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Computer network (Modue 1) |DPP|

TOPOLOGY
What is a Topology?
The physca topoogy of a network refers to the conguraton of cabes, computers, and
other perpheras. Physca topoogy shoud not be confused wth ogca topoogy whch s
the method used to pass nformaton between workstatons. Logca
Main Types of Physical Topologies
The foowng sectons dscuss the physca topooges used n networks and other reated
topcs.
Lnear Bus
Star
Star-Wred Rng
Tree
Consderatons When Choosng a Topoogy
Summary Chart
Linear Bus
A near bus topoogy conssts of a man run of cabe wth a termnator at each end (See g.
1). A nodes (e server, workstatons, and perpheras) are connected to the near cabe.
Ethernet and LocaTak networks use a near bus topoogy.
Fg. 1. Lnear Bus topoogy
Advantages of a Linear Bus Topology
Easy to connect a computer or perphera to a near bus.
Requres ess cabe ength than a star topoogy.
Disadvantages of a Linear Bus Topology
Entre network shuts down f there s a break n the man cabe.
Termnators are requred at both ends of the backbone cabe.
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Dmcut to dentfy the probem f the entre network shuts down.
Not meant to be used as a stand-aone souton n a arge budng.
tar
A star topoogy s desgned wth each node (e server, workstatons, and perpheras)
connected drecty to a centra network hub or concentrator (See g. 2).
Data on a star network passes through the hub or concentrator before contnung to ts
destnaton. The hub or concentrator manages and contros a functons of the network. It
aso acts as a repeater for the data ow. Ths conguraton s common wth twsted par
cabe; however, t can aso be used wth coaxa cabe or ber optc cabe.
Fg. 2. Star topoogy
Advantages of a tar Topology
Easy to nsta and wre.
No dsruptons to the network then connectng or removng devces.
Easy to detect fauts and to remove parts.
Disadvantages of a tar Topology
Requres more cabe ength than a near topoogy.
If the hub or concentrator fas, nodes attached are dsabed.
More expensve than near bus topooges because of the cost of the
concentrators.
The protocos used wth star conguratons are usuay Ethernet or LocaTak. Token Rng
uses a smar topoogy, caed the star-wred rng.
tar!Wired "ing
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Computer network (Modue 1) |DPP|
A star-wred rng topoogy may appear (externay) to be the same as a star topoogy.
Internay, the MAU (mutstaton access unt) of a star-wred rng contans wrng that aows
nformaton to pass from one devce to another n a crce or rng (See g. 3). The Token
Rng protoco uses a star-wred rng topoogy.
Tree
A tree topoogy combnes characterstcs of near bus and star topooges. It conssts of
groups of star-congured workstatons connected to a near bus backbone cabe (See g.
4). Tree topooges aow for the expanson of an exstng network, and enabe schoos to
congure a network to meet ther needs.
Fg. 4. Tree topoogy
Advantages of a Tree Topology
Pont-to-pont wrng for ndvdua segments.
Supported by severa hardware and software venders.
Disadvantages of a Tree Topology
Overa ength of each segment s mted by the type of cabng used.
If the backbone ne breaks, the entre segment goes down.
More dmcut to congure and wre than other topooges.
#!$!% "ule
A consderaton n settng up a tree topoogy usng Ethernet protoco s the 5-4-3 rue. One
aspect of the Ethernet protoco requres that a sgna sent out on the network cabe reach
every part of the network wthn a speced ength of tme. Each concentrator or repeater
that a sgna goes through adds a sma amount of tme. Ths eads to the rue that between
any two nodes on the network there can ony be a maxmum of 5 segments, connected
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Computer network (Modue 1) |DPP|
through 4 repeaters/concentrators. In addton, ony 3 of the segments may be popuated
(trunk) segments f they are made of coaxa cabe. A popuated segment s one whch has
one or more nodes attached to t . In Fgure 4, the 5-4-3 rue s adhered to. The furthest two
nodes on the network have 4 segments and 3 repeaters/concentrators between them.
Ths rue does not appy to other network protocos or Ethernet networks where a ber
optc cabng or a combnaton of a ber backbone wth UTP cabng s used. If there s a
combnaton of ber optc backbone and UTP cabng, the rue s smpy transated to 7-6-5
rue.
&onsiderations When &hoosing a Topology'
Money. A near bus network may be the east expensve way to nsta a
network; you do not have to purchase concentrators.
Length of ca(le needed. The near bus network uses shorter engths of
cabe.
)uture gro*th. Wth a star topoogy, expandng a network s easy done by
addng another concentrator.
&a(le type. The most common cabe n schoos s unsheded twsted par,
whch s most often used wth star topooges.
u++ary &hart'
Physical
Topology
&o++on
&a(le
&o++on
Protocol
Linear Bus
Twsted Par
Coaxa
Fber
Ethernet
LocaTak
tar
Twsted Par
Fber
Ethernet
LocaTak
tar!Wired
"ing
Twsted Par Token Rng
Tree
Twsted Par
Coaxa
Fber
Ethernet
P"OTO&OL
A protoco s a set of rues that governs the communcatons between
computers on a network. These rues ncude gudenes that reguate the
foowng characterstcs of a network: access method, aowed physca
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topooges, types of cabng, and speed of data transfer.
See the Topoogy and Cabng sectons of ths tutora for more nformaton.
The most common protocos are:
Ethernet
LocaTak
Token Rng
FDDI
ATM
,thernet
1. The Ethernet protoco s by far the most wdey used.
2. Ethernet uses an access method caed CSMA/CD (Carrer Sense Mutpe
Access/Coson Detecton).
3. Ths s a system where each computer stens to the cabe before
sendng anythng through the network. If the network s cear, the
computer w transmt. If some other node s aready transmttng on
the cabe, the computer w wat and try agan when the ne s cear.
Sometmes, two computers attempt to transmt at the same nstant.
When ths happens a coson occurs.
4. Each computer then backs oh and wats a random amount of tme
before attemptng to retransmt. Wth ths access method, t s norma to
have cosons. However, the deay caused by cosons and
retransmttng s very sma and does not normay ehect the speed of
transmsson on the network.
The Ethernet protoco aows for near bus, star, or tree topooges. Data can be
transmtted over wreess access ponts, twsted par, coaxa, or ber optc cabe at
a speed of 10 Mbps up to 1000 Mbps.
)ast ,thernet
To aow for an ncreased speed of transmsson, the Ethernet protoco has
deveoped a new standard that supports 100 Mbps. Ths s commony caed Fast
Ethernet.
Giga(it ,thernet
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Computer network (Modue 1) |DPP|
The most recent deveopment n the Ethernet standard s a protoco that has a
transmsson speed of 1 Gbps. Ggabt Ethernet s prmary used for backbones on a
network at ths tme.
LocalTal-
LocaTak s a network protoco that was deveoped by Appe Computer, Inc. for
Macntosh computers. The method used by LocaTak s caed CSMA/CA (Carrer
Sense Mutpe Access wth Coson Avodance). It s smar to CSMA/CD except that
a computer sgnas ts ntent to transmt before t actuay does so. LocaTak
adapters and speca twsted par cabe can be used to connect a seres of
computers through the sera port. The LocaTak protoco aows for near bus, star,
or tree topooges usng twsted par cabe.
A prmary dsadvantage of LocaTak s speed. Its speed of transmsson s ony 230
Kbps.
To-en "ing
The Token Rng protoco was deveoped by IBM n the md-1980s. The access
method used nvoves token-passng. In Token Rng, the computers are connected so
that the sgna traves around the network from one computer to another n a ogca
rng. A snge eectronc token moves around the rng from one computer to the
next. If a computer does not have nformaton to transmt, t smpy passes the
token on to the next workstaton. If a computer wshes to transmt and receves an
empty token, t attaches data to the token. The token then proceeds around the rng
unt t comes to the computer for whch the data s meant. At ths pont, the data s
captured by the recevng computer. The Token Rng protoco requres a star-wred
rng usng twsted par or ber optc cabe. It can operate at transmsson speeds of
4 Mbps or 16 Mbps. Due to the ncreasng popuarty of Ethernet, the use of Token
Rng n schoo envronments has decreased.
)DD.
Fber Dstrbuted Data Interface (FDDI) s a network protoco that s used prmary to
nterconnect two or more oca area networks, often over arge dstances. The
access method used by FDDI nvoves token-passng. FDDI uses a dua rng physca
topoogy. Transmsson normay occurs on one of the rngs; however, f a break
occurs, the system keeps nformaton movng by automatcay usng portons of the
second rng to create a new compete rng. A ma|or advantage of FDDI s speed. It
operates over ber optc cabe at 100 Mbps.
ATM
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Computer network (Modue 1) |DPP|
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) s a network protoco that transmts data at a
speed of 155 Mbps and hgher. ATM works by transmttng a data n sma packets
of a xed sze; whereas, other protocos transfer varabe ength packets. ATM
supports a varety of meda such as vdeo, CD-quaty audo, and magng. ATM
empoys a star topoogy, whch can work wth ber optc as we as twsted par
cabe.
ATM s most often used to nterconnect two or more oca area networks. It s aso
frequenty used by Internet Servce Provders to utze hgh-speed access to the
Internet for ther cents. As ATM technoogy becomes more cost-ehectve, t w
provde another souton for constructng faster oca area networks.
Protocol u++ary
Protocol &a(le peed Topology
,thernet
Twsted Par, Coaxa,
Fber
10 Mbps
Lnear Bus, Star,
Tree
)ast
,thernet
Twsted Par, Fber 100 Mbps Star
LocalTal- Twsted Par .23 Mbps
Lnear Bus or
Star
To-en
"ing
Twsted Par
4 Mbps - 16
Mbps
Star-Wred Rng
)DD. Fber 100 Mbps Dua rng
ATM Twsted Par, Fber
155-2488
Mbps
Lnear Bus, Star,
Tree
/et*or- Model
The O. /et*or- Model
The OSI (Open System Interconnecton) 7-ayer reference mode denes a concept
of movng nformaton between netwroked computers. It descrbes how nformaton
ows from one end-user appcaton through a netwrok nto another appcaton. Ths
mode s consdered the prmary archtectura mode for nter-computer
communcaton. Each of the 7 OSI ayers are reasonaby sef-contaned, and hande
a separate group of tasks.
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Computer network (Modue 1) |DPP|
Layer 0 1 Physical
1. The Physca ayer denes the eectrca, mechanca, and a physca
hardware means of sendng and recevng data tsef.
2. It ncudes cabes, cards, and a physca aspects. It conveys the bt stream
through the network at the eectrca and mechanca eve.
3. The physca ayer speccatons aso dene characterstcs, such as votage
eves, tmng of mpuses, physca data rates, max transmsson dstance, and
physca connectors.
4. Physca ayer mpementatons can be categorzed as ether WAN or LAN
speccatons.
Layer 2 ! Data Lin-
1. The data nk ayer denes the format of data, and provdes ts reabe
transt across the physca network nk.
2. At ths ayer, bts are encoded/decoded nto data packets (wth protoco-
specc headers, ncudng checksums, source/destnaton addresses, etc.).
3. The ayer factates transmsson protoco management, ow contro, frame
synchronzaton, and handes any errors n the physca ayer.
4. It contans two sub ayers - MAC (Media Access Control), and LLC (Logical
Link Control).
5. The IEEE MAC speccaton denes MAC addresses, whch enabe mutpe
devces to unquey dentfy each other at the data nk ayer. The MAC
subayer manages protoco access to the physca network medum. It contros
how a network devce gans access to, and permsson to transmt data.
6. LLC manages communcatons between devces over a snge nk of a
network. It contros frame synchronzaton, ow contro and error checkng.
Layer % 1 /et*or-
1. The Network ayer provdes network addressng (whch dhers from the data
nk ayer MAC address).
2. It aso factates swtchng, routng, error handng, congeston conto, and
packet sequencng.
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Computer network (Modue 1) |DPP|
3. It aows for denng the ogca network ayout, and vrua ogca paths for
transmttng data between network nodes.
4. The Internetwork Protocol (IP) operates at ths ayer. IP denes network
addresses n a way that route seecton can be determned systematcay by
comparng the source network address wth the destnaton address, and
appyng the subnet mask.
5. Routers operate at ths ayer to determne how to forward packets. Most of
the desgn and conguraton of netwok ayout s at the networkng ayer.
Layer $ 1 Transport
1. The Transport ayer segments data (nto packets) for transport across the
network.
2. It ensures compete data transfer by provdng ow contro, mutpexng,
error checkng and error recovery (retransmssons).
3. Fow contro manages data transmsson between devces, so that the
transmttng devce does not send more data than the recevng devce can
process.
4. Mutpexng aows for data from dherent appcatons to be transmtted
through a snge physca nk. Such vrtua "crcuts" are estabshed,
mantaned and termnated by the transport ayer.
5. The most common transport ayer protocos are TCP (Transmission Control
Protocol) and UDP (User Datagram Protocol), wth reabty and speed beng
the man dherence between them.
Layer # 1 ession
1. The Sesson ayer generay deas wth sesson and connecton coordnaton.
2. It estabshes, manages and termnates communcatons sessons. Sessons
consst of servce requests and responses that occur between appcatons n
dherent network devces.
3. Sesson protoco mpementatons ncude RPC (Remote Procedure Call), ZIP
(Zone Inormation Protocol), A!!leTalk, "CP ("ession Control Protocol).
Layer 3 1 Presentation
1. The Presentaton ayer deas wth converson and codng of data from
appcaton to network format.
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2. It ensures the appcaton ayer data can be readabe by other systems'
appcaton ayer. Ths ayer formats and encrypts data, provdng
compatbty between systems.
3. It s sometmes caed the #s$nta% la$er#.
Layer 4 1 Application
1. The Appcaton ayer supports and nteracts drecty wth software
appcatons.
2. Its functons ncude dentfyng communcaton partners, determnng
resource avaabty and synchronzng communcaton.
3. Some exampes of appcaton ayer mpementatons ncude &TP (&ile
Transer Protocol), Telnet, "MTP ("im!le Mail Transer Protocol).
The T&P5.P /et*or- Model
The TCP/IP protoco sute forms the bass of the Internet. It s the most wdey used
form of networkng between computers. TCP/IP s a combnaton of protocos at
dherent ayers that s desgned around smpe 4-ayer scheme. It combnes/spts
some ad|acent OSI ayers, and omts some features. The 4-ayer TCP/IP mode s aso
known as the DARPA model, named after the U.S. government agency that ntay
deveoped TCP/IP. The 4 ayers are as foows:
Layer 0 1 Lin-
The Lnk ayer denes the devce drver and network hardware (network nterface
card).
Layer 2 1 /et*or-
The Network ayer handes basc communcaton, addressng and routng. IP, ICMP,
ARP and IGMP protocos are at the network ayer.
Layer % 1 Transport
The Transport ayer handes ow of data among appcatons. It segments data nto
packets for transport over the network. TCP and UDP operate at the transport ayer.
Layer $ 1 Application
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The Appcaton ayer handes detas of the partcuar end-user appcatons.
Commony used TCP/IP appcatons ncude Tenet, FTP, SMTP, SNMP, DNS, RIP, NFS,
NTP, Traceroute.
Model Architecture &o+parison
O. Model T&P5.P 6DA"PA7 Model
48 Application layer
$8 Application layer - Tenet, FTP, SMTP, DNS,
RIP, SNMP
38 Presentation layer
#8 ession layer
$8 Tranport layer %8 Transport layer - TCP, UDP
%8 /et*or- layer
28 /et*or- layer 6.nternet layer7 - IP, IGMP,
ICMP, ARP
28 Data Lin- layer
08 Lin- layer 6/et*or- .nterface layer7 -
Ethernet, Token Rng, Frame Reay, ATM
08 Physical layer
,9a+ple /et*or-s
The sub|ect of computer networkng covers many dherent knds of networks, arge
and sma, we known and ess we known. They have dherent goas, scaes, and
technooges. In the foowng sectons, we w ook at some exampes, to get an
dea of the varety one nds n the area of computer networkng.
We w start wth the Internet, probaby the best known network, and ook at ts
hstory, evouton, and technoogy. Then we w consder ATM, whch s often used
wthn the core of arge (teephone) networks. Techncay, t s qute dherent from
the Internet, contrastng ncey wth t. Next we w ntroduce Ethernet, the
domnant oca area network. Fnay, we w ook at IEEE 802.11, the standard for
wreess LANs.
The .nternet
The Internet s not a network at a, but a vast coecton of dherent networks that
use certan common protocos and provde certan common servces. It s an
unusua system n that t was not panned by anyone and s not controed by
anyone. To better understand t, et us start from the begnnng and see how t has
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deveoped and why. For a wonderfu hstory of the Internet,
The A"PA/,T
ARPA seected BBN, a consutng rm n Cambrdge, Massachusetts, and n
December 1968, awarded t a contract to bud the subnet and wrte the subnet
software. BBN chose to use specay moded Honeywe DDP-316 mncomputers
wth 12K 16-bt words of core memory as the IMPs. The IMPs dd not have dsks,
snce movng parts were consdered unreabe. The IMPs were nterconnected by 56-
kbps nes eased from teephone companes. Athough 56 kbps s now the choce of
teenagers who cannot ahord ADSL or cabe, t was then the best money coud buy.
The software was spt nto two parts: subnet and host. The subnet software
conssted of the IMP end of the host-IMP connecton, the IMP-IMP protoco, and a
source IMP to destnaton IMP protoco desgned to mprove reabty.
/)/,T
By the ate 1970s, NSF (the U.S. Natona Scence Foundaton) saw the enormous
mpact the ARPANET was havng on unversty research, aowng scentsts across
the country to share data and coaborate on research pro|ects. However, to get on
the ARPANET, a unversty had to have a research contract wth the DoD, whch
many dd not have. NSF's response was to desgn a successor to the ARPANET that
woud be open to a unversty research groups. Each supercomputer was gven a
tte brother, consstng of an LSI-11 mcrocomputer caed a fuzzba. The fuzzbas
were connected wth 56-kbps eased nes and formed the subnet, the same
hardware technoogy as the ARPANET used. The software technoogy was dherent
however: the fuzzbas spoke TCP/IP rght from the start, makng t the rst TCP/IP
WAN.
NSF aso funded some (eventuay about 20) regona networks that connected to
the backbone to aow users at thousands of unverstes, research abs, brares,
and museums to access any of the supercomputers and to communcate wth one
another.
Tradtonay (meanng 1970 to about 1990), the Internet and ts predecessors had
four man appcatons:
1. ,!+ail8 The abty to compose, send, and receve eectronc ma has been
around snce the eary days of the ARPANET and s enormousy popuar. Many
peope get dozens of messages a day and consder t ther prmary way of
nteractng wth the outsde word, far outdstancng the teephone and sna
ma. E-ma programs are avaabe on vrtuay every knd of computer these
days.
2. /e*s8 Newsgroups are specazed forums n whch users wth a common
nterest can exchange messages. Thousands of newsgroups exst, devoted to
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technca and nontechnca topcs, ncudng computers, scence, recreaton,
and potcs. Each newsgroup has ts own etquette, stye, and customs, and
woe betde anyone voatng them.
3. "e+ote login8 Usng the tenet, rogn, or ssh programs, users anywhere on
the Internet can og on to any other machne on whch they have an account.
4. )ile transfer8 Usng the FTP program, users can copy es from one machne
on the Internet to another. Vast numbers of artces, databases, and other
nformaton are avaabe ths way.
&onnection!Oriented /et*or-s' :82#; )ra+e "elay; and ATM
:82# and )ra+e "elay
Our rst exampe of a connecton-orented network s X.25, whch was the rst
pubc data network. It was depoyed n the 1970s at a tme when teephone servce
was a monopoy everywhere and the teephone company n each country expected
there to be one data network per country-thers. To use X.25, a computer rst
estabshed a connecton to the remote computer, that s, paced a teephone ca.
Ths connecton was gven a connecton number to be used n data transfer packets
(because mutpe connectons coud be open at the same tme). Data packets were
very smpe, consstng of a 3-byte header and up to 128 bytes of data. The header
conssted of a 12-bt connecton number, a packet sequence number, an
acknowedgement number, and a few msceaneous bts. X.25 networks operated
for about a decade wth mxed success.
In the 1980s, the X.25 networks were argey repaced by a new knd of network
caed frame reay. The essence of frame reay s that t s a connecton-orented
network wth no error contro and no ow contro. Because t was connecton-
orented, packets were devered n order (f they were devered at a). The
propertes of n-order devery, no error contro, and no ow contro make frame
reay akn to a wde area LAN. Its most mportant appcaton s nterconnectng LANs
at mutpe company omces. Frame reay en|oyed a modest success and s st n
use n paces today.
Asynchronous Transfer Mode
Yet another, and far more mportant, connecton-orented network s ATM
(Asynchronous Transfer Mode). The reason for the somewhat strange name s that n
the teephone system, most transmsson s synchronous (cosey ted to a cock),
and ATM s not.
,thernet
Both the Internet and ATM were desgned for wde area networkng. However, many
companes, unverstes, and other organzatons have arge numbers of computers
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that must be connected. Ths need gave rse to the oca area network. In ths
secton we w say a tte bt about the most popuar LAN, Ethernet.
In passng, t s worth mentonng that Ethernet (IEEE 802.3) s not the ony LAN
standard. The commttee aso standardzed a token bus (802.4) and a token rng
(802.5). The need for three more-or-ess ncompatbe standards has tte to do wth
technoogy and everythng to do wth potcs. At the tme of standardzaton,
Genera Motors was pushng a LAN n whch the topoogy was the same as Ethernet
(a near cabe) but computers took turns n transmttng by passng a short packet
caed a token from computer to computer. A computer coud ony send f t
possessed the token, thus avodng cosons. Genera Motors announced that ths
scheme was essenta for manufacturng cars and was not prepared to budge from
ths poston. Ths announcement notwthstandng, 802.4 has bascay vanshed
from sght.
Wireless LA/s' <=2800
Amost as soon as notebook computers appeared, many peope had a dream of
wakng nto an omce and magcay havng ther notebook computer be connected
to the Internet. Consequenty, varous groups began workng on ways to accompsh
ths goa. The most practca approach s to equp both the omce and the notebook
computers wth short-range rado transmtters and recevers to aow them to
communcate. Ths work rapdy ed to wreess LANs beng marketed by a varety of
companes.
The troube was that no two of them were compatbe. Ths proferaton of standards
meant that a computer equpped wth a brand X rado woud not work n a room
equpped wth a brand Y base staton. Fnay, the ndustry decded that a wreess
LAN standard mght be a good dea, so the IEEE commttee that standardzed the
wred LANs was gven the task of drawng up a wreess LAN standard. The standard
t came up wth was named 802.11. A common sang name for t s WF. It s an
mportant standard and deserves respect, so we w ca t by ts proper name,
802.11.
Trans+ission Media
Trans+ission Media s the medum through whch the data s transferred from one
pace to
another.Networks are connected by some sort of wrng /cabng or even wreess
nk that acts as a
network transmsson medum that carres sgnas between computers.
.+portance of Trans+ission Media
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The choce of the medum s very mportant snce t ahects:
Network cost,
Maxmum operatng speed,
And error rates.
Network meda shoud be:
Durabe,
Reabe,
Inexpensve,
Immune to nose,
And easy to nsta, mantan, and recongure.
Types of trans+ission +edia
>nguided
1) Ar
Guided
2) Magnetc Meda
3) Coaxa cabe
4) Twsted par cabe
5) Fbre optc cabe
07 Air 6*ireless7'
The transmsson of data s performed usng radio waves, infrared, or laser
light.
Advantage'
Emnates cabng.
Disadvantages:
Need of an unobstructed ne-of-sght path between nodes.
Lght sgna are susceptbe to nterference from fog, and smoke.
Data can be ntercepted (securty probems).
27 Magnetic Media:
One of the most common ways to transport data from one pace to another s to
wrte t on the magnetc tape or oppy and physcay transport t to the destnaton
machne physcay.
%7 &oa9ial &a(le'
Coaxa cabe conssts of a core of copper wre surrounded by nsuaton, a braded
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Computer network (Modue 1) |DPP|
meta shedng, and an outer cover.
)unctions'
The core of coaxa cabe carres the eectronc sgnas that make up the data.
Insuatng ayer: Surroundng the core s a deectrc nsuatng ayer that separates
t from the wre mesh.
Wre mesh acts as a ground and protects the core from eectrca nose and cross
tak. At one tme, coaxa cabe was the most wdey used network cabng. There
were a coupe of reasons for coaxa cabes wde usage.
It was reatvey nexpensve
It s ght
It s exbe and
Easy to work wth
,9a+ple'
Teevson cabe s a form of coaxa cabe.
Types of &oa9ial ca(le'
There are two types of coaxa cabe:
1. 10Base5 / Thcknet cabe: It s an RG/U-8 coaxa cabe. It was the orgna
Ethernet cabe. It s no onger n use n modern LANs.
2. 10Base2 / Thnnet cabe: It s an RG/U-58 coaxa cabe. It has a smaer dameter
than Thcknet. It repaced Thcknet.
The type of coaxa cabe you seect depends on the needs of your partcuar
network.
&oa9ial!&a(le &onnection ?ard*are
Both thnnet and thcknet cabe use a connecton component, known as a B/&
connector, to make the connectons between the cabe and the computers.
There are severa mportant components n the BNC (Brtsh Nava Connector" or
Bayonet Ne-Counceman) famy, ncudng
BNC cabe connector
BNC T connector
BNC barre connector
BNC termnator
$7 T*isted pair ca(le
Twsted-par cabe conssts of two or four nsuated copper wres twsted around
each other.
It s the most commony and wdey used cabe n the network today.
The tota number of pars n a cabe vares.
The twstng cances out eectrca nose from ad|acent pars and from other
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Computer network (Modue 1) |DPP|
sources such as motor, reays and transformers.
Twsted-par cabng uses "@!$# connectors to connect to a computer. These are
smar to "@!00 teephone connectors.
/ote' Athough R|-11 and R|-45 connectors ook ake at rst gance; there s cruca
dherence between them. The R|-45 connector s sghty arger and w not t nto
the R|-11 teephone |ack.
>se t*isted!pair ca(le if'
Your LAN s under budget constrants.
You want a reatvey easy nstaaton n whch computer connectons are smpe.
The advantages of TP is that they are'
Avaabe n many forms at ow prces.
Reatvey easer to nsta.
Used extensvey n teephone nes.
Do not use t*isted!pair ca(le if'
Your LAN requres a hgh eve of securty and you must be absoutey sure of data
ntegrty.
You want to transmt data over ong dstance at hgh speeds.
Types of T*isted!pair ca(le
There are two types of twsted par
1. Sheded twsted-par (STP)
2. Unsheded twsted-par (UTP)
hielding'
Shedng means protecton, n the cabe, shedng means the woven or stranded
meta mesh protecton (or other matera) that surrounds some types of cabe.
Shedng protects transmtted data by absorbng stray eectronc sgnas, caed
nose, so that they do not get onto the cabe and dstort the data.
,.A5T.A tandard'
The standards for UTP and STP are gven by EIA/ TIA (Eectronc Industres
assocaton/
Teecommuncatons Industry Assocaton). These organzatons |onty deveoped
EIA/TIA-
568 standard, whch s used wordwde.
>nshielded T*isted Pair 6>TP7
UTP cabe conssts to two or four nsuated copper wres.
UTP speccatons govern how many twsts are permtted per foot of cabe.
The number of twsts aowed depends on the purpose to whch the cabe w be
Used
UTP s partcuary susceptbe to cross tak, but the greater the number of twsts per
foot of cabe, the more protecton aganst cross tak.
&AT,GO"., of >TP &a(le
EIA/TIA-568 standard for UTP cabe casses the cabe nto the foowng categores.
&ategory 0'
Ths refers to tradtona UTP teephone cabe that can carry voce but not data
transmsson. Most teephone cabe pror to 1983 was category 1 cabe.
&ategory 2'
Ths category certes UTP cabe for data transmsson up to 4 megabts per second
(Mbps). It conssts of four-twsted Pars of copper wre.
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Computer network (Modue 1) |DPP|
&ategory %'
Ths category certes UTP cabe for data transmsson up to 16 Mbps. It conssts of
four twsted pars of copper wre wth three twsted per foot. It can be used for
Ethernet, fast Ethernet and token rng.
&ategory $'
Ths category certes UTP cabe for data transmsson up to 20 Mbps. It conssts of
four twsted pars of copper wre. It can be used for Ethernet, fast Ethernet and
token rng.
&ategory #'
Ths category certes UTP cabe for data transmsson up to 100 Mbps. It conssts of
four twsted pars of copper wre.
/ote' Some other categores aso exst namey, Category 6, Category 7, Category 6
/ E and Category 7 / F, but they are not yet standardzed by EIA/TIA.
hielded T*isted Pair
STP cabe uses a woven copper- brad |acket that s more protectve and of a
hgher quaty than the |acket used by UTP.
STP aso uses a fo wrap around each of the wre pars. Ths gves STP exceent
shedng to protect the transmtted data from outsde nterference, whch n turn
aows t to support hgher transmsson rates over onger dstances then UTP.
#7 )i(er optic &a(le
Instead of usng eectrcay (eectrc sgnas) to send data, ber optcs cabe uses
light.
It works on the prncpe of TOTAL INTERNAL REFLECTION.
&o+position of &a(le
The cabes are made of gass bers, each thnner than a human har, that can
gude
ght beams for very ong dstances.
An optca ber conssts of an extremey thn cynder of gass, caed the core,
surrounded by another ayer of gass, known as the cladding.
The bers are sometmes made of pastc. Pastc s easer to nsta, but cannot
carry
the ght puses for as ong a dstance as gass.
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Computer network (Modue 1) |DPP|
Types of )i(er Optic &a(le
An important characteristic of Fibre Optics is Refraction. Refraction is the
characteristic of a matserial to either pass or reflect light. When light passes through a medium,
it "bends" as it passes from one medium to the other. An eample of this is !hen !e loo" into a pond of
!ater. #f the angle of incidence is small, the light ra$s are reflected and do not pass into the
!ater. #f the angle of incident is great, light passes through the media but is bent or refracted. Optical
Fibres !or" on the principle that the core refracts the light and the cladding reflects the light. %he core
refracts the light and guides the light along its path. %he cladding reflects an$ light bac" into the core and
stops light from escaping through it & it bounds the media'
Optical %ransmission (odes %here are 3 primar$ t$pes of transmission modes using optical fibre.
%he$ are a) *tep #nde b) +rade #nde c) *ingle (ode

Step Index has a large core the light ra$s tend to bounce around, reflecting off the cladding, inside the
core. %his causes some ra$s to ta"e a longer or shorted path through the core. *ome ta"e the direct path
!ith hardl$ an$ reflections !hile others bounce bac" and forth ta"ing a longer path. %he result is that the
light ra$s arri,e at the recei,er at different times. %he signal becomes longer than the original signal. -./
light sources are used. %$pical 0ore1 22.3 microns.
*tep #nde (ode
Grade Index has a gradual change in the 0ore4s Refracti,e #nde. %his causes the light ra$s to be
graduall$ bent bac" into the core path. %his is represented b$ a cur,ed reflecti,e path in the attached
dra!ing. %he result is a better recei,e signal than *tep #nde. -./ light sources are used. %$pical 0ore1
22.3 microns.
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Computer network (Modue 1) |DPP|
+rade #nde (ode
Note: Both Step Index and Graded Index allow more than one light source to be used (different colours
simultaneously!) !ultiple channels of data can be run simultaneously!
Single Mode has separate distinct Refracti,e #ndees for the cladding and core. %he light ra$ passes
through the core !ith relati,el$ fe! reflections off the cladding. *ingle (ode is used for a single source
of light 5one colour) operation. #t re6uires a laser and the core is ,er$ small1 7 microns.
*ingle (ode
ingle Mode'
Snge mode ber has a very sma core causng ght to trave n a straght ne
and
aows one "+ode" of the waveength to trave down the ber.
Typcay t has a core sze of 8 or 10 mcrons.
It has unmted bandwdth that can go unrepeated for over 80 km, dependng on
the type
of transmttng equpment.
Snge mode ber has enormous nformaton capacty, more than mutmode ber.
Multi +ode'
Mutmode ber supports mutpe paths of ght and has a much arger core.
It has a core sze of 50 or 62.5 mcrons.
The ght traves down a much arger path n mutmode ber, aowng the ght to
go
down severa paths or modes.
>se A(er!optic ca(le if you'
Need to transmt data at very hgh speeds over ong dstances n very secure
meda.
Do not use A(er!optic ca(le if you'
Are under a tght budget.
Do not have the expertse avaabe to propery nsta t and connect devces to t.
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Computer network (Modue 1) |DPP|
Advantages of )i(er Optic ca(le'
Hgh bandwdth capacty (many ggabts per second).
Longer dstances between devces (from 2 to over 60 kometres).
Immunty to eectromagnetc nterferences
It can aso send and receve very hgh frequences at one tme.
/oise s unwanted eectrca or eectromagnetc energy that degrades the quaty of
sgnas and data.
Nose occurs n dgta and anaog systems, and can ahect es and communcatons
of
a types, ncudng text, programs, mages, audo, and teemetry.
DiBerent Types of /oise
Ther+al noise s due to therma agtaton of eectrons.
White noise s a type of nose that s produced by
combnng sounds of a dherent frequences together.
&ross tal- s sgna overow from an ad|acent wre.
Attenuation s the oss of sgna strength that begns to occur as the sgna
traves
farther aong the cabe.
.+pulse /oise: Irreguar puses or spkes e.g. Externa eectromagnetc
nterference
Disadvantages of Optical )i(re'
Physca vbraton w show up as sgna nose!
Lmted physca arc of cabe. Bend t too much & t w break!
Dmcut to spce
The cost of optca bre s a trade-oh between capacty and cost. At hgher
transmsson capacty, t s cheaper than copper. At ower transmsson
capacty, t s more expensve.
15e. Media versus Bandwidth
The foowng tabe compares the usabe bandwdth between the dherent
Guded Transmsson Meda
Ca'le T$!e (andwidt)
Open Cabe 0 - 5 MHz
Twsted Par 0 - 100 MHz
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Computer network (Modue 1) |DPP|
Coaxa Cabe 0 - 600 MHz
Optca Fbre 0 - 1 GHz
Transmission Media - Unguided
Unguded Transmsson Meda s data sgnas that ow through the ar. They
are not guded or bound to a channe to foow. They are cassed by the
type of wave propagaton.
RF Propagation
There are 3 types of RF (Rado Frequency) Propagaton:
Ground Wave,
Ionospherc and
Lne of Sght (LOS) Propagaton.
Ground Wave Propagation foows the curvature of the Earth. Ground
Waves have carrer frequences up to 2 MHz. AM rado s an exampe of
Ground Wave Propagaton.


Ionospherc Propagaton bounces oh of the Earths Ionospherc Layer n the
upper atmosphere. It s sometmes caed Doube Hop Propagaton. It
operates n the frequency range of 30 - 85 MHz. Because t depends on the
Earth's onosphere, t changes wth weather and tme of day. The sgna
bounces oh of the onosphere and back to earth. Ham rados operate n
ths range. Lne of Sght Propagaton transmts exacty n the ne of sght.
The receve staton must be n the vew of the transmt staton. It s
sometmes caed Space Waves or Tropospherc Propagaton. It s mted by
the curvature of the Earth for ground based statons (100 km: horzon to
horzon). Reected waves can cause probems. Exampes of Lne of Sght
Propagaton are: FM Rado, Mcrowave and Satete.

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Computer network (Modue 1) |DPP|



"adio )reCuencies
Rado Frequences are n the range of 300 kHz to 10 GHz. We are seeng an
emergng technoogy caed wreess LANs. Some use rado frequences to
connect the workstatons together, some use nfrared technoogy.
Mirowave
Mcrowave transmsson s ne of sght transmsson. The Transmt staton
must be n vsbe contact wth the receve staton. Ths sets a mt on the
dstance between statons dependng on the oca geography. Typcay the
ne of sght due to the Earth's curvature s ony 50 km to the horzon!
Repeater statons must be paced so the data sgna can hop, skp and
|ump across the country.
Rado frequences
The frequency spectrum operates from 0 Hz (DC) to Gamma Rays (1019 Hz).
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Computer network (Modue 1) |DPP|
*ame &re+uenc$ (,ert-) .%am!les
Gamma Rays 1019 +
X-Rays 1017
Utra-Voet Lght 7.5 x 1015
Vsbe Lght 4.3 x 1014
Infrared Lght 3 x 1011
EHF - Extremey Hgh
Frequences
30 GHz (Gga = 109) Radar
SHF - Super Hgh
Frequences
3 GHz Satete & Mcrowaves
UHF - Utra Hgh
Frequences
300 MHz (Mega = 106) UHF TV (Ch. 14-83)
VHF - Very Hgh Frequences 30 MHz FM & TV (Ch2 - 13)
HF - Hgh Frequences 3 MHz2 Short Wave Rado
MF - Medum Frequences 300 kHz (ko = 103) AM Rado
LF - Low Frequences 30 kHz Navgaton
VLF - Very Low Frequences 3 kHz
Submarne
Communcatons
VF - Voce Frequences 300 Hz Audo
ELF - Extremey Low
Frequences
30 Hz Power Transmsson

(icro!a,es operate at high operating fre6uencies of 3 to 18 +9:. %his allo!s them to carr$ large
6uantities of data due to the large band!idth.
Ad,antages1
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Computer network (Modue 1) |DPP|
a. They requre no rght of way acquston between towers.
b. They can carry hgh quanttes of nformaton due to ther hgh operatng frequences.
c. Low cost and purchase: each tower occupes sma area.
d. Hgh frequency/short waveength sgnas requre sma antenna.
/isad,antages1
a. Attenuaton by sod ob|ects: brds, ran, snow and fog.
b. Reected from at surfaces ke water and meta.
c. Dhracted (spt) around sod ob|ects
d. Refracted by atmosphere, thus causng beam to be pro|ected away from recever.
!atellite
Satetes are transponders that are set n a geostatonary orbt drecty over the equator. A
transponder s a unt that receves on one frequency and retransmts on another. The
geostatonary orbt s 36,000 km from the Earth's surface. At ths pont, the gravtatona
pu of the Earth and the centrfuga force of Earths rotaton are baanced and cance each
other out. Centrfuga force s the rotatona force paced on the satete that wants to ng
t out to space.
25
Computer network (Modue 1) |DPP|
%he uplin" is the transmitter of data to the satellite. %he do!nlin" is the recei,er of data. ;plin"s and
do!nlin"s are also called .arth stations due to be located on the .arth. %he footprint is the "shado!" that
the satellite can transmit to. %he shado! being the area that can recei,e the satellite4s transmitted signal.
Iridium Telecom System
The Irdum teecom system s a new satete sytem that w be the argest prvate
aerospace pro|ect. It s a mobe teecom system to compete wth ceuar phones. It rees
on satetes n Lower Earth Orbt (LEO). The satetes w orbt at an attude of 900 -
10,000 km and are a poar non-statonary orbt. They are pannng on usng 66 satetes.
The user's handset w requre ess power and w be cheaper than ceuar phones. There
w be 100% coverage of the Earth.
%he$ !ere planning to launch starting 1772&177< and ha,ing 1.3 million subscribers b$ end of the decade.
;nfortunatel$ at the time of this !riting, the #ridium pro=ect loo"ed ,er$ financiall$ unstable.
26