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Plural Nouns: Rules

To make regular nouns plural, add -s to the end.

Cat cats
House houses
If the singular noun ends in -s, add -es to the end to pluralize it.
Truss trusses
Bus buses
If the noun ends with -f or -fe, the f is often changed to -ve.
ife wives
olf wolves
Exception! roof roofs
If the singular noun ends in -y, change the ending to -ies.
Cit" cities
#upp" puppies
If the singular noun ends in -o, add -es to make it plural.
#otato potatoes
Tomato tomatoes
If the singular noun ends in -us, the plural ending is frequently -i.
Cactus cacti
$ctopus octopi
If the singular noun ends in -is, the plural ending is -es.
%nal"sis %nal"ses
&llipsis &llipses
If the singular noun ends in -on, the plural ending is -a.
#henomenon phenomena
Criterion criteria
Soe Irregular nouns should !e chec"ed in the dictionary !ecause they follo# no specific rules.
Child children
'oose geese
(an men
Soe nouns don$t change at all #hen they$re pluralized:
*ou need to see these nouns in conte+t to understand whether the",re singular or plural.
(ark caught one fish, but I caught three fish.
%ist of Irregular Plural Nouns
addendum addenda or addendus
aircraft aircraft
alumna alunae
alumnus aluni
anal"sis analyses
antenna antennae or antennas
antithesis antitheses
ape+ apices or apexes
appendi+ appendices or appendixes
a+is axes
bacillus !acilli
bacterium !acteria
basis !ases
beau !eaux or !eaus
bison !ison
bureau !ureaux or !ureaus
cactus cacti or cactus or cactuses
ch-teau ch&teaux or ch&teaus
child children
code+ codices
concerto concerti or concertos
corpus corpora
crisis crises
criterion criteria or criterions
curriculum curricula or curriculus
datum data
deer deer or deers
diagnosis diagnoses
die dice or dies
dwarf d#ar'es or d#arfs
ellipsis ellipses
erratum errata
fau+ pas faux pas
fe. fezzes or fezes
fish fish or fishes
focus foci or focuses
foot feet or foot
formula forulae or forulas
fungus fungi or funguses
genus genera or genuses
goose geese
graffito graffiti
grouse grouse or grouses
half hal'es
hoof hoo'es or hoofs
h"pothesis hypotheses
inde+ indices or indexes
larva lar'ae or lar'as
libretto li!retti or li!rettos
loaf loa'es
locus loci
louse lice
man en
matri+ atrices or atrixes
medium edia or edius
memorandum eoranda or eorandus
minutia inutiae
moose oose
mouse ice
nebula ne!ulae or ne!ulas
nucleus nuclei or nucleuses
oasis oases
offspring offspring or offsprings
opus opera or opuses
ovum o'a
o+ oxen or ox
parenthesis parentheses
phenomenon phenoena or phenoenons
ph"lum phyla
prognosis prognoses
/ui. quizzes
radius radii or radiuses
referendum referenda or referendus
salmon salon or salons
scarf scar'es or scarfs
self sel'es
series series
sheep sheep
shrimp shrip or shrips
species species
stimulus stiuli
stratum strata
swine s#ine
s"llabus sylla!i or sylla!uses
s"mposium syposia or syposius
s"nopsis synopses
tableau ta!leaux or ta!leaus
thesis theses
thief thie'es
tooth teeth
trout trout or trouts
tuna tuna or tunas
vertebra 'erte!rae or 'erte!ras
verte+ 'ertices or 'ertexes
vita 'itae
vorte+ 'ortices or 'ortexes
wharf #har'es or #harfs
wife #i'es
wolf #ol'es
woman #oen