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MicroProcessor

Interview Questions Answers (Set - 1)


What is a Microprocessor?
Microprocessor is a program-controlled device, which fetches the instructions from memory, decodes and
executes the instructions. Most Micro Processor are single- chip devices.
What are the flags in 8086?
In 8086 Carry flag, Parity flag, Auxiliary carry flag, Zero flag, Overflow flag, Trace flag, Interrupt flag,
Direction flag, and Sign flag.
Why crystal is a preferred clock source?
Because of high stability, large Q (Quality Factor) & the frequency that doesn?t drift with aging. Crystal is
used as a clock source most of the times.
In 8085 which is called as High order / Low order Register?
Flag is called as Low order register & Accumulator is called as High order Register.
What is Tri-state logic?
Three Logic Levels are used and they are High, Low, High impedance state. The high and low are normal
logic levels & high impedance state is electrical open circuit conditions. Tri-state logic has a third line
called enable line.
What happens when HLT instruction is executed in processor?
The Micro Processor enters into Halt-State and the buses are tri-stated.
Which Stack is used in 8085?
LIFO (Last In First Out) stack is used in 8085.In this type of Stack the last stored information can be
retrieved first
What is Program counter?
Program counter holds the address of either the first byte of the next instruction to be fetched for
execution or the address of the next byte of a multi byte instruction, which has not been completely
fetched. In both the cases it gets incremented automatically one by one as the instruction bytes get
fetched. Also Program register keeps the address of the next instruction.
What are the various registers in 8085?
Accumulator register, Temporary register, Instruction register, Stack Pointer, Program Counter are the
various registers in 8085
What is 1st / 2nd / 3rd / 4th generation processor?
The processor made of PMOS / NMOS / HMOS / HCMOS technology is called 1st / 2nd / 3rd / 4th
generation processor, and it is made up of 4 / 8 / 16 / 32 bits.
Name the processor lines of two major manufacturers?
High-end: Intel - Pentium (II, III, 4), AMD - Athlon. Low-end: Intel - Celeron, AMD - Duron. 64-bit: Intel -
Itanium 2, AMD - Opteron.
What?s the speed and device maximum specs for Firewire?
IEEE 1394 (Firewire) supports the maximum of 63 connected devices with speeds up to 400 Mbps.
Where?s MBR located on the disk? Main Boot Record is located in sector 0, track 0, head 0, cylinder 0 of
the primary active partition.
Where does CPU Enhanced mode originate from?
Intel?s 80386 was the first 32-bit processor, and since the company had to backward-support the 8086.
All the modern Intel-based processors run in the Enhanced mode, capable of switching between Real
mode (just like the real 8086) and Protected mode, which is the current mode of operation.
How many bit combinations are there in a byte?
Byte contains 8 combinations of bits.
Have you studied buses? What types?
There are three types of buses.
Address bus: This is used to carry the Address to the memory to fetch either Instruction or Data.
Data bus : This is used to carry the Data from the memory.
Control bus : This is used to carry the Control signals like RD/WR, Select etc.
What is the Maximum clock frequency in 8086?
5 Mhz is the Maximum clock frequency in 8086.3mhz for 8085
What is meant by Maskable interrupts?
An interrupt that can be turned off by the programmer is known as Maskable interrupt.
What is Non-Maskable interrupts?
An interrupt which can be never be turned off (ie. disabled) is known as Non-Maskable interrupt
What are the different functional units in 8086?
Bus Interface Unit and Execution unit, are the two different functional units in 8086.
What are the various segment registers in 8086?
Code, Data, Stack, Extra Segment registers in 8086.
What does EU do?
Execution Unit receives program instruction codes and data from BIU, executes these instructions and
store the result in general registers.
Which Stack is used in 8086? k is used in 8086?
FIFO (First In First Out) stack is used in 8086.In this type of Stack the first stored information is retrieved
first.
What are the flags in 8086?
In 8086 Carry flag, Parity flag, Auxiliary carry flag, Zero flag, Overflow flag, Trace flag, Interrupt flag,
Direction flag, and Sign flag.
What is SIM and RIM instructions?
SIM is Set Interrupt Mask. Used to mask the hardware interrupts.
RIM is Read Interrupt Mask. Used to check whether the interrupt is Masked or not.
What is the difference between 8086 and 8088?
The BIU in 8088 is 8-bit data bus & 16- bit in 8086.Instruction queue is 4 byte long in 8088and 6 byte in
8086.
Give example for Non-Maskable interrupts?
Trap is known as Non-Maskable interrupts, which is used in emergency condition.
Give examples for Micro controller?
Z80, Intel MSC51 &96, Motorola are the best examples of Microcontroller.

hese interview questions test the knowledge of x86 Intel architecture and 8086 microprocessor
specifically.

1. What is a Microprocessor? - Microprocessor is a program-controlled device, which fetches the
instructions from memory, decodes and executes the instructions. Most Micro Processor are single- chip
devices.

2. Give examples for 8 / 16 / 32 bit Microprocessor? - 8-bit Processor - 8085 / Z80 / 6800; 16-bit
Processor - 8086 / 68000 / Z8000; 32-bit Processor - 80386 / 80486.

3. Why 8085 processor is called an 8 bit processor? - Because 8085 processor has 8 bit ALU (Arithmetic
Logic Review). Similarly 8086 processor has 16 bit ALU.

4. What is 1st / 2nd / 3rd / 4th generation processor? - The processor made of PMOS / NMOS / HMOS /
HCMOS technology is called 1st / 2nd / 3rd / 4th generation processor, and it is made up of 4 / 8 / 16 / 32
bits.

5. Define HCMOS? - High-density n- type Complimentary Metal Oxide Silicon field effect transistor.
6. What does microprocessor speed depend on? - The processing speed depends on DATA BUS
WIDTH.
7. Is the address bus unidirectional? - The address bus is unidirectional because the address information
is always given by the Micro Processor to address a memory location of an input / output devices.

8. Is the data bus is Bi-directional? - The data bus is Bi-directional because the same bus is used for
transfer of data between Micro Processor and memory or input / output devices in both the direction.

9. What is the disadvantage of microprocessor? - It has limitations on the size of data. Most
Microprocessor does not support floating-point operations.

10. What is the difference between microprocessor and microcontroller? - In Microprocessor more op-
codes, few bit handling instructions. But in Microcontroller: fewer op-codes, more bit handling Instructions,
and also it is defined as a device that includes micro processor, memory, & input / output signal lines on a
single chip.

11. What is meant by LATCH? - Latch is a D- type flip-flop used as a temporary storage device controlled
by a timing signal, which can store 0 or 1. The primary function of a Latch is data storage. It is used in
output devices such as LED, to hold the data for display.

12. Why does microprocessor contain ROM chips? - Microprocessor contain ROM chip because it contain
instructions to execute data.
13. What is the difference between primary & secondary storage device? - In primary storage device the
storage capacity is limited. It has a volatile memory. In secondary storage device the storage capacity is
larger. It is a nonvolatile memory. Primary devices are: RAM / ROM. Secondary devices are: Floppy disc /
Hard disk.

14. Difference between static and dynamic RAM? - Static RAM: No refreshing, 6 to 8 MOS transistors are
required to form one memory cell, Information stored as voltage level in a flip flop. Dynamic RAM:
Refreshed periodically, 3 to 4 transistors are required to form one memory cell, Information is stored as a
charge in the gate to substrate capacitance.

15. What is interrupt? - Interrupt is a signal send by external device to the processor so as to request the
processor to perform a particular work.

16. What is cache memory? - Cache memory is a small high-speed memory. It is used for temporary
storage of data & information between the main memory and the CPU (center processing unit). The
cache memory is only in RAM.

17. What is called .Scratch pad of computer.? - Cache Memory is scratch pad of computer.

18. Which transistor is used in each cell of EPROM? - Floating .gate Avalanche Injection MOS (FAMOS)
transistor is used in each cell of EPROM.

19. Differentiate between RAM and ROM? - RAM: Read / Write memory, High Speed, Volatile Memory.
ROM: Read only memory, Low Speed, Non Voliate Memory.

20. What is a compiler? - Compiler is used to translate the high-level language program into machine
code at a time. It doesn.t require special instruction to store in a memory, it stores automatically. The
Execution time is less compared to Interpreter.

21. Which processor structure is pipelined? - All x86 processors have pipelined structure.

22. What is flag? - Flag is a flip-flop used to store the information about the status of a processor and the
status of the instruction executed most recently

23. What is stack? - Stack is a portion of RAM used for saving the content of Program Counter and
general purpose registers.

24. Can ROM be used as stack? - ROM cannot be used as stack because it is not possible to write to
ROM.

25. What is NV-RAM? - Nonvolatile Read Write Memory, also called Flash memory. It is also know as
shadow RAM.
1. What are the various registers in 8085? - Accumulator register, Temporary register, Instruction
register, Stack Pointer, Program Counter are the various registers in 8085 .
2. In 8085 name the 16 bit registers? - Stack pointer and Program counter all have 16 bits.
3. What are the various flags used in 8085? - Sign flag, Zero flag, Auxillary flag, Parity flag, Carry flag.
4. What is Stack Pointer? - Stack pointer is a special purpose 16-bit register in the Microprocessor, which
holds the address of the top of the stack.
5. What is Program counter? - Program counter holds the address of either the first byte of the next
instruction to be fetched for execution or the address of the next byte of a multi byte instruction, which has
not been completely fetched. In both the cases it gets incremented automatically one by one as the
instruction bytes get fetched. Also Program register keeps the address of the next instruction.
6. Which Stack is used in 8085? - LIFO (Last In First Out) stack is used in 8085.In this type of Stack the
last stored information can be retrieved first.
7. What happens when HLT instruction is executed in processor? - The Micro Processor enters into
Halt-State and the buses are tri-stated.
8. What is meant by a bus? - A bus is a group of conducting lines that carriers data, address, & control
signals.
9. What is Tri-state logic? - Three Logic Levels are used and they are High, Low, High impedance state. The
high and low are normal logic levels & high impedance state is electrical open circuit conditions. Tri-state
logic has a third line called enable line.
10. Give an example of one address microprocessor? - 8085 is a one address microprocessor.
11. In what way interrupts are classified in 8085? - In 8085 the interrupts are classified as Hardware
and Software interrupts.
12. What are Hardware interrupts? - TRAP, RST7.5, RST6.5, RST5.5, INTR.
13. What are Software interrupts? - RST0, RST1, RST2, RST3, RST4, RST5, RST6, RST7.
14. Which interrupt has the highest priority? - TRAP has the highest priority.
15. Name 5 different addressing modes? - Immediate, Direct, Register, Register indirect, Implied
addressing modes.
16. How many interrupts are there in 8085? - There are 12 interrupts in 8085.
17. What is clock frequency for 8085? - 3 MHz is the maximum clock frequency for 8085.
18. What is the RST for the TRAP? - RST 4.5 is called as TRAP.
19. In 8085 which is called as High order / Low order Register? - Flag is called as Low order register &
Accumulator is called as High order Register.
20. What are input & output devices? - Keyboards, Floppy disk are the examples of input devices. Printer,
LED / LCD display, CRT Monitor are the examples of output devices.
21. Can an RC circuit be used as clock source for 8085? - Yes, it can be used, if an accurate clock
frequency is not required. Also, the component cost is low compared to LC or Crystal.
22. Why crystal is a preferred clock source? - Because of high stability, large Q (Quality Factor) & the
frequency that doesnt drift with aging. Crystal is used as a clock source most of the times.
23. Which interrupt is not level-sensitive in 8085? - RST 7.5 is a raising edge-triggering interrupt.
24. What does Quality factor mean? - The Quality factor is also defined, as Q. So it is a number, which
reflects the lossness of a circuit. Higher the Q, the lower are the losses.
25. What are level-triggering interrupt? - RST 6.5 & RST 5.5 are level-triggering interrupts.


Microprocessor Interview Questions and Answers
What is a Microprocessor?
Microprocessor is a program-controlled device, which fetches the instructions from
memory, decodes and executes the instructions. Most Micro Processor are single- chip
devices.
What are the flags in 8086?
In 8086 Carry flag, Parity flag, Auxiliary carry flag, Zero flag, Overflow flag, Trace flag,
Interrupt flag, Direction flag, and Sign flag.
Why crystal is a preferred clock source?
Because of high stability, large Q (Quality Factor) & the frequency that doesnt drift with
aging. Crystal is used as a clock source most of the times.
In 8085 which is called as High order / Low order Register?
Flag is called as Low order register & Accumulator is called as High order Register.
What is Tri-state logic?
Three Logic Levels are used and they are High, Low, High impedance state. The high and
low are normal logic levels & high impedance state is electrical open circuit conditions. Tri-
state logic has a third line called enable line.
What happens when HLT instruction is executed in processor?
The Micro Processor enters into Halt-State and the buses are tri-stated.
Which Stack is used in 8085?
LIFO (Last In First Out) stack is used in 8085.In this type of Stack the last stored
information can be retrieved first
What is Program counter?
Program counter holds the address of either the first byte of the next instruction to be
fetched for execution or the address of the next byte of a multi byte instruction, which has
not been completely fetched. In both the cases it gets incremented automatically one by
one as the instruction bytes get fetched. Also Program register keeps the address of the
next instruction.
What are the various registers in 8085?
Accumulator register, Temporary register, Instruction register, Stack Pointer, Program
Counter are the various registers in 8085
What is 1st / 2nd / 3rd / 4th generation processor?
The processor made of PMOS / NMOS / HMOS / HCMOS technology is called 1st / 2nd /
3rd / 4th generation processor, and it is made up of 4 / 8 / 16 / 32 bits.
Name the processor lines of two major manufacturers?
High-end: Intel - Pentium (II, III, 4), AMD - Athlon. Low-end: Intel - Celeron, AMD - Duron.
64-bit: Intel - Itanium 2, AMD - Opteron.


Microprocessor Interview Questions and Answers
Whats the speed and device maximum specs for Firewire?
IEEE 1394 (Firewire) supports the maximum of 63 connected devices with speeds up to
400 Mbps. Wheres MBR located on the disk? Main Boot Record is located in sector 0,
track 0, head 0, cylinder 0 of the primary active partition.
Where does CPU Enhanced mode originate from?
Intels 80386 was the first 32-bit processor, and since the company had to backward-
support the 8086. All the modern Intel-based processors run in the Enhanced mode,
capable of switching between Real mode (just like the real 8086) and Protected mode,
which is the current mode of operation.
How many bit combinations are there in a byte?
Byte contains 8 combinations of bits.
Have you studied buses? What types?
There are three types of buses.
Address bus: This is used to carry the Address to the memory to fetch either Instruction or
Data.
Data bus : This is used to carry the Data from the memory.
Control bus : This is used to carry the Control signals like RD/WR, Select etc.
What is the Maximum clock frequency in 8086?
5 Mhz is the Maximum clock frequency in 8086.
What is meant by Maskable interrupts?
An interrupt that can be turned off by the programmer is known as Maskable interrupt.
What is Non-Maskable interrupts?
An interrupt which can be never be turned off (ie. disabled) is known as Non-Maskable
interrupt
What are the different functional units in 8086?
Bus Interface Unit and Execution unit, are the two different functional units in 8086.
What are the various segment registers in 8086?
Code, Data, Stack, Extra Segment registers in 8086.
What does EU do?
Execution Unit receives program instruction codes and data from BIU, executes these
instructions and store the result in general registers.
Which Stack is used in 8086? k is used in 8086?
FIFO (First In First Out) stack is used in 8086.In this type of Stack the first stored
information is retrieved first.
What are the flags in 8086?
In 8086 Carry flag, Parity flag, Auxiliary carry flag, Zero flag, Overflow flag, Trace flag,
Interrupt flag, Direction flag, and Sign flag.
What is SIM and RIM instructions?
SIM is Set Interrupt Mask. Used to mask the hardware interrupts.
RIM is Read Interrupt Mask. Used to check whether the interrupt is Masked or not.

What is the difference between 8086 and 8088?
The BIU in 8088 is 8-bit data bus & 16- bit in 8086.Instruction queue is 4 byte long in
8088and 6 byte in 8086.
Give example for Non-Maskable interrupts?
Trap is known as Non-Maskable interrupts, which is used in emergency condition.
Give examples for Micro controller?
Z80, Intel MSC51 &96, Motorola are the best examples of Microcontroller.
What is clock frequency for 8085?
3 MHz is the maximum clock frequency for 8085.
Give an example of one address microprocessor?
8085 is a one address microprocessor.
Give examples for 8 / 16 / 32 bit Microprocessor?
8-bit Processor - 8085 / Z80 / 6800; 16-bit Processor - 8086 / 68000 / Z8000; 32-bit
Processor - 80386 / 80486
What is meant by a bus?
A bus is a group of conducting lines that carriers data, address, & control signals.
What are the various registers in 8085?
Accumulator register, Temporary register, Instruction register, Stack Pointer, Program
Counter are the various registers in 8085
Why crystal is a preferred clock source?
Because of high stability, large Q (Quality Factor) & the frequency that doesnt drift with
aging. Crystal is used as a clock source most of the times.
In 8085 which is called as High order / Low order Register?
Flag is called as Low order register & Accumulator is called as High order Register.
Name 5 different addressing modes?
Immediate, Direct, Register, Register indirect, Implied addressing modes
In what way interrupts are classified in 8085?
In 8085 the interrupts are classified as Hardware and Software interrupts.
What is the difference between primary & secondary storage device?
In primary storage device the storage capacity is limited. It has a volatile memory. In
secondary storage device the storage capacity is larger. It is a nonvolatile memory. Primary
devices are: RAM / ROM. Secondary devices are: Floppy disc / Hard disk.
Which Stack is used in 8085?
LIFO (Last In First Out) stack is used in 8085.In this type of Stack the last stored
information can be retrieved first.
What is Program counter?
Program counter holds the address of either the first byte of the next instruction to be
fetched for execution or the address of the next byte of a multi byte instruction, which has
not been completely fetched. In both the cases it gets incremented automatically one by
one as the instruction bytes get fetched. Also Program register keeps the address of the
next instruction.
What is the RST for the TRAP?
RST 4.5 is called as TRAP.
What are level-triggering interrupt?
RST 6.5 & RST 5.5 are level-triggering interrupts.
Which interrupt is not level-sensitive in 8085?
RST 7.5 is a raising edge-triggering interrupt.
What are Software interrupts?
RST0, RST1, RST2, RST3, RST4, RST5, RST6, RST7.
What are the various flags used in 8085?
Sign flag, Zero flag, Auxiliary flag, Parity flag, Carry flag.
In 8085 name the 16 bit registers?
Stack pointer and Program counter all have 16 bits.
What is Stack Pointer?
Stack pointer is a special purpose 16-bit register in the Microprocessor, which holds the
address of the top of the stack.
What happens when HLT instruction is executed in processor?
The Micro Processor enters into Halt-State and the buses are tri-stated.
What does Quality factor mean?
The Quality factor is also defined, as Q. So it is a number, which reflects the lossness of a
circuit. Higher the Q, the lower are the losses.
How many interrupts are there in 8085?
There are 12 interrupts in 8085.
What is Tri-state logic?
Three Logic Levels are used and they are High, Low, High impedance state. The high and
low are normal logic levels & high impedance state is electrical open circuit conditions. Tri-
state logic has a third line called enable line.
Which interrupt has the highest priority?
TRAP has the highest priority
What are Hardware interrupts?
TRAP, RST7.5, RST6.5, RST5.5, INTR
Can an RC circuit be used as clock source for 8085?
Yes, it can be used, if an accurate clock frequency is not required. Also, the component
cost is low compared to LC or Crystal
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8085 microprocessor questions
1. What are the various registers in 8085? - Accumulator
register, Temporary register, Instruction register, Stack Pointer,
Program Counter are the various registers in 8085 .
2. In 8085 name the 16 bit registers? - Stack pointer and
Program counter all have 16 bits.

3. What are the various flags used in 8085? - Sign flag, Zero
flag, Auxillary flag, Parity flag, Carry flag.
4. What is Stack Pointer? - Stack pointer is a special purpose 16-
bit register in the Microprocessor, which holds the address of the
top of the stack.
5. What is Program counter? - Program counter holds the address
of either the first byte of the next instruction to be fetched for
execution or the address of the next byte of a multi byte
instruction, which has not been completely fetched. In both the
cases it gets incremented automatically one by one as the
instruction bytes get fetched. Also Program register keeps the
address of the next instruction.
6. Which Stack is used in 8085? - LIFO (Last In First Out) stack is
used in 8085.In this type of Stack the last stored information can
be retrieved first.
7. What happens when HLT instruction is executed in
processor? - The Micro Processor enters into Halt-State and the
buses are tri-stated.
8. What is meant by a bus? - A bus is a group of conducting lines
that carriers data, address, & control signals.
9. What is Tri-state logic? - Three Logic Levels are used and they
are High, Low, High impedance state. The high and low are normal
logic levels & high impedance state is electrical open circuit
conditions. Tri-state logic has a third line called enable line.
10. Give an example of one address microprocessor? - 8085 is a
one address microprocessor.
11. In what way interrupts are classified in 8085? - In 8085 the
interrupts are classified as Hardware and Software interrupts.
12. What are Hardware interrupts? - TRAP, RST7.5, RST6.5,
RST5.5, INTR.
13. What are Software interrupts? - RST0, RST1, RST2, RST3,
RST4, RST5, RST6, RST7.
14. Which interrupt has the highest priority? - TRAP has the
highest priority.
15. Name 5 different addressing modes? - Immediate, Direct,
Register, Register indirect, Implied addressing modes.
16. How many interrupts are there in 8085? - There are 12
interrupts in 8085.
17. What is clock frequency for 8085? - 3 MHz is the maximum
clock frequency for 8085.
18. What is the RST for the TRAP? - RST 4.5 is called as TRAP.
19. In 8085 which is called as High order / Low order
Register? - Flag is called as Low order register & Accumulator is
called as High order Register.
20. What are input & output devices? - Keyboards, Floppy disk are
the examples of input devices. Printer, LED / LCD display, CRT
Monitor are the examples of output devices.
21. Can an RC circuit be used as clock source for 8085? - Yes, it
can be used, if an accurate clock frequency is not required. Also,
the component cost is low compared to LC or Crystal.
22. Why crystal is a preferred clock source? - Because of high
stability, large Q (Quality Factor) & the frequency that doesnt drift
with aging. Crystal is used as a clock source most of the times.
23. Which interrupt is not level-sensitive in 8085? - RST 7.5 is a
raising edge-triggering interrupt.
24. What does Quality factor mean? - The Quality factor is also
defined, as Q. So it is a number, which reflects the lossness of a
circuit. Higher the Q, the lower are the losses.
25. What are level-triggering interrupt? - RST 6.5 & RST 5.5 are
level-triggering interrupts.


x86 interview questions
These interview questions test the knowledge of x86 Intel architecture and
8086 microprocessor specifically.
1. What is a Microprocessor? - Microprocessor is a program-
controlled device, which fetches the instructions from memory,
decodes and executes the instructions. Most Micro Processor are
single- chip devices.
2. Give examples for 8 / 16 / 32 bit Microprocessor? - 8-bit
Processor - 8085 / Z80 / 6800; 16-bit Processor - 8086 / 68000 /
Z8000; 32-bit Processor - 80386 / 80486.
3. Why 8085 processor is called an 8 bit processor? - Because
8085 processor has 8 bit ALU (Arithmetic Logic Review). Similarly
8086 processor has 16 bit ALU.
4. What is 1st / 2nd / 3rd / 4th generation processor? - The
processor made of PMOS / NMOS / HMOS / HCMOS technology is
called 1st / 2nd / 3rd / 4th generation processor, and it is made
up of 4 / 8 / 16 / 32 bits.
5. Define HCMOS? - High-density n- type Complimentary Metal
Oxide Silicon field effect transistor.
6. What does microprocessor speed depend on? - The
processing speed depends on DATA BUS WIDTH.
7. Is the address bus unidirectional? - The address bus is
unidirectional because the address information is always given by
the Micro Processor to address a memory location of an input /
output devices.
8. Is the data bus is Bi-directional? - The data bus is Bi-
directional because the same bus is used for transfer of data
between Micro Processor and memory or input / output devices in
both the direction.
9. What is the disadvantage of microprocessor? - It has
limitations on the size of data. Most Microprocessor does not
support floating-point operations.
10. What is the difference between microprocessor and
microcontroller? - In Microprocessor more op-codes, few bit
handling instructions. But in Microcontroller: fewer op-codes, more
bit handling Instructions, and also it is defined as a device that
includes micro processor, memory, & input / output signal lines on
a single chip.
11. What is meant by LATCH? - Latch is a D- type flip-flop used as
a temporary storage device controlled by a timing signal, which
can store 0 or 1. The primary function of a Latch is data storage.
It is used in output devices such as LED, to hold the data for
display.
12. Why does microprocessor contain ROM chips? -
Microprocessor contain ROM chip because it contain instructions to
execute data.
13. What is the difference between primary & secondary
storage device? - In primary storage device the storage capacity
is limited. It has a volatile memory. In secondary storage device
the storage capacity is larger. It is a nonvolatile memory. Primary
devices are: RAM / ROM. Secondary devices are: Floppy disc /
Hard disk.
14. Difference between static and dynamic RAM? - Static RAM:
No refreshing, 6 to 8 MOS transistors are required to form one
memory cell, Information stored as voltage level in a flip flop.
Dynamic RAM: Refreshed periodically, 3 to 4 transistors are
required to form one memory cell, Information is stored as a
charge in the gate to substrate capacitance.
15. What is interrupt? - Interrupt is a signal send by external device
to the processor so as to request the processor to perform a
particular work.
16. What is cache memory? - Cache memory is a small high-speed
memory. It is used for temporary storage of data & information
between the main memory and the CPU (center processing unit).
The cache memory is only in RAM.
17. What is called Scratch pad of computer? - Cache Memory is
scratch pad of computer.
18. Which transistor is used in each cell of EPROM? - Floating
gate Avalanche Injection MOS (FAMOS) transistor is used in each
cell of EPROM.
19. Differentiate between RAM and ROM? - RAM: Read / Write
memory, High Speed, Volatile Memory. ROM: Read only memory,
Low Speed, Non Voliate Memory.
20. What is a compiler? - Compiler is used to translate the high-
level language program into machine code at a time. It doesnt
require special instruction to store in a memory, it stores
automatically. The Execution time is less compared to Interpreter.
21. Which processor structure is pipelined? - All x86 processors
have pipelined structure.
22. What is flag? - Flag is a flip-flop used to store the information
about the status of a processor and the status of the instruction
executed most recently
23. What is stack? - Stack is a portion of RAM used for saving the
content of Program Counter and general purpose registers.
24. Can ROM be used as stack? - ROM cannot be used as stack
because it is not possible to write to ROM.
25. What is NV-RAM? - Nonvolatile Read Write Memory, also called
Flash memory. It is also know as shadow RAM.