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ELECTRIC POWER CALCULATIONS

ROCKY MOUNTAIN ELECTRICAL LEAGUE

OCTOBER 24, 2002 K. James Phillips, Jr., P.E. jphillips@phillipsengineers.com

K. James Phillips, Jr., P.E. jphillips@phillipsengineers.com PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC.
K. James Phillips, Jr., P.E. jphillips@phillipsengineers.com PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC.

PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com

ELECTRIC POWER CALCULATIONS

• OVERVIEW

• PER PHASE

• SHORT CIRCUIT

• PER UNIT

• HARMONICS

• PER PHASE • SHORT CIRCUIT • PER UNIT • HARMONICS PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC.

PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com

• PER PHASE • SHORT CIRCUIT • PER UNIT • HARMONICS PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com

WHY ELECTRIC POWER CALCULATIONS

• USED TO PREDICT OUTCOMES

• SHORT CIRCUITS

• HARMONICS

• VOLTAGES

• LOADS

• SHORT CIRCUITS • HARMONICS • VOLTAGES • LOADS PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC.

PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com

• SHORT CIRCUITS • HARMONICS • VOLTAGES • LOADS PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com

THE BASICS

• ALL ELECTRICAL THEORY RELATES BACK TO THE BASICS

• Volts, Amps, Ohms

THEORY RELATES BACK TO THE BASICS • Volts, Amps, Ohms V Z = I * Z

V

Z

= I * Z = V / I

I = V / Z

PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com

II

Volts, Amps, Ohms V Z = I * Z = V / I I = V
Volts, Amps, Ohms V Z = I * Z = V / I I = V

Z

V
V

SERIES COMBINATIONS

SERIES COMBINATIONS PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com Z Z 1 2 Z

PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com

Z

Z

1

2

SERIES COMBINATIONS PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com Z Z 1 2 Z

Z

COMPLEX IMPEDANCE

COMPLEX IMPEDANCE X = Z * Sin 0 R = X X/R X Z 0 R

X

= Z * Sin 0

R

=

X

X/R

X

Z 0
Z
0

R

Z

=

IMPEDANCE X = Z * Sin 0 R = X X/R X Z 0 R Z

R 2 +X 2

PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com

SHORT CIRCUIT REQUIREMENTS NEC 110-9 AND 110-10

• Articles 110-9 and 110-10

• Equipment shall have adequate interrupting rating

• Clear faults without extensive damage

• Implies must perform short circuit study

damage • Implies must perform short circuit study PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC.

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AIC RATINGS

CIRCUIT BREAKER TYPE

SHORT CIRCUIT RATING

QOB

10,000

QOB-H

22,000

QOB-VH

42,000

QOB 10,000 QOB-H 22,000 QOB-VH 42,000 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC.

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QOB 10,000 QOB-H 22,000 QOB-VH 42,000 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com

SHORT CIRCUIT AMPS (SCA)

Source

Circuit Breaker
Circuit Breaker
SHORT CIRCUIT AMPS (SCA) Source Circuit Breaker 3 Phase PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com

3 Phase

PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com

Source

Circuit Breaker
Circuit Breaker
Circuit Breaker 3 Phase PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com Source Circuit Breaker Line-Ground

Line-Ground

PER PHASE ANALYSIS

PER PHASE ANALYSIS C Ia Ic A C ~ ~ ~ ~ B Ib B Three

C

Ia Ic A C ~ ~ ~ ~ B Ib B
Ia
Ic
A
C
~
~
~ ~
B
Ib
B

Three Phase Representation

Ic A C ~ ~ ~ ~ B Ib B Three Phase Representation ~ Single Phase
Ic A C ~ ~ ~ ~ B Ib B Three Phase Representation ~ Single Phase
Ic A C ~ ~ ~ ~ B Ib B Three Phase Representation ~ Single Phase
~
~

Single Phase Representation

PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com

A

PER PHASE ANALYSIS EXAMPLE

C

Ia Ic A C ~ ~ ~ ~ B Ib B
Ia
Ic
A
C
~
~
~ ~
B
Ib
B

A

Three Phase Representation

Ic A C ~ ~ ~ ~ B Ib B A Three Phase Representation ~ Single
Ic A C ~ ~ ~ ~ B Ib B A Three Phase Representation ~ Single
Ic A C ~ ~ ~ ~ B Ib B A Three Phase Representation ~ Single
~
~

Single Phase Representation

A 480Y / 277V source is serving a balanced three phase wye resistive load of 20 ohms per phase. What is the current in phase A, B and C?

20 ohms per phase. What is the current in phase A, B and C? PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+

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PER PHASE ANALYSIS SHORT CIRCUITS

Ia Ic C A C A ~ ~ ~ ~ B Ib B
Ia
Ic
C
A
C
A
~
~
~ ~
B
Ib
B
SHORT CIRCUITS Ia Ic C A C A ~ ~ ~ ~ B Ib B Three

Three Phase Representation

C A C A ~ ~ ~ ~ B Ib B Three Phase Representation ~ Single
C A C A ~ ~ ~ ~ B Ib B Three Phase Representation ~ Single
C A C A ~ ~ ~ ~ B Ib B Three Phase Representation ~ Single
~
~

Single Phase Representation

PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com

DATA SOURCE IMPEDANCE

• THEVENIN EQUIVALANT IMPEDANCE

DATA SOURCE IMPEDANCE • THEVENIN EQUIVALANT IMPEDANCE PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com

PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com

DATA SOURCE IMPEDANCE • THEVENIN EQUIVALANT IMPEDANCE PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com

DATA TRANSFORMER IMPEDANCE

DATA TRANSFORMER IMPEDANCE PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com • TRANSFORMER IMPEDANCE
DATA TRANSFORMER IMPEDANCE PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com • TRANSFORMER IMPEDANCE

PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com

• TRANSFORMER IMPEDANCE

DATA CONDUCTOR IMPEDANCE

• CONDUCTOR IMPEDANCE

DATA CONDUCTOR IMPEDANCE • CONDUCTOR IMPEDANCE PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com

PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com

DATA CONDUCTOR IMPEDANCE • CONDUCTOR IMPEDANCE PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com

BASIC SHORT CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

I

Z source Z transformer Z conductor V 277 V .001 .01 .085
Z source
Z transformer
Z conductor
V 277 V
.001
.01
.085

Z load

2.0

I = V / Z = 277 V / (.001+.01+.085 + 2.0)

I = 277 V / 2.096 ohms

I = 132.156 Amps of load current

I = 277 V / 2.096 ohms I = 132.156 Amps of load current PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+

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BASIC SHORT CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

Short Circuit Z Z Z source transformer conductor I V Z load .001 .01 .085
Short Circuit
Z
Z
Z
source
transformer
conductor
I
V
Z
load
.001
.01
.085
2.0

I = V / Z = 277 V / (.001+.01+.085)

I = 277 V / 0.096 ohms

I = 2885.4 Amps of short circuit current

277 V / 0.096 ohms I = 2885.4 Amps of short circuit current PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS,

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SCA < AIC

CALCULATED SHORT CIRCUIT AMPS MUST BE LESS THAN AIC RATING

CALCULATED SHORT CIRCUIT AMPS MUST BE LESS THAN AIC RATING PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC.

PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com

CALCULATED SHORT CIRCUIT AMPS MUST BE LESS THAN AIC RATING PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com

CALCULATION TRICK TRANSFORMER IMPEDANCE

• VOLTAGE

• %Z

• KVA

TRICK TRANSFORMER IMPEDANCE • VOLTAGE • %Z • KVA PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC.

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TRICK TRANSFORMER IMPEDANCE • VOLTAGE • %Z • KVA PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com

CALCULATION TRICK TRANSFORMER IMPEDANCE

CALCULATION TRICK TRANSFORMER IMPEDANCE Variable voltage source Transformer A Short Circuit Percent Impedance = Percent

Variable voltage source

TRICK TRANSFORMER IMPEDANCE Variable voltage source Transformer A Short Circuit Percent Impedance = Percent

Transformer

A
A

Short Circuit

Percent Impedance = Percent rated primary voltage that causes rated base/ambient full load current to flow in the secondary of a short circuited transformer.

i.e

full load current in short circuited secondary,

the percent impedance is 5.75%

5.75 percent primary voltage causes

PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com

%Z

=

FLA

100%

SCA

SCA = (FLA * 100)

%Z

SHORT CIRCUIT CALCULATION

EXAMPLE:

1500 KVA TRANSFORMER 5.75% IMPEDANCE 480 VOLT SECONDARY

1500 KVA TRANSFORMER 5.75% IMPEDANCE 480 VOLT SECONDARY PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC.

PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com

480 VOLT SECONDARY PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com X 1500 KVA 5.75% 480 VOLTS SCAMPS?
480 VOLT SECONDARY PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com X 1500 KVA 5.75% 480 VOLTS SCAMPS?
480 VOLT SECONDARY PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com X 1500 KVA 5.75% 480 VOLTS SCAMPS?
480 VOLT SECONDARY PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com X 1500 KVA 5.75% 480 VOLTS SCAMPS?

X

480 VOLT SECONDARY PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com X 1500 KVA 5.75% 480 VOLTS SCAMPS?

1500 KVA

5.75%

480 VOLTS SCAMPS?

SHORT CIRCUIT CALCULATION

SHORT CIRCUIT CALCULATION X 1500 KVA 5.75% 480 VOLTS SCAMPS? PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC.
SHORT CIRCUIT CALCULATION X 1500 KVA 5.75% 480 VOLTS SCAMPS? PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC.
SHORT CIRCUIT CALCULATION X 1500 KVA 5.75% 480 VOLTS SCAMPS? PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC.
SHORT CIRCUIT CALCULATION X 1500 KVA 5.75% 480 VOLTS SCAMPS? PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC.
SHORT CIRCUIT CALCULATION X 1500 KVA 5.75% 480 VOLTS SCAMPS? PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC.

X

1500 KVA

5.75%

480 VOLTS SCAMPS?

SHORT CIRCUIT CALCULATION X 1500 KVA 5.75% 480 VOLTS SCAMPS? PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC.

PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com

STEP ONE:

FLA = (1500 KVA) / ( .48 KV * SQRT 3 ) FLA = 1804 AMPS

STEP TWO SCA = (1804 AMPS * 100 ) / 5.75% SCA = 31,374 AMPS

PROBLEM WITH IMPEDANCE ON TWO SIDES OF TRANSFORMER

PROBLEM WITH IMPEDANCE ON TWO SIDES OF TRANSFORMER 20 OHMS 0.8 OHMS X PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS,
PROBLEM WITH IMPEDANCE ON TWO SIDES OF TRANSFORMER 20 OHMS 0.8 OHMS X PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS,
PROBLEM WITH IMPEDANCE ON TWO SIDES OF TRANSFORMER 20 OHMS 0.8 OHMS X PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS,
PROBLEM WITH IMPEDANCE ON TWO SIDES OF TRANSFORMER 20 OHMS 0.8 OHMS X PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS,

20 OHMS

PROBLEM WITH IMPEDANCE ON TWO SIDES OF TRANSFORMER 20 OHMS 0.8 OHMS X PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS,

0.8 OHMS

WITH IMPEDANCE ON TWO SIDES OF TRANSFORMER 20 OHMS 0.8 OHMS X PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC.
WITH IMPEDANCE ON TWO SIDES OF TRANSFORMER 20 OHMS 0.8 OHMS X PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC.

X

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Z1 (VIEWED FROM SECONDARY)

= Z1 * (1 / 10) 2 = 20 Ù * .01 = .002 Ù

10 : 1 RATIO

Z2 (VIEWED FROM SECONDARY)

= Z2 * (10 / 1) 2 = 0.8 Ù * 100 = 80 Ù

WHY PER UNIT?

• Calculations that involve impedances at several voltage levels via transformers, can become complicated due to the transformer turns ratio.

• Per unit eliminates need to “reflect” impedances to different voltages.

need to “reflect” impedances to different voltages. PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC.

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PER UNIT EXAMPLE

Example:

A base number of 500 is used. The following is a summary of per unit values for various numbers:

Number

Per Unit

Per Cent

250

0.5 p.u.

50%

500

1.0 p.u.

100%

1000

2.0 p.u

200%

50% 500 1.0 p.u. 100% 1000 2.0 p.u 200% PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC.

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BASE QUANTITIES

Current (p.u.)

=

Actual Current

Voltage (p.u.)

Base Current

= Actual Voltage

Base Voltage

Impedance (p.u.) = Actual Impedance

Voltage Base Voltage Impedance (p.u.) = Actual Impedance Power (p.u.) PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC.

Power (p.u.)

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Base Impedance

= Actual Power

Base Power

BASE QUANTITIES

• The per unit system requires two base quantities to be selected:

– Base kVA - Fixed Quantity

– Base Voltage - Variable Based on Voltage

• Two base quantities are calculated:

– Base Impedance - function of base voltage

– Base Current - function of base voltage

of base voltage – Base Current - function of base voltage PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC.

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BASE KVA (SELECTED)

BASE KVA (MVA):

In electric power systems, the base quantity that remains constant throughout the system is the base kVA. The kVA base is not affected by voltage levels or transformer turns ratios. The amount of kVA entering the primary of a transformer is the same as the kVA leaving the secondary of the transformer (neglecting transformer losses).

Any arbitrary number may be selected as the kVA base, however, most electric utilities use a 100,000 kVA base commonly referred to as a 100 MVA base.

a 100,000 kVA base commonly referred to as a 100 MVA base. PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC.

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BASE VOLTAGE (SELECTED)

BASE VOLTAGE:

The base voltage will vary depending on the voltage level of the system. The base voltage is generally the nominal voltage of a particular voltage level.

PER UNIT VOLTAGE

V p.u.

=

Example:

V actual / V base

V actual = V base * V p.u.

V

base

= 13.8 kV

V

actual = 13.4 kV

V

p.u.

=

13.4 kV / 13.8 kV = 0.97 p.u.

13.4 kV V p.u. = 13.4 kV / 13.8 kV = 0.97 p.u. PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS,

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BASE CURRENT (CALCULATED)

• I base = MVA base * 1000 / (sqrt 3 * kV base )

• I base = kVA base / (sqrt 3 * kV base )

PER UNIT CURRENT

I p.u.

Example:

Bases:

I actual / I base

=

100 MVA, 13.8 kV

I actual = I base * I p.u.

I base = (100 MVA * 1000) / (sqrt 3 * 13.8 kV) = 4183 Amps Actual Amps = 2500 Amps

/ (sqrt 3 * 13.8 kV) = 4183 Amps Actual Amps = 2500 Amps I p.u.

I p.u.

=

I actual / I base

PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com

=

2500 / 4183 = 0.598 p.u.

BASE IMPEDANCE (CALCULATED)

BASE IMPEDANCE (CALCULATED) • Z base = kV b a s e 2 / MVA b

• Z base

=

kV base 2

/ MVA base

Per Unit Impedance:

Bases:

100 MVA, 13.8kV

Actual Impedance = 0.32 + j0.27 ohms

Z

base = 13.8 kV 2 / 100 MVA = 1.90 ohms

Z

p.u. = 0.168 + j0.142 p.u.

/ 100 MVA = 1.90 ohms Z p.u. = 0.168 + j0.142 p.u. PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS,

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TABLE OF BASE VALUES 100 MVA - NOMINAL VOLTAGES

Voltage (kV)

Impedance

Current

(Ohms)

(Amps)

765

5852.25

75.47

500

2500.00

115.47

345

1190.25

167.35

230

529.00

251.02

138

190.40

418.37

115

132.25

502.04

69

47.61

836.74

34.5

11.90

1673.48

23

5.29

2510.22

13.8

1.90

4183.70

23 5.29 2510.22 13.8 1.90 4183.70 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC.

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BASIC SHORT CIRCUIT ANALYSIS REVIEW

Short Circuit Z Z Z source transformer conductor I V Z load .001 .01 .085
Short Circuit
Z
Z
Z
source
transformer
conductor
I
V
Z
load
.001
.01
.085
2.0

I = V / Z = 277 V / (.001+.01+.085)

I = 277 V / 0.096 ohms

I = 2885.4 Amps of short circuit current

277 V / 0.096 ohms I = 2885.4 Amps of short circuit current PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS,

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SHORT CIRCUIT ANALYSIS PER UNIT

Z Z Z source transformer conductor V I 1.0 p.u. .002p.u. .03p.u. .098p.u.
Z
Z
Z
source
transformer
conductor
V
I
1.0 p.u.
.002p.u.
.03p.u.
.098p.u.
conductor V I 1.0 p.u. .002p.u. .03p.u. .098p.u. V base = 13.8 kV, 3 Phase MVA

V base = 13.8 kV, 3 Phase MVA base = 100

Assume impedances are all reactive i.e. “X” only. No “R” component.

I = V / Z = 1.0 p.u. / (.002+.03+.098 p.u.)

I = 1.0 p.u. / 0.13 p.u.

I = 7.69 p.u. short circuit current

I base = (MVA base * 1000) / (Sqrt 3 * kV base )

I base = ( 100 MVA * 1000 ) / (Sqrt 3 * 13.8 kV)

I base = 4183.7 Amps

I actual = I p.u. * I base

I actual = 7.69 p.u. * 4183.7 Amps

I actual = 32,172.6 Amps

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Z load

HARMONICS

DEFINITION

• Harmonic Order - integer multiple of the fundamental frequency.

– Harmonic Order

Frequency

• 1 ( fundamental)

60Hz

• 2

120Hz

• 3

180Hz

• 1 ( fundamental) 60Hz • 2 120Hz • 3 180Hz • 4 • N PHILLIPS

• 4

• N

PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com

240Hz

N * Fundamental

HARMONICS - 5TH

HARMONICS - 5TH Fundamental (60 Hz) 5th Harmonic (300 Hz) PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com
Fundamental (60 Hz)
Fundamental (60 Hz)

5th Harmonic (300 Hz)

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NON LINEAR LOAD

NON LINEAR LOAD PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com
NON LINEAR LOAD PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com

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SOURCE OF HARMONICS THE LOAD

• Solid State Motor Drives

• Rectifiers

• UPS systems

• Computer power supplies

• Fluorescent lighting electronic ballast's

supplies • Fluorescent lighting electronic ballast's PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC.

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supplies • Fluorescent lighting electronic ballast's PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com

Magnitude

FREQUENCY SPECTRUM

Magnitude FREQUENCY SPECTRUM 1 3 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com 5 7 9 11 Harmonic Order
Magnitude FREQUENCY SPECTRUM 1 3 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com 5 7 9 11 Harmonic Order
Magnitude FREQUENCY SPECTRUM 1 3 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com 5 7 9 11 Harmonic Order
Magnitude FREQUENCY SPECTRUM 1 3 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com 5 7 9 11 Harmonic Order
Magnitude FREQUENCY SPECTRUM 1 3 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com 5 7 9 11 Harmonic Order
Magnitude FREQUENCY SPECTRUM 1 3 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com 5 7 9 11 Harmonic Order
Magnitude FREQUENCY SPECTRUM 1 3 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com 5 7 9 11 Harmonic Order
Magnitude FREQUENCY SPECTRUM 1 3 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com 5 7 9 11 Harmonic Order
Magnitude FREQUENCY SPECTRUM 1 3 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com 5 7 9 11 Harmonic Order
Magnitude FREQUENCY SPECTRUM 1 3 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com 5 7 9 11 Harmonic Order
Magnitude FREQUENCY SPECTRUM 1 3 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com 5 7 9 11 Harmonic Order
Magnitude FREQUENCY SPECTRUM 1 3 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com 5 7 9 11 Harmonic Order
Magnitude FREQUENCY SPECTRUM 1 3 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com 5 7 9 11 Harmonic Order
Magnitude FREQUENCY SPECTRUM 1 3 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com 5 7 9 11 Harmonic Order
Magnitude FREQUENCY SPECTRUM 1 3 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com 5 7 9 11 Harmonic Order
Magnitude FREQUENCY SPECTRUM 1 3 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com 5 7 9 11 Harmonic Order
Magnitude FREQUENCY SPECTRUM 1 3 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com 5 7 9 11 Harmonic Order
Magnitude FREQUENCY SPECTRUM 1 3 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com 5 7 9 11 Harmonic Order
Magnitude FREQUENCY SPECTRUM 1 3 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com 5 7 9 11 Harmonic Order
Magnitude FREQUENCY SPECTRUM 1 3 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com 5 7 9 11 Harmonic Order
Magnitude FREQUENCY SPECTRUM 1 3 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com 5 7 9 11 Harmonic Order
Magnitude FREQUENCY SPECTRUM 1 3 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com 5 7 9 11 Harmonic Order
Magnitude FREQUENCY SPECTRUM 1 3 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com 5 7 9 11 Harmonic Order
Magnitude FREQUENCY SPECTRUM 1 3 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com 5 7 9 11 Harmonic Order
Magnitude FREQUENCY SPECTRUM 1 3 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com 5 7 9 11 Harmonic Order
Magnitude FREQUENCY SPECTRUM 1 3 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com 5 7 9 11 Harmonic Order
Magnitude FREQUENCY SPECTRUM 1 3 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com 5 7 9 11 Harmonic Order
Magnitude FREQUENCY SPECTRUM 1 3 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com 5 7 9 11 Harmonic Order
Magnitude FREQUENCY SPECTRUM 1 3 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com 5 7 9 11 Harmonic Order
Magnitude FREQUENCY SPECTRUM 1 3 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com 5 7 9 11 Harmonic Order
Magnitude FREQUENCY SPECTRUM 1 3 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com 5 7 9 11 Harmonic Order
Magnitude FREQUENCY SPECTRUM 1 3 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com 5 7 9 11 Harmonic Order
Magnitude FREQUENCY SPECTRUM 1 3 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com 5 7 9 11 Harmonic Order
Magnitude FREQUENCY SPECTRUM 1 3 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com 5 7 9 11 Harmonic Order
Magnitude FREQUENCY SPECTRUM 1 3 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com 5 7 9 11 Harmonic Order
Magnitude FREQUENCY SPECTRUM 1 3 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com 5 7 9 11 Harmonic Order
Magnitude FREQUENCY SPECTRUM 1 3 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com 5 7 9 11 Harmonic Order
Magnitude FREQUENCY SPECTRUM 1 3 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com 5 7 9 11 Harmonic Order
Magnitude FREQUENCY SPECTRUM 1 3 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com 5 7 9 11 Harmonic Order
Magnitude FREQUENCY SPECTRUM 1 3 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com 5 7 9 11 Harmonic Order
Magnitude FREQUENCY SPECTRUM 1 3 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com 5 7 9 11 Harmonic Order
Magnitude FREQUENCY SPECTRUM 1 3 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com 5 7 9 11 Harmonic Order
Magnitude FREQUENCY SPECTRUM 1 3 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com 5 7 9 11 Harmonic Order
Magnitude FREQUENCY SPECTRUM 1 3 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com 5 7 9 11 Harmonic Order
Magnitude FREQUENCY SPECTRUM 1 3 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com 5 7 9 11 Harmonic Order
Magnitude FREQUENCY SPECTRUM 1 3 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com 5 7 9 11 Harmonic Order
Magnitude FREQUENCY SPECTRUM 1 3 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com 5 7 9 11 Harmonic Order
Magnitude FREQUENCY SPECTRUM 1 3 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com 5 7 9 11 Harmonic Order
Magnitude FREQUENCY SPECTRUM 1 3 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com 5 7 9 11 Harmonic Order
Magnitude FREQUENCY SPECTRUM 1 3 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com 5 7 9 11 Harmonic Order
Magnitude FREQUENCY SPECTRUM 1 3 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com 5 7 9 11 Harmonic Order
Magnitude FREQUENCY SPECTRUM 1 3 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com 5 7 9 11 Harmonic Order
Magnitude FREQUENCY SPECTRUM 1 3 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com 5 7 9 11 Harmonic Order
Magnitude FREQUENCY SPECTRUM 1 3 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com 5 7 9 11 Harmonic Order
Magnitude FREQUENCY SPECTRUM 1 3 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com 5 7 9 11 Harmonic Order
Magnitude FREQUENCY SPECTRUM 1 3 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com 5 7 9 11 Harmonic Order
Magnitude FREQUENCY SPECTRUM 1 3 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com 5 7 9 11 Harmonic Order
Magnitude FREQUENCY SPECTRUM 1 3 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com 5 7 9 11 Harmonic Order
Magnitude FREQUENCY SPECTRUM 1 3 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com 5 7 9 11 Harmonic Order
Magnitude FREQUENCY SPECTRUM 1 3 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com 5 7 9 11 Harmonic Order
Magnitude FREQUENCY SPECTRUM 1 3 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com 5 7 9 11 Harmonic Order
Magnitude FREQUENCY SPECTRUM 1 3 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com 5 7 9 11 Harmonic Order
Magnitude FREQUENCY SPECTRUM 1 3 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com 5 7 9 11 Harmonic Order
Magnitude FREQUENCY SPECTRUM 1 3 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com 5 7 9 11 Harmonic Order
Magnitude FREQUENCY SPECTRUM 1 3 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com 5 7 9 11 Harmonic Order
Magnitude FREQUENCY SPECTRUM 1 3 PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com 5 7 9 11 Harmonic Order

1

3

PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com

5

7

9

11

Harmonic Order

HARMONIC RELATED PROBLEMS

• Blown Capacitors / Capacitors Fuses

• Transformer Overheating

• Neutral Overheating

• Motor / Generator Overheating

• Equipment Misoperation

• Circuit Breaker Misoperation

• Communication Interference

Circuit Breaker Misoperation • Communication Interference PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC.

PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com

EFFECTS OF CAPACITORS

• Without capacitors, the circuit is predominantly inductive.

• When capacitors are added, an L-C circuit results.

• When capacitors are added, an L-C circuit results. PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC.

PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com

• When capacitors are added, an L-C circuit results. PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com

SYSTEM IMPEDANCE INDUCTIVE ONLY

Example:

Power factor correction requirements dictate that two 600 kvar capacitor banks be installed at the substation bus. What does the system impedance look like before adding capacitors?

the system impedance look like before adding capacitors? PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC.

PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com

capacitors? PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com Short Circuit Capacity = 30MVA Harmonic Source

Short Circuit Capacity = 30MVA

capacitors? PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com Short Circuit Capacity = 30MVA Harmonic Source

Harmonic

Source

Z (Ohms

SYSTEM IMPEDANCE INDUCTIVE ONLY

Z = jwl, w = 2pi*f, f = frequency

IMPEDANCE INDUCTIVE ONLY Z = jwl, w = 2pi*f, f = frequency 1 2 3 4
IMPEDANCE INDUCTIVE ONLY Z = jwl, w = 2pi*f, f = frequency 1 2 3 4

1

2

3

4

PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

Frequency (harmonic order)

SIMPLIFIED RESONANCE CALCULATIONS

Example:

Power factor correction requirements dictate that two 600 kvar capacitor banks be installed at the substation bus. The utility short circuit current is 30 MVA (36,084 Amps @ 480V). What is the resonance frequency when the 600 kvar bank is on line and what is the resonance frequency when both 600 kvar banks are on line.

resonance frequency when both 600 kvar banks are on line. PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC.

PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com

ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com Short Circuit Capacity = 30MVA 2 x 600 kvar Capacitor Bank

Short Circuit Capacity = 30MVA

www.phillipsengineers.com Short Circuit Capacity = 30MVA 2 x 600 kvar Capacitor Bank Harmonic Source 5 TH

2 x 600 kvar Capacitor Bank

Harmonic Source

5 TH , 7 TH, 11 TH , 13 TH

SIMPLIFIED RESONANCE CALCULATIONS

SIMPLIFIED RESONANCE CALCULATIONS Source Power Impedance Factor Capacitor X L X C h r = MVA
Source Power Impedance Factor Capacitor X L X C
Source
Power
Impedance
Factor
Capacitor
X L
X C
h r = MVA sc = Mvar cap
h r =
MVA sc
=
Mvar cap
X c X sc
X c
X sc

Harmonic

Source

MVA sc

bank location.

Mvar cap = Mvar rating of the capacitor bank

= short circuit MVA at the capacitor

PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com

Z

SIMPLIFIED RESONANCE CALCULATIONS

1200 kvar 600 kvar 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
1200 kvar
600 kvar
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
(Ohms
)
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 (Ohms )

h r =

Frequency (harmonic order)

MVA sc = 30 MVA sc Mvar cap 0.600 Mvar cap
MVA sc
=
30
MVA sc
Mvar cap
0.600 Mvar cap

=

7

order) MVA sc = 30 MVA sc Mvar cap 0.600 Mvar cap = 7 30 MVA

30

MVA sc

1.200 Mvar cap

PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com

=

5

RESULTS

• PRODUCES SEVERE DISTORTION

• DESIGN CAPACITOR AS HARMONIC FILTER

SEVERE DISTORTION • DESIGN CAPACITOR AS HARMONIC FILTER PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC.

PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com

IEEE-519

• Sets limits for voltage and current distortion at PCC

• PCC is the point of common coupling

distortion at PCC • PCC is the point of common coupling PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC.

PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com

distortion at PCC • PCC is the point of common coupling PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com

QUESTIONS ???

CONTACT INFORMATION:

PHILLIPS ENGINEERS + CONSULTANTS, INC. 4450 BELDEN VILLAGE ST., N.W. SUITE 309 CANTON, OHIO 44718 Tel: 330.491.0261 Fax: 330.491.0265 jphillips@phillipsengineers.com

DESIGN ENGINEERING ANALYSIS FEASABILITY MANAGEMENT TRAINING

DESIGN ENGINEERING ANALYSIS FEASABILITY MANAGEMENT TRAINING PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC.
DESIGN ENGINEERING ANALYSIS FEASABILITY MANAGEMENT TRAINING PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC.

PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC. www.phillipsengineers.com