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CONTENTS

CONTENTS Chapter 1 Getting Started 1 Chapter 2 Setting up the Drawing Environment 13   Drawing
CONTENTS Chapter 1 Getting Started 1 Chapter 2 Setting up the Drawing Environment 13   Drawing

Chapter 1

Getting Started

1

Chapter 2

Setting up the Drawing Environment

13

 

Drawing Aids

Setting Drawing Units

Setting Grid Limits

Function Keys

Object Snap

Chapter 3

Using Coordinate System

27

Chapter 4

Drawing Objects

33

Chapter 5

Modifying Objects

47

 

Objection selection methods

Modify Commands

Chapter 6

Adding Dimensions and Text

69

Solved Exercises

81

 

Exercise 1

Exercise 2

Exercise 3

Exercise 4

Exercises Problems

111

Chapter 7

Working with 3D

115

Exercise Problems

125

AUTOCAD 2002

Introduction

AutoCAD is an outstanding tool for learning the basics of Engineering Drawing. Featuring Problem solving, step by step tutorials it takes the user from one view engineering drawing to geometric constructions, multi-view projections, 3D modeling and solid modeling. Each tutorial follows a traditional engineering drawing techniques and methods while showing how to utilize the features and benefits of AutoCAD to achieve professional results.

AutoCAD is the most widely used design and drafting software in the world. AutoCAD 2002 provides you with the capability to create complex and accurate drawings. Its position as the industry standard makes it an essential tool for anyone preparing for a career in engineering, design, or technology. Because it is the industry standard, AutoCAD is the ideal cornerstone for your design and drafting skill set. With knowledge of AutoCAD, you will find it easy to add any number of a wide range of applications to create a complete design environment suited to your needs.

AutoCAD 2002 interface is more design-centric and less command-centric, making the software more transparent in design process.

Starting AutoCAD

From the Start Menu choose Programs. Then choose AutoCAD2002 from the menu

Menu choose Programs. Then choose AutoCAD2002 fr om the menu you can double click OR AutoCAD

you can double click

OR

choose AutoCAD2002 fr om the menu you can double click OR AutoCAD 2002.lnk the icon available

AutoCAD 2002.lnk

the icon available on the desktop

When you start AutoCAD the AutoCAD Today 2002 dialog box is displayed. The dialog box provides you with two ways to start a drawing. You can

Open Drawings : It enables you to Open a Drawing from a list of four most recently opened drawings. It also displays a Browse button to choose another file. Create Drawings : Create Drawings Tab allows you to create your drawings in three ways

Start from the scratch : Opens a drawing based on the measurement system you choose

 

English – feet and inches Metric – millimeters

Template : Opens a drawing based on a template you select from a list. The list displays template files that exist in the drawing template file location as specified in the options dialog box.

late file location as specified in the options dialog box. Wizards : Opens a drawing that

Wizards : Opens a drawing that you set up using either the Quick Setup wizard or the Advanced Setup Wizard.

STARTING DRAWINGS FROM THE SCRATCH

Starting a drawing from the scratch is a quick way to begin a new drawing. When you select this drawing startup method, you can select one of the two measurement systems on which to base the new drawing.

English : Creates a drawing based on Feet and Inches measurement system. The default drawing boundary, called drawing limits is 12 x 9 inches.

Metric : Creates a drawing based on metric measurement system. The default drawing boundary is 429 x 297 millimeters.

To start a new drawing using Start from Scratch (New Drawing)

1. In the AutoCAD2002 Today dialog box select the Create Drawings Tab. In the ‘Select how to Begin’ window choose Start from Scratch. ( If AutoCAD is already started, from the File menu, choose New, then select Create Drawings Tab, in the window Select How to Begin, choose Start from the Scratch)

2. Select English or Metric as required, the drawing opens based on the measurement system selected

Command line : NEW

OPEN EXISTING DRAWINGS

To open an existing AutoCAD drawing, you can select Open Drawings tab in the AutoCAD2002 dialog box or, if AutoCAD is already started, choose Open from the File Menu

Open Drawings tab in the AutoCAD2002 dialog box or, if AutoCAD is already started , choose

To open a drawing

1. In the AutoCAD2002 Today dialog box , choose Open Drawings. It displays four recently used drawings or if you want to select a drawing other than these, choose Browse.

2. In the Select file dialog box, select the required file and choose Open.

Command line : OPEN

UNDERSTANDING THE AUTOCAD WINDOW

When you start AutoCAD, the AutoCAD window opens. The window is the design space. It contains elements that you use to create your designs and to receive information about them. The main parts of the AutoCAD window are

that you use to create your designs and to receive information about them. The main parts

Menu Bar It contains the default AutoCAD menus. Menus are defined by menu files that you can modify or design on your own. The default menu file is acad.mnu. Menu bar contains the Pull Down menus such as File, Edit, View, Insert, Format etc.

Standard Toolbar It contains Microsoft Office standard buttons such as New, Open, Save, Print etc and frequently used buttons such as Redraw, Undo, Zoom etc. The lower right corner of the buttons have flyouts which displays the function of each button.

Object Properties It enables you to set the properties of the objects such as

Toolbar

Color, Linetype and Line-Weight and also manages Layers.

Draw and Modify Provides access to common Draw and Modify

Toolbar

commands. The Draw and Modify toolbars are displayed when you start AutoCAD. These toolbars are docked on the left side of the window. They are also called as Floating Toolbars as they can be easily moved and placed anywhere on the screen. You can turn the toolbars ON or OFF. To turn On or OFF any toolbar Right Click on any available toolbar, it displays a list of toolbars, select (click on) the desired toolbar you want to display or close.

Drawing Area

It displays the drawing. The drawing area size varies, depending on the size of the AutoCAD window and other elements such as toolbars and dialog boxes that are displayed.

Crosshairs Identifies pick and drawing points within the drawing area. You can use the crosshairs, which are controlled by your pointing device (such as mouse), to locate points and select and draw objects. It also displays the current X, Y and Z co-ordinate values as you move it.

User Coordinate

It

drawings

shows

the orientation of

the

drawing. AutoCAD

System (UCS) are superimposed on an invisible grid, or coordinate Icon system, based on X, Y and (for 3D) Z coordinates. AutoCAD has a fixed world coordinate system (WCS) and

a movable user coordinate system

(UCS).

Model / Layout It enables you to switch your drawing between model Tabs (drawing) space and paper (layout) space. You create your designs in the model space, and then create layouts to plot or print your drawings in paper space.

Command Window

Displays prompts and messages. In AutoCAD you can give the command in one of the Three ways

Choose an item from the menu or a shortcut menu Click a button on a toolbar Enter the command on the Command Line

Whichever method you use to give the command, AutoCAD displays command prompts and the command history in the command window. It is a good practice to have an eye on the command window as the prompts displayed will enable you to know what exactly is required. It also displays error messages which will enable you to rectify the error.

Status Bar Displays the cursor coordinates in the lower left corner. The status bar also contains buttons that can be used to turn on/off the common drawing aids. These include Snap, Grid, Ortho, Polar, Osnap etc.

USING POINTING DEVICES

The Drawings can be controlled in AutoCAD using a pointing device such as a standard mouse, an IntelliMouse or a digitizing tablet. The points can be specified either by clicking the pointing device or by entering coordinates on the command line.

MOUSE

The options from menus and toolbars can be selected by clicking them with the mouse. Mouse can also be used to draw or to select objects on the screen. With a two button mouse, the left button is a pick button used to specify points on the screen. The right button either displays a shortcut menu or is equivalent to pressing Enter. With a three button mouse, the middle button either activates real-time panning or displays the Object Snap shortcut menu.

INTELLIMOUSE

The IntelliMouse is a two button mouse with a small wheel between the buttons. The left and right button behave in the same way as in a standard mouse. The wheel can be used to zoom and pan in your drawing without using any AutoCAD command.

Using the IntelliMouse with AutoCAD

Zoom in or out

Zoom to drawing extents Pan

Rotate the wheel forward to zoom in, backward to zoom out . Double-click the wheel button Press the wheel button and drag the mouse

SAVING DRAWINGS

When you are working on a drawing, you should save it frequently to avoid loss of work.

To save a drawing.

1. From the file menu choose Save If you have previously saved and named the drawing, AutoCAD saves any subsequent changes in the same drawing.

Save Drawing As dialog box is displayed.

the same drawing. Save Drawing As dialog box is displayed. 2. In the dialog box under

2. In the dialog box under File Name, enter the name of the drawing

3. Choose save

Command Line : SAVE

CLOSING DRAWINGS

The close command closes the active drawing (in case you are working with multiple drawings).

1. Drawings can be Closed by clicking on the close button in the upper- right corner of the drawing or

2. From the File Menu choose Close

EXITING AUTOCAD

From the File menu choose Exit

Command Line : QUIT

of the drawing or 2. From the File Menu choose Close EXITING AUTOCAD From the File

DRAWING AIDS

Introduction

Drawing with AutoCAD is just like drawing on a drawing board. Most new

comers to Computer Aided Design assume that they will need to learn how to

draw all over again. In fact, many of the drawing aids that AutoCAD provides

are analogous to traditional drafting tools. Just as you have a parallel motion

and set squares to help you draw horizontal and vertical lines on a drawing

board, AutoCAD has similar drawing aids which can help you to draw

horizontal and vertical lines on a computer. This means that in many respects,

the drawing techniques are very similar. If you ever get stuck, think how you

would complete a task on a drawing board and then look for a similar way to

do it with AutoCAD.

The Drawing Grid

The Grid can be turned ON/OFF by pressing the bar.

Grid The Grid can be turned ON/OFF by pressing the bar. button on the status The

button on the status

The drawing grid is a regular pattern of dots displayed on the screen which

acts as a visual aid, it is the equivalent of having a sheet of graph paper

behind your drawing on a drawing board. You can control the grid spacing, so

it can give you a general idea about the size of drawn objects. It can also be

used to define the extent of your drawing.

It can also be used to define the extent of your drawing. Grid Spacing set to

Grid Spacing set to 10 units

It can also be used to define the extent of your drawing. Grid Spacing set to

Grid Spacing set to 5 units

Setting the Grid Spacing

1. From the Tools Menu select Drafting Settings… The Drafting Settings tool box is displayed

2. Click on the "Snap and Grid" tab of the Drafting Settings dialog box.

3. Enter the value of the Grid X spacing in units

alog box. 3. Enter the value of the Grid X spacing in units 4. To use

4. To use the same value for the Grid Y spacing, press Enter. Otherwise enter a new value for Grid Y spacing.

5. Choose OK

Shortcut Menu

Grid settings can be changed by right-clicking the Grid button on the status bar and selecting Settings… from the menu. Drafting Settings dialog box is displayed , which enables you to change the value of the Grid. Enter the value of the Grid spacing press OK.

Command Line : GRID

value of the Grid spacing press OK. C ommand Line : GRID Specify grid spacing(X) or

Specify grid spacing(X) or [ON/OFF/Snap/Aspect] <10.000>: (enter grid spacing)

The Snap option allows you to automatically set the grid spacing to the

current snap spacing. You can also change the aspect ration of the grid. By

default, the X and Y spacing of the Grid are the same, resulting in a regular

square matrix of grid points. But if you need a grid with different X and Y you

can use the "Aspect" option.

Snap Mode

Snap mode takes AutoCAD one step further than the drawing board. With

Snap mode turned on AutoCAD only allows you to pick points which lie on a

regular grid. The Snap grid is completely independent of the display grid.

However, the Grid spacing and Snap spacing are usually set to the same

value to avoid confusion. When Snap mode is turned on and the Grid is

displayed, the Snap and Grid spacing are the same and the crosshairs will

jump from one grid point to another as you move across the screen. This

makes it very easy to draw objects which have a regular shape. The Snap

command is used to set the snap spacing and to toggle Snap mode.

The Snap can be turned ON/OFF by pressing the bar.

mode . The Snap can be turned ON/OFF by pressing the bar. button on the status

button on the status

Setting the Snap Spacing

1. From the Tools Menu select Drafting Settings… The Drafting

Settings tool box is displayed

2. Click on the "Snap and Grid" tab of the Drafting Settings dialog box.

3. Enter the value of the Snap X spacing in units

4. To use the same value for the Snap Y spacing, press Enter.

Otherwise enter a new value for Snap Y spacing.

5. Choose OK

Shortcut Menu

Snap settings can be changed by right-clicking the Snap

button on the status bar and selecting Settings… from the

Snap settings can be changed by right-clicking the Snap button on the status bar and selecting

menu. Drafting Settings dialog box is displayed , which enables you to change the value of the Snap. Enter the value of the Snap spacing press OK.

Command Line: SNAP Specify snap spacing or [ON/OFF/Aspect/Rotate/Style/Type] <10.0000>:

(enter the required snap spacing in drawing units)

The "Aspect" option can be used to vary the horizontal and vertical snap spacing independently. "Rotate" is used to set the snap grid to any angle.

You can also set the snap style to either Isometric or Standard (the default) using the "Style" option. The Standard style is used for almost all drawing situations including detail drawings in Orthographic Projection. The Isometric style is specifically to aid the creation of drawings in Isometric Projection

Ortho Mode

Ortho is short for orthogonal, which means either vertical or horizontal. Like the other options on the status bar, Ortho is not really a command, it is a drawing mode which can either be turned on or off.

it is a drawing mode which can either be turned on or off. Click on the

Click on the button on the status bar. The appearance of the button tells you whether Ortho is currently turned on or turned off. When Ortho is turned on, the ORTHO button appears pressed in. You can see how this appears by looking at the status bar illustration below. In the illustration, Ortho is turned on but Grid and Snap are turned off.

Ortho is turned on but Grid and Snap are t urned off. Command Line : O

Command Line : ORTHO

Enter mode [ON/OFF] <OFF>: (type ON or OFF)

Setting Drawing Units

Every object that is drawn in AutoCAD is measured in units. You determine the value of the units within AutoCAD before you draw. For example, in one drawing, a unit might equal one millimeter, while in another drawing, a unit might equal an inch. In AutoCAD we can set the Unit type and number of decimal places for object length and angle. Drawing Unit settings control how AutoCAD interprets the coordinate and angle entries and displays coordinates and units in the drawing.

To format Drawing Units

1. From the Format menu choose Units. The Drawing Units dialog box is displayed

2. Under Length, select a unit type and precision (number of decimal places)

select a unit type and precision (number of de cimal places) 3. Under Angle, select an

3. Under Angle, select an angle type and precision

4. To specify an angle direction, choose Direction, and then select the

base angle in the Direction Control dialog box

The angle direction controls the point from which AutoCAD measures

angles and the direction in which they are measured. The default is 0

degrees on the right side of the figure, measured anticlockwise.

on the right side of the figure, measured anticlockwise. 5. Choose OK to exit each dialog

5. Choose OK to exit each dialog box

Command Line : UNITS

The dialog box is displayed and the units can be changed in the same way as

described above.

Setting Grid Limits

Drawing Limits is used to define the extent of the grid display and to toggle

Limits mode which can be used to define the extent of your drawing. The grid

is displayed within a rectangle defined by two pick points or co-ordinates.

To set Grid limits Command Line : LIMITS

Reset Model space limits:

Specify lower left corner or [ON/OFF] <0.0000,0.0000>:

(pick point, enter co-ordinates or

lower left corner or [ON/OFF] <0.0000,0.0000>: (pick point, enter co-ordinates or to accept the default value)

to accept the default value)

Specify upper right corner <420.0000,297.0000>:

(pick point, enter co-ordinates or to accept the default value) The lower left corner corresponds to the lower left corner of the drawing area and the upper right corner of the limits corresponds to the upper right corner of the drawing area.

corresponds to the upper right corner of the drawing area. Drawing Limits can also be used

Drawing Limits can also be used to turn Limits mode on or off. Limits mode can be used to control where objects can and cannot be drawn. Limits is turned off by default which means that there is no restriction as to where points can be picked and objects drawn. When Limits is on, AutoCAD will not allow points to be picked or co-ordinates entered at the command line which fall outside of the specified drawing limits. If you try to pick a point outside the drawing limits when Limits mode is turned on, AutoCAD reports to the command line:

**Outside limits

Limits mode is useful if you know the extent of your plotted drawing sheet and you want to prevent objects being drawn outside of this area. However, Drawing Limits is most commonly used simply to control the extent of the Grid.

To Change the Grid limits from the Format menu, choose Drawing Limits and the limits can be changed in the same way as discussed above.

Note : After setting the grid limits, from the View menu, choose Zoom – All. The grid shows the area defined by the limits.

The Function Keys

Many of the modes described above can be controlled quickly using the keyboard function keys. In most cases this is quicker than using a pull-down or the command line. The function keys are arranged along the top of your keyboard. AutoCAD uses function keys F1 to F11. The use function keys is described below.

Function key

Description

F1

AutoCAD Help

F2

Used to toggle (turn on and off) the AutoCAD text window

F3

Object Snaps ON/OFF

F4

Tablet mode ON/OFF

F5

cycles through the Isoplanes, this only has an effect if

"Isometric Snap/Grid" mode is on. The options are Left, Top

and Right

F6

Coordinate display ON/OFF

F7

Grid ON/OFF

F8

Ortho ON/OFF

F9

Snap ON/OFF

F10

Polar Tracking ON/OFF

F11

Object snap tracking ON/OFF

Object Snap

The Object Snaps (Osnaps for short) are drawing aids which are used in conjunction with other commands to help you draw accurately. Osnaps allow you to snap onto a specific object location when you are picking a point. For example, using Osnaps you can accurately pick the end point of a line or the center of a circle.

pick the end point of a line or the center of a circle. Object Snap Toolbar

Object Snap

Toolbar

Command

snaps to

Line

Endpoint

 

ENDEndpoint   Endpoint of the object

Endpoint of the object

Midpoint

 

MIDMidpoint   Midpoint of the object

Midpoint of the object

Intersection

 

INTIntersection   Intersection of objects

Intersection of objects

Apparent

 

APPApparent   Apparent intersection of objects

Apparent intersection of objects

Intersection

Extension

 

EXTExtension   Object extension paths

Object extension paths

Center

 

CENCenter   Center points of circles, arcs

Center points of circles, arcs

Quadrant

 

QUAQuadrant   Closest quadrant of circles or arcs

Closest quadrant of circles or arcs

Tangent

 

TANTangent   Point on a circle or arc, when connected to last point , forms a

Point on a circle or arc, when connected to last point , forms a line tangent to the object

Perpendicular

 

PERPerpendicular   Object points forming perpendicular alignment

Object points forming perpendicular alignment

Parallel

 

PARParallel   Point on an alignment path that is parallel to the selected object

Point on an alignment path that is parallel to the selected object

Insert

 

INSInsert   Insertion point

Insertion point

Node

 

NODNode   objects drawn with Point command

objects drawn with Point command

To use Object Snaps

1. Running object snaps can be switched ON/OFF by clicking on the

object snaps can be switched ON/OFF by clicking on the button on the status bar. 2.

button on the status bar.

switched ON/OFF by clicking on the button on the status bar. 2. To set the object

2. To set the object snaps, right click on the button on the status

bar and select settings or Tools Drafting Settings…, select on the

object snap tab and a Drafting settings dialogue box is displayed.

Select the object snaps required and choose OK

display ed. Select the object snaps required and choose OK Object Snap Description The object snap
display ed. Select the object snaps required and choose OK Object Snap Description The object snap

Object Snap Description

The object snap buttons are located on the objects snap flyout on the

standard toolbar. Some of the important and most frequently used object

snaps are described below:

1. Endpoint :

The Endpoint Osnap snaps to the end points of

lines and arcs and to polyline vertices.

described below: 1. Endpoint : The Endpoint Osnap snaps to the end points of lines and

2. Midpoint :

The Midpoint Osnap snaps to the mid pionts of

point of polyline

segments.

lines

and

arcs

and

to the

mid

3. Intersection :

The Intersection Osnap snaps to the physical

intersection of any two drawing objects (i.e.

where lines, arcs or circles etc. cross each other)

and to Polyline vertices.

or circles etc. cross each other) and to Polyline vertices. 4. Center : The Center Osnap
or circles etc. cross each other) and to Polyline vertices. 4. Center : The Center Osnap

4. Center :

The Center Osnap snaps to the centre of a

circle, arc or polyline arc segment. The cursor

must pass over the circumference of the circle

or the arc so that the centre can be found.

5. Quadrant :

The Quadrant Osnap snaps to one of the four

circle quadrant points located at north, south,

east and west or 90, 270, 0 and 180 degrees

respectively.

6. Tangent :

The Tangent Osnap snaps to a tangent point on

a circle. This osnap works in two ways. You can

either draw a line from a point to the tangent

point or you can draw a line from a tangent point

or you can draw a line which is tangent to two

circles, arcs etc

point or you can draw a line from a tangent point or you can draw a
point or you can draw a line from a tangent point or you can draw a
point or you can draw a line from a tangent point or you can draw a

7. Perpendicular :

The

which forms a perpendicular with the selected

object. As with the

Perpendicular can be used to draw a line to a

perpendicular point or from a perpendicular

point

Perpendicular Osnap

snaps

to

a

Tangent

Osnap,

 

point.

8.

Parallel :

to a Tangent Osnap,   point. 8. Parallel : The Parallel Osnap is used to draw

The Parallel Osnap is used to draw a line

parallel to any other line in your drawing. To

draw a parallel line, first start the Line

command, specify the first point when

prompted and then start the Parallel Osnap.

Hover the cursor over an existing line until you see the Parallel snap

marker. Now, move the cursor close to a parallel position and a dotted

line will appear, indicating the parallel. You can now pick the second

point of your line.

position and a dotted line will appear, indicating the parallel. You can now pick the second

Using Co-ordinates

Introduction

A good understanding of how co-ordinates

work in AutoCAD is absolutely crucial if you are to make the best use of the program. Co-ordinates fall into two types, namely Cartesian and Polar. A basic understanding of these co-ordinate types will help you to use AutoCAD to construct drawings more easily. They can be further be classified as either Absolute or Relative.

be further be classified as either Absolute or Relative. Cartesian Co-ordinates The Cartesian co-ordinate system is

Cartesian Co-ordinates

The Cartesian co-ordinate system is the standard co-ordinate system. The position of a point can be described by its distance from two axes, X and Y. This results in a simple point description using two numbers separated by a comma e.g. 34,45

In the example given to the right point described lies 34.897 drawing units to the right of the Y axis and 45.473 drawing units above the X axis. The first value (34.897) is known as the X co-ordinate because it's value is measured along the X axis. The second value is known as the Y co- ordinate because it's value is measured along the Y axis. The X and

Y axes are two lines of infinite length which intersect at the origin point. The

measured along the Y axis. The X and Y axes are two lines of infinite length

co-ordinate value of the origin point is always 0,0. When viewed in plan the X and Y axes are always perpendicular to one another with the X axis in a horizontal position and the Y axis in a vertical position. Normally we work in the positive quadrant. Although this is not essential for AutoCAD to operate, it does tend to make life easier because we don't need to worry about negative numbers.

Polar Co-ordinates

Polar co-ordinates achieve the same result i.e. the description of the position of a point. The main difference is that polar co-ordinates use distance and angle to describe the position of a point rather than the X and Y coordinates in the Cartesian system. The distance and angle measurements are made relative to an origin. This results in a point description which looks like this 24<30 where the first value is the distance (in drawing units) and the second is the angle. Notice that the separator in the case of polar co-ordinates is the "less than" mathematical symbol.

AutoCAD angles start along the positive portion of the X axis and increase in an anti-clockwise direction. You can specify negative angles if you need to define an angle in a clockwise direction although this is not really necessary because angles are circular, hence an angular value of -30 degrees will give the same result as an angular value of 330 degrees as there are 360 degrees in a full circle. The figure on the right illustrates an example of a line of length 35.8 drawn at an angle of 60 degrees.

circle. The figure on the right illustrates an example of a line of length 35.8 drawn

The UCS Icon

In the bottom left hand corner of the AutoCAD drawing window you will see a symbol like the one shown on the left. This is called the UCS (User Co- ordinate System) icon and it is there to remind you which is the X axis and which is the Y axis. The empty box at the intersection of the X and Y axes is there to remind you that you are using "World" co- ordinates and that the UCS icon is not positioned over the true origin of the current co-ordinate system, probably because it is off screen.

co-ordinate system, probably because it is off screen. Absolute & Relative Co-ordinates Both Cartesian and
co-ordinate system, probably because it is off screen. Absolute & Relative Co-ordinates Both Cartesian and

Absolute & Relative Co-ordinates

Both Cartesian and polar co-ordinates can be divided into two types, absolute and relative. The distinction is quite simple, absolute co-ordinates relate to the X and Y axes and the origin of the current co-ordinate system, whilst relative co-ordinates relate to the current pick point. When you are specifying co- ordinates you need to tell AutoCAD which type you want. In the case of the two examples above a relative Cartesian co-ordinate looks like this @34.897,45.473 and a relative polar co-ordinate looks like this @34.897<30.

For example if you want to draw a line from point 20,10 to 40,30 1. In Absolute Cartesian Coordinate system you specify it as

From point

: 20,10

To point

: 40,30

2. In Relative Coordinate system you need to specify it as

From point

: 20,10

To point

:@ 20,20 (relative to previous point)

Direct Distance Entry

Introduction

Direct distance entry is one of those AutoCAD features that is often overlooked. This is rather unfortunate because it can be extremely useful and an amazing time-saver. Basically, direct distance entry enables you to draw an object, such as a line, by pointing in a particular direction with the cursor and entering a distance at the command line.

To Draw a line using Direct Distance Entry For example, let as assume that we want to draw a horizontal line with a length of 30 drawing units.

Start the Line command, Draw Line from the pull-down menu or

1.

the Line command, Draw Line from the pull-down menu or 1. from the Draw toolbar. 2.
the Line command, Draw Line from the pull-down menu or 1. from the Draw toolbar. 2.

from the Draw toolbar. 2. When prompted, to specify the first point for the line, pick a point

somewhere on the left side of the drawing area

3. Move your cursor to the right (or in the direction you want the line) of the first pick point. Hold your cursor in this position and simply enter 30 from the keyboard.

4. Press the Enter key, a line segment is drawn, 30 units long and in the direction you were pointing.

Drawing Objects

The Draw commands can be used to create new objects such as lines and circles. Most AutoCAD drawings are composed purely and simply from these basic components. A good understanding of the Draw commands is fundamental to the efficient use of AutoCAD.

This section covers the most frequently used Draw commands such as Line, Polyline, Circle etc. As a newcomer to AutoCAD, you may wish to skip the more advanced commands in order to properly master the basics. You can always return back to these commands in the future when you are more confident.

In common with most AutoCAD commands, the Draw commands can also be given in THREE ways.

1. Command names or short-cuts can be entered at the Keyboard

Command names or short-cuts can be entered at the Keyboard Command line : LINE or L

Command line : LINE or L

2. Commands can be started from the Draw Pull-Down Menu

3. From the Draw Toolbar.

from the Draw Pull-Down Menu 3. From the Draw Toolbar. Note : In a pull down
from the Draw Pull-Down Menu 3. From the Draw Toolbar. Note : In a pull down

Note : In a pull down menu a small arrow like

menu item means that the item leads to a sub-menu that may contain other commands or command options. An ellipsis, "" after a menu item means that the item displays a dialogue box.

" next to a

"

An ellipsis, " … " after a menu item means that the item displays a dialogue

Lines

Lines are probably the most simple of AutoCAD objects. Using the Line command, a line can be drawn between any two points picked within the drawing area. Lines are usually the first objects you will want to draw when starting a new drawing because they can be used as "construction lines" upon which the rest of your drawing will be based.

A line can be one segment or a series of segments, but each segment is a separate line object. The line command can be used when you need to edit individual segments.

The Line Command

Toolbar

Pull-down menu

Command:

To Draw a Line

Line Command Toolbar Pull-down menu Command: To Draw a Line Draw Line Line (or) L By

Draw

Command Toolbar Pull-down menu Command: To Draw a Line Draw Line Line (or) L By Picking

Line

Line (or) L

By Picking points on the screen

With the Line command you can draw a simple line from one point to another. When you pick the first point (P1) and move the cross-hairs to the location of the second point (P2) and pick the second point, the line is drawn from the first point to the second point. Line objects have two ends (the first point and the last point). You can continue picking points and AutoCAD will draw a straight line between each

picked point and the previous point. Each line segment drawn is a separate object and can be moved or erased as required. To end

object and can be moved or erased as required. To end this command, just hit the
object and can be moved or erased as required. To end this command, just hit the

this command, just hit the

key (enter key) on the keyboard.line segment drawn is a separate object and can be moved or erased as required. To

Using Cartesian Coordinates

1. Select

the command from the Toolbar or Draw Draw

Command Sequence

Command : Line

from the Toolbar or Draw Command Sequence Command : Line Line Specify first point Specify next

Line

Specify first point

Specify next point

Specify next point

: 10,5 (or give any point) press

: 20,30 press

next point : 10,5 (or give any point) press : 20,30 press : enter the coordinates
next point : 10,5 (or give any point) press : 20,30 press : enter the coordinates

: enter the coordinates of the next

point or

: 20,30 press : enter the coordinates of the next point or to complete the line

to

complete the line

A line will be drawn between these two points

the line A line will be drawn between these two points Using Polar Coordinate system 1.

Using Polar Coordinate system

1.

Select

command from the Toolbar or Draw Draw

Command Sequence

Command : Line

Specify first point point

Specify next point

Specify next point

: Specify value of a point

: @20<45

Specify next point : Specify value of a point : @20<45 press : enter the length

press

: enter the length and angle of the

next line or line

of a point : @20<45 press : enter the length and angle of the next line

to

complete the

of a point : @20<45 press : enter the length and angle of the next line

Line

of a point : @20<45 press : enter the length and angle of the next line

or

pick a

of a point : @20<45 press : enter the length and angle of the next line

Using Direct Distance Entry

1.

Select

Using Direct Distance Entry 1. Select the command from the Toolbar or Draw Command Sequence Command

the command from the Toolbar or Draw

Command Sequence

Command : Line

from the Toolbar or Draw Command Sequence Command : Line Line Specify first point point Specify

Line

Specify first point point

Specify next point

Specify next point

Polylines

: Specify value of a point

press

next point Polylines : Specify value of a point press or pick a : 30, move

or

pick a

: 30,

move the cursor in direction in which you

want the line

30, move t he cursor in direction in which you want the line : enter the

: enter the length of the next line, move the cursor

line : enter the length of the next line, move t he cursor in the direction

in the direction of the desired line or press enter to complete the line

A polyline is a connected sequence of line or arc segments created as a

single object. Polyline command can be used when you need to edit all segments at once, set width of individual segments, make segments taper

once, set width of individual segments, make segments taper and close the polyline. In practice the
once, set width of individual segments, make segments taper and close the polyline. In practice the
once, set width of individual segments, make segments taper and close the polyline. In practice the

and close the polyline. In practice the Polyline command works in the same way as the Line command allowing you to pick as many points as you like.

Again, just hit to end. As with the Line command, you also have the option

to automatically close a polyline end to end. To do this, type C to use the

close option instead of hitting . The example above shows a number of polylines to give you an idea of the flexibility of this type of line.

hitting . The example above shows a number of polylines to give you an idea of
hitting . The example above shows a number of polylines to give you an idea of

The Polyline Command

Toolbar

Pull-down menu

Command:

The Polyline Command Toolbar Pull-down menu Command: Draw Polyline Pline (or) PL To Draw a rectangle

Draw

The Polyline Command Toolbar Pull-down menu Command: Draw Polyline Pline (or) PL To Draw a rectangle

Polyline

Pline (or) PL

To Draw a rectangle of 50 x 30

1. Select

Pline (or) PL To Draw a rectangle of 50 x 30 1. Select command from the

command from the toolbar (or)

Draw

of 50 x 30 1. Select command from the toolbar (or) Draw Polyline Command Sequence Command

Polyline

Command Sequence Command : Pline Specify start point: (pick P1) Current line-width is 0.0000 Specify next point or [Arc/Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width]: 50, move cursor towards right press Specify next point or [Arc/Close/Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width]: 30, move cursor upwards press

towards right press Specify next point or [Arc/Close /Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width]: 30, move cursor upwards press
towards right press Specify next point or [Arc/Close /Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width]: 30, move cursor upwards press
towards right press Specify next point or [Arc/Close /Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width]: 30, move cursor upwards press

Specify next point or [Arc/Close/Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width]: 50, move cursor towards left press Specify next point or [Arc/Close/Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width]: 30, move cursor downwards press (or C to close)

press Specify next point or [Arc/Close /Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width]: 30, move cursor downwards press (or C to close)
press Specify next point or [Arc/Close /Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width]: 30, move cursor downwards press (or C to close)
press Specify next point or [Arc/Close /Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width]: 30, move cursor downwards press (or C to close)
Specify next point or [Arc/Close /Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width]: 30, move cursor downwards press (or C to close) 39

Rectangle

The Rectangle command is used to draw a rectangle whose sides are vertical and horizontal. The position and size of the rectangle are defined by picking two diagonal corners. The rectangle isn't really an AutoCAD object at all. It is, in fact, just a closed polyline which is automatically drawn for you. The Rectangle command also has a number of options. Width works in the same way as for the Polyline command. The corners of the rectangle can be Chamfered and Filleted. The Elevation and Thickness commands are 3D options.

The Rectangle Command

Toolbar

Toolbar

Pull-down Menu

Draw

Pull-down Menu Draw Rectangle

Rectangle

Command

Rectangle (or) REC

Command Sequence

Command : Rectangle

Specify first corner point or [Chamfer/Elevation/Fillet/Thickness/Width]: (pick P1)

Specify other corner point or [Dimensions]: (pick P2)

point or [Chamfer/Elevation/Fillet/Thickne ss/Width]: (pick P1) Specify other corner point or [Dimensions]: (pick P2) 40

The Polygon Command

The Polygon command can be used to draw any regular polygon from 3 sides up to 1024 sides. This command requires four inputs from the user, the number of sides, a pick point for the center of the polygon, whether you want the polygon inscribed or circumscribed and then a pick point which determines both the radius of this imaginary circle and the orientation of the polygon. The polygon command creates a closed polyline in the shape of the required polygon.

This command also allows you to define the polygon by entering the length of a side using the Edge option. You can also control the size of the polygon by entering an exact radius for the circle.

To Draw a Polygon

Toolbar

Pull-down menu

Command

the circle. To Draw a Polygon Toolbar Pull-down menu Command Draw Polygon Polygon (or) POL Command

Draw

To Draw a Polygon Toolbar Pull-down menu Command Draw Polygon Polygon (or) POL Command Sequence Command

Polygon

Polygon (or) POL

Command Sequence

Command : Polygon Enter number of sides <4>: 5 Specify center of polygon or [Edge]: pick P1 or type E to define by edge length

or [Edge]: pick P1 or type E to define by edge length Enter an option [Inscribed

Enter an option [Inscribed in circle/Circumscribed about circle] <I>:

in circle/Circumscribed about circle ] <I>: (to accept the inscribed default or type C fo r

(to accept the inscribed default or type C for circumscribed)

Specify radius of circle: pick P2 or enter exact radius

Circle Along with Line and Polyline, the Circle command is probably on e of the

Circle

Along with Line and Polyline, the Circle command is probably one of the most

frequently used. In common with the other commands in this section there are

a number of options that can help you construct just the circle you need. Most

of these options are self explanatory but in some cases it can be quite

confusing. The Circle command, for example, offers 6 ways to create a circle.

The Circle Command

Toolbar

Toolbar

Pull-down menu

Draw

Pull-down menu Draw Circle Center, Radius

Circle

Pull-down menu Draw Circle Center, Radius

Center, Radius

Command

Circle (or) C

 

Command Sequence

Command Circle (or) C   Command Sequence Command : Circle Specify center point for circle or

Command : Circle

Specify center point for circle or [3P/2P/Ttr (tan tan radius)]: (pick P1)

Specify radius of circle or [Diameter] <50.0195>: 25

(this value is taken as radius of the circle)

25 (this value is taken as radius of the circle) (or pick P2) Circle – Center,

(or pick P2)

(this value is taken as radius of the circle) (or pick P2) Circle – Center, Diameter

Circle – Center, Diameter Command : Circle

Specify center point for circle or [3P/2P/Ttr (tan tan radius)]:

(pick P1)

Specify radius of circle or [Diameter] <50.0195>: type D

Diameter <50.0195>

: 40 ( value of diameter)

type D Diameter <50.0195> : 40 ( value of diameter) Circle – 2P ( Two Points)

Circle – 2P ( Two Points) 2P which uses two points on the circumference to form a diameter

Command : Circle

Specify center point for circle or [3P/2P/Ttr (tan tan radius)]: 2P

Specify first end point of the circle’s diameter : pick P1 or specify value of

point

Specify second end point of the circle’s diameter : pick P2 or specify value of

of the circle’s diameter : pick P2 or specify value of point Circle – 3P (Three

point

Circle – 3P (Three Points) 3P which uses any three points on the circumference to form a diameter to

draw the circle. The command can be used in the same way as described

above.

The command can be used in the same way as described above. Circle – Ttr (

Circle – Ttr ( Tangent, Tangent, Radius)

To use this option you need to have two lines already drawn which can be

described as tangents to the circle to be drawn. Once the tangents are

specified, it will prompt you to enter the radius of the circle. A circle will be

drawn with this radius and the two lines as tangents.

Command : Circle

Specify center point for circle or [3P/2P/Ttr (tan tan radius)]: T

center point for circle or [3P/2P/Ttr (tan tan radius)] : T : select L1 (line 1)

: select L1 (line 1)

Specify point on object for second tangent of the circle : select L2 (line2)

( specify value of radius)

Specify radius of the circle < 23.657>

Specify point on object for first tangent of the circle

: 10

Specify point on object for first tangent of the circle : 10 Circle – Tangent, Tangent,
Specify point on object for first tangent of the circle : 10 Circle – Tangent, Tangent,

Circle – Tangent, Tangent, Tangent

To use this option you need to have three lines already drawn which can be described as tangents to the circle to be drawn. Once the tangents are specified, a circle will be drawn with these three lines as tangents.

The Arc Command

The Arc command allows you to draw an arc of a circle. There are numerous ways to define an arc, the default method uses three pick points, a start point, a second point and an end point. Using this method, the drawn arc will start at the first pick point, pass through the second point and end at the third point.

pass through the second point and end at the third point. Toolbar Pull-down menu Command Draw
pass through the second point and end at the third point. Toolbar Pull-down menu Command Draw

Toolbar Pull-down menu Command

Draw Arc or A

pass through the second point and end at the third point. Toolbar Pull-down menu Command Draw

Arc

pass through the second point and end at the third point. Toolbar Pull-down menu Command Draw

3 Points

44

Command Sequence

Command: ARC Specify start point of arc or [Center]: (pick P1) Specify second point of arc or [Center/End]: (pick P2) Specify end point of arc: (pick P3)

You can either pick points or specify the actual value of the point in terms of X, Y coordinates. The command allows you to draw an arc by 10 different methods. All the options work in the same way as described above. The Continue option allows you to draw arcs continuously with the last option used. It will automatically select the end point of the previous arc as the start point and will prompt you to enter only the end point.

Tips:

point and will prompt you to enter only the end point. Tips: 1. In AutoCAD Default

1. In AutoCAD Default values are given in like <Default> or <34.878> and Options are given in square brackets like [ 2P/3P/ Ttr]. Each option is separated by a forward slash /.

2. To accept the default value/settings press Enter.

3. To use an Option which is not the default just type in the name of the option. You need not type the entire name, just type the characters which are given in capital letters. For Example to use option CLose, there is no need to type the complete name, typing CL is sufficient.

45

Modifying Objects

Object Selection

Before you start using the AutoCAD Modify commands, you need to know something about selecting objects. All of the Modify commands require that you make one or more object selections. AutoCAD has a whole range of tools which are designed to help you select just the objects you need. As with so many aspects of AutoCAD, developing a good working knowledge of these options can drastically improve your drawing speed and efficiency.

Selecting Objects by Picking

Perhaps the most obvious way to select an object in AutoCAD is simply to pick it. Those of you who have used other graphics based utilities will be familiar with this concept. Generally all you have to do is place your cursor over an object, click the mouse button and the object will be selected. In this respect AutoCAD is no different from any other graphics utility.

When you start a Modify command such as ERASE, two things happen. First,

the cursor changes from the usual crosshairs to the

second, you will see the "Select objects" prompt on the command line. Both of these cues are to let you know that AutoCAD is expecting you to select one or more objects.

AutoCAD is expecting you to select one or more objects. pickbox and Select objects: To select

pickbox

and

Select objects:

To select an object, place the pickbox over a part of the object and left-click the mouse. When the object has been picked it is highlighted in a dashed line

it is h i g h l i g h t e d in a dashed

Object selection by Pick Box

is h i g h l i g h t e d in a dashed line

The selected object highlighted

to show that it is part of the current selection and the command line reports "1 found". You will now see the "Select objects" prompt on the command line again. At this point you can continue adding more objects to the current selection by picking them or you can press or the Space Bar to complete the selection.

you can press or the Space Bar to complete the selection. Window Selection Selecting objects by

Window Selection

Selecting objects by picking objects can become quite tedious if you want to select a large number of objects. Just imagine having to pick a hundred or more objects in a large drawing! Fortunately AutoCAD provides a number of selection options which can help you select objects more efficiently. The Window option is invoked by typing W in response to the "Select objects" prompt. Window allows you to define a rectangle using two points in exactly the same way as the RECTANGLE command. Once the window is defined, all objects which lie entirely within the window will be selected.

Select objects : W

within the window will be selected. Select objects : W Specify first corner : pick P1

Specify first corner : pick P1 (or any point away from the drawing to be selected)

Specify opposite corner : pick P2

draw ing to be selected) Specify opposite corner : pick P2 Object Selection by Window only

Object Selection by Window

only objects within the window selected

Crossing Window Selection

The Crossing Window option is invoked by typing C at the "Select objects" prompt and is a variation of the Window command. The command sequence is exactly the same but objects are selected which lie entirely within the window and those which cross the window border.

Select objects : C

and those which cross the window border. Select objects : C Specify first corner : pick

Specify first corner : pick P1 (or any point away from the drawing to be selected)

Specify opposite corner : pick P2

draw ing to be selected) Specify opposite corner : pick P2 Objects selected by Crossing Window

Objects selected by Crossing Window

Objects within and crossing the window will be selected

The Undo Option

It often happens that you inadvertently add objects which you don't want to a selection set during its compilation. When this occurs in the middle of a complicated selection it can be pretty annoying. Fortunately AutoCAD allows you to undo the last selection made during the compilation of a selection set. All you need do is enter U at the next "Select objects" prompt to remove the objects previously added.

Selecting All objects

The All option is invoked by typing ALL at the "Select objects" prompt. You can use this option to select all the objects in the current drawing, no picking is required.

Select objects : ALL

drawing, no picking is required. Select objects : ALL Using a Previous selection AutoCAD always remembers

Using a Previous selection

AutoCAD always remembers the last selection set you defined. This is very useful because you may need to make a number of changes using different commands to the same group of objects. In order to re-select the last selection set you can use the Previous option. The previous option is invoked by typing P at the "Select objects" prompt

Select objects : P

Tips :

"Select objects" prompt Select objects : P Tips : 1. Lines, polygons and windows drawn using

1. Lines, polygons and windows drawn using the selection options do not

exist as drawing objects. Once the selection has been made they disappear. 2. When you are picking objects in a complex drawing, use the ZOOM command transparently to make object selection easier. You can Zoom In or Zoom Out using the wheel on a Scrolling Mouse. Zoom options can also be selected from the toolbars and are automatically transparent (it will work within your existing command without canceling it.)

Modify Commands

AutoCAD drawings are rarely completed simply by drawing lines, circles etc. Most likely you will need to Modify these basic drawing objects in some way in order to create the image you need. AutoCAD provides a whole range of modify tools such as Move, Copy, Rotate and Mirror.

As is usual with AutoCAD, the Modify tools can also be accessed in one of three ways

1. Command names or shortcuts can be entered from the Keyboard

Command : Move (or) M

2. From the Modify Pull-down menu

3. From the Modify Toolbar.

the Modify Pull-down menu 3. From the Modify Toolbar . The method you choose is entirely
the Modify Pull-down menu 3. From the Modify Toolbar . The method you choose is entirely
the Modify Pull-down menu 3. From the Modify Toolbar . The method you choose is entirely

The method you choose is entirely up to you. Ultimately you will use the method that you feel most comfortable with or the one you find most efficient. AutoCAD allows great flexibility and there aren't any right or wrong ways of working. That said, it should be pointed out that the use of toolbars in AutoCAD is almost always quicker than any other method.

That said, it should be pointed out that the use of toolbars in AutoCAD is almost

53

The Erase Command

The Erase command is one of the simplest AutoCAD commands and is one of the most used. The command erases (deletes) any selected object(s) from the drawing. Remember you can always get deleted objects back by typing U

you can always get deleted objects back b y typing U to undo, or using from

to undo, or using from the Standard toolbar.

Toolbar

Toolbar

Pull-down menu

Modify

Pull-down menu Modify Erase

Erase

Command

Erase (or) E

Command Sequence

Command : Erase

Select object : pick an object to erase (using any method described above)

Select object :

(to end selection and erase the object)

Select object : ( to end selection and erase the object) The Copy Command The Copy

The Copy Command

The Copy command can be used to create one or more duplicates of any drawing object or objects which you have previously created. Copy is a very useful and time-saving command because you can create very complex drawing elements and then simply copy them as many times as you like.

The multiple option allows you to create additional copies of the selected object(s) by picking as many new points as you like. To invoke the multiple option type M, at the prompt and it will ask you to specify base point and second point, select the points as explained below. To end a multiple copy, just hit the key.

below. To end a multiple copy, just hit the key. Toolbar Pull-down menu Modify Copy Command

Toolbar

Toolbar

Pull-down menu

Modify

Pull-down menu Modify Copy

Copy

Command

Copy (or) CP

Command Sequence

Command : Copy

Select object : W ( or pick an object to copy using any method described above) Specify first corner : pick P1 Specify other corner: pick P2

Select object :

: pick P1 Specify other corner : pick P2 Select object : ( to end selection

(to end selection or you can use any option to select more objects)

Specify base point or displacement, or [Multiple]: pick P3

Specify second point of displacement or <use first point as displacement>:pick P4

or <use first point as displacement>:pick P4 Note: The "Base point", P3 and the "Second

Note: The "Base point", P3 and the "Second point", P4 do not have to be picked on or near the object. The two points are simply used to indicate the distance and direction of the copied object from the original object

The Mirror Command

The Mirror command allows you to mirror (get reflection of) selected objects in your drawing by picking them and then defining the position of an imaginary mirror line using two points. This command is particularly very useful for drawing symmetric objects.

Toolbar

Toolbar

Pull-down menu

Modify

Pull-down menu Modify Mirror

Mirror

Command

Mirror

Command Sequence

Command : Mirror

Select object : W (or pick an object)

Specify first corner Specify other corner

Select object :

(to end selection)

Specify first point of mirror line: pick P3

Specify second point of mirror line: pick P4

Delete source objects? [Yes/No]<No>

: pick P1 : pick P2

source objects? [Yes/No]<No> : pick P1 : pick P2 : Object to be mirrored selected, the

:

source objects? [Yes/No]<No> : pick P1 : pick P2 : Object to be mirrored selected, the
Object to be mirrored selected, the selection window and the imaginary mirror line is shown

Object to be mirrored selected, the selection window and the imaginary mirror line is shown dashed

Mirror image (reflection) of the object

The Offset Command

Offset is probably one of the most useful commands for constructing drawings. The Offset command creates a new object parallel to or concentric with a selected object. The new object is drawn at a user defined distance (the offset) from the original and in a direction chosen by the user with a pick point. You can offset lines, arcs, circles, ellipses, 2D polylines, xlines, rays and planar splines.

Toolbar

Toolbar

Pull-down menu

Modify

Pull-down menu Modify Offset

Offset

Command

Offset

Command Sequence

Command : Offset

Specify offset distance or [ Through] <1.0000>: specify offset distance Select object to offset or <exit>: select an object (you can use only pick box) Specify point on side to offset : pick P1 or select a point on side to offset

Select object to offset or <exit>:

side to offset Select object to offset or <exit>: or select another object In the illustration

or select another object

object to offset or <exit>: or select another object In the illustration above, a line has

In the illustration above, a line has been offset to the right by the "Offset distance" specified and picking a point ‘P1’ to the right of the original line, to indicate the side to offset . The result is a new line to the right of the original.

Objects can be offset inside or outside to create a new object which is concentric with the original. In the illustration, a new object has been created inside of the original by picking a point inside the original object. The distance between the two objects is the offset distance. The measures of the new object is the difference of measures of the original object and the offset distance. In reality, offset objects inherit their object properties from the original object.

The Move Command

The Move command works in a similar way to Copy command except that no copy is made, the selected object(s) is simply moved from one location to another.

Toolbar

Toolbar

Pull-down menu

Modify

Pull-down menu Modify Move

Move

Command

Move (or) M

Command Sequence

Command : Move Select object : W ( or pick an object to move using any method described above)

Specify first corner

Specify other corner: pick point

Select object :

: pick point

other corner : pick point Select object : : pick point ( to end selection or

(to end selection or you can use any option to select more objects)

Specify base point or displacement: pick P2

Specify second point of displacement or <use first point as displacement>:pick P3

Object Selected to move during move after moving to new location

Object Selected to move

Object Selected to move during move after moving to new location

during move

after moving to new location

The Rotate Command

The Rotate command allows an object or objects to be rotated about a point selected by the user. AutoCAD prompts for a second rotation point or an angle which can be typed at the keyboard.

Toolbar

Toolbar

Pull-down menu

Modify

Pull-down menu Modify Rotate

Rotate

Command

Rotate (or) RO

Command Sequence

Command : Rotate Select object : W ( or pick an object to rotate using any method described above)

Specify first corner

Specify other corner: pick point P2

Select object :

objects) Specify base point : pick P3 (or any point along which rotation desired) Enter rotation angle or [Reference] : Enter the value say 30

: pick point P1

or [Reference] : Enter the value say 30 : pick point P1 ( to end selection

(to end selection or you can use any option to select more

Objected selected for rotation objected after rotation

Objected selected for rotation

objected after rotation

The Scale Command

The Scale command can be used to change the size of an object or group of objects. You are prompted for a pick point about which the selection set will be scaled. Scaling can then be completed by picking a second point or by entering a scale factor. For example a scale factor of 2 will double the size of the objects in the selection set and a factor of 0.5 will half them.

Toolbar

Toolbar

Pull-down menu

Modify

Pull-down menu Modify Scale

Scale

Command

Scale

Command Sequence

Command : Scale Select object : W ( or pick an object to scale using any method described above)

Specify first corner

Specify other corner: pick point P2

Select object :

objects) Specify base point : pick P3 Specify scale factor or [Reference] : 2 (or specify a value)

: pick point P1

or [Reference] : 2 (or specify a value) : pick point P1 ( to end selection

(to end selection or you can use any option to select more

Object selected, before Scaling Object after scaling by a factor 2

Object selected, before Scaling

Object selected, before Scaling Object after scaling by a factor 2

Object after scaling by a factor 2

The Trim Command

The Trim command can be used to trim (cut) a part of an object. In order to

trim an object you must define the "cutting edge". Cutting edges can be lines,

xlines, rays, polylines, circles, arcs or ellipses. The Trim command, unlike

most other modify commands requires that two separate object selections are

made. The cutting edges are selected first (there can be one or more) and

then the objects to be trimmed are selected.

Toolbar

Toolbar

Pull-down menu

Modify

Pull-down menu Modify Trim

Trim

Command

Trim (or) TR

Command Sequence

Command : Trim

Select Cutting edges……

Select object : All (or pick an object by using any method described above, but ‘ALL’ is preferred as you can trim any object without bothering about multiple selection)

trim any object without bothering about multiple selection) Select object : ( to end selection or

Select object :

without bothering about multiple selection) Select object : ( to end selection or you can use

(to end selection or you can use any option to select more

objects)

Select object to trim or shift-select to extend or [Project/Edge/Undo]: pick point

(point marked ‘ X’ on the object to be trimmed)

Select object to trim or shift-select to extend or [Project/Edge/Undo]: pick point

(point marked ‘X’ on the object to be trimmed)

Select object to trim or shift-select to extend or [Project/Edge/Undo]:

to trim or shift-select to extend or [Project/Edg e/Undo]: (to end) or (pick point marked ‘X’

(to

end) or (pick point marked ‘X’ on the object to be trimmed)

Object before trimming cutting edges selected using ALL option with objects to trim shown by

Object before trimming

cutting edges selected using ALL option with objects to trim shown by ‘X’

Object after trimming the edges marked ‘ X ’

Object after trimming the edges marked ‘X

Note : At each trimming step you are given the option to undo the previous trim. This can be very useful if you inadvertently pick the wrong object.

The Extend Command

This command extends a line, polyline or arc to meet another drawing object

(known as the boundary edge). In the illustration on the right, two lines are

extended to meet another line (inclined line) which forms the boundary edge.

This command works in a similar way to the Trim command, described above.

Two selections are made, one for the boundary edge(s) and one for the

object(s) to extend.

Toolbar

Toolbar

Pull-down menu

Modify

Pull-down menu Modify Extend

Extend

Command

Extend

Command Sequence

Command : Extend

Select boundary edges……

Select object : All (or pick an object by using any method described above, but ‘ALL’ is preferred as you can trim any object without bothering about multiple selection)

trim any object without bothering about multiple selection) Select object : ( to end selection or

Select object :

without bothering about multiple selection) Select object : ( to end selection or you can use

(to end selection or you can use any option to select more

objects)

Select object to extend or shift-select to trim or [Project/Edge/Undo]: pick P1

(point marked ‘ X’ on the object to be extended)

Select object to extend or shift-select to trim or [Project/Edge/Undo]: pick P2

(point marked ‘X’ on the object to be extended)

Select object to extend or shift-select to trim or [Project/Edge/Undo]:

to extend or shift-select to trim or [Project/Edg e/Undo]: (to end) (point marked ‘X’ on the

(to

end) (point marked ‘X’ on the object to be extended)

Line L1 and L2 before extending boundary edge selecte d, shown as dashed

Line L1 and L2 before extending

boundary edge selected, shown as dashed

Lines L1 and L2 extended up to the boundary edge

Lines L1 and L2 extended up to the boundary edge

Lines and other objects can be extended in one of two directions. In the illustration shown on the right, the line could be extended either to the right or to the left. You can tell AutoCAD in which direction to extend by picking a point to the right or left of the midpoint respectively.

You can tell AutoCAD in which direction to extend by picking a point to the right

The Break Command

The Break command enables you to break (remove part of) an object by defining two break points. The Break command can be used with lines, polylines, circles, arcs ellipses, splines, xlines and rays. When you break an object, you can either select the object using the first break point and then pick the second break point, or you can select the object and then pick the two break points.

Toolbar

Toolbar

Pull-down menu

Modify

Pull-down menu Modify Break

Break

Command

Break

Command Sequence

Command : Break Select object : select the object to break

Specify second break point or [First point]: F

Specify first break point

Specify second break point : pick P2

: pick P1

second break point or [First point]: F Specify first break point Specify second break point :
second break point or [First point]: F Specify first break point Specify second break point :

The Chamfer Command

The Chamfer command enables you to create a chamfer between any two non-parallel lines as in the illustration below or any two adjacent polyline segments. Usually, the Chamfer command is used first to set the chamfer distances before drawing the chamfer.

Toolbar

Toolbar

Pull-down menu

Modify

Pull-down menu Modify Chamfer

Chamfer

Command

Chamfer

Command Sequence

Command : Chamfer (TRIM mode) Current chamfer Dist1 = 10.0000, Dist2 = 10.0000

Select first line or [Polyline/Distance/Angle/Trim/Method]: D (to set distances) Specify first chamfer distance <10.0000>: 20 (or enter required distance)

Specify second chamfer distance <20.0000>:

or enter a different value Select first line or [Polyline/Distance/Angle/Trim/Method]: (pick P1) Select second line: (pick P2)

(pi ck P1) Select second line: (pick P2) to accept first distance value The Chamfer command

to accept first distance value

Select second line: (pick P2) to accept first distance value The Chamfer command has a number

The Chamfer command has a number of options. The Polyline option can be used to chamfer all vertexes of a polyline simultaneously. The Distance option

allows you to specify the two chamfer distances. Angle allows the angle between the first line and the chamfer to be specified. Trim is used to control whether the original lines are trimmed to the chamfer or remain as they are. Finally, Method is used to toggle the command between Distance and Angle mode.

The Fillet Command

The Fillet command is a very useful tool which allows you to draw an arc between two intersecting lines or adjacent polyline segments. You first need to use the command to set the required radius and then a second time to select the lines to fillet.

Toolbar

Toolbar

Pull-down menu

Modify

Pull-down menu Modify Fillet

Fillet

Command

Fillet

Command Sequence

Command : Fillet Current settings: Mode = TRIM, Radius = 10.0000 Select first object or [Polyline/Radius/Trim]: R (to set the radius) Specify fillet radius <10.000>: 25 Select first object or [Polyline/Radius/Trim]: pick P1 Select second object : pick P2

pick P1 Select second object : pick P2 The Fillet command can also be used to

The Fillet command can also be used to fillet arcs and circles. The "Polyline" option also allows you to fillet all vertices of a polyline with a single command. Trim is used to control whether the original lines are trimmed to the fillet or remain as they are.

Adding Dimensions and Text

Dimensions

AutoCAD provides a whole range of dimensioning tools which can be used to quickly dimension any drawing without the need for measurement. Dimensioning in AutoCAD is automatic; lines, arrows and text are all taken care of by the dimension commands. AutoCAD dimensions are special blocks which can easily be edited or erased as necessary.

blocks which can easily be edited or erased as necessary. AutoCAD divides dimensions into four main

AutoCAD divides dimensions into four main categories:

Linear

Radial

Ordinate

Angular

When working with dimensions it is very important that line origins are picked accurately so that the resulting measurement and text are correct. Always use an Osnap to pick dimension line origins.

measurement and text are correct. A l w a y s use an O s n

Linear Dimensions

The Linear dimension commands are used to dimension along straight lines. There are five linear dimension commands, namely: DIMLINEAR, DIMCONTINUE, DIMBASELINE, DIMALIGNED and DIMROTATED.

The Linear Dimension Command

Toolbar

Toolbar

Pull-down menu

Dimensions

Pull-down menu Dimensions Linear

Linear

Command

DIMLINEAR

Command Sequence

Command : Dimlinear Specify first extension line origin or <select object> Specify second extension line origin

object> Specify second extension line origin : pick P1 : pick P2 Specify dimension line location

: pick P1 : pick P2

Specify dimension line location or [Mtext/Text/Angle/Horizontal/Vertical/Rotated]:

(pick a point to position the dimension line)

The Aligned Dimension Command

You can use this command to generate aligned dimensions. These are dimensions along inclined lines which cannot be dimensioned with the DIMLINEAR dimension command because that command will only give a measured dimension in either a horizontal or vertical direction. However, as you can see from the command sequence below, this command works in exactly the same way.

sequence below, this command works in exactly the same way. Toolbar Pull-down menu Dimensions Aligned

Toolbar

Toolbar

Pull-down menu

Dimensions

Pull-down menu Dimensions Aligned

Aligned

Command

DIMALIGNED

Command Sequence

Command : Dimaligned Specify first extension line origin or <select object> Specify second extension line origin

: pick P1 : pick P2

Specify dimension line location or [Mtext/Text/Angle]: (pick a point to position the

dimension line)

The Radius Dimension Command

Toolbar

Toolbar

Pull-down menu

Dimensions

Pull-down menu Dimensions Radius

Radius

Command

DIMRADIUS

Command Sequence

Radius Command DIMRADIUS Command Sequence Command : Dimradius Select arc or circle : pick P1 Specify

Command : Dimradius Select arc or circle : pick P1

Specify dimension line location or [Mtext/Text/Angle]: (pick a point to position the

dimension line)

The Diameter Dimension Command

Toolbar

Toolbar

Pull-down menu

Dimensions

Pull-down menu Dimensions Diameter

Diameter

Command

DIMDIAMETER

Command Sequence

Diameter Command DIMDIAMETER Command Sequence Command : Dimdiameter Select arc or circle : pick P1

Command : Dimdiameter Select arc or circle : pick P1

Specify dimension line location or [Mtext/Text/Angle]: (pick a point to position the

dimension line)

The Angular Dimension Command

Toolbar

Toolbar

Pull-down menu

Dimensions

Pull-down menu Dimensions Angular

Angular

Command

DIMANGULAR

Command Sequence

Angular Command DIMANGULAR Command Sequence Command : Dimangular Select arc, circle, line or

Command : Dimangular Select arc, circle, line or <specify vertex> : pick P1 Select second line : pick P2

Specify dimension line location or [Mtext/Text/Angle]: (pick a point to position the

dimension line)

The Baseline Dimension Command

You can use this command to generate a series of dimensions from a single base point. You must have already created the first dimension in the sequence using a command such as DIMLINEAR.

Toolbar

Toolbar

Pull-down menu

Dimensions

Pull-down menu Dimensions Baseline

Baseline

Command

DIMBASELINE

Command Sequence

Baseline Command DIMBASELINE Command Sequence Command : Dimbaseline Specify second extension line origin

Command : Dimbaseline Specify second extension line origin or[Undo/Select] <select> : pick P3 Specify second extension line origin or[Undo/Select] <select> : pick P4

Specify second extension line origin or[Undo/Select] <select> :

point)

<select> : pick P4 Specify second extension line origin or[Undo/Select] <select> : point) (or pick 74

(or pick

In the example above, the "35" dimension was created using the DIMLINEAR command. The others were created using DIMBASELINE and picking points P3 and P4.

The Continue Dimension Command

You can use the Continue command to add a string of dimensions. You must already have created the first dimension in the sequence using a command such as DIMLINEAR. There is no prompt for the first line origin, AutoCAD automatically selects the second line origin of the previous dimension to be the first of the new dimension. There is also no prompt for the dimension line position, AutoCAD automatically matches up with the previous dimension.

Toolbar

Toolbar

Pull-down menu

Dimensions

Pull-down menu Dimensions Continue

Continue

Command

DIMCONTINUE

Command Sequence

Continue Command DIMCONTINUE Command Sequence Command : Dimcontinue Specify second extension line origin

Command : Dimcontinue Specify second extension line origin or[Undo/Select] <select> : pick P3

Specify second extension line origin or[Undo/Select] <select> : pick P4

Specify second extension line origin or[Undo/Select] <select> :

point)

line origin or[Undo/Select] <select> : point) (or pick Using the Continue command you can very quickly

(or pick

Using the Continue command you can very quickly generate a string of dimensions which align perfectly. In the example above, the "35" dimension was drawn with the DIMLINEAR command; all the other dimensions were drawn using the DIMCONTINUE command and simply picking the points P3 and P4, one after the other. You can only continue a dimension in a single direction.

The Leader Command

The Leader command can be used to annotate any point on a drawing.

Toolbar

Toolbar

Pull-down menu

Dimensions

Pull-down menu Dimensions Leader

Leader

Command

LEADER

Command Sequence

Dimensions Leader Command LEADER Command Sequence Command : Leader Specify first leader point or [Settings]

Command : Leader Specify first leader point or [Settings] <settings> : pick P1 Specify next point :

Specify next point :

Enter text width <0> :

Enter first line of annotation text <Mtext> : enter the text

Enter next line of annotation text :

: enter the text Enter next line of annotation text : (or specify value of width)

(or specify value of width)

next line of annotation text : (or specify value of width) (or enter the text) The
next line of annotation text : (or specify value of width) (or enter the text) The

(or enter the text)

The Center Mark Command

You can use the Center Mark command to annotate a circle or an arc with a cross at the center

Toolbar

Toolbar

Pull-down menu

Dimensions

Pull-down menu Dimensions Center Mark

Center Mark

Command

DIMCENTER

Command Sequence

Center Mark Command DIMCENTER Command Sequence Command : Dimcenter Select arc or circle : pick on

Command : Dimcenter Select arc or circle : pick on the circumference of circle or arc

A cross is drawn at the center point.

Adding Text

Text conveys important information in your drawing. You use text for title blocks, to label parts of the drawing, to give specifications, or to make annotations. AutoCAD provides two ways to create text.

Line Text

– used for short simple entries

Mtext (Multi line text) – used for longer entries with

formatting

Using Line Text

Pull-down menu

Draw

entries with formatting Using Line Text Pull-down menu Draw Text Single Line Text Command : Text

Text

Single Line Textwith formatting Using Line Text Pull-down menu Draw Text Command : Text Current text style: "Standard"

Command : Text Current text style: "Standard" Text height: 2.5000 Specify start point of text or [Justify/Style]: pick a point Specify height <2.5000>: (or specify value of text height) Specify rotation angle of text <0> : (or specify angle) Enter Text : Welcome To AutoCAD (enter the text required) Enter Text : (or enter the second line of text)

required) Enter Text : (or enter the second line of text) Using Multiline Text (Mtext) For
required) Enter Text : (or enter the second line of text) Using Multiline Text (Mtext) For
required) Enter Text : (or enter the second line of text) Using Multiline Text (Mtext) For

Using Multiline Text (Mtext)

For Long complex entries, multiline text can be used. It consists of any number of text lines or paragraphs that fit within the width specified (by defining a window). Unlike single-line text, multilline text includes as part of the same mtext object all text lines or paragraphs created in a multiline text editing session. You can move, rotate, erase, copy, mirror or scale mtext objects. Multiline text has more editing options. Using multilane text editor you can underline, change font, colour, text etc.

Toolbar

Pull-down menu

Command

Toolbar Pull-down menu Command Draw MTEXT Text Multiline Text… Command Sequence Command : Mtext Specify first

Draw

Toolbar Pull-down menu Command Draw MTEXT Text Multiline Text… Command Sequence Command : Mtext Specify first

MTEXT

Text

Toolbar Pull-down menu Command Draw MTEXT Text Multiline Text… Command Sequence Command : Mtext Specify first

Multiline Text…

Command Sequence

Command : Mtext Specify first corner : pick a point ( defines one end of text window) Specify opposite corner : pick a point (define opposite end of the text window) The text will fit in this window. Once the window is defined Multililne text editor dialog box is displaced as shown below

text editor dialog box is displaced as shown below Using the Character tab of multiline text

Using the Character tab of multiline text window you can enter the text, change the font, change the size of the font, specify colour, insert symbols

Using Properties tab you can change the style, specify justification of the text, change the width and specify the rotation angle of the text.

change the width and specify the rotation angle of the text. Using the Line spacing Tab

Using the Line spacing Tab you can specify the spacing between the text

After you enter the text and make the necessary editing choose OK to exit the command. The text will then be entered in your drawing area.

Lesson 1

Objective :

At the end of this lesson you will be able to understand the use of

Grid

Snap

Ortho

Line

Erase

Q. Draw the Front Elevation, Plan and the Left Hand End Elevation of the object shown in figure 1.

Erase Q. Draw the Front Elevation, Plan an d the Left Hand End Elevation of the

Figure 1

Front Elevation

Before you begin to draw, turn the Grid, Snap and Ortho ON.

Step #

Command Sequence

Description

1.

Select

Select command from the

command from the

The Line command is invoked

 

Toolbar or Draw

Toolbar or Draw Line  

Line

 

2.

From Point : P1

 

or any point on the screen

 

3.

To point : 80

 

Move the cursor towards right

3. To point : 80   Move the cursor towards right

4.

To point : 10

 

Move the cursor upwards

4. To point : 10   Move the cursor upwards

5.

To point : 80

 

Move the cursor towards left

Move the cursor towards left

6.

To point : 10

 

Move the cursor downwards

Move the cursor downwards

7.

To point :

7. To point : To end the command

To end the command

8.

Select

Select command from the

command from the

The Line command is invoked

 

Toolbar or Draw

Toolbar or Draw Line  

Line

 

9.

From Point : P2

 

point on the left hand top corner

10.

To point : 30

 

Move the cursor upwards

10. To point : 30   Move the cursor upwards

11.

To point : 20

 

Move the cursor towards right

11. To point : 20   Move the cursor towards right

12.

To point : 30

 

Move the cursor downwards

Move the cursor downwards

13.

To point :

13. To point : To end the command

To end the command

14.

Select

Select command from the

command from the

The Line command is invoked

 

Toolbar or Draw

Toolbar or Draw Line  

Line

 

15.

From Point : P3

 

point on the right hand top corner

 

16.

To point : 30

 

Move the cursor upwards

16. To point : 30   Move the cursor upwards

17.

To point : 20

 

Move the cursor towards left

17. To point : 20   Move the cursor towards left

18.

To point : 30

 

Move the cursor downwards

Move the cursor downwards

19.

To point :

19. To point : To end the command

To end the command

Plan

Step #

Command Sequence

Description

1.

Select

Select command from the

command from the

The Line command is invoked

 

Toolbar or Draw

Toolbar or Draw Line  

Line

 

2.

From Point : P4

 

Point 20mm (2 dots) above the left hand top corner of front elev.

3.

To point : 80

 

Move the cursor towards right

3. To point : 80   Move the cursor towards right

4.

To point : 40

 

Move the cursor upwards

4. To point : 40   Move the cursor upwards

5.

To point : 80

 

Move the cursor towards left

Move the cursor towards left

6.

To point : 40

 

Move the cursor downwards

Move the cursor downwards

7.

To point :

7. To point : To end the command

To end the command

8.

Select

Select command from the

command from the

The Line command is invoked

 

Toolbar or Draw

Toolbar or Draw Line  

Line

 

9.

From Point : P5

 

Point 20mm (2 dots) to the right of top left hand corner

10.

To point : 20

 

Move the cursor downwards

Move the cursor downwards

11.

To point : 20

 

Move the cursor towards left

Move the cursor towards left