lucky enough that his/her letter of application may
rouse the interest he/she will have to take another step in the process
of employment - the last and most important but also the most
frightening and embarrassing -the interview.
The interviewer may be a person (the employer) or a group of
selectors who mean to find the most suitable person for their
companys need and, if they are well trained interviewers, theyll
have to be helpful, friendly so as to help the applicant (interviewee)
be natural, relaxed, self confident, and able to articulate his/her
resources, goals and hopes for the future.
It is during an interview that many people find out what they are
best suited for and, if you have the chance to face such an experience,
you have to know that any interviewer wants to convince himself
upon your qualification, background, your sense of responsibility,
commitment to give your best in the position you may be appointed
in, ability to work in group with other fellow workers, with the public
or customers.
The interviewee has the obligation to prepare himself for the
appointment beforehand. First he/she ought to be able to present
his/her autobiography and this must be accurate, detailed and, if
possibly, learnt by heart. It must be attractive so it must point out
your education and work experience. It must reflect your school or
university activity- what subjects you studied, which were your
favourites and what courses you enjoyed, where you got highest and
lowest grades, what extracurricular activities you attended, which
was your first, last or which is your present job, your political and
social activity, if there is any, what field did you majored in and
when or for how long.
Dont be shy to declare your lack of experience but make it clear
that you are open and determined to learn and to perform any kind of
work in your field.
Dont pretend or hunt high positions; take any you are offered,
prove you are the best and promotion will come in the course of time.
Dont speak feebly but in a loud, clear voice, be firm when
speaking about your professional knowledge, ask about your wages,
vacation, and hospitalisation insurance but dont be too insistent and
dont show your disappointment and disapproval if they are below
your expectations. Last but not the least, mind your appearance and
clothes for the interview, as the first impression is always that which
counts.
Dress neatly and well groomed and avoid shocking appearances,
gestures or language.
Dont smoke even if you are invited, dont chew gum during the
interview, shake your interviewers hand firmly, and try to be a few
minutes earlier.
No matter how keen you are on getting the position/ job dont
try to make the interview longer than necessary and when everything
is over stand up and thank before you leave.
And now one more thing: any information about the interviewer
116
and the position you apply for may be useful and helpful.


READING

2. CORRESPONDENCE KEEPS RELATIONS ALIVE

A man may realize the importance of establishing commercial
relations by means of correspondence with a person a thousand miles
away, but very often he may not properly realize the importance of
making each letter of such correspondence a clear, adequate, and, if
need be, elegant expression of his own desires, or he may be
completely ignorant of the regulations governing the handling of the
mails. He forgets, for instance, that a letter of application will not win
a place for him, or that a letter offering goods will not sell them,
unless and here enters the whole problem of good correspondence the
letter is so written that it will instantly impress the receiver as the
product of intelligence and experience. To do this, it must be an
example of excellent writing as far as the mere use of language goes;
it must show a firm grasp of the business proposed, if it is a letter
soliciting custom ; it must show aptitude and power in the direction in
question, if it is an application; it must be straightforward, concise,
and courteous; and it must also conform to the best usage in the
minor details of form and appearance, which, though they attract little
notice when properly attended to, become glaring evidence of
carelessness or ignorance when neglected. (Belding, 1905:9)
Defined as a process by which information is exchanged
between individuals through a common system of symbols, signs or
behaviour communication is vital because it takes a person or an
organisation out from the state of isolation, or renders them
noticeable to the world.
Communication, particularly written communication, is an
important method to initialize, maintain or improve relations or to
conclude different business transactions. It facilitates positive,
unambiguous and interactive communication in a global
environment.
Running any type of office requires creative and effective
communication when connecting with clients. A law office must use
various techniques in different situations with clients. Some clients
may be very cooperative, while others may procrastinate and need
some motivation. There are ways to communicate with clients in a
proactive and positive tone, while still delivering accurate facts and
difficult information In a law office, anything communicated over
the phone should also be written down or mailed to maintain a paper
trail.
After all a lawyer-client relation is a business relation as well,
and in this case business correspondence refers to the letters or
messages by the instrumentality of which two partners come into
contact, express points of view, develop and continue partnership.
Various problems or aspects of a business activity can be tackled by
117
118
means of letter writing a necessity second only to the power of
speech. (Belding, 1905:7)
Correspondence is not only important to any business - it is a
critical aspect of any business. Correspondence is the opening move
that breaks the ice between partners and serves to achieve the
intended objective.
In commercial correspondence there are several types of letters:
orders, inquiry letters, complaint letters, follow up sales letters,
courtesy dispatches, acknowledgement, apology, or appreciation
letters. Some of these letters particularly the last four types can also
be used in all fields, in law implicitly. Nevertheless, there are some
particular categories here, characteristic to the field, such as parole
letters.
Written in a proper way letters, irrespective of the field or stile
are the best links meant to finally settle relationships that generate
profit after all, they are key points for the prosperity or lack of
success or accomplishment of any activity.
In the nowadays business world environment where commerce
and trade have expanded so much and where the means of transport
and communication have improved to such an extent that information
travels around the world in just seconds, it has become almost
inconceivable for any organization or person to be able to establish
direct, face to face contact with peers or clients.
Under these circumstances, through the instrumentality of
correspondence, contact can be achieved easily and more
conveniently, without any appointment between, lets say for
example, an employer and an employee. The spell of time necessary
to achieve information, contacts, or an interview is shorter, let alone
the money, time and energy saved.
The outgoing correspondence is a genuine mirror of an
organisation whose reputation depends upon the quality of the letters.
Business organizations exist as long as they communicate, as
long as they stays in touch with their beneficiaries therefore they
must strive to increase the awareness in what concerns the
communication importance and the effectiveness of giving
information in a concrete, clear, unequivocal, based on hard evidence
language able to persuade not to dissuade.

WRITING FOR PROFESSIONAL PURPOSES

Letters are personal documents that give people the opportunity
to express their points of view or feelings in a clear manner.
Friendly or personal letters also known as informal letters are
means of communication between people who are usually familiar to
one another - close friends or acquaintances. Hand-written, but most
often printed nowadays, tackling personal topics, friendly letters are
informal or casual in style but they still follow, in general, the
common pattern of a letter, consisting of seven parts: heading,
salutation, introduction, body, conclusion, closing and signature.
What is peculiar to this type of correspondence is the very fact
that there are no hard and fast rules about how to write an informal
letter that is why some people deviate from the format - some leave
out the date and the address considering them unimportant, some go
119
extremely informal in what concerns the salutation using less
appropriate phrases such as Hey! or Hi! instead of the more
advisable Dear, start with the addressees first name and sign with
their first name too, use contracted forms (doesn't, wont, isn't, arent,
you'll etc. ), or merely neglect punctuation and spelling.
Usually the first paragraph of the body must consist of an
introduction which expresses a greeting, followed by wishes of good
health, for example, and the summarized purpose of your letter. This
is the part where one must introduce yourself in case one addresses a
person he/she does not know, following that the proper message of
the letter will be approached in detail in the next paragraphs.
In the last paragraph one usually draws the conclusion, thanks
the recipient for the time and wishes him/her well, or makes inquiries
and closes the letter with "Best," "Cheers" or "Regards," rather than
"Sincerely" or "Thank You."
Business letters, on the other hand, are formal ways of
communicating employed by organizations to correspond with one
another or with customers or clients. Business letters give or ask for
information, convince, determine the reader to take actions, point out
positive or negative states of affair, acknowledge something, extend
contacts, accept or deny offers etc.
This type of letters has a specific format and uses formal
language. When addressing to a business audience one must keep in
mind that the readers time and forbearance is limited and it is most
likely that the letter be skimmed than thoroughly read. Therefore the
objective has to be straightforwardly uttered so as people understand
clearly and guess or imagine what you want to say, the unnecessary
details left out.
Business people are interested in what you want to transmit
insofar as it concerns their activity or is connected to their working
environment. That is why business letters must be clear and concise,
readable, drafted in short sentences and simple words able to make
them easy to understand.
Equally important is the senders ability to identify his/her
audience or receiver, to address the message to the very person
entitled to deal with the problem and not to who(m) it may
concern, to avoid technical jargon and make use of that vocabulary
capable of being apprehended or understood.
A last but not less important key point to remember in business
writing is to maintain a professional tone and attitude. Even
discontent, dissatisfaction, annoyance, protest related to whatever
might have caused these feelings, can be expressed politely,
courteously, without resorting to intimidation, threats or libel, simply
by formulating the problem and giving information and suggestions
to those in charge to solve it by compensation, refund or replacement.
There are some general points and conventions that the person
who writes formal letters must follow unconditionally:
to type the letters, not to handwrite them;
to use a letter head or, in case he/she has not one, to simply
type his/her full name and address at the top of the page;
to mention clearly, at the beginning of the letter, both the
senders and the receivers addresses as well as the date which is
important for the possible further correspondence on the same topic;
120
to introduce himself/herself in the very first paragraph of
the letter unless the receiver does not know him/her, by using
sentences like "We have recently met at ".
to begin and end the letter with the most suitable greeting
formula; depending on the terms the sender and the recipient are in,
the most common formulae to begin a business letter are:
- Dear Sir /Dear Madam /Dear Sir or Madam - when the writer
of the letter does not know the recipient's name or when he/she
addresses the letter to a whole department;
- Dear Mr. Brown/Dear Mrs. Brown/Dear Miss. Brown/Dear
Ms. Brown - when the senders knows the recipient's name;
- Dear Sirs - when the senders addresses to a whole department.
- Sincerely (yours) and Best regards, Best wishes, Faithfully
yours alongside with their variations: Regards, Kind regards, Most
sincerely, that follow the final paragraph with concluding remarks,
are the best, but not the only, formal complimentary close that forego
the signature.

Abbreviations with Names and Titles of People

In formal writing abbreviations are very rarely used in what
concerns proper personal nouns, therefore it is advisable that names
be written in full - the form Gerard Smith will be more appropriate
than G. Smith unless the receiver of the letter uses an initial as part of
his/her name.
Initials can be used when they are part of the name the person
goes by (Norman C. Birdhouse).
Social titles such as:
Mister abbreviated Mr (BE) or Mr. (AE) with its plural form
written Messrs [mesrz] (UK.) or Messrs. (USA.);
Mrs (UK) or Mrs. (USA) for married women, and do not use
another title;
Mme.( from French Madame, Mesdames);
Ms (UK) or Ms. (USA) (pronounced [miz, mz] - used with
the last name or full name for women, regardless of marital status or
when the writer is uncertain about a womans marital status and
consequently is not offensive;
Miss (plural Misses) - never followed by a period and used for
unmarried women
Mlle. (plural Mlles.) (for Mademoiselle the French-language
equivalent of Miss)
Mmes. (Plural of Mrs., Ms., Mme.)
In case a person's gender is unknown to the writer of the letter
he/she may use the recipients full name preceded by the formula
dear: Dear P.C. Parson.
In case neither the name nor the gender is known, the generic
greeting: Dear Sir or Madam is preferable to the opening "To whom
it may concern."

Common types of business letters

The various types of business letters are used by people to
serve their purpose of sending the message across.
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1. Acknowledgement Letter. As a formal letter, an
acknowledgement letter is either sent by an organization to an
individual or vice versa as a sign of recognition of and gratitude for
somebodys time, work, effort, trust or support, for a job appointment
or offer or simply to announce ones resignation or retirement from
an organization or social service.
The receipt of some form of payment, service and goods
arrived in due time and proper condition or, on the contrary, the
receipt of a complaint by a customer, are also acknowledged by an
acknowledgement letter.
2. Apology Letter. In a business environment mistakes or
offences (incorrect or delayed deliveries, selling of low quality
products or services) are, as a rule, severely punished and can be
costly. Apology letters are written not to make excuses but to
apologize for such mistakes and ask for a chance to re-establish the
previous business relations, to convince the customers or clients that
measures are taken to redress the regrettable situation.
3. Adjustment Letter. The Adjustment Letter - a very essential
document by which a business organization maintains good
relationship with its client or customer - is a response to a letter of
complaint by which the reader is announced either that immediate
steps are made to correct a wrong deed or action or that causes
beyond control prevented the achievement of the organizations
obligations.
4. Appreciation Letter - also known as Letter of Appreciation
or Thank you letter - it is written for business situations to appreciate,
thank or reward: a business for good, low priced services or
merchandise, a customer who stays loyal and pays promptly, an
employer's or a retirees activity inside the organization; the Thank
you letters are somehow more personal and they appreciate a friends
or acquaintances help or kindness to attend an event.
5. Complaint Letter. Complaints written by both a business
organisation to a peer or by a customer to a business are meant to
notify about errors occurred, discontent, unpleasant situations etc.
and ask for compensation or remedy.
6. Response Letter. This letter is written in reply to a request,
job application, advice request etc..
7. Letter of Recommendation. It recommends a person for a
job or higher position.


FORMAL AND INFORMAL ENGLISH IN BUSINESS
WRITING

The difference between formal English - used in professional
and business situations - and informal English - used with family and
acquaintances - consists in the way the tone, words and phrases,
grammar and syntax structures are chosen and used.
To build a business relationship balance is needed - a business
person has to keep a businesslike tone, be courteous, friendly and
helpful but neither too cold, distant nor too informal using colloquial
language or slang, abusive language.
In formal English avoid the use of the pronouns I and you - use
122
we and one instead, avoid the use of the passive voice and of
contracted forms.
Be polite - not humble, brief but precise.
Here are some differences between the two styles:


The use of contracted forms
Formal style: - Uses full
forms of the auxiliary verb:
Informal style: - Uses
contracted forms.
They have worked hard to
finish on time.
They've worked hard to finish
on time.

Relative Structures
Formal style: - Uses
relative structures.
Informal style: - Drops out
certain relative structures.
The lawyer thought that it
was important to call the
witness.
The lawyer thought it was
important to call the witness.

The Use of Whom
Formal style: - Uses
whom as an object.
Informal style: - Uses who as
an object.
Whom have they appointed
gereral attorney?
Who have they appointed
gereral attorney?

The use of auxiliary verbs
Formal style: - Uses the
full form of a tense with
auxiliary verb.
Informal style: - Drops out
the auxiliary verb.
Have you finished the
report?
Finished the report?

The use of abbreviations
Formal style: - Uses full
words: - for example,
television, as soon as
possible etc.)
Informal style: - Uses
abbreviated words (e.g., TV,
a. s. a. p. etc)

Relative Structures. The use of imperative voice. The use of
contracted forms. The use of auxiliary verbs.

Formal style: Avoids
imperative voice (use
Please remember to.....)
Informal style: May use
imperative voice (e.g.
Remember to....)

To avoid the use of personal pronouns sometimes a modal
verb, an impersonal word (it or there), or a verb in the passive voice
is used.

Correct Incorrect
This could be an effective
approach.
I think this is an effective
approach.
The documents were put You put the documents in the
123
in the file. file.
There were two different
methods of approach.
We used two different
methods of approach.

Suggestions for effective writing

Nowadays world is almost entirely based on information and
communication. Communication with peers or beneficiaries, most
often in writing, through the instrumentality of letters, emails,
memos, faxes is crucial.
In a professional environment lack of writing skills is a
handicap that affects ones career; if overcome, it entails not only
great chances to be employed but also promotional prospects.
Here are a few pointers to help one with letter writing:
1. Being brief is the best.
In any type of formal relationship concision and clarity matter.
Lest you should lose your reader use words with moderation and
avoid long sentences, tackle the issue directly and say exactly what
you want to say because the way you express your ideas is equally
important as what you say.
2. Avoid using jargon.
Being clear is the goal in writing - to be clear means to write
like you talk, in plain, simple language.
3. Measure twice and cut once.
Proofread everything you write - mistakes or errors in
grammar, spelling, capitalization - kill professional relationship. Be
also careful about the tone of voice that must be a professional one;
errors of tone - anger for instance - might may be damaging to your
relationships.
4. Mind names, titles, genders.
It is annoying for the addressee and embarrassing for you to
misspell his/her proper name or not to know the title position. Try to
find the correct information. As to the case of gender, use gender-
neutral language - gender-neutral singular pronouns: they, their,
he/she, his/her.
5. Be Active not Passive
A document written in the active voice makes you appear as an
honest, active, straightforward, dynamic, responsible person - you are
the one who dose the action - and your message lively, interesting,
less vague and abstract, resembling the spoken language. In active
voice sentences are more concise, because it eliminates the use of the
verb be.
Yet, there are instances where passive verbs are to be used:
When one doesnt know who performed the action.
Passive: Their house was broken in twice.
Not: Someone broke in their house twice.
When it doesnt matter who performs the action.
Passive: The applications are pre-printed.
Not: A worker pre-prints the applications.
When one wants not to blame someone.
Passive: The documents were misplaced.
Not: The solicitors misplaced the documents.
When one wants to soften a direction/order/instruction.
124
Passive: This paragraph should be retyped.
Not: Retype this paragraph.
6. Mind the use of positive vs. negative words.
People may not be aware how many negative words they use a
day or how many negative thoughts they conceive, and above all they
are not aware how these affect their life. If one wants his/her results
to come easily and effortlessly, if one wants his/her readers or
listeners give positive answers one must use positive language, use
words that create a positive feeling, tell people what can be done or
achieved, give people possibility to choose or decide, sound
encouraging and helpful.
Negative words (cannot, do not, will not, unable to,
regretuntil, hopeless) tell people what cannot be done, have a
negative influence on people consequently a negative relationship
there will develop. Negative language is destructive and results in
negative effects. People dislike being criticised or judged and
appreciate positive, constructive ideas more.
Whenever you want to send a negative message, try to rephrase
it in positive words.


BRITISH AND AMERICAN ENGLISH

There are so many differences between British and American
English that Oscar Wilde said that: The British and the Americans
have everything in common, but English and George Bernard Shaw
joked that Britain and America are two countries separated by the
same language.
After the 1776 War, Americans began to change the sound and
aspect of their speech. Some American leaders - Benjamin Franklin
was the first - proposed major changes in language so that the
separation from the British be complete in both language and
government.
The present British English spellings rules are, for the most
part, those standardized in Samuel Johnsons work A Dictionary of
the English Language (1755), whereas American English spell
according to the norms settled by Noah Webster. Webster
endeavoured to establish an American version of the English
language. For example he asserted that every part of a word should
be uttered (hence that is why Americans pronounce sec-re-ta-ry
instead of sec-re-try as the British do) which made American
English easier to learn.
The different influences of the immigrants who settled in the
United States also contributed to make American English different
from British English.

Punctuation
Full stops in abbreviations. American English tends to use a
full stop with abbreviations: Mr., Mrs., St., Dr. Ph.D, while the
British do not Mr, Mrs, St, Dr, PhD.

Quotation
British English uses single quotation marks, while in
125
American English quotes are placed between double quotation marks
(") and, for quotations within quotations, single quotation marks (')
are used.

Vocabulary
Differences between American and British English are in
vocabulary as well which can cause problems to nonnative speakers
and still sometimes make Americans and British not to understand
each other. So, a jumper in Britain is a sweater, in the States, it is a
kind of a dress, French fries in America are called chips in Britain
and we can continue: AE: closet, vacation, fall, subway, baggage,
movie, elevator, mailman, check, line, gas, truck, parking lot,
railroad vs. BE - cupboard, holiday, autumn, underground, luggage,
film, lift, postman, bill, queue, petrol, lorry, car park, railway.

Spelling
In the 1800's, the US Congress called for changes to make
spelling phonetic so words be spelled how they sound: AE - airplane,
check, tire, pajamas vs. BE - aeroplane, cheque, tyre, pyjamas.
Here are other illustrative differences:

British English American English
-re ending
centre
metre
theatre
to -er
center
meter
theatre
-our ending
colour
labour
neighbour
to -or
color
labor
neighbour
-ogue ending
catalogue
to -og
catalog
-ise/-ize endings
realise/realize
organise/organize
end only in -ize
realize
organize
final -l doubled after
short vowel
travelled
- l not always doubled
after a short vowel
travelled
words ending in -ence
defence
licence
to -ense
defense
license

NOTE: There are exceptions. Several words spelt with -re in
Modern French are spelt with -er in both American and British usage:
chapter, enter, filter, letter, member, minister, monster, number,
perimeter, September, October, November, December.

Grammar
There are some differences between British and American
English grammar. One of these is the agreement of collective nouns
126
(team, government, committee) and verb.
Our team is playing tonight. (AE)
Our team are playing tonight. (BE)

Simple past
American English also allows the use of simple past with
adverbs just, already, yet, ever, before, which in British English
require a present perfect tense.
He just came home. or He has just come home. (AE)
He has just come home. (BE)

Will/Shall
In American English will is used for all persons.

Have
Unlike Britains, Americans usually use do with have for
questions and negatives,.
Have you an appointment? (BE)
Do you have an appointment? (AE)

Subjunctive
Britains prefer should + infinitive in that-clauses.
It is important that people be informed. (AE)
It is important that people should be informed. (BE).

Numerals
Zero is much more common in American than in British
English, where nought is more common.


PARTS OF A FORMAL LETTER
LETTER FORMAT

A formal letter has the following parts:
The Letterhead. The term letterhead, used for all official
correspondence, refers, as a matter of fact, to a company's logo and
basic contact information: address, phone number, e-mail, full
address (street number and name, town, county, country, post cod).
Formal letters must always begin with the letterhead that gives
the receiver information about who has sent the letter and where to
send a reply. In case you are not using letterhead, include the sender's
address at the top of the letter.
The Date. The date is usually placed on the right corner below
the senders address. It is important to date your business letter so
that the recipient should be able to send a timely reply and besides,
correspondence is usually filed in date order. The use of figures for
date should be avoided as they may be understood differently in
U.S.A. (the month is placed before the day: month - day - year) and
England (the day is placed before the month: day - month - year).
The date may be written in different ways: 12
th
December, 2010; 12
December, 2010; December 12
th
, 2010; December 12, 2010
The Inside Address. The inside address contains the mailing
information belonging to the recipient (name, title, company name)
127
and should be justified to the left margin of the letter and placed two
spaces below the date.
The Salutation. Always left-aligned the salutation also
referred to as the greeting opens the letter and may have the forms:
Dear Ms./ Mrs./ Miss,/ Mr. + last name; Dear Director of +
department name. If there is a possibility that the person to whom
you are writing is a Dr. or has some other title, use that title.
Remember that you must write in capital letter the first word and all
nouns in the salutation (Dear Sir).
Subject Line. The subject line summarises the content of the
letter, it is optional and makes it easier for the recipient to find out
immediately what your letter is about.
Skip a line between the subject line and the body.
Body of the letter. The body or the text of the letter is, as a
matter of fact, the very content of the letter.
The first paragraph must contain the introduction and your
reason for writing. In the following paragraphs you will explain with
more details the reasons of your letter and finally, in last paragraph
you will summarise your reason for writing again and make or state
clear what you want the recipient to do.
Complimentary Close. The complimentary close concludes
your letter with one of the most appropriate, polite formulae:
Sincerely, Sincerely yours, Yours sincerely, Yours faithfully,
Respectfully yours, Best regards, Thank you and is followed by your
signature. In business writing, formulas such as: Love, Warmly,
Cheers, Always etc. (common in informal letters) must not be used
because they are considered inappropriate.
Note that there is a comma after the end of the closing and
only the first word in the closing is capitalized (Yours sincerely, With
best wishes).
Skip three or four lines between the closing and the printed
name, so that there is room for the signature.
Signature. Your signature will go four spaces below the
closing, usually signed in black or blue ink.
Printed Name. The printed version of your name, which can
be accompanied by title or position.
Enclosure. The word "Enclosure" is added when the letter
contains other documents than the letter itself.
The Reference Initials. If someone else than you types the
letter you will include your initials in capital letters followed by the
typist's initials in lower case in the following format: TA/fc or TA:fc.












128

LETTER FORMAT

A formal letter should be single-spaced, typed on a computer.
It is advisable to use a Times Roman (12 point), to print the letter on
only one side of the paper and fold the letter horizontally into thirds.
Formal letters go under different formats.


FULL BLOCK FORMAT

The Full Block Format is the most common, simplest format
of a letter where all of elements or components of the letter are
aligned at the left margin:




Letterhead

Date

Recipient
Mr./Mrs./Ms./Dr. Full name of recipient.
Title/Position of Recipient.
Company Name
Address Line

Salutation
Dear Ms./Mrs./Mr. Last Name:

Subject: Title of Subject

Body of the letter

Paragraph 1 ..................................................

Paragraph 2 ..................................................

Paragraph 3 .................................................

Complimentary close

Signature
Your Title and Printed Name

Enclosures
Reference initials





129

MODIFIED BLOCK FORMAT

In the Modified Block Format letter, your address, date, the
complimentary closing, signature, and printed name are all aligned at
the right half of the page.
Paragraphs of the body of the letter are not indented.


Letterhead

Date

Recipient
Mr./Mrs./Ms./Dr. Full name of recipient.
Title/Position of Recipient.
Company Name
Address Line

Salutation
Dear Ms./Mrs./Mr. Last Name:

Subject: Subject title

Body of the letter

Paragraph 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Paragraph 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Paragraph 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Complimentary close,

Signature

Your Title and Printed Name

Enclosures
Reference initials


SEMI-BLOCK (INDENTED) FORMAT

In the semi-block format letter your address, the date (that
can actually go on either the left or the right side of the letter), the
complimentary close, the signature and the printed name are all
aligned at the right half of the page.
The first line of each paragraph is indented which makes the
semi-block format letter different from the modified block format
letters.


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Semi Block Format


Letterhead

Date

Recipient
Mr./Mrs./Ms./Dr. Full name of recipient
Title/Position of Recipient
Company Name
Address Line

Salutation
Dear Ms./Mrs./Mr. Last Name

Subject: Title of Subject

Body of the letter

Paragraph 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Paragraph 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Paragraph 3 . . . . . . . . . . . ..


Complimentary close

Signature

Your Title and Printed Name

Enclosure(s)
Reference initials








Bibliografie obligatorie:

1. Firic, Camelia. 2013. Limba englez, Craiova, Universitaria
2. Firic, Camelia. 2006. Curs de limb englez - partea II, Craiova, Sitech
3. Gheorghe Bic, Camelia Firic, Cristian Firic, 2004, A dictionary of Legal and Law Issues,
Craiova, Editura Sitech