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Faculty of Engineering Subject: 48541 Signal Theory Assignment Number: 1 Assignment Title: Lab 1 –

Faculty of Engineering

Subject:

48541 Signal Theory

Assignment Number:

1

Assignment Title:

Lab 1 – DSO Measurements

Tutorial Group:

 

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Lab 1 – DSO Measurements

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Lab 1 – DSO Measurements

L1.1

Vertical setup. Horizontal setup. Trigger setup. Storage setup. Automatic time measurements. Automatic voltage measurements. Cursor measurements. Reducing random noise on a signal. FFT. Sample rate. Frequency resolution. Aliasing. Windowing.

Introduction

The digital storage oscilloscope (DSO) is a versatile tool for the engineer. It

has the ability to sample and store voltage waveforms, giving it the ability to

“capture” transient waveforms and also the ability to perform mathematical

operations on the sample values. One very important operation is known as the

Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) which gives the DSO the ability to display the

spectral content of a waveform. Like any tool though, it has its limitations, and

careful operation is required to interpret results correctly.

Objectives

1. To become familiar with setting up a DSO.

2. To become familiar with basic time and voltage measurement techniques

using a DSO.

3. To become familiar with the FFT and aliasing when using a DSO.

Equipment

1 Digital Storage Oscilloscope (DSO) – Hewlett Packard HP5460xA/B

with measurement/storage module

1 function generator (FG) – GW Instek GFG-8216A

1 tims trainer with 1 adder, 1 headphone amplifier or tunable LPF

4mm leads (assorted colours), 2 BNC to 4mm leads, 1 BNC to 4mm

adaptor

Signal Theory Autumn 2006

Cat. A lab

Refer to the Lab Equipment Guide

L1.2

Safety

This is a Category A laboratory experiment. Please adhere to the Category A safety guidelines (issued separately).

Basic Setup

You will be asked to perform various and wide-ranging tasks with the DSO, so it is important that you have the Lab Equipment Guide (LEG) as a reference.

Function Generator Setup

1. Set the function generator (FG) up for a sinusoidal wave of around 4 kHz. Set the amplitude to 4v p-p. Ensure the offset knob is pushed in.

2. Ensure the DSO has been set to its default setup configuration.

3. Connect the FG output to Channel 1 of the DSO.

Vertical Setup

1. Centre the signal on the display with the Position knob.

2. Press the Channel 1 button. Select each softkey option within the vertical setup menu and notice that each change affects the status line differently. Turn the Volts/Div knob to display the peaks of the sinusoid.

Horizontal Setup

1. Turn the Time/Div knob and notice the change it makes to the status line.

2. Press

Main/Delayed

. Toggle the Time

Ref softkey to see the effect.

Change the horizontal mode to see the effect.

3. Turn the Delay knob to see the effect. Reset the delay to 0.00s.

4. Restore the horizontal mode to Main and display four cycles of the sinusoid.

Signal Theory Autumn 2006

L1.3

Q. What is the value of time/div? How does the value relate to displaying

four cycles of a 4kHz sinusoid?

Trigger Setup

1.

Turn the tims trainer on. Connect the 2 kHz message from the tims to Channel 2 of the DSO. Check and make sure Channel 2 is ON.

2.

Set the voltage/div on both channels to 2v/div. Use the Position knobs in the vertical menu to adjust the vertical positions of Channel 1 and 2 such that Channel 1 centres on the top half of the display and Channel 2 centres on the bottom half of the screen.

3.

Press

Source
Source

. Toggle between softkeys 1 and 2.

 

Q.

Describe the effect of toggling the softkeys between 1 and 2.

4.

Turn off Channel 2 and reset the position of Channel 1 to centre the display. Make sure the DSO is triggering off Channel 1.

5.

Turn the trigger Level knob and notice the changes it makes to the display.

 

6.

Press

Mode
Mode

. Toggle between the modes to see the effect on the status line.

Leave the mode on Auto Lvl.

 

7.

Press

Slope/Coupling

. Toggle each of the softkeys and notice which

keys affect the status line.

8.

Change the FG frequency to 2 Hz. Adjust the time base to display four

. Press the Roll softkey.

Change the FG wave shape to triangle, then square, then back to sinusoid.

cycles of the sinusoid. Press

Main/Delayed

Signal Theory Autumn 2006

L1.4

Press

the DSO again.

Mode
Mode

. Then press the Single softkey. Press the

Run
Run

key to trigger

9. Set the FG to a 20 kHz sinusoid, and the DSO to Main Horizontal Mode and Auto Lvl Trigger Mode. Display two cycles.

Storage Setup

1.

Press Autostore

. Notice the change in the status line. Using the Position

knob, move the trace up and down about one division. Press Run . Press Erase
knob, move the trace up and down about one division. Press
Run
. Press
Erase
.
2. Press
Mode
, then press the Single softkey. Press
Run
.
3. Press the
Run
key again
- it rearms the trigger circuit and erases the
display. Change the FG to a triangle wave, and press
Run
again. Press the

Autostore

Change the FG back to a sinusoid and press

key – it rearms the trigger but does not erase the display.

Autostore

.

4. Return the trigger mode to Auto Lvl. Press

Erase
Erase

. Press

Run .
Run
.

Time-domain Measurement

Automatic Time Measurements

1. Set the FG to a 8 kHz sinusoid. Display eight cycles.

2. Press

Press the Source softkey to select Channel 1. Press the Source softkey to select Channel 1. Press the

Freq softkey.

Q. The frequency of the sinusoid on Channel 1,

3. Turn on Channel 2.

f

1

=

4. Set the DSO to trigger off Channel 2.

5. Press

Press the Source softkey to select Channel 2. Press the Source softkey to select Channel 2. Press the

Freq softkey.

Signal Theory Autumn 2006

Q. The frequency of the sinusoid on Channel 2,

f

2

=

L1.5

6. Turn off Channel 2. Disconnect Channel 2 from the tims. Set the DSO to trigger off Channel 1.

7. Change the FG wave shape to square. Pull out the Duty knob on the FG and turn it fully clockwise.

8. Press

Cy softkey. Note the duty

cycle range of the FG. Change the FG wave shape back to sinusoid, and push in the Duty knob on the FG.

Time
Time

, select source 1, press the Duty

9. Connect the earth of the FG lead to the green GND terminal on the tims trainer. You may leave the earth of the DSO lead floating (since it is connected to earth anyway).

10. Connect the FG to the Phase Shifter input, and measure the input and output of the Phase Shifter on DSO Channels 1 and 2 respectively. On the Phase Shifter unit, turn the coarse and fine knobs to half way, and turn the ±180º switch off.

11. Turn on Channel 2. Set up the display so that Channel 1 and Channel 2 is centred on the top and bottom half of the display respectively. Adjust the time/div until you get four cycles of the waveform on the display. Press

Menu softkey until a Phase measurement is

available. Measure the phase difference between the two waveforms. Determine which channel is used as the reference by the DSO for the phase measurement. Vary the Phase Shifter Coarse knob to see the effect.

Time
Time

. Press the Next

Q. Which channel is used as the reference when performing phase measurement? What is the phase shift between Channel 1 & 2?

L1.6

12. Decrease the time/div down to 10μs/div. The display is now showing less than one cycle (period) of the sinusoid and notice all the time measurements now say not found. It is very important to adjust the time/div so that the more than one cycle (period) of the signal is displayed otherwise the auto time measurements won’t work! Adjust the time/div again to show 4 cycles of the signal.

Cursor Measurements

When the DSO performs the phase measurement, it relies on locating the zero crossings of the signal on Channel 1 and 2. If the amplitude of the incoming signal is too low, we cannot rely on the auto phase measurement to measure the phase difference between the channels as the DSO might locate the zero crossings incorrectly. Instead, we have to use the cursors to measure the phase difference between the channels as described below.

1. Press

Cursor softkey to select cursor t1.

Move the cursor to centre on one of the peaks of the signal in Channel 1. You can do this by rotating the unlabelled knob in the Measure section. This knob will change most things in the menus once the menu item has been highlighted with a softkey press. Ensure the readout is in degrees by pressing the Readout softkey to select degrees.

Cursor
Cursor

. Press the Active

2. Press the Active Cursor softkey to select cursor t2. Move the cursor to centre on one of the adjacent peaks (left or right with respect to the one you chose in the previous step) of the signal in Channel 1.

3. Press the Set 360 0 softkey. This gives the DSO a reference of the time difference of one full period of the signal.

4. Leaving cursor t1 untouched, move cursor t2 to the first peak of channel 2 to the left of the cursor t1.

Signal Theory Autumn 2006

L1.7

Q. What the phase difference between channel 1 & 2 now? (Look at the value of Δt ). Is it different from the value obtained by the automatic phase measurement?

Automatic Voltage Measurements

1. Switch Channel 2 off. Centre Channel 1’s display. Ensure the DSO is triggered on Channel 1.

2. Press

p-p, V avg and V

rms softkeys. Change the FG waveform to triangle, then to square, and observe the change in the measurements.

Voltage

. Measure Channel 1. Press the V

Be careful when using the automatic voltage measurements – the DSO can’t differentiate between a noise peak and a signal peak

3. Set the FG to a sinusoidal wave, and vary the DC offset (this is done by pulling out and turning the offset knob on the FG). Note the effect on the Vp-p, Vavg and Vrms values.

4. Remove the DC offset if any (push the offset knob on the FG back in). Decrease the voltage/div to 200mV/div. The peak of the sinusoid is now out of display and notice all the voltage measurements now say not found. It is very important to adjust the voltage/div so that the signal is not clipped on the display otherwise the auto voltage measurements won’t work! Increase the voltage/div back to 1V/div

Reducing Random Noise on a Signal

If the signal you are applying to the DSO is noisy, you can set up the DSO to reduce the noise on the waveform. There are two methods to reduce noise – bandwidth limiting and averaging.

Signal Theory Autumn 2006

Bandwidth limiting will only help if the signal period is less than about 1 MHz.

L1.8

Bandwidth Limiting

This method applies the incoming signal to a lowpass filter before it is sampled by the DSO. This method works only when the measured signal has very high frequency content. The bandwidth limiter “cuts off” frequencies above 20 MHz.

1. Change the FG waveform to a sinusoid. Reduce the amplitude to minimum.

Press the FG’s

ATT –20 dB

button to apply 20 dB of attenuation.

2. Change the DSO vertical setup so that the peaks of the sinusoid are visible. It should be a noisy sinusoid.

3. Press

. Press the BW Limit softkey. The noise should be reduced. BW Limit softkey. The noise should be reduced.

4. Turn bandwidth limiting off by pressing the BW Limit softkey again.

Averaging can only be used to clean up a signal if the noise is “uncorrelated”

Averaging

The second method of reducing noise works when noise is present below the cutoff frequency of the bandwidth limit filter. First, you stabilize the displayed waveform by removing the noise from the trigger path. Second, you reduce the noise on the displayed waveform by averaging the samples.

1. Press

. Remove the noise from the trigger path by

turning on either high frequency Reject or Noise Rej (choose the one that results in a stable trigger).

Slope/Coupling

2.

Press Display

, then press the Average softkey.

3. Toggle the # Average softkey to select the number of averages that best eliminates the noise from the displayed waveform. The higher the number of averages, the slower the displayed waveform responds to waveform changes.

4. Change the FG wave shape to triangle, then square, then back to sinusoid to see the effect of averaging.

Signal Theory Autumn 2006

5. Turn off the FG’s full range.

ATT –20 dB

button. Set the amplitude to one quarter of

6. Disconnect the lead from the DSO channel 2 BNC input (i.e. physically remove the lead from the DSO input).

7. Press the DSO’s

button. If you did not disconnect the lead

from channel 2 (which has no signal, apart from noise) the DSO will try to set the horizontal and vertical scales to view this “interesting” signal.

Auto-scale

Frequency-domain Measurement

L1.9

The DSO autodetects the probes attached to the inputs, so it is important to remove any unwanted signals before hitting the

Autoscale button

Normally, when a signal is viewed on an oscilloscope, it is viewed in the time- domain. That is, the vertical axis is voltage and the horizontal axis is time. For many signals, this is the most logical and intuitive way to view them. But when the frequency content of the signal is of interest, it makes sense to view the signal in the frequency-domain. In the frequency-domain the vertical axis is still voltage but the horizontal axis is frequency.

g(t) 0 G (f ) 0
g(t)
0
G (f )
0

t

f

The frequency- domain representation, or spectrum, is a graph of the sinusoids present in a signal

The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is an algorithm that efficiently converts a time-domain signal into its frequency-domain representation.

Sample Rate and Frequency Resolution

1. Set up a 4 kHz, 4 Vp-p sinusoid on the FG. Display four-cycles of the waveform on Channel 1 of the DSO. Ensure the DC offset of the waveform is zero, then turn Channel 1 off so it is not displayed.

2. On the DSO, press the

±
±

key. Press the Function 2 On softkey.

Signal Theory Autumn 2006

The DSO’s FFT function displays the frequency content of the signal

L1.10

3. Press the Function 2 Menu softkey. Change Operation so it displays FFT. The DSO will now perform an FFT on the Operand which is set to Channel 1.

4. Adjust the reference level to 10.000 dBV by selecting the Ref Levl softkey and then rotating the unlabelled knob in the DSO’s Measure section. The reference level is at the top of the display (i.e. with a reference level of 10.000 dBV, the top line of the display is 10.000 dBV).

5. Adjust the Units/div to 5.000 dB and notice the change. The Units/div determines the unit per division in the vertical (magnitude) scale of the display and is actually a negative unit. Given the reference level is 10.000 dBV, and Units/div at 5.000 dB, the vertical scale on the display has a range from 10 to -30 dBV (from top to bottom).

Q. What is the magnitude scale (in dB) of the display given the reference level is 10.000 dBV and Units/div at 10.000 dB? (from top to bottom)

An FFT only displays frequencies from 0 to half the sample rate

6. Adjust the Units/div back to 10.000 dB. Turn the Time/Div knob

f . Turn it until

and watch in the display as it tells you the sample rate,

s

you get 500 kSa/s. The effective sample rate of the DSO is determined by the Time/Div knob. The FFT will only display frequencies from 0 to just

less than half the effective sample rate,

f

s

0 to just less than half the effective sample rate, f s 2 . 7. Press

2 .

7. Press FFT Menu. The Cent Freq and Freq Span controls can be used to zoom in on a part of the FFT display. The Move 0Hz To Left softkey can be used to set the centre frequency to half the frequency span. Now set up the FFT parameters as follows (use softkeys and the measure knob):

Signal Theory Autumn 2006

L1.11

Sample rate

Freq Span

Center Freq

Window

500 kSa/s

30.52

kHz

15.14

kHz

Hanning

Q. What is the range of frequency that is shown on the display of the

DSO? (From left to right)

8.

Press

dominant spectral peak (which is a sinusoid):

Cursors

. Press softkey Find Peaks. Record the frequency of the

f

1

=

9.

Use the Time/Div knob to decrease the effective sample rate to 50 kSa/s. Adjust the FFT menu settings. Press Find Peaks.

 

Sample rate

Freq Span

Center Freq

Window

 

50

kSa/s

6.104

kHz

3.027

kHz

Hanning

f

1

=

Q.

DSO? (From left to right)

What is the range of frequency that is shown on the display of the

10.

Set and measure the following:

Sample rate

Freq Span

Center Freq

Window

 

10

kSa/s

4.883

kHz

2.441

kHz

Hanning

f =

1

Note that the width of the spectrum main lobe is now quite small.

With the last setting, decreasing the frequency span to 2.441kHz and

you can no longer see the spectral peak. Has the signal just simply

disappeared? Explain.

Q.

L1.12

Q. Now, keeping the frequency span at 2.441kHz, adjust the Center Frequency to 3.301kHz and the spectral peak reappears. Explain why.

To prevent aliasing, we have to sample

at greater than twice

the bandwidth of the signal

Aliasing

The frequency

f

s

the bandwidth of the signal Aliasing The frequency f s 2 is also known as the

2

is also known as the folding frequency. Frequencies that

would normally appear above

FFT) are folded back into the normal range of the FFT. These unwanted frequency components are called aliases, since they erroneously appear under the alias of another frequency. To prevent aliasing, the DSO has to sample at greater than twice the highest frequency in the signal being measured (twice the bandwidth). It is therefore necessary to have some idea of the frequency content of the signal being measured to interpret the DSO’s FFT results correctly.

(and therefore outside the range of the

f

s

correctly. (and therefore outside the range of the f s 2 Fixed Signal with Varying Sample

2

Fixed Signal with Varying Sample Rate

1.

Set the FG frequency to a triangle wave of approximately 2.6 kHz. Observe just the spectrum (turn off Channel 1) on the following settings.

Sample rate

Freq Span

Center Freq

Window

100 kSa/s

48.83 kHz

24.41 kHz

Hanning

You should observe a spectrum similar to the following.

A triangle wave’s

spectrum with no aliasing

Signal Theory Autumn 2006

L1.13

L1.13 The leftmost spectral line is the f undamental. The next line is the 3 r

The leftmost spectral line is the fundamental. The next line is the 3 rd harmonic. The next is the 5 th harmonic and so forth. The higher harmonics are small in amplitude with the 17 th harmonic just visible above the FFT noise floor. The frequency of the 17 th harmonic is 17 x 2.6 kHz=44.2 kHz,

which is within the folding frequency of

significant aliasing is occurring.

2 (50 kSa/s). Therefore, no

f

s

aliasing is occurring. 2 (50 kSa/s). Therefore, no f s 2. Turn the Time/Div knob to

2. Turn the Time/Div knob to set an effective sample rate of 50 kSa/s (a folding frequency of 25 kSa/s). Now the upper harmonics of the triangle wave exceed the folding frequency and appear as aliases in the display. Use display averaging to observe the higher frequency aliases.

display averaging to observe the higher frequency aliases. A triangle wave’s spectrum with aliasing 3. Change

A triangle wave’s spectrum with aliasing

3. Change the sample rate to 10 kSa/s, then 5 kSa/s. The frequency plot is severely aliased. Turn off display averaging.

Signal Theory Autumn 2006

L1.14

Often the effects of aliasing are obvious, especially if you have some idea as to the frequency content of the signal. Spectral lines may appear where no frequency components exist.

It is important to recognise aliasing and take steps to prevent it

Signals that are bandlimited (that is, have no frequency components above a certain frequency) can be viewed alias-free by making sure that the effective sample rate is high enough.

Varying Signal with Fixed Sample Rate

1. Push Auto-scale. Set the FG frequency to a sinusoid of approximately

2.3 kHz. Use the

10k
10k

range button on the FG. Observe the spectrum.

 

Sample rate

 

Freq Span

Center Freq

Window

 

10 kSa/s

4.883 kHz

2.441 kHz

Hanning

2. Press

Cursors

. Press Find

peaks. Confirm that the DSO is detecting

a large spectral peak at 2.3 kHz.

3. Increase the FG frequency slowly. The spectral peak (representing the FG sinusoid) should move to the right as you increase the frequency – this is what we expect. Slowly increase the frequency to 4.6 kHz.

We’re setting the measured signal’s bandwidth above the DSO’s folding frequency

4. Continue increasing the FG frequency slowly. Aliasing occurs as the frequency exceeds 5 kHz. Slowly increase the frequency from 5 kHz to 10 kHz. The spectral peak moves to the left on the display.

5. Slowly decrease the FG frequency

so that the spectral peak returns for

the first time to the vertical cursor positioned at 2.3 kHz. (The FG’s frequency should still be greater than 5 kHz). The DSO is now telling us that a frequency component exists at 2.3 kHz!

f

c

Actual frequency of FG =

Signal Theory Autumn 2006

6.

L1.15

Slowly

15 kHz. The spectral peak now moves to the right on the display. Slowly

to

increase

the

FG

frequency

from

f

c

10

kHz

decrease the FG frequency

vertical cursor positioned at 2.3 kHz.

f

c

so that the spectral peak returns to the

Actual frequency of FG =

7.

Slowly

20 kHz. The spectral peak now moves to the left on the display. Slowly

to

increase

the

FG

frequency

from

f

c

15

kHz

decrease the FG frequency

vertical cursor positioned at 2.3 kHz.

f

c

so that the spectral peak returns to the

Actual frequency of FG =

Q. From the above measurements, can you form a relationship between the frequency that is displayed on the DSO (i.e 2.3 kHz) and the actual frequency generated by the FG. (Hint: the relationship would be a function of the sampling frequency and the frequency displayed on the DSO) From what you observed, is it possible to determine the frequency of the sinusoid if we know the range of frequency the sinusoid might lay with respect to the sampling frequency? Explain.

L1.16

Windowing

The FFT operates on a finite length time record, but assumes that this time record is exactly one period of an infinitely long signal. With the waveform shown below, where an integral number of periods fits exactly within the time record, the infinitely long signal assumed by the FFT is correct.

FFT replicas

producing the

desired waveform

t real signal
t
real signal
t
t

Time Record

t assumed signal by FFT
t
assumed signal by FFT

However, we do not normally have control over how the waveform fits into the time record of the DSO, with the result that discontinuities are introduced by the replication of the time record by the FFT over all time:

FFT replicas

producing

discontinuities

t real signal
t
real signal
t
t

Time Record

t assumed signal by FFT
t
assumed signal by FFT

This effect is known as leakage, and the effect in the frequency-domain is very apparent. For the case of a single sinusoid as shown, the normally thin spectral line will spread out in a peculiar pattern.

The solution to the problem of leakage is to force the waveform to zero at the ends of the time record so that no discontinuity will exist when the time record is replicated. This is accomplished by multiplying the time record by a window function.

The window function modifies the time record and will produce its own effect in the frequency domain, but for a properly designed window, the effect is a vast improvement over no window at all.

The Hanning window, and it’s effect in the time-domain, is shown below:

Windowing reduces spectral leakage

t
t

real signal

t t assumed signal by FFT Hanning window
t
t
assumed signal by FFT
Hanning window

Signal Theory Autumn 2006

L1.17

Even though the overall shape of a time-domain signal is changed by a window, the frequency content remains basically the same. There are many windows, all suited to different purposes. The HP5460xA/B DSO has four, and are used for the following measurements:

Window

Useful for:

Hanning

Frequency resolution

Flat Top

Amplitude accuracy

Rectangular

Synchronized waveforms

Exponential

Transient waveforms

The Hanning and Flat Top windows should be used most of the time

We normally use the Hanning or Flat Top window. The rectangular and exponential windows should be considered windows for special situations.

Signal Theory Autumn 2006

L1.18

Windows

1. Set the FG frequency to 3 kHz. Connect the output of the FG to input A of the Adder in the tims. Connect the 2kHz message from tims input B of the Adder. Turn the gain knobs of the adder (labelled G and g) to half way. Connect the channel 1 lead to the output of the Adder and display the spectrum on the following settings:

Reference level at 10.000 dBV and Units/div at 10.000 dB

 

Sample rate

Freq Span

Center Freq

Window

10

kSa/s

2.441

kHz

2.607

kHz

Rectang

Sketch the spectrum:

 

2. Set the following.

 
 

Sample rate

Freq Span

Center Freq

Window

10

kSa/s

2.441

kHz

2.607

kHz

Exponen

Sketch the spectrum:

 

Signal Theory Autumn 2006

3. Set the following.

L1.19

 

Sample rate

Freq Span

Center Freq

Window

10

kSa/s

2.441

Hz

2.607

kHz

FlatTop

Sketch the spectrum:

 

4. Set the following.

 
 

Sample rate

Freq Span

Center Freq

Window

10

kSa/s

2.441

Hz

2.607

kHz

Hanning

Sketch the spectrum:

 

5. Decrease the frequency on the FG to 2.1kHz and set the following:

Reference level at 0 dBV and Units/div at 2.000 dB

Sample rate

Freq Span

Center Freq

Window

5 kSa/s

305.2

Hz

2.095

kHz

Hanning

6. Slowly decrease the frequency on the FG until you can just make out there are still two separate spectral components displayed on the DSO.

Signal Theory Autumn 2006

L1.20

7. Cycle through the different windows (i.e. Hanning, Rectangular, Exponent and Flat Top ) and note the difference. For the Exponent window you need to change the reference level to -10dBV to see the peaks.

Q. From your observation, which window would you choose if you want to observe multiple spectral components that are very close in frequency? Which one would you not use?

Signal Theory Autumn 2006

Practical Exam [3 marks]

L1.21

You will be asked by a tutor to perform the following tasks:

Set up a 3 V p-p sinusoid at 3 kHz, with 3 V DC offset. Display the entire waveform on the DSO with the 0 V reference set to the middle of the display.

Apply 40 dB attenuation to the signal. Set up the DSO to get a stable, noise-free (averaged) display.

Remove the attenuation and the DC offset and apply the FG signal to the tims phase shifter. Set the coarse knob halfway and the ±180° switch to on. Measure the phase difference.

Apply the FG to the A input of a tims adder. Apply the 2 kHz tims MESSAGE signal to the B input of the adder. Observe the output of the adder on channel 2 of the DSO. Display the spectrum at 10 kSa/s. Measure the two dominant frequencies in the signal.

Signal Theory Autumn 2006

L1.22

Multiple Choice Questions [1 mark]

Encircle the correct answer, cross out the wrong answers. [one or none correct]

All questions are worth 0.2 marks each.

1. DSO Basics

(i)

The DC offset knob on a FG is set to 0. The resulting waveform:

(a) is AC only

(b) may have DC

(c) is DC only

(ii)

The spectrum of a square wave on a DSO that uses a rectangular window will

in general look like:

(a)

uses a rectangular window will in general look like: (a) (b) (c) (iii) A DSO’s sample

(b)

uses a rectangular window will in general look like: (a) (b) (c) (iii) A DSO’s sample

(c)

a rectangular window will in general look like: (a) (b) (c) (iii) A DSO’s sample rate

(iii)

A DSO’s sample rate is set to 100 kSa/s. The DSO will display frequencies in

the range:

(a) –50 kHz to 50 kHz

(b) 0 to 100 kHz

(c) 0 to 50 kHz

(iv)

The spectral leakage of the Hanning window, compared to the rectangular window, is:

(a) less

(b) more

(c) the same

(v)

A waveform consisting of a 3 V peak-to-peak sinusoidal voltage is

superimposed on a 1.5 V DC voltage. A DSO measuring the signal using AC coupling will display:

(a) a “shifted” sinusoid

(b) a DC voltage only

Signal Theory Autumn 2006

(c) a sinusoid only

L1.23

2. Aliasing

(i)

A sinusoid of frequency 13 kHz is sampled at 20 kHz. The DSO display has a

span of 0 Hz to 9.77 kHz. The spectrum will look like:

(a)

a span of 0 Hz to 9.77 kHz. The spectrum will look like: (a) (b) (c)

(b)

of 0 Hz to 9.77 kHz. The spectrum will look like: (a) (b) (c) (ii) A

(c)

0 Hz to 9.77 kHz. The spectrum will look like: (a) (b) (c) (ii) A NOT

(ii)

A

NOT occur when:

signal has bandwidth B and is ideally sampled at a rate of f . Aliasing will

S

(a) f S <

B

(b) f S >

f . Aliasing will S (a) f S < B (b) f S > B 2

B 2

(c) f

S > 2

B

(iii)

A signal has a known bandwidth of 23 kHz. For maximum frequency

resolution, the DSO sample rate should be set to:

(a) 20 kSa/s

(b) 50 kSa/s

(c) 100 kSa/s

(iv)

A signal

using a

DSO spectrum. For maximum frequency resolution, the DSO sample rate should be set to:

, where

is

known

f

2

=

to

be

of the

form

g(t)

= cos 2π

1

(

f t)

cos 2π

2

1

(

f t)

f

f

1

<

5

kHz and

15 kHz

. It is desired to measure the frequency

(a) 10 kSa/s

(b) 20 kSa/s

(c) 50 kSa/s

(v)

A 67 kHz sinusoid is ideally sampled at 100 kHz. The ideal spectrum is:

G ( f ) (a) -233 -133 -33 33 133 233 f (kHz) G (
G
( f )
(a)
-233
-133
-33
33
133
233
f
(kHz)
G
( f )
(b)
-200
-133
-67
0
67
133
200
f
(kHz)
G ( f )
(c)
-233
-167 -133
-67
-33
33
67
133
167
233
f
(kHz)

Complete the questions as part of your lab report.

Signal Theory Autumn 2006

L1.24

Report

Only submit ONE report per lab group.

Complete the assignment cover sheet.

Ensure you have completed:

1. Lab Work – measurements and sketches.

2. Post-Work – complete the multiple choice questions.

The lab report is due in exactly two (2) weeks.

You should hand the report directly to your tutor.

Signal Theory Autumn 2006