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SUPPLEMENT TO FAULT CALCULATION

SYMMETRICAL FAULTS

George Mather

BA, Dip EE, C Eng, MIEE, AFIMA

© 1998 George Mather Published by the Electricity Training Association

CONTENTS

1

INTRODUCTION

2

FUNDAMENTAL MATHEMATICS

2.1

Complex Numbers

2.2

Linear algebra

2.3

Current in an ac circuit

3

NETWORK ANALYSIS

3.1

Kirchhoffs Laws

3.2

Network reduction

3.2.1

Millmans Theorem

3.2.2

The Principle of Superposition

3.2.3

Thevenins Theorem

3.3

Star - Delta and Delta - Star transformations

4

FAULT CURRENT CALCULATIONS AND PER UNIT METHODS

4.1

Introduction

4.2

Transformers

4.3

Ohmic

Methods

4.4

Per Unit Methods

5

WORKED EXAMPLES

6

ANSWERS TO SELF TEST QUESTIONS

APPENDICES:

A MATRIX ALGEBRA

B USE OF SPREADSHEETS

C CURRENT IN AN RL CIRCUIT

Page 1 of 85

1.0

Introduction

This book is a supplement to Chapter 3 of the Power Systems Protection correspondence course (PSPC) provided by the Electricity Training Association. Fault Calculation in general and Chapter 3 of the Power System Protection Course in particular have gained over the years an awesome reputation with some PSPC students. The PSPC was introduced in the early 1960s and in those days the course was directed at engineers in the United Kingdom. Nowadays students come from a wide variety of backgrounds both in academic attainment and nationality. Sometimes difficulties are exacerbated due to students not having help available to them locally.

Times have changed since the PSPC course books were written. Probably all students now have access to a personal computer with spreadsheet facilities which can make calculations much less tedious. Used properly, spreadsheets should help students better understand the basic material. Many early text books in electrical power engineering concentrated on network reduction because it was a necessary process when a slide rule was the most advanced tool available. Knowledge of network reduction is still advantageous however in order to enable students understand the behaviour of networks. There is also the question of how much detail electrical engineers should know about power system calculations when there are many good power system analysis systems used in electrical utilities nowadays. It is most important that engineers understand the output from these systems and that understanding can only come from good theoretical knowledge and experience.

Performance of protective gear is a very important aspect of power system operation but safety is equally important and leads to issues regarding of the make rating and break rating of switchgear. Protective gear operating times have decreased on transmission systems as relays based on digital electronics have been introduced. Faults are sometimes cleared before the direct current component in the disturbance has decayed to zero. The subject of initial fault conditions is dealt with in chapter 2 and in appendix C in more detail. The introduction of small generation plant connected at medium voltages requires a good understanding of fault calculation by all design engineers. The first international standard for calculation of fault current IEC 909 [6] has been issued and this has been implemented in the United Kingdom as ER G74 [7].

This Supplement has been prepared to give the student a firm basis in understanding the techniques of network analysis and symmetical fault calculations. It is a remarkable fact that the course text book contains only two examples on symmetical faults with one of them being based upon physical units (ohms and volts). This Supplement recommends use of per unit quantities but their introduction is delayed until chapter four after the mathematics and network analysis techniques have been covered using physical values in chapters two and three.

Page 2 of 85

The supplement addresses such fundamental issues as:

why we use complex numbers in ac circuits

systematic ways of solving equations

the dc component and maximum offset in fault current

the best way to express fault rating

the need for a common base in per unit calculations

effects of tap change and load

(opionally) an introduction to matrix algebra in fault calculations

use of spreadsheets

and

proofs

Network transformations

and

applications

of

Thevenins

Theorem

The first four chapters have self test questions ( exercises to the old fashioned!) against which understanding can be tested.

Use of the supplement is optional but it will not make sense without the course text book. It covers completely, with one exception - induction motors , the fundamentals of symmetrical fault calculation and will provide a sound basis for further study.

Users of the supplement may omit the following sections of the text book - but will be recommended by the supplement to read parts of them - 3.1.4, 3.2, 3.3.1, 3.3.2, 3.3.7, 3.3.8, 3.3.9 and 3.3.10.

Page 3 of 85

2

Fundamental Mathematics

The course text book assumes good knowledge of the mathematics of complex numbers and linear equations but does little to help the

students overcome difficulties in these subjects. It is not necessary to

be clever at mathematics in order to do fault calculations but a good

working knowledge of complex numbers and linear equations is necessary. This chapter provides an introduction to and review of these subjects in the first two sections. The range of material covered is adequate for the course but in each case these are only the tips of very interesting icebergs and many students will wish to follow them up through the bibliography. Those students who feel confident without this material should at least try to the self test questions.

The third section of the chapter covers why we need to use complex numbers in electrical circuits. It is worth noting at this stage that complex numbers are not vectors but the myth that they are vectors was advanced by some early textbooks. Is easy to see a complex number is not a vector because a vector does not have a reciprocal whereas a complex number does; furthermore modern electrical engineering textbooks draw pseudo vector diagrams of rms quantities and call them phasor diagrams.

Appendix A introduces matrix algebra and introduces its application to fault calculation. This material should not be read without a good understanding of Thevenins Theorem and Nodal Analysis covered in chapter three.

A Microsoft EXCEL spreadsheet is provided with the supplement to

help with the linear algebra and the more complicated complex number operations; details of use are provided in appendix B.

Appendix C covers the initial conditions following a fault and illustrates why making duty of switchgear is very important. This appendix basically consists of a proof which uses a first order differential equation. Do not worry if you do not understand the proof and if you have difficulty do not spend time trying to understand it. Just believe the result, use it , and return to it at your leisure.

Page 4 of 85

2.1 Complex Numbers

Complex numbers are used in many aspects of electrical power engineering but they were not discovered by electrical engineers. This section introduces complex numbers from a fundamental requirement and then reviews the basic operations used by electrical engineers. More information on the wide scope of complex numbers may be found in

Speigel[2].

There are no normal, i.e. real, numbers which satisfy the equation z 2 +1=0. This is because the equation requires z 2 = -1, but z= 1 does not exist for real numbers. To get round this difficulty we introduce an operator j which has the property that j 2 =-1 and we can then solve the equation as z=±j1.

j 2 =-1 and we can then solve the equation as z= ± j1. Now consider

Now consider the quadratic equation z 2 -2z +10=0. Using the well known formula for the solution of quadratic equations of the form

az 2 +bz+c=0 2 −± bb − 4 a c i.e. z = 2 a
az 2 +bz+c=0
2
−±
bb
4 a
c
i.e. z =
2 a

we find that z

as possible solutions.

= 2 ± 4 − 40
= 2 ±
4 − 40

2

thus z=1+j3 and 1-j3

z is a known as complex number. Complex Numbers have a Real component Re(z) and an Imaginary component Im (z). E.g. in the above example Re(z)=1 and, for the first case, Im(z)=3. We may plot these values on an Argand Diagram where we plot values of Re(z) along the x-axis and Im(z) along the y-axis as shown in Fig 2.1.1. Real numbers may be recognised as a special case of complex numbers having

Im(z)=0.

y z x
y
z
x

Fig. 1.1.1 Argand Diargam

We may represent complex numbers in Rectangular form as we have just shown or we may represent them in Polar Form. Consider first rectangular form. Addition, and hence subtraction, of complex numbers

Page 5 of 85

is carried out by summing the real components and the imaginary components separately.

Thus if z=a+jb and w=c+jd then:

z+w = (a+c)+j(b+d) and z-w = (a-c)+j(b-d)

Multiplication zw is given by the expansion of (a+jb)(c+jd)

thus zw= ac+jad+jbc+j 2 bd but j 2 =-1

zw=(ac-bd)+j(bc+ad).

Example 2.1.1

Calculate z+w, z-w and zw if z=3+j4 and w= 5-j7. Answer:

z+w = (3+5) +j(4-7) = 8-j3

z-w = (3-5)+j(4 - -7) = -2+j11

zw = (3x5 -4x(-7))+j(3x(-7)+4x5)= 43-j1.

We use the complex conjugate to do division. The complex conjugate is

z*=a-jb

It is clear that zz* = a 2 +b 2 .

i.e. we simply change the sign of Im(z).

Consider first the reciprocal of a complex number z=a+jb. Now 1/z = z*/zz* = (a-jb)/ (a 2 +b 2 ).

Division is now clearly z/w = z(1/w) hence z/w=(a+jb)(c-jd)/(c 2 +d 2 ).

Example 2.1.2 Calculate z/w when z=43-j1 and w=5-j7.

Answer:

z

(43

j

1)(5

+

j

7 )

 

=

w

25

+

49

 

z

(215 + 7)(+

j

301 5 )

 

=

w

74

 

z

= 222 +

j

296

w

74

 

= 3+j4

which agrees with the result in example 2.1.1

Page 6 of 85

Example 2.1.3

If z=a+jb calculate z 2 / 2z.

We should expect the numbers!. answer to be z/2 just as Answer: z 2 =(a
We should expect the
numbers!.
answer
to
be z/2
just as
Answer:
z 2 =(a 2 -b 2 ) +j 2ab.
1
a
jb
=
2
2
2
z
2 (
a
+
b
)
2
2
2
3
2
23
z
(
a
jb
)((
a
−+ b )
j
2
ab
)
a
++ ab
j ( a b
+
b
)
=
=
2
2
2
2
2 z
2
(
a
+
b
)
2 (
a
+
b
)
but since
a (a 2 +b 2 ) = a 3 +ab 2
and
b ( a 2 +b 2 ) = a 2 b+b 3
then
z 2 /2z = (a+jb)/2.
Another method:
2
2
*
z
z
z
z ( zz
*)
z
==
=
2 z
*
*
2
2
zz
2 zz

it would be for real

An obvious result but many students do not take the short cut!

Example 2.1.4

Calculate zw and z/w when z=jb w= jd.

In this case we should be able to ignore complex arithmetic but be aware of the rules. Hence we should expect zw=-bd and z/w= b/d.

Answer:

Expanded zw=(0+jb)x(0+ jd) hence zw=-bd+j0.

similarly z/w=(0+jb)x(0-jd)/d 2 =b/d

Example 2.1.5

An electric circuit has two inductive reactances w=j4Ω and v=j12Ω in parallel. Calculate the impedance z (=wv/(w+v)) of the circuit.

Answer

z=4x12/(4+12) =j3Ω

Thus we can simplify the calculation by keeping in mind where we are going.

Page 7 of 85

Complex numbers in polar form are written as

formula tells us that e

where r is the modulus and θ is the argument.

To convert from Rectangular form to Polar form

, Euler’s

sinθ . Engineers often write z =r∠θ

re

j

θ

z

=

jθ = cosθ + j

2
2

r = a + b 2

and

θ =

tan

1 b

a

but note we must always be careful to check the sign of a and b in order

to calculate the angle θ according to table below

a

pos

pos

neg

neg

b

pos

neg

pos

neg

θ degrees

0-90

270-360

90-180

180-270

Example 2.1.6

Express z=3+j4 and w=-3+j4 in polar form.

answer:

The modulus of both z and w is

For z θ =

1 4

tan

3

=

5313° .

2 2 3 + 4
2
2
3
+
4

= 5

4

3

For w μ =

Note that the argument for w is (180-53.13)°

tan

1

=

126 . 87

°

Once again with z =r∠θ and w=s∠μ then zw= rs(θ+μ) and z/w=r/s(θ-μ). We will now expand z and w using Eulers Formula and calculate the quotient z/w. The product is left as an exercise for the student.

z = r(cosθ + j sinθ )

w = s(cos μ + j sin μ )

z

r

(cos

θ

+ θ

j

sin

)

rs (cos

θ

+

j

sin

θ

)(cos

μ

j

sin

μ

)

w

=

s

(cos

μ

j

sin

+ μ

)

=

s

22

(cos

μ

+

sin

2

μ

)

but since cos

2

μ+

sin

2

μ = 1

 

Page 8 of 85

z

r

((cos

θ

cos

μ

++

μ

sin

θ

sin

)

j

(sin

θ

 

sin

μθ

cos

))

w

=

s

cos

μ

z

r

   

w

=

s

(cos(

θμ

)

−+

j

sin(

θμ

))

z

r

 

=∠(θ μ)

 

w

s

The reciprocal of a complex number

1/r∠−θ

z =

r ∠θ in polar form is simply

It can be seen easily that multiplication by complex numbers shifts the

resulting vector

anticlockwise and division shifts the resulting vector

clockwise.

You always have to consider the best ways of doing multiplication and division. This of course depends to some extent on how the problem is specified. If you have rectangular form it is probably worth keeping them in that form during the calculation.

1.1 Self Test Questions

1

2

3

4

5

Solve a 2 +a+1=0. Show that a 3 =1 and a 4 =a.

Do the indicated calculation in each of the following.

a) (3+j7)(4-j12) and express the result in polar form.

b) (3+j1) 2 express the result in rectangular form.

c)

+

6

2

j

1

(

j

+

3

8

j

express the result in polar form.

8

)(

4

+

j

10

)

d)

(

3

+

j

8

)(

4

++

j

10 )

express the result in rectangular form.

100

Find the modulus of

Find the argument of the following complex numbers

6 + j8

a)

-5+j0

b)

-8-j4

Show that

z*w = (zw*)* ;

why does z*z = zz* ?

Page 9 of 85

2.2 Linear Equations Linear equations are used extensively throughout power system calculations; large systems of equations are solved in modern times by the digital computer but nevertheless it is useful to be able to solve small systems using only a pocket calculator or spreadsheet. In this section we will look at simple methods of solving equations involving at most three unknowns. The method used will also provide a powerful and systematic tool for proving theoretical results. Appendix A will cover matrix algebra which is used by computer methods of solving power system equations. The methods introduced in this section will be used in proofs of network theory to be covered in other sections.

Once understood the process of finding solutions to practical problems of simultaneous equations is quite tedious. A spreadsheet for solving equations of up to three variables is included with this supplement. Description of the spreadshheet is covered in appendix B.

Consider the equations:

3x + 4y = 16

6

x + 2y =

The most elementary method of finding the value of x is to subtract twice the second equation from the first thus eliminating y:

giving

3x + 4y = 16 2x + 4y = 12

x = 4 and, since x+2y = 6, y=1;

This very simple method becomes messy when trying to solve, say, equations involving complex numbers. Alternatively, to eliminate y we could multiply the first equation by 2 and the second by 4 and then subract again in the same way:

thus

6x + 8y = 32 4x + 8y = 24

 

hence

2x

=

8

and

x =4, y=1 as before.

This more systematic method leads to a general form.

Consider the system

A 11 x +A 12 y = B 1 A 21 x +A 22 y = B 2

Page 10 of 85

In this system the first suffix denotes a row and the second one denotes a column. Using the method described above to eliminate y, multiply the first equation by A 22 and the second one by A 12.

A 11 A 22 x + A 12 A 22 y = A 22 BB 1 A 21 A 12 x + A 22 A 12 y = A 12 BB 2

subtracting the second from the first:

(A 11 A 22 - A 21 A 12 )x = (A 22 BB 1 - A 12 B B )

2

x =

BA

1

22

BA

2

12

B

B

1

2

A

A

12

22

AA

11

22

AA

21

12

=

A

A

11

21

A

A

12

22

The array:

A A = ⎜ ⎝ A

11

21

A

A

12

22

contains the coefficients of x and y in the original equations.

A 11 A 22 - A 21 A 12 is known as the determinant D of an array of dimension 2. It is the difference between the products of the two diagonals of the array. More details may be found in textbooks on Linear Algebra [1].

The method also leads quickly to Cramers Method for solving linear equations. In Cramers method the column of coefficients of the unknown to be found are replaced by those on the right hand side (the Bs). Hence

x =

B

B

1

2

A

A

12

22

A

A

11

21

A

A

12

22

and

y

=

A

A

11

21

B

B

1

2

A

A

11

21

A

A

12

22

The method provides an expedient way of solving systems involving two or three variables but is not recommended when there are more than three variables.

Example 2.3.1 Solve original problem again using Cramers Method.

Page 11 of 85

3 D = ⎜ ⎝ 1

x

=

4 2 ⎟=−= ⎠ 64

2

16

6

4

2

32

24

=

2

2

= 4

and

y =

3

1

16

6

18

16

=

2

2

= 1

We are now in a position to investigate the benefits of the method. First consider the equations:

3x + 4y - 16z = 0

6z = 0

x + 2y

-

There are not enough equations to find the values of the variables which satisfy them. There are an infinite number of solutions but this does not prevent a relationship between the variables from being found. From the example it is clear that by writing the equations as:

3x + 4y = 16z

6z

x + 2y

=

it is easily seen that x=4z and y=z.

Cramers Method can be applied to equations involving complex numbers.

Example 2.3.2

Solve:

(2+j1)z + (4-j3)w = 12+j16 (4- j7)z + (-3-j1)w = 39-j12

D = (2+j1)(-3-j1)-(4-j7)(4-j3) =(-5-j5)-(-5-j40) = 0+j35

 

12

39

+

j

j

16

12

4

j

3

1

−− 3

j

(

12

+

jj

16

)(

3

−−

1

)

(

39

j

12

)(

4

j

3

)

z

=

D

=

D

 

(

−− 20

j

60

)(

120

j

165

)

140

+ j

105

z

=

⎛ +

⎝ −

2

4

j

j

1

7

D

+

12

39

j

j

16

12

 

(

2

+

=

0

+ j

35

39

jj

1

)(

12

)

=

3

+ j

4

−− (

4

jj

+

7

)(

12

16 )

 

w =

 

=

 

D

D

 

(90

+

j

15)(160

j

20)

 

70

0

+ j

+ j

35

35

1

= +

j 2

 

w =

 

D

=

Example 2.3.2

Page 12 of 85

Solve the equations

j10z + j8w = 82

4z + j6w = 44

j

D = j 2 10x6 - j 2 4x8 = -28

z

w

=

=

82

44

j

j

8

6

82

xj

6

44

xj

8

j 140 = 28

=

28

28

=−

j 10

j 4

82

44

j

10 44

x

jx

4

82

j 112

=

=

28

28

28

j 5

=−

j 4

Cramers rule is useful for proving theoretical results. Read the derivation of the equations for the two phase to earth fault in paragraph d of section 3.4.4 of the textbook. The example quoted is the most difficult to solve of the classic fault conditions but this systematic method makes the process easier to understand.

Example 2.3.2

Fig 3.4.4E and equations 3.4.4.16 and 3.4.4.17 in the text book describe the conditions at the point of fault for a Two phase to earth fault. We will solve these equations using Cramers Method.

Answer:

This is one of the standard problems in the application of Symmetrical component theory to unbalanced faults. It is not necessary to understand symmetrical components for this answer but the solution to Self Test 2.1.1 is applied.

We are given I a = 0 (Equation 3.4.4.16) and V b = V c = 0 (3.4.4.17)

There are three equations and, as we shall see, three unknowns (I 1 , I 2 and I 0 ) but solving three equations simultaneously leads to quite complicated manipulation. Instead we will use the voltage equations to obtain relationships between the variables. We will then substitute these relationships into the current equation to find direct expressions for the currents.

Expanding for V b in symmerical component form

V b = a 2 E-a 2 I 1 Z 1 -aI 2 Z 2 -I 0 Z 0 =0

(This equation is printed incorrectly in some text books)

and

V c = aE-aI 1 Z 1 -a 2 I 2 Z 2 -I 0 Z 0 =0

Page 13 of 85

Solve these equations for I 1 and I 2 in terms of E and I 0. First write them in the form

2

Z I

11

a

aZ I

1

1

+

+

a

aZ

Z

2

2 I

I

2

2 2

2

D = (a a )ZZ

1

Using Cramers Method:

2

a

aE

=−

=−

E

I

I

0

Z

0

0

Z

0

2 (since a 4 = a)

 

2

 

I

I

Z

00

Z

0

aZ

2

2

Z

 

 

E

a

aE

 

aEZ

 

2

I

Z Z

2

−+ a EZ

aI

Z Z

   

0

a

 

2

 

2

a

002

2

002

I

 

1

=

D

=

 

D

collecting terms:

 
 

2

     
 

Z

2

(

a

a

)(

E

+

IZ

0

0

)

 

E

+

IZ

0

0

 

I

 

1

=

ZZ

 

(

2

)

=

Z

 
 

1

2

a

a

1

Thus

 

I

=

I Z

1

1

E

0

 

Z

0

 

Similarly

2

aZ

aZ

1

1

2

aE

aE

IZ

0

I

0

Z

0

0

Z E

1

a

2

Z I

10

Z

0

Z E

−+

1

aZ I

10

Z

0

I

 

2

=

D

=

 

D

 

ZZ

 

2

 

I

I

Z

IZ

E

collecting terms

I

 

1

0

(

a

a

)

0

0

0

1

1

2

=

ZZ

1

2

(

a

a

2

)

=

Z

2

=

Z

2

From Equation 3.4.4.16

I 1 + I 2 + I 0 = 0

We can now find I 1 by substituting for I 2 and I 0 :

Page 14 of 85

 

IZ

1

1

E

IZ

1

1

E

 

I

1

+

 

= 0

 

Z

2

+

Z

0

giving

I Z

I

12

1

(

I Z Z

Z

ZZ

0

+

20

110

ZZ

++

10

+

I Z Z

112

ZZ

12

)

=

EZ

=+

0

E

(

Z

0

+

EZ

Z

2

)

2

I

1

=

(

EZ

0

+

Z

2

)

 

ZZ

20

+

ZZ

10

+

ZZ

12

This time substituting to find I 2 :

E

+

IZ

2

2

I

2

Z

2

Z

1

hence

Z

0

I

=

Z E

0

I

++

2

I ++ 2 = 0

= 0

2

ZZ

20

+

ZZ

10

+

ZZ

12

and ,since I 2 Z 2 = I 0 Z 0 , it follows that

I

0

=

Z

2

E

ZZ

20

+

ZZ

10

+

ZZ

12

2.1 Self test questions

1 Solve for x and y.

7x + y = 26 5x+2y = 25

2 Solve for z and w

4z + 7w = 40-3j z + 2w = 11-j

2.3

Current in an a.c circuit

This section investigates the fundamental relationship between voltage and current in an a.c. circuit. The reasons why complex numbers are used for representation of a.c. quantities are included. The section is quite technical and includes two proofs which involve simple differential equations. You do not need to read or understand these proofs (which are terminated by a symbol) but they are provided for those students seeking a thorough understanding of principles.

2.3.1 Fundamental Equations

We start with Lenz’s Law:

Induced emfs e in a coil are always of such a polarity as to oppose the change that generated them.

Mathematically we may write this as e= -dΦ/dt where Φ represents the flux linkages of the coil and t is time

The flux linkages are a function of the current I in the coil and the physical characteristics such the number of turns and diameter etc.

Joseph Henry demonstrated later that

e= -LdI/dt

where L is the inductance of the coil. L has units of Voltseconds/amp and is known as the Henry.

When a sinusoidal resistance) then

voltage V sin

Proof:

hence

I =

V

ϖ L

sin(ϖ t − 90). L dI dt = V sinϖt dI V = sin ϖ
sin(ϖ t −
90).
L dI
dt = V sinϖt
dI
V
=
sin
ϖ t
dt
L
V
I =
sin
ϖ tdt
L

ωt is applied to an ideal coil (with no

Page 16 of 85

I =− V cosϖ t

ϖ L

but -cos ωt = sin (ωt-90)=sin ωt cos 90-sin 90.cos ωt

thus

I

=

V

ϖ L

sin(ϖ t

90)

The current lags the voltage by 90°.

Note that V and I are peak and NOT rms values.

Resistance R in the circuit adds further complication, in this case

V

Rt

L

X

]

1 X

I =

cosθ =

2 [sin(ω t 2 R + X
2 [sin(ω t
2
R
+ X
R 2 2 R + X
R
2
2
R
+ X

θ )

+ e

where

θ=

tan

R

2 , and X=ωL and is known as reactance.

, sinθ =

2 R + X
2
R
+ X

R

2 +

X

2

is the impedance Z of the circuit.

The proof of this expression is given in appendix C. The ratio R/L is known as the time constant of the circuit. Figure C.1 of appendix C shows the maximum value the current in an ac circuit can rise to following switch on. This is important for switchgear where making duty is an important safety design feature. The decay of dc current is also quite important as the fault clearance times of modern transmission equipment reduce.

It is also clear R and X are mutually perpendicular and because of this may be represented by complex numbers. Thus we may write impedance in polar or rectangular form.

I lags V by an angle θ° This is written as I-θ. I and V may be either peak or rms values. We will use rms values unless otherwise stated.

There are 3 ways of calculating the power S in the circuit and we can do this either in rectangular or in polar form. Usually S=(P+jQ) where P is real power and Q is reactive power. Q is positive when the reactive power is inductive and negative when it is capacitive.

(a) S=I*V.

where I* is the complex conjugate of I.

In rectangular form:

Let I =

I (cos φ

+ j sin φ)

and

I* = I ( cos φ

Let V = V ( cos μ + j sin μ)

Page 17 of 85

- j sin φ )

S= VI ( cos μ cos φ +sin μ sin φ + j ( sin μ cos φ - cos μ sin φ)

S = VI ( cos (μ-φ) + j sin (μ-φ))

note that the sign convention results in lagging vars being treated as positive ie when μ > φ.

In Polar Form:

b) S=|I| 2 Z

S = Vμ x I∠− φ

= VI∠μ-φ

In rectangular form: Let I= a+jb and

Z=R+jX, then

S = I*V= I*I Z =(a+jb)(a-jb)(R+jX)=(a 2 +b 2 )(R+jX) = |I| 2 Z

In Polar Form I 2 Z ∠ θ where θ is the impedance angle.

(c)

S

=

2 V * Z
2
V
*
Z

In rectangular form: Let V= u+jw and Z=R+jX

2 2 2 VV * ( u + jw )( u − jw ) u
2
2
2
VV *
(
u
+
jw
)(
u
jw
)
u
+ w
V
=
=
=
Z *
R
jX
R
− jX
Z *
2
V
θ
=
Z
V
I
=
Z
+
Z
1
2

S == VI *

and in polar form S

2.3.2 Series and Parallel circuits

For two impedance Z 1 and Z 2 in series then

hence Z = Z 1 + Z 2

in this case of course I flows through both impedances.

Thus V 1 =IZ 1 hence V 1 =

VZ

1

Z

1

+

Z

2

and this represents a potential divider

For two impedances Z 1 and Z 2 in parallel the total current I is given by:

I

V

V

(

Z

1

+

Z

2

=+= V

Z

1

Z

2

Z Z

1

2

)

hence the impedance of the circuit is Z

=

Z Z

1

2

Z

1

+

Z

2

Alternatively we may use Admittance conveniently for the parallel circuit.

Admittance Y = 1/Z. Thus I=VY 1 +VY 2 = V(Y 1 +Y 2 )=VY.

Page 18 of 85

By comparison of the impedance form and the admittance form it is evident

that

Y

1

+

Y

2

=

Z

1

+

Z

2

Z Z

1

2

If we know I branch is:

the easiest method to calculate the current in each impedance

I

1

=

IZ

IZ

2

=

Z

1

Z

1

+

Z

2

and

I

2

=

IZ

IZ

1

=

Z

2

Z

1

+

Z

2

Example 2.3.2.1

A circuit consists of two impedances Z 1 = (1+j8)Ω and Z 2 = (3+j4)Ω connected in parallel and series impedance Z s = (1.625+j1.125)Ω. The circuit is connected to an ac voltage E = 100v rms.

Calculate (a) the total impedance of the circuit (b) the total current (c) the current flowing in Z 1 and Z 2 (d) the voltage across Z s and (e) the power and the reactive power in the circuit.

Answer Z s E Z 1 Z 2
Answer
Z s
E
Z 1
Z 2

(a) First finding the impedance Z p of the parallel combination.

Z

 

Z Z

1

2

 

(

1

+ j

)((

83

+

j

4

)

=

29

+ j

28

(

29

+

j

28

)(

4

j

12 )

 

=

=

=

 

p

Z

1

+

Z

2

220

+ j

460

(

18

+

j

1375

)(

++

34

j

)

2 . 875

Ω

4

+ j

12

 

160

 

=

ZZ =

160

+

s

Z

p

=

=

(.

(.

1625

+

+ j

j

1125 .

)

)

+

(. 1375

+

j

2 . 875

)

3

(

=+

j

4

)

Ω

Page 19 of 85

(b) Total Current I = V/Z

I =

100

100 3

(

j

4

)

=

( 12

 

j

16 ) A

 

=20-53.13° A

=

 

3

+ j

4

25

 

(c) Current in Z 1 and Z 2

IZ

2

12

j

16

)(

3

+

j

4

)

(
I

=

1 Z

1

+

Z

2

=

4

+ j

12

 

=

(

2 . 5

j

7 .) 5

A

=

7 . 9

∠−

7156 . °

I

II

9 . 5

j

8 .) 5

A

=

12 . 75

∠−

.

4182

°

= −

=

2

1

(

(d) Voltage across Z s

V s =

VZ s

(.

100 1625

+

j

1125 .

)

=

Z

3

+

j

4

(e) Power

=

(

37 5

.

j

12 5

.)

V

=

39 43

.

∠−

18 43

.

°

V

S=|I| 2 Z = (12 2 +16 2 ) (3+j4)=(1200+j1600)VA

2.3 Self Test Questions

1 A circuit consists of a combination of two impedances Z 1 = (1+j5)Ω and Z 2 = (7+j3)Ω connected in series in parallel with an impedance Zp = (4+j8)Ω. The circuit is connected to an ac voltage E = 50v rms.

Calculate (a) the total impedance of the circuit (b) the total current (c) the current flowing in Z 1 and Z 2 (d) the voltage across Z 1 and (e) the power and the reactive power in the circuit.

Z 1 Z p E Z 2
Z 1
Z p
E
Z 2

2 A 132kV circuit breaker with breaking duty of 25kA rms is designed for use on a 50 hertz system with an X/R ratio of 11.8. Calculate the highest peak kiloampere making duty of the circuit breaker.

Page 20 of 85

3

Network Analysis

Understanding of fault calculations requires a good understanding of network analysis; methods of network reduction beyond simple series and parallel element reductions are based on network theorems. In this chapter we shall begin with the axioms of Kirchhoffs Laws to analyse networks and then, using these results as basis, we proceed to cover the Parallel Generator Theorem; the Principle of Superposition; a direct consequence of this, Thevenins Theorem which is the basis of most methods of fault calculation, and; finally star-delta and delta-star transformations. Proofs are provided but may be omitted if you are short of time. Most of the chapter has been written around two networks so that the advantages of the different approaches maybe identified. In order to keep the focus on understanding principles most calculations are based on resistive ohmic networks. Your spreadsheet may be used to solve equations but masochists may wish to solve them longhand!

3.1 Kirchhoffs Laws

We will treat these as axioms for which there is no proof. Kirchhoffs Current Law states that the currents in branches terminating at a junction sum to zero. Alternatively we may say the sum of currents entering the junction equals the sum of currents leaving the junction. Kirchhoffs Voltage Law states that the voltages around any closed path sum to zero.

Some authors refer to these as KCL and KVL respectively [5].

There are two basic ways of using these laws directly to solve network problems. One way, known as mesh current analysis, is to specify the voltages around meshes and calculate the mesh currents using KVL and from this deduce the branch currents using KCL. The other way, known as nodal voltage analysis, is to specify the currents injected at nodes to calculate the voltages at them using KCL and from this deduce the branch currents.

3.1.1 Mesh Current Analysis.

Mesh current analysis is illustrated by the following example:

Example 3.1.1.1

Calculate the currents in the following network.

20Ω 30Ω 80V 130V 8Ω
20Ω
30Ω
80V
130V
8Ω

Page 21 of 85

There are two meshes. Let the current round each loop be I 1 and I 2 .

20Ω 30Ω 80V 130V 8Ω I 2 I 1 Using KVL around mesh 1 we
20Ω
30Ω
80V
130V
8Ω
I 2
I 1
Using KVL around mesh 1 we can write the equation:

80-20I 1 - 8(I 1 + I 2 ) = 0

80 = 28I 1 + 8I 2

rearranging to become

Following a similar procedure around mesh 2 we can write:

130 = 8I 1 + 38I 2

The solution of these equations using Cramers Method:

Det = (28 x 38) - (8 x 8) =1000

I

1

=

80 8 130 38
80
8
130
38

Det

= 2 A

and

I

2

=

I 1 = 2A and I 2 = 3A.

28 80 8 130
28
80
8
130

Det

= 3 A

Thus the current in the 8resistor = 5A.

Read section 3.2.1 of your text book up to “This simple example has been solved” and noting:

There is a printing error in equations 3.2.1.7 and 3.2.1.9 in some textbooks. The right hand side in both equations should read 100+j0.

The equation set 3.2.1.6 and 3.2.1.7 are branch current equations but those in the set 3.2.1.8 and 3.2.1.9 are really mesh current equations.

The solution given is unclear; it is better to use Cramers Method:

Det= (2+j4)(3+j5)-(1+j0)(1+j0)=-15+j22

:

Page 22 of 85

I

I

1

2

=

=

118

+

j

34

1

+

j

0

 

100

+

j

0

3

+

j

5

 

Det

 

=

2

+

j

4

118

+

j

34

100

+

j

0

100

+

j

0

Det

.

=

17 707

j

j

18164

.

A

9 . 932

10 . 499

A

Branch current analysis should not be used in general because elimination of redundant information such as I 3 in the above textbook example is confusing. Mesh current analysis provides a more sound basis for creating a mathematical model but we need to know how many equations are needed and how to set them up. To determine how many equations are necessary first short circuit all voltage sources; the number of equations required is the number of impedance elements e minus the number of nodes v excluding the reference node. Thus in example 3.1.1 above the number of equations is 3- 1=2! simple. Setting them up just requires including each impedance element in at least one mesh; each mesh current flows in every element round the mesh with currents in adjacent meshes being added or subtracted. Fig 3.2.2A in the textbook shows a good example where the number of equations required is three i.e. e = 6 and v = 3.

Example 3.1.1.2

Find the current flow in Fig 3.1.1.2. 5Ω 10Ω 2Ω 100V 2Ω 100V 20Ω
Find the current flow in Fig 3.1.1.2.
5Ω
10Ω
2Ω
100V
2Ω
100V
20Ω

Fig 3.1.1.2

There are 5 impedance elements and 2 nodes. We therefore need three equations. 5Ω 10Ω
There are 5 impedance elements and 2 nodes. We therefore need three
equations.
5Ω
10Ω
2Ω
100V
2Ω
I
100V
I 1
20Ω
3
I 2

Page 23 of 85

The equations for each mesh are:

Mesh 1

25I 1 - 20I 2 = 100

Mesh 2

-20I 1 + 32I 2 + 2I 3 = 0

Mesh 3

2I 2 + 4I 3 = 100;

From which:

I 1 = 5.6A

, I 2 = 2A and I 3 = 24A.

The current flow in each impedance element may then be deduced easily.

3.1.2 Nodal Voltage Analysis

The objective in nodal voltage analysis is to calculate the voltage at each node and then deduce the branch currents. Consider the circuit in Fig 3.1.2.1

V V 2 1 Y 1 Y 2 Y 3 E 1 Y 5 E
V
V
2
1
Y 1
Y 2
Y 3
E 1
Y 5
E 2
Y 4

Fig 3.1.2.1

There are two nodes 1 and 2. We know from KCL that the current flowing into a node sum to zero.

For node 1:

(E 1 -V 1 )Y 1 + (V 2 - V 1 ) Y 2 + (0 - V 1 ) Y 4 = 0.

rearranging:

E 1 Y1 = (Y 1 + Y 2 + Y 4 ) V 1 - Y 2 V 2

Similarly we can write for node 2:

E 2 Y 3 = -Y 2 V 1 + (Y 2 + Y 3 +Y 5 )V 2

Noting that E 1 Y 1 and E 2 Y 3 both represent current we can solve the equations to find V 1 and V 2 .

Page 24 of 85

These equations may be represented by the figure 3.1.2.2:

Y 2 E E 2 Y 3 1 Y 1 Y 1 +Y 4 Y
Y
2
E
E
2 Y 3
1 Y 1
Y 1 +Y 4
Y 3 +Y 5

Fig 3.1.2.2

Fig 3.1.2.2 has been developed from fig 3.1.2.1 by replacing voltage sources with constant current source. The constant current source is the short circuit current at the terminals of the source. i.e.

Z
Z
short circuit current at the terminals of the source. i.e. Z E is equivalent to EY
E
E

is equivalent to

at the terminals of the source. i.e. Z E is equivalent to EY Y and; parallel
EY
EY
Y
Y

and; parallel elements Y 1 and Y 4 have been combined and so have Y 3 and Y 5 .

Example 3.1.2

Find the current flowing in each branch of fig 3.1.1.2 using nodal voltage analysis.

Answer:

.

E 1 = 100V, E 2 = 100V, Y 1 = 0.2 mho, Y 2 = 0.1mho, Y 3 =Y 5 =0.5 mho and Y 4 = 0.05mho.

Thus

 

20

= (0.2+0.1+0.05) V 1 - 0.1V 2

20

= 0.35 V 1 - 0.1V 2