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Contents

List of plates

page xii

Acknowledgements

xiii

List of abbreviations

xiv

A note on language and pronunciation

xix

Introduction



     

Sources of guidance to Buddhists

Rebirth and karma



The realms of rebirth



Karma and its eects



The status and working of the law of karma



The ‘karmic fruitfulness’ of actions



Karmic fruitfulness and motive



The San˙gha as the best ‘eld of karmic fruitfulness’



Karma and fatalism



Flexibility in the working of karma



Delayed results of karma



The eect of character



Remorse and the acknowledgement of fault



Rebirth, karma and motivation



The Four Noble Truths



Suering



Impermanence



Not-Self and respecting others



The Noble Eightfold Path



Noble persons



The place of ethics on the Path



Wise, skilful, wholesome actions



The Arahat as ‘beyond fruitful and deadening actions’



Philosophy of action



Criteria for dierentiating good and bad actions



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viii

Contents

Comparisons with Western ethical systems



Intention, knowledge and degrees of unwholesomeness in actions



Conclusion





  



Giving



Sharing karmic fruitfulness



Keeping the lay precepts



The rst precept: non-injury



The second precept: avoiding theft and cheating



The third precept: avoiding sexual misconduct



The fourth precept: avoiding lying and other forms of wrong speech



The fth precept: sobriety



The nature of the precepts and precept-taking



Partial precept-taking and the issue of precept-breaking



Taking extra precepts



Monastic values



Celibacy



The role of monasticism



The monastic code of discipline



Harmony, sharing and spiritual companionship



The ethics of inter-personal relationships



Parents and children



Other relationships



Marriage



Lovingkindness and compassion



Social ethics



Social cohesion and equality



Engaged Buddhism



Political ideals



‘Human rights’ and Buddhism



Conclusion





    



The path of the Bodhisattva



Compassion and wisdom in the Maha¯ya¯na



The arising of the thought of enlightenment



Developing the Bodhisattva perfections



The ethics of the Bodhisattva



The Bodhisattva precepts



Skilful means and overriding the precepts



Compassionate killing



Compassionate stealing, non-celibacy, and lying



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Contents

ix

Who may perform such acts, and are they obligatory? Specic strands of Maha¯ya¯na thought and practice Tantra Pure Land Buddhism Zen Nichiren Buddhism Maha¯ya¯na reassessment of monasticism Conclusion

thought and practice Tantra Pure Land Buddhism Zen Nichiren Buddhism Maha¯ya¯na reassessment of monasticism Conclusion
thought and practice Tantra Pure Land Buddhism Zen Nichiren Buddhism Maha¯ya¯na reassessment of monasticism Conclusion
thought and practice Tantra Pure Land Buddhism Zen Nichiren Buddhism Maha¯ya¯na reassessment of monasticism Conclusion
thought and practice Tantra Pure Land Buddhism Zen Nichiren Buddhism Maha¯ya¯na reassessment of monasticism Conclusion
thought and practice Tantra Pure Land Buddhism Zen Nichiren Buddhism Maha¯ya¯na reassessment of monasticism Conclusion
thought and practice Tantra Pure Land Buddhism Zen Nichiren Buddhism Maha¯ya¯na reassessment of monasticism Conclusion
thought and practice Tantra Pure Land Buddhism Zen Nichiren Buddhism Maha¯ya¯na reassessment of monasticism Conclusion



















       



Humanity’s place in nature



Non-harming of animals



Animal sacrice



Meat eating



Meat eating in early and Therava¯da Buddhism



Meat eating in Maha¯ya¯na Buddhism



Animal husbandry



Pest control



Animal experimentation



Positive regard, and help, for animals



Plants, trees and forests



Conservation and environmentalism



Conclusion



 



Lay economic ethics



Right livelihood



Moral and spiritual qualities aiding worldly success



Appropriate uses of income



Buddhist giving and its socio-economic impact



The Buddhist attitude to wealth



Economic ethics for rulers



The justice of economic distribution



The monastic economy



Buddhism and capitalism: Weber’s ‘Protestant ethic’ thesis



The case of Japan



‘Buddhist economics’



The purpose of economics and a critique of consumerism



Critiques of capitalist and Marxist development models



Buddhism and economics in the modern world



´

The Sarvo¯daya S ramada¯na movement in Sri Lanka



Buddhist elements in the modern Japanese economy



Conclusion



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x

Contents



  



Buddhist analyses of the causes of conict



Solutions to conict



Economic means



Negotiation and emphasizing the mutual harm of war



A non-violent moral stance



Reections to undermine hatred and develop patience



Forbearance and forgiveness



Defusing a situation



Non-violent reections on a violent world



The position of the soldier



Buddhist ‘justications’ of, and involvement in, violence



Sri Lanka



South-east Asia



China



Japan



Buddhist action for peace in the modern world



Peace activities of Japanese Nichiren-based schools



´

Sarvo¯daya S ramada¯na as a force for defusing conict in

Sri Lanka



Buddhist action to heal Cambodia



Conclusion





  



Considerations and arguments against suicide



Suicide and the precepts



Euthanasia



Buddhist reasons for rejecting euthanasia



Cases of non-intended death



The question of the criteria of death



Conclusion





  



Embryonic life



Abortion and Buddhist principles



Relevance of the age of the foetus



Possible grounds for abortion



Contraception



Abortion in Buddhist cultures



Among Tibetans



Lands of Southern Buddhism



Lands of Eastern Buddhism, especially Japan



Anti-abortion but pro-choice? The relationship between morality and law



Conclusion



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Contents

xi



 



Women in early Hinduism



The eect of Buddhism



The spiritual potential and achievement of women



Female Arahats



Maha¯ya¯na images of female spiritual perfection



Gender, rebirth and the status of women



Views on spiritual statuses unattainable by women



Images of wise and wayward women



Ascetic wariness of the opposite sex



The ordination of women



Nuns and other female religious roles in Buddhist cultures



Ancient India



Lands of Eastern Buddhism



Lands of Southern Buddhism



Lands of Northern Buddhism



Laywomen in Buddhist texts



Laywomen in Buddhist cultures



Lands of Southern Buddhism



Lands of Eastern Buddhism



Lands of Northern Buddhism



Conclusion





     



Sex-change

Hermaphrodites

Pan · · akas

Sexual behaviour of pan · akas

The psychological nature and limited potential of pan · akas

d

d

·

d

·

Pan akas and rebirth

· · d

Homosexual acts Homosexuality in Buddhist cultures Lands of Southern Buddhism Tibet Lands of Eastern Buddhism Western Buddhism Conclusion



























Glossary and details of historical gures and texts



List of references



Useful addresses



Index of Buddhist texts, schools cultural areas, movements and organizations



Index of concepts



Index of names



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