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2

1 Iron is a transition element.


(a) Which of the following statements about transition elements are correct?
Tick three boxes.
The metals are highly coloured e.g. yellow green blue.
The metals ha!e low melting "oints.
Their com"ounds are highly coloured.
Their com"ounds are colourless.
The elements and their com"ounds are often used as catalysts.
They ha!e more than one oxidation state.
(#)
(b) (i) In which $eriod in the $eriodic Table is iron to be found?
(1)
(ii) %se the $eriodic Table to work out the number of "rotons and the number of
neutrons in one atom of iron.
number of "rotons & number of neutrons & (1)
(c) Iron is extracted in a blast furnace. The list below gi!es some of the substances used
or formed in the extraction.
carbon monoxide coke iron ore limestone slag
(i) Which substance is a mineral containing largely calcium carbonate?
(1)
(ii) Which substance is formed when im"urities in the ore react with calcium oxide?
(1)
(iii) Which substance is also called hematite?
(1)
#
(d) 'tate two functions of the coke used in the blast furnace.
(e) (ost of the iron is con!erted into mild steel or stainless steel. )i!e one use for each.
mild steel
(2)
stainless steel (2)
Total * 12
+
2 'ome reactions of metals W , - and . are gi!en below.
metal reaction with water
reaction with dilute
hydrochloric acid
W
/ few bubbles form slowly in cold
water.
0igorous reaction. )as gi!en off.
,
0igorous reaction. (etal melts.
)as gi!en off.
1x"losi!e reaction. 'hould not
be attem"ted.
- 2o reaction. 2o reaction.
.
3oes not react with cold water.
4ot metal reacts with steam.
'teady fi55ing.
(a) /rrange these metals in order of reacti!ity.
most reacti!e
least reacti!e (2)
(b) Which of these metals could be
(i) magnesium
(1)
(ii) co""er
(1)
6
(c) The e7uation for the reaction of , with cold water is gi!en below.
2,(s) 8 24
2
9(l) 2,94(a7) 8 4
2
(g)
(i
)
3
e
s
c
ribe the test you would use to show that the gas e!ol!ed is hydrogen.
(ii) 4ow could you show that the water contained a com"ound of the ty"e ,94?
(1)
(iii) In which grou" of the $eriodic Table does metal , belong?
(2)
(1)
(i!) The ore of , is its chloride. 'uggest how metal , could be extracted from its
chloride.
(2)
Total *1:
;
# (a) <our bottles were known to contain a7ueous ammonia dilute hydrochloric acid sodium
hydroxide solution and !inegar which is dilute ethanoic acid. The bottles had lost their
labels. The "4 !alues of the four solutions were 1 + 1: and 1#.
=om"lete the table.
solution "4
a7ueous ammonia
dilute hydrochloric acid
sodium hydroxide solution
!inegar
(2)
(b) The following a""aratus was set u" to in!estigate the electrical conducti!ity of dilute
acids.
+
_
carbon
anode
bulb/lamp
carbon
cathode
dilute sulphuric acid
bubbles of
oxygen gas
bubbles of
hydrogen gas
3ilute sul"huric acid is a strong acid. If it was re"laced by a weak acid what two
differences in the obser!ations would you ex"ect to make?
(c) When nitric acid is added to water the following reaction occurs.
(2)
429
#
8 4
2
9
29
-
8 4
#
9
8
)i!e the name and the formula of the "article which is transferred from nitric acid to
water.
name
formula (2)
>
(d) This 7uestion is concerned with the following oxides.
aluminium oxide /l
2
9
#
calcium oxide =a9
carbon
=9
monoxide
=9
#
magnesium oxide (g9
sul"hur dioxide '9
2
(i) Which of the abo!e oxides will react with hydrochloric acid but not with a7ueous
sodium hydroxide?
(1)
(ii) Which of the abo!e oxides will react with a7ueous sodium hydroxide but not with
hydrochloric acid?
(1)
(iii) Which of the abo!e oxides will react both with hydrochloric acid and with a7ueous
sodium hydroxide?
(1)
(i!) Which of the abo!e oxides will react neither with hydrochloric acid nor with
a7ueous sodium hydroxide?
(1)
Total *1:
?
+ The first three elements in )rou" I0 are
carbon
silicon
germanium.
(a) The element germanium has a diamond@ty"e structure. 3escribe the structure of
diamond. / diagram is acce"table.
(2)
(b) %nlike diamond gra"hite is soft and is a good conductor of electricity.
(i) 1x"lain why gra"hite has these "ro"erties.
(ii)
)
i
!
e

a

u
s
e

o
f

g
r
a
"
h
i
t
e

t
h
a
t

d
e
"ends on one of these "ro"erties. "ro"erty
(#)
use (1)
(c) =arbon dioxide and silicon(I0) oxide ha!e similar formulae but different ty"es of
structure.
(i) )i!e the formulae of these oxides.
(1)
(ii) 4ow are their structures different?
(2)
(d) /ll these elements form com"ounds with hydrogen called hydrides. The saturated
hydrides of carbon are the alkanes. $redict the formula of the hydride of germanium
which contains two germanium atoms.
(1)
Total *1:
A
6 'ul"huric acid is made by the =ontact "rocess in the following se7uence of reactions.
sul"hur sul"hur dioxide sul"hur trioxide sul"huric acid
(a) (i) 4ow is sul"hur dioxide made from sul"hur?
(ii) 'ul"hur dioxide has other uses.
Why is it used in the manufacture of "a"er?
(1)
(iii) which catalyst is used for manufacturing sulfur trioxide?
(1)
(b) The e7uation for a stage of the =ontact "rocess is
2'9
2
8 9
2
2'9
#
The "ercentage of sul"hur trioxide in the e7uilibrium mixture !aries with tem"erature.
(1)
percentage of
sulphur trioxide
temperature
(i) 4ow does the "ercentage of sul"hur trioxide in the e7uilibrium mixture !ary as the
tem"erature increases? =ircle the correct answer.
increases stays the same decreases (1)
(ii) Is the forward reaction in the e7uilibrium 2'9
2
8 9
2
2'9
#
exothermic or
endothermic? )i!e a reason for your choice.
(2)
1:
(iii) 1x"lain mentioning both rate and "ercentage yield why the tem"erature used in
the =ontact "rocess is +6:B=.
(2)
(i!) 3escribe how the sul"hur trioxide is changed into concentrated sul"huric acid.
(2)
Total *1:
11
; (a) 1xothermic reactions "roduce heat energy.
/n im"ortant fuel is methane natural gas. The e7uation for its combustion is as follows.
=4
+
8 29
2
=9
2
8 24
2
9
(i) In chemical reactions bonds are broken and new bonds are formed.
%sing this reaction gi!e an exam"le of
a bond that is broken
a bond that is formed. (2)
(ii) 1x"lain using the idea of bonds forming and breaking why this reaction is
exothermic that is it "roduces heat energy.
(2)
(b) 'ome radioacti!e isoto"es are used as nuclear fuels.
(i) what is isoto"e?
(2)
(ii) )i!e a use of radioacti!e isoto"es.
(1)
12
(c) =ell reactions are both exothermic and redox. They "roduce electrical energy as well
as
hea
t
energy.
(i) The diagram shows a sim"le cell.
voltmeter
V
zinc
electrode
becomes
thinner
dilute
sulphuric acid
iron
electrode
bubbles of
hydrogen form
Which substance in this cell is the reductant and which ion is the oxidant?
reductant
oxidant (2)
(ii) 'how anode reaction
(1)
(iii) 'how cathode reaction
(1)
1#
(d) 'ay what is formed at the cathode and at the anode during the electrolysis of following
substances. /ssume that carbon electrodes were used each time. -ou donCt need to write
electrode e7uations.
a) (olten lead bromide
b) (
o
lten 5inc chloride
(1)
c) 'odium iodide solution
(1)
d) (olten sodium iodide
(1)
Total *16
1+
> /nswer the following 7uestions.
a) 3raw dots@and Dcross diagrams to show arrangement of the electrons in (i) a chlorine atom (ii) a
chloride ion (iii) a chlorine molecule.
(+)
b) 3
i
c
h
l
o
r
o
methane =42=l2 is a li7uid with a low boiling "oint used in "aint stri""ers. 3raw a dots@and@crosses
diagram to show the bonding in dichloromethane. -ou need only show the electrons in the outer le!els of
the atoms.
(#)
c) 3ichloromethane contains strong carbon@hydrogen and carbon@chlorine bonds. 3es"ite the "resence of
these strong bonds dichloromethane is a li7uid. 1x"lain why.
(#)
Total * 1:
8 This 7uestion is about the chemistry of chlorine and some of its com"ounds.
(a) 3escribe, with the aid of an ionic e7uation the reaction of chlorine with a7ueous "otassium bromide. 1x"lain
why this reaction in!ol!es the reduction of chlorine.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
(#)
(b) (agnesium reacts with chlorine to form magnesium chloride.
3raw diagrams to show the electronic structures and charges of both ions "resent in magnesium chloride.
(2)
(c) 'il!er chloride is an insoluble salt.
9utline the "re"aration of "ure dry sil!er chloride starting from solid sil!er nitrate.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................
...........................
...............................................................................................................
...........................
E+F
(d) 'tate one en!ironmental "roblem associated with the molecule =
2
<
#
=l
#
.
...............................................................................................................
...........................
E
1
F

Total * 1:
9 =o""er is "urified by the electrolysis of a7ueous co""er(II) sulfate using co""er electrodes.
(a) 1x"lain how this "rocess is carried out in the laboratory and gi!e rele!ant e7uations for the electrode
reactions.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... (+)
(b) /7ueous co""er(II) sulfate can also be electrolysed using carbon electrodes.
(i) Write an e7uation for the reaction which takes "lace at the anode in this electrolysis.
.............................................................................................................................. (1)
(ii) 1x"lain why the colour of the co""er(II) sulfate solution fades during this electrolysis.
..................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. (1)
(c) =o""er is a transition element.
(i) 2ame two transition elements, or com"ounds of transition elements, which are used as catalysts. <or
each catalyst name an industrial "roduct made using the catalyst.
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. (2)
(ii) 9ther than acting as catalysts state two "ro"erties which are s"ecific to transition elements.
..................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. (2) ETotalG 1:F
1: (e n d e l e e ! "r o d u c e d t h e f i r s t $e r i o d i c Tabl e my a r r a n gi n g t h e e l e me n t s i n o r d e r o f
t h e i r a t o mi c ma s s . Wh e n a r go n wa s d i s c o ! e r e d i t s a t o mi c ma s s t u r n e d o u t t o b e
s l i g h t l y h i g h e r t h a n t h a t o f " o t a s s i u m. I n t h i s i n s t a n c e (e n d e l e e ! r e ! e r s e d t h e
u s u a l o r d e r i n t h e $e r i o d i c Tab l e .
(endelee! 9rder /tomic mass 9rder
)rou" : )rou" 1 )rou" 2 )rou" : )rou" 1 )rou" 2
2e 2a (g 2e 2a (g
/r H =a H /r =a
a) 'tate one "hysical "ro"erty of "otassium that suggests that it should be in the same )rou" as sodium rather with
neon
(1)
b) )i!e any one chemical "ro"erty of "otassium that is similar to that of sodium. 'ay what the "otassium reacts
with and what is formed. Write the balanced e7uation for the reaction.
(#)
c) /nswer the following 7uestions.
i. 3raw dots@and@cross diagrams to show the electronic structures of sodium and "otassium atoms.
(2)
ii. What ha""ens to these structures when sodium or "otassium reacts to form com"ounds?
(2)
iii. 1x"lain why "otassium is more reacti!e than sodium.
(1)
d) /rgon is chemically unreacti!e its molecules are monatomic. What is a monatomic molecule?
1x"lain why argonCs molecules are monatomic.
(#)
Total*12
11 The 7 u e s t i o ns r e f e r t o t h e e l e c t r o ni c s t r uc t u r e s b e l o w. 3o n C t wo r r y i f s o me of t h e s e
a r e u n f a mi l i a r t o yo u . /l l o f t h e s e a r e t h e e l e c t r o n i c s t r u c t u r e s o f ne u t r a l a t o ms .
/ 2 +
I 2 ? ?
= 2 ? 1 ? 1 ? >
3 2 ? 1 ? 1 ? ?
1 2 ? ? 2
< 2 ? 1 ? # 2 1 ? +
a) Wh i c h o f t h e s e a t o ms a r e i n g r o u " + of t he $e r i o d i c Tab l e ?
(1)
b) Wh i c h o f t h e s e s t r u c t u r e s r e "r e s e nt s c a r b o n ?
(1)
c) Wh i c h o f t h e s e s t r u c t u r e s r e "r e s e nt s a n e l e me n t i n g r o u " > of t h e $e r i o d i c Tab l e ?
(1)
d) Wh i c h o f t h e s e s t r u c t u r e s r e "r e s e nt n o b l e g a s e s ?
(1)
e) 2a me e l e me n t 1.
(1)
f) 4o w ma n y a t o ms d o e s e l e me n t < h a ! e ? 2a me t h e e l e me n t .
(2)
g) 1lement ) has one more electron than element I. draw a diagram to show the electrons are
arranged in an atom of ).
(2)
Total*A
DATA SHEET
The Periodic Table of the Elements
Group
I II III IV V VI VII 0
1
H
Hydrogen
1
4
He
Helium

!
Li
"ithium
#
$
Be
%eryllium
4
11
B
%oron
&
1
C
'arbon
(
14
N
)itrogen
!
1(
O
*xygen
+
1$

,luorine
$
-
Ne
)eon
1-
#
Na
.odium
11
4
!"
/agnesium
1
!
Al
0luminium
1#
+
Si
.ilicon
14
#1
P
1hosphorus
1&
#
S
.ulphur
1(
#&2&
Cl
'hlorine
1!
4-
Ar
0rgon
1+
#$
#
1otassium
1$
4-
Ca
'alcium
-
4&
Sc
.candium
1
4+
Ti
3itanium

&1
$
Vanadium
#
&
Cr
'hromium
4
&&
!n
/anganese
&
&(
e
Iron
(
&$
Co
'obalt
!
&$
Ni
)ic4el
+
(4
Cu
'opper
$
(&
%n
5inc
#-
!-
Ga
6allium
#1
!#
Ge
6ermanium
#
!&
As
0rsenic
##
!$
Se
.elenium
#4
+-
Br
%romine
#&
+4
#r
7rypton
#(
+&
&b
8ubidium
#!
++
Sr
.trontium
#+
+$
'
9ttrium
#$
$1
%r
5irconium
4-
$#
Nb
)iobium
41
$(
!o
/olybdenum
4
Tc
3echnetium
4#
1-1
&u
8uthenium
44
1-#
&h
8hodium
4&
1-(
Pd
1alladium
4(
1-+
A"
.ilver
4!
11
Cd
'admium
4+
11&
In
Indium
4$
11$
Sn
3in
&-
1
Sb
0ntimony
&1
1+
Te
3ellurium
&
1!
I
Iodine
&#
1#1
(e
:enon
&4
1##
Cs
'aesium
&&
1#!
Ba
%arium
&(
1#$
La
"anthanum
&!
;
1!+
Hf
Hafnium
!
1+1
Ta
3antalum
!#
1+4
)
3ungsten
!4
1+(
&e
8henium
!&
1$-
Os
*smium
!(
1$
Ir
Iridium
!!
1$&
Pt
1latinum
!+
1$!
Au
6old
!$
-1
H"
/ercury
+-
-4
Tl
3hallium
+1
-!
Pb
"ead
+
-$
Bi
%ismuth
+#
Po
1olonium
+4
At
0statine
+&
&n
8adon
+(
r
,rancium
+!
(
&a
8adium
++
!
Ac
0ctinium
+$
;&+<!1 "anthanoid series
$-<1-# 0ctinoid series
a
7ey (
b
a = relative atomic mass
( = atomic symbol
b = proton >atomic? number
14-
Ce
'erium
&+
141
Pr
1raseodymium
&$
144
Nd
)eodymium
(-
Pm
1romethium
(1
1&-
Sm
.amari um
(
1&
Eu
@uropium
(#
1&!
Gd
6adolinium
(4
1&$
Tb
3erbium
(&
1(
D*
Aysprosium
((
1(&
Ho
Holmium
(!
1(!
Er
@rbium
(+
1($
Tm
3hulium
($
1!#
'b
9tterbium
!-
1!&
Lu
"utetium
!1
#
Th
3horium
$-
Pa
1rotactinium
$1
#+
+
Branium
$
Np
)eptunium
$#
Pu
1lutonium
$4
Am
0mericium
$&
Cm
'urium
$(
B,
%er4elium
$!
Cf
'alifornium
$+
Es
@insteinium
$$
m
,ermium
1--
!d
/endelevium
1-1
No
)obelium
1-
Lr
"aCrencium
1-#
3he volume of one mole of any gas is 4 dm
#
at room temperature and pressure >r2t2p2?2
1;