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497 vizualizări14 paginiStrain Energy

Oct 25, 2014

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Strain Energy

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497 vizualizări

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Strain Energy

© All Rights Reserved

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The Ritz Method.

Strain Energy

energy capacity to do work

potential energy stored energy as a result of work previously done e.g. wind-up toys,

spinning tops

strain energy is a form of potential energy that is stored in materials that have

undergone/ been subjected to strain

when the strained material returns to its original dimensions, it does work

strain energy energy stored within a material when work has been done on the material

assumption: material remains within elastic region so that all the energy is recovered i.e.

no permanent deformations

thus

with reference to the diagram above: work done by (a gradually applied load) in

straining material = area under the load-extension curve

the area above the curve is known as the complementary energy

Strain Energy due to Normal (direct) Stress

consider the elemental length of bar, , with coss-sectional area

Youngs modulus,

From which we get,

Substituting this into

gives

For a bar of length , total strain energy is

If the bar has constant c/s area

Normal stress,

so

Strain Energy due to Shear

Putting the above expressions together gives shear strain energy,

Strain energy

Shear modulus

From which we get

Total energy from shear

Now

Strain Energy due to Bending

Strain energy becomes

Total strain energy from bending

For constant bending moment

Bending theory equation:

Strain energy =work done=

now

So

Strain Energy due to Torsion

From simple torsion theory

Total strain energy from torsion

Since T is constant in most practical applications

Also from simple torsion theory

So we have

Now the polar moment of inertia for a shaft

Also the volume for a bar is

Substituting these into the above expression for strain energy gives

Torsion theory

Angle of twist is in radians

Strain energy = work done =

*

Variational Theorems

As stated before there are two ways of approaching FE Method

One is fairly straight-forward and easy to understand

Physical approach (a.k.a. model based simulation)

start with a physical system/ structure

break it down into elements

reconstruct by assembly process using nodes

find the solution (deformations, etc.)

FEM- take a complex

problem that is difficult to solve

break it down into

a simple one that can be solved

Physical model or

Model based simulation

Break down into

Elements and nodes

Solve for displacements

at nodes and interpolate

across element to get strains and

stresses

Governing DE which often

Cannot be solved directly

Approximate

solution* BUT enforcing BCs and

substituting back into DE does not yield

sufficient # of linearly independent

equations to solve for unknown

coefficients

to FEM

Variational

Methods

e.g. Ritz

Generate sufficient linearly

independent equations to solve

for coefficients

What do you do when you have something like this? how do you break up a ODE/PDE

so you can solve it?

)

Here we have a Differential Equation (DE) or governing equation

This equation must be manipulated in order to generate a discrete FE model

Formulation of a variational or weak form of the governing equation yield FEM

equations which can then be solved

This is the Mathematical approach

Because DEs are difficult to solve so we seek approximate solutions using various

methods that must minimise error in solution

In fact FEM assumes that the solution of the DE is a piecewise continuous function

Two formulations (i.e. formulation of FE equations) which are widely used are the

Galerkin Method and the Ritz Method

We will consider the Ritz Method which is derived using the Principle of Minimum

Potential Energy

Formulation- process by which governing equation is broken down into a system of

equations (represented in matrix form) which can then be solved by computers

Equations are solved element by element at the nodes

Quick Review of Differential Equations

Linear Differential Equations have the general form:

e.g.

)

this DE will have two boundary conditions (BCs)

two types of BCs (i) Neumann/ Natural Boundary Conditions (NBCs) &

(ii) Dirichlet/ Essential Boundary Conditions (EBCs)

NBCs consist of higher order derivatives and are not sufficient to solve the DE

completely

EBCs are sufficient to solve the DE completely

Thus, the DE above can be solved completely if one of the two conditions is met:

(a) EBC prescribed at both ends i.e.

(b) EBC prescribed at one end and NBC at the same/other end i.e.

and

Now

)

will have four BCs of which two must be EBCs

Can be solved completely if:

(a)

at both ends or

(b)

at the other

In this case the NBCs are

and

Potential Energy

A system which is constrained at certain portions will deform when subjected to loading

These deformations are unknowns and are precisely what we seek in FEM i.e.

deformations are linked to strains, and strains are linked to stresses

After loading the structure attains a new state and the Potential Energy (PE) of the system

(elastic) is given by

where is the PE, is the strain energy and is the work done on the body by external

forces (-ve sign implies energy lost by external forces)

There are many possible deformed/deflected shapes of the loaded structure so the

question becomes: How do we know which is the correct deflected shape?

Total potential energy attains stationary value (maximum or minimum) at the actual

displacement.

The Principle of Minimum Potential Energy

Every applied load will have a unique deformed shape at equilibrium and this unique

shape occurs when the PE is an extreme value (either maximum or minimum)

When the PE is a minimum the equilibrium state is said to be stable

Among all the displacement states of a conservative system that satisfy compatibility and

boundary restraints, those that also satisfy equilibrium make the potential energy stationary.

or

A system is in a state of equilibrium only when its potential energy is minimal.

or

For conservative structural systems, of all the kinematically* admissible deformations, those

corresponding to the equilibrium state extremise (i.e. maximise or minimise) the total

potential energy. If the extremum is a minimum, the equilibrium state is stable. (*satisfy

geometric boundary conditions)

Assumptions: (i) strains and displacements are small

(ii) no loss of energy in static loading process i.e.

(ii) system is conservative

Principle of Minimum Potential Energy is the basis for displacement FEM

Example

Use the Principle of Minimum Potential Energy to solve for the equilibrium values of

are applied.

Solution

The deflection (elongation or contraction) of the springs can be written as follows

Now so

[

For equilibrium, must be an extremum with respect to all DOF i.e.

These can be written in matrix form as

[

] {

} {

}

i.e , where K is the stiffness matrix

From this we can get the

s :

This set of simultaneous equations is now amenable to solution by computers

NB For elasticity problems

[]{} {}

Property [] Behaviour {} Action {}

Elastic Stiffness Displacement Force

Thermal Conductivity Temperature Heat source

Fluid Viscosity Velocity Body force

Variational Methods- A General Discussion

A variational method is one in which an approximate solution to a DE,

statement

Variational methods:

property action

behaviour

unknowns

1. provide means by which DEs can be solved; DE is put in weighted integral form and

then an approximate solution over the domain assumed to be a linear combination

and unknown

coefficients

2. differ from each other in the choice of the weight function and integral statement

used which in turn dictates choice of approximate functions

Advantages

yield sufficient number of linearly independent equations for determination of

coefficients

Disadvantages

solution is piecewise over entire domain

difficult to construct approximate function for problems with arbitrary domains

coefficients are arbitrary

NOTE Variational Methods are not FEM- they are part of the pre-processing that leads to

FEM

weak form variational form total potential energy

there is a need to construct a weak form of DE and classify BCs

weak form weighted integral statement of DE in which the differentiation is distributed

between the dependent variable and the weight function and includes BCs

a weak form exists for all problems

The Variational Principle

In variational calculus we look for a function that minimises a functional

A functional is an equation which does not depend on coordinates but on functions. The

variables of the equation are functions

Variational Formulation

The variational statement can take several forms

Where

An example is

*

[]

It is essentially describes the potential energy of the system under investigation

The Ritz Method

The Ritz Method is a variational method

The exact solution of the governing equation is unknown but an approximate solution is

sought

The fundamental idea behind this method is to find an approximate solution which

minimizes a certain functional and having the form

Where

,

are approximate/trial

functions

The above Ritz function is a linear combination of N known functions that have unknown

coefficients

These coefficients are adjustable and can be varied until the lowest energy configuration

is found i.e.

The trial functions must satisfy the essential BCs

Ritz Equations for the Coefficients

When the approximate solution is substituted into the functional and integrated, we get

as a function of the Ritz coefficents

i.e.

(

The Ritz coefficient are adjusted such that i.e. is minimized with respect to the

parameters

This can be written as

The parameters are independent so

Are the N Ritz equations which give us the N Ritz parameters

If the functional is a quadratic the variation is given as

and are bilinear and linear forms

The Ritz approximation becomes

and

So

[

The system of linear Ritz equations

Or

The Finite Element Method

FEM seeks a continuous (often polynomial) approximation of DE solution over each element

in terms of nodal values and assembly of element equations by imposing interelement

continuity of solution and balance of forces

Approximate solution takes the form

provides a systematic procedure to the for derivation of approximation functions over

sub-regions of the domain

approximate functions often called interpolation functions and the degree of the

function depends on number of nodes in element and order of DE being solved

Advantages

geometrically complex domains of a problem are represented as a collection of

geometrically simple sub-domains finite elements

an approximate solution is derived over each element using the idea that ay continuous

function can be represented by linear combinations of algebraic polynomials

algebraic relations among unknown coefficients obtained by satisfying the governing

equation over each element

unknown coefficients represent actual values of the solution at the nodes

So we can say that :

FEM is essentially an element by element application of a variational method e.g. Ritz

Method

although there is only one FEM, every problem solved using FEM can have several

different models depending on the method used to generate equations

Exact solution

nodes

linear

quadratic

Ritz piecewise

continuous

Exact solution

FEM element by

element solution

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