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Before You Read

Connect to the Story

What kind of injury would make someone want to take revenge? If you think revenge
is never an option, explain why.
Build Background
At carnival time, people often wear costumes.
The story takes place in an Italian palazzo, or mansion.
The mansion has catacombs, which are underground burial chambers.
Catacombs could be reached by climbing down narrow staircases.
The catacombs were lined with hollowed-out nooks where the remains of the
dead were put.
A cask of Amontillado is a barrel of Spanish wine.
Now, write a short summary of the facts you just read.
Set Purposes for Reading
In this short story, one man exacts a horrible revenge on another who he feels has
injured him. Ask yourself what could have offended him so deeply that he needed to
take such revenge. Try to find the reasons in the text as you read.
The Cask of Amontillado
Circle the number of the response that is closest to your own.
1. If someone does terrible things to you, you should be able to take revenge.
2. Revenge is pointless; it cannot really make up for anything.
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Literary Element Mood
Mood is the overall feeling or emotion that a literary text creates for readers. A writers
diction, or choice of words, helps to create mood. Knowing that the story is set in
a catacomb and involves revenge, what type of mood would you predict the writer
wants to create? Write your answer on the line below.
Reading Strategy Paraphrase
Paraphrasing is putting a text into your own words. Unlike a summary, a paraphrase
does not highlight the main points of the text. It restates a passage to make it clearer.
As you read, make a chart like the one below on a separate sheet of paper to help
paraphrase difficult sentences with unfamiliar vocabulary in your own words. A sample
paraphrase has been done for you.
Authors Words Paraphrase
A wrong is unredressed when retribution overtakes its
redresser. It is equally unredressed when the avenger fails to
make himself felt as such to him who has done the wrong.
A wrong isnt righted if the avenger gets
caught. The object of the revenge must
know who is taking revenge and why.
Vocabulary Context Clues
A words context is the sentence or paragraph in which the word
appears. Often the context can help a reader understand the
meanings of difficult words. Some common context clues include
the following:
definitions or synonyms
contrast clues (opposite meanings)
modifying words or phrases
In the following example, study the underlined part of the passage
from the text. Write the type of context clue on the blank line.
In the following example, study the underlined part of the passage from the text. Identify
how this context relates to the boldfaced vocabulary word. Then write what type of
context clue it is on the line below.
I must not only punish, but punish with impunity. A wrong is unredressed when
retribution overtakes the redresser.
preclude (pri klood) v. to prevent; to make
impunity (im pU n te ) n. freedom from
punishment, harm, or bad consequences
accost ( kost) v. to approach and speak to,
especially in an aggressive manner
explicit (eks plis it) adj. definitely stated, clearly
implore (im pl or) v. to ask earnestly, to beg
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Paraphrase Rephrase this
highlighted sentence in your own
words. To whom might Montresor
be speaking?
Reading Strategy
preclude (pri klood) v. to
prevent; to make impossible
impunity (im pU n te ) n.
freedom from punishment,
harm, or bad consequences
The thousand injuries of Fortunato
I had borne as I best
could; but when he ventured upon insult, I vowed revenge.
You, who so well know the nature of my soul, will not suppose,
however, that I gave utterance to a threat. At length I would be
avenged; this was a point definitively settledbut the very
definitiveness with which it was resolved, precluded the idea of
risk. I must not only punish, but punish with impunity. A wrong
is unredressed when retribution overtakes its redresser. It is
equally unredressed when the avenger fails to make himself felt
as such to him who has done the wrong.
It must be understood, that neither by word nor deed had I
given Fortunato cause to doubt my goodwill. I continued, as was
my wont, to smile in his face, and he did not perceive that my
smile now was at the thought of his immolation.
He had a weak pointthis Fortunatoalthough in other
regards he was a man to be respected and even feared. He
prided himself on his connoisseurship
in wine. Few Italians
have the true virtuoso spirit. For the most part their enthusiasm
is adopted to suit the time and opportunityto practice
imposture upon the British and Austrian millionnaires. In
painting and gemmary Fortunato, like his countrymen, was a
quackbut in the matter of old wines he was sincere. In this
respect I did not differ from him materially: I was skillful in the
Italian vintages myself, and bought largely whenever I could.
1. Fortunato (for too na to )
2. [A wrong is . . . done the wrong.] These sentences might be rephrased this way:
A wrong is not avenged if the avenger either is punished for taking revenge or does
not make the wrongdoer aware that he is taking revenge.
3. Here, immolation means death or destruction.
4. Connoisseurship is expert knowledge that qualifies one to pass judgment in a
particular area.
Vocabulary Skill
Word Parts The word impunity is
related to the word punishment.
Word parts can help you to
understand a words meaning.
The prefix im- adds a negative
or opposite meaning to the root
pun-, so that impunity means safe
from punishment. On the lines
below, rewrite the sentence in
which the word impunity appears
in your own words. Make sure the
context of the sentence shows the
definition of the word.
The Cask of Amontillado
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The Cask of Amontillado
accost ( kost) v. to approach
and speak to, especially in an
aggressive manner
5. Motley is the multicolored costume of a court jester or clown.
6. A pipe is a wine barrel that holds 126 gallons. Amontillado is a kind of pale, dry
sherry from Spain.
7. Luchesi (loo ka se )
8. Niter is a salt-like substance found in cool, damp places.
It was about dusk, one evening during the supreme madness
of the carnival season, that I encountered my friend. He accosted
me with excessive warmth, for he had been drinking much. The
man wore motley.
He had on a tight-fitting parti-striped dress,
and his head was surmounted by the conical cap and bells. I was
so pleased to see him, that I thought I should never have done
wringing his hand.
I said to him: My dear Fortunato, you are luckily met. How
remarkably well you are looking today! But I have received a
pipe of what passes for Amontillado,
and I have my doubts.
How? said he. Amontillado? A pipe? Impossible! And in
the middle of the carnival!
I have my doubts, I replied; and I was silly enough to pay
the full Amontillado price without consulting you in the matter.
You were not to be found, and I was fearful of losing a bargain.
I have my doubts.
And I must satisfy them.
As you are engaged, I am on my way to Luchesi.
If anyone
has a critical turn, it is he. He will tell me
Luchesi cannot tell Amontillado from Sherry.
And yet some fools will have it that his taste is a match for
your own.
Come, let us go.
To your vaults.
My friend, no; I will not impose upon your good nature. I
perceive you have an engagement. Luchesi
I have no engagement;come.
My friend, no. It is not the engagement, but the severe
cold with which I perceive you are afflicted. The vaults are
insufferably damp. They are encrusted with niter.
Let us go, nevertheless. The cold is merely nothing.
Amontillado! You have been imposed upon. And as for Luchesi,
he cannot distinguish Sherry from Amontillado.
Literary Element
Mood Read the paragraph that
begins, It was about dusk, one
evening . . . Underline words that
Poe uses to create mood here. On
the line below, describe what type
of mood these words create.
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The Cask of Amontillado
Paraphrase On the lines below,
paraphrase the highlighted
Reading Strategy
explicit (eks plis it) adj. definitely
stated, clearly expressed
Thus speaking, Fortunato possessed himself of my arm.
Putting on a mask of black silk, and drawing a roquelaure closely
about my person, I suffered him to hurry me to my palazzo.
There were no attendants at home; they had absconded to
make merry in honor of the time. I had told them that I should
not return until the morning, and had given them explicit orders
not to stir from the house. These orders were sufficient, I well
knew, to insure their immediate disappearance, one and all, as
soon as my back was turned.
I took from their sconces two flambeaux,
and giving one
to Fortunato, bowed him through several suites of rooms to
the archway that led into the vaults. I passed down a long and
winding staircase, requesting him to be cautious as he followed.
We came at length to the foot of the descent, and stood together
on the damp ground of the catacombs of the Montresors.
The gait of my friend was unsteady, and the bells upon his
cap jingled as he strode.
The pipe? said he.
It is farther on, said I; but observe the white web-work
which gleams from these cavern walls.
He turned toward me, and looked into my eyes with two
filmy orbs that distilled the rheum of intoxication.
Niter? he asked, at length.
Niter, I replied. How long have you had that cough?
Ugh! ugh! ugh!ugh! ugh! ugh!ugh! ugh! ugh!ugh!
ugh! ugh!ugh! ugh! ugh!
My poor friend found it impossible to reply for many
It is nothing, he said, at last.
Come, I said, with decision, we will go back; your health
is precious. You are rich, respected, admired, beloved; you are
happy, as once I was. You are a man to be missed. For me it
is no matter. We will go back; you will be ill, and I cannot be
responsible. Besides, there is Luchesi
Enough, he said; the cough is a mere nothing; it will not
kill me. I shall not die of a cough.
Truetrue, I replied; and, indeed, I had no intention
of alarming you unnecessarily; but you should use all proper
caution. A draft of this Medoc
will defend us from the damps.
9. A palazzo is a mansion or palace.
10. Sconces are wall brackets that that hold candles or torches, and flambeaux are
lighted torches.
11. [filmy orbs . . . intoxication] This phrase describes Fortunatos eyes as clouded
and watery from excessive drinking.
12. Medoc is a French red wine. A draft is the amount taken in one swig or swallow.
Paraphrase Paraphrase the
sentence that begins, I took
from their sconces . . . Write the
sentence in your own words on
the lines below.
Reading Strategy
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The Cask of Amontillado
Literary Element
Mood What mood does Poe
create for the reader in this scene?
Put a check in the box next to your
answer below.
The reader feels hopeful about
Fortunatos recovery.
The reader eagerly anticipates
Fortunatos tasting the
The reader feels foreboding
about Fortunatos fate.
Here I knocked off the neck of a bottle which I drew from a
long row of its fellows that lay upon the mold.
Drink, I said, presenting him the wine.
He raised it to his lips with a leer. He paused and nodded to
me familiarly, while his bells jingled.
I drink, he said, to the buried that repose
around us.
And I to your long life.
He again took my arm, and we proceeded.
These vaults, he said, are extensive.
The Montresors, I replied, were a great and numerous
I forget your arms.
A huge human foot dor, in a field azure;
the foot crushes a serpent rampant
fangs are imbedded in the heel.
And the motto?
Nemo me impune lacessit.
Good! he said.
The wine sparkled in his eyes and the
bells jingled. My own fancy grew warm with the Medoc.
We had passed through walls of piled bones, with casks and
intermingling, into the inmost recesses of the
catacombs. I paused again, and this time I made bold to seize
Fortunato by an arm above the elbow.
13. To repose is to lie at rest either sleeping or in death.
14. Arms is short for coat of arms, an arrangement of figures and symbols on or
around a shield that, along with a motto, represents ones ancestory.
15. The Montresor familys coat of arms includes a golden foot on a sky-blue
background and a snake rising up.
16. The motto is Latin for Nobody provokes me with impunity.
17. Casks and puncheons are large containers for storing liquids.
coat of arms
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The Cask of Amontillado
Literary Element
Mood Mood can be related to an
emotion (such as fear) or a setting
(such as an eerie spot). Underline
the phrases in the paragraph
beginning with The niter! . . .
that help set the mood. Then
describe the mood on the lines
The niter! I said; see, it increases. It hangs like moss upon
the vaults. We are below the rivers bed. The drops of moisture
trickle among the bones. Come, we will go back ere it is too late.
Your cough
It is nothing, he said; let us go on. But first, another draft
of the Medoc.
I broke and reached him a flagon
of De Grve. He emptied
it at a breath. His eyes flashed with a fierce light. He laughed
and threw the bottle upward with a gesticulation I did not
I looked at him in surprise. He repeated the movementa
grotesque one.
You do not comprehend? he said.
Not I, I replied.
Then you are not of the brotherhood.
You are not of the masons.
Yes, yes, I said; yes, yes.
You? Impossible! A mason?
A mason, I replied.
A sign, he said.
It is this, I answered, producing a trowel from beneath the
folds of my roquelaure.
You jest, he exclaimed, recoiling a few paces. But let us
proceed to the Amontillado.
Be it so, I said, replacing the tool beneath the cloak, and
again offering him my arm. He leaned upon it heavily. We
continued our route in search of the Amontillado. We passed
through a range of low arches, descended, passed on, and
descending again, arrived at a deep crypt,
in which the foulness
of the air caused our flambeaux rather to glow than flame.
18. The flagon is a narrow-necked bottle with a handle.
19. Here, masons is short for Freemasons, an organization of stonecutters and
bricklayers that was formed in the Middle Ages. By the time of this story, the
masons had become a social group with secret rituals and signs.
20. A crypt is a burial chamber.
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The Cask of Amontillado
implore (im pl or) v. to ask
earnestly, to beg
Literary Element
Mood How do details in this
paragraph create a feeling of fear
and horror? Write your answer on
the lines below.
At the most remote end of the crypt there appeared another
less spacious. Its walls had been lined with human remains,
piled to the vault overhead, in the fashion of the great catacombs
of Paris. Three sides of this interior crypt were still ornamented
in this manner. From the fourth the bones had been thrown
down, and lay promiscuously upon the earth, forming at one
point a mound of some size. Within the wall thus exposed by
the displacing of the bones, we perceived a still interior recess,
in depth about four feet, in width three, in height six or seven.
It seemed to have been constructed for no especial use within
itself, but formed merely the interval between two of the colossal
supports of the roof of the catacombs, and was backed by one of
their circumscribing walls of solid granite.
It was in vain that Fortunato, uplifting his dull torch,
endeavored to pry
into the depth of the recess. Its termination
the feeble light did not enable us to see.
Proceed, I said; herein is the Amontillado. As for
He is an ignoramus, interrupted my friend, as he stepped
unsteadily forward, while I followed immediately at his heels.
In an instant he had reached the extremity of the niche,

and finding his progress arrested by the rock, stood stupidly
bewildered. A moment more and I had fettered
him to the
granite. In its surface were two iron staples, distant from each
other about two feet, horizontally. From one of these depended
a short chain, from the other a padlock. Throwing the links
about his waist, it was but the work of a few seconds to secure
it. He was too much astounded to resist. Withdrawing the key I
stepped back from the recess.
Pass your hand, I said, over the wall; you cannot help
feeling the niter. Indeed it is very damp. Once more let me
implore you to return. No? Then I must positively leave you.
But I must first render you all the little attentions in my power.
The Amontillado! ejaculated my friend, not yet recovered
from his astonishment.
True, I replied; the Amontillado.
21. Here, pry means to look closely; peer.
22. Here, the extremity of the niche is the farthest spot inside the recess.
23. Fettered means bound with chains or shackles; restrained.
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The Cask of Amontillado
As I said these words I busied myself among the pile of
bones of which I have before spoken. Throwing them aside,
I soon uncovered a quantity of building stone and mortar.
With these materials and with the aid of my trowel, I began
vigorously to wall up the entrance of the niche.
I had scarcely laid the first tier of the masonry when I
discovered that the intoxication of Fortunato had in a great
measure worn off. The earliest indication I had of this was a low
moaning cry from the depth of the recess. It was not the cry of a
drunken man. There was then a long and obstinate silence. I laid
the second tier, and the third, and the fourth; and then I heard
the furious vibrations of the chain. The noise lasted for several
minutes, during which, that I might hearken to it with the more
satisfaction, I ceased my labors and sat down upon the bones.
When at last the clanking subsided, I resumed the trowel, and
finished without interruption the fifth, the sixth, and the seventh
tier. The wall was now nearly upon a level with my breast. I
again paused, and holding the flambeaux over the mason-work,
threw a few feeble rays upon the figure within.
A succession of loud and shrill screams, bursting suddenly
from the throat of the chained form, seemed to thrust me
violently back. For a brief moment I hesitatedI trembled.
Unsheathing my rapier, I began to grope with
it about the recess; but the thought of an instant
reassured me. I placed my hand upon the solid
fabric of the catacombs, and felt satisfied. I
reapproached the wall. I replied to the yells of
him who clamored. I re-echoedI aidedI
surpassed them in volume and in strength. I
did this, and the clamorer grew still.
It was now midnight, and my task was
drawing to a close. I had completed the eighth, the ninth,
and the tenth tier. I had finished a portion of the last and the
eleventh; there remained but a single stone to be fitted and
plastered in. I struggled with its weight; I placed it partially in
its destined
position. But now there came from out the niche a
low laugh that erected the hairs upon my head. It was succeeded
by a sad voice, which I had difficulty in recognizing as that of
the noble Fortunato. The voice said
Ha! ha! ha!he! he!a very good joke indeedan
excellent jest. We will have many a rich laugh about it at the
palazzohe! he! he!over our winehe! he! he!
24. Here, destined means intended for a particular purpose or use.
Vocabulary Skill
Context Clues Underline the
words that provide context for the
meaning of surpassed. Put a check
in the box next to the type of
context clue these words provide.
definition or synonym
contrast clues
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The Cask of Amontillado
The Amontillado! I said.
He! he! he!he! he! he!yes, the Amontillado. But is it
not getting late? Will not they be awaiting us at the palazzo, the
Lady Fortunato and the rest? Let us be gone.
Yes, I said, let us be gone.
For the love of God, Montresor!
Yes, I said, for the love of God!
But to these words I hearkened in vain for a reply. I grew
impatient. I called aloud:
No answer. I called again:
No answer still. I thrust a torch through the remaining
aperture and let it fall within. There came forth in return only
a jingling of the bells. My heart grew sickon account of the
dampness of the catacombs. I hastened to make an end of my
labor. I forced the last stone into its position; I plastered it up.
Against the new masonry I re-erected the old rampart
of bones.
For the half of a century no mortal has disturbed them. In pace
25. A rampart is a protective barrier or fortification.
26. In pace requiescat is Latin for May he rest in peace.
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After You Read
Connect to the Story
Look back at the possible reasons for revenge that you suggested on page 2.
The chart below lists two facts from the story. Write down a possible reason for
revenge that corresponds to each fact.
Detail from the Story Possible Reasons For Revenge
Fortunato considers himself knowledgeable
about wines.
Fortunato is rich.
Literary Element Mood
In what way does the mood of Poes story contribute to the storys effect on the
reader? On the lines below, indicate how each detail contributes to the storys mood.
Detail Mood Created
Niter grows on the vaults walls.

The two men walk ever deeper into

the vaults.

Reading Strategy Paraphrase

The chart below contains quotations from the story. Paraphrase the quotations
and indicate why they are important to the plot of The Cask of Amontillado.
Quotation Paraphrase What it means
And yet some fools will have it that his
taste is a match for your own.
Its walls had been lined with human
remains piled to the vault overhead, in the
fashion of the great catacombs of Paris.
The noise lasted for several minutes,
during which, that I might hearken to it
with the more satisfaction, I ceased my
labors and sat down upon the bones.
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After You Read
impunity preclude explicit accost implore
A. Word Meaning Use the boldfaced vocabulary words to fill in the blanks in
the following paragraph.
1. Montresor should realize he cannot kill with ______________ because the
law could catch up with him.
2. Police officers could be waiting outside his palazzo to ______________ him.
3. As the storys narrator, Montresor is ______________ with the reader about
his plans to harm Fortunato.
4. Montresor thought that the servants presence in the house might
______________ his plans for Fortunato.
5. Why didnt Fortunato ______________ Montresor to spare his life?
B. Context Clues Underline the context clues in each of the following sentences
that help you to determine the meaning of the boldfaced word. Then explain
your choices on the lines below.
1. Wanting the lead role, the aggressive actor made plans to accost the
director of the school play on his way home.
Explanation: ______________________________________________________________________________
2. Some students felt that Jakes bad grades should preclude him from
being considered for the lead role.
Explanation: ______________________________________________________________________________
3. The director had left no doubt in his students minds about his
requirements; he had been explicit about them.
Explanation: ______________________________________________________________________________
4. Jake was eager to play the part of Montresor in The Cask of Amontillado.
In fact, he implored the director to give me the part.
Explanation: ______________________________________________________________________________
The Cask of Amontillado
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After You Read
Sensory Details Chart
Sometimes a chart can help you organize facts or details from a text. Sensory
details are evocative words and phrases an author uses to help create mood and
evoke the five sensesseeing, hearing, smelling, touching, and tasting. Sensory
details make writing come alive and help the reader imagine what is being
described. For each of the senses named below, add details from the story that
appeal to that sense. An example has been done for you.
Sight Niter like moss on walls
The Cask of Amontillado
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