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Stock #09031-2014

2014



APICS CSCP
Exam Content Manual


Thi s manual is in effect from
January 1, 2014December 2014.


Visit apics.org/ecmerrata for APICS CSCP Exam Content Manual errata.


The references in this manual have been selected solely on the basis of their educational value to the APICS
CSCP certification program and on the content of the material. APICS does not endorse any services or other
materials that may be offered or recommended by the authors or publishers of books and publications listed in
this manual.

2014 APICS The Association for Operations Management

8430 West Bryn Mawr Avenue, Suite 1000
Chicago, IL 60631-3439 USA
Phone: 1-800-444-2742 or +1-773-867-1777
Fax: +1-773-639-3000

No portion of this document may be reproduced under any circumstances. CSCP is a registered trademark of
APICS.

Stock #09031-2014

Table of Contents

Letter to Candidates ....................................................................................................................................................... 1

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................... 2

About the APICS CSCP Examination............................................................................................................................. 2

Question Format ............................................................................................................................................... 2

Taking the Test .................................................................................................................................................. 3

Interpreting Test Scores .................................................................................................................................... 3

Studying for the APICS CSCP Exam.... 3

APICS CSCP References. 3

Terminology.... 4

Additional Resources for APICS CSCP Candidates.... 4

APICS CSCP Learning System.......................................................................................................................... 4

APICS CSCP Instructor-Led Review Courses................................................................................................... 4

APICS Educational Programs............................................................................................................................ 5

APICS Certified in Production and Inventory Management (CPIM) Basics of Supply Chain Management

(BSCM) Review Course and Examination............................................................................................ 5

APICS CSCP Certification Maintenance: Continuing Professional Development ......................................................... 5

The Importance of Certification Maintenance.................................................................................................... 5

APICS Code of Ethics .................................................................................................................................................... 5

APICS Certified Supply Chain Professional (CSCP)...................................................................................................... 7

Scope of the Subject Matter .............................................................................................................................. 7

APICS CSCP Content ....................................................................................................................................... 7

Content Outline ................................................................................................................................................. 8

Key Terminology .............................................................................................................................................. 13

Supplemental Glossary .................................................................................................................................... 15

Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................... 16

Sample Questions......................................................................................................................................................... 17

Answers to Sample Questions....................................................................................................................................... 18
CSCP Exam Content Manual i

Letter to Candidates

Dear Candidate:

On behalf of all the members of APICS The Association
for Operations Management and the Certified Supply
Chain Professional (CSCP) Subcommittee, I want to
thank you for your interest in the APICS CSCP program.
APICS is the global leader and premier source of the
body of knowledge in operations management, including
production, inventory, supply chain, purchasing, and
logistics. Since 1957, individuals and companies have
relied on APICS for its superior training, internationally
recognized certifications, comprehensive resources, and
worldwide network of accomplished industry
professionals.

The APICS CSCP program is primarily intended for
professionals in supply chain management and is
designed to test the candidates knowledge of and ability
to apply the supply chain management body of
knowledge. It is the most widely recognized educational
program for operations and supply chain management
professionals around the globe. By earning the APICS
CSCP credential, candidates have demonstrated their
mastery of supply chain management best practices and
have distinguished themselves as an industry expert
with specialized, high-level knowledge and skills.
The APICS CSCP program will help you advance your
career while giving you validated foundational
knowledge to assist in improving your companys
competitive position and profitability. The program takes
a broad view of the field, extending beyond internal
operations to encompass all the steps throughout the
supply chainfrom the supplier; to the company; to the
end consumer and the reverse flow of products and
materials for the purpose of managing returns,
refurbishing, or recycling. The program provides you with
the knowledge to effectively manage the integration of
these activities to maximize a companys value chain.

The subject matter is organized into the following three
content areas:

Fundamentals of Supply Chain Management
This section provides the foundation for the exam by
addressing the concepts and strategies used for
effective supply chain management. It includes an
overview of supply chain management, managing the
supply chain, and improving the supply chain.

Strategy, Design, and Compliance
This section addresses considerations in the design of a
supply chain, the processes that support the
organizations strategy, improvement of the sustainability
of the organization and its trading partners, and
compliance with applicable regulations and voluntary
standards.

Implementation and Operations
This section covers managing and balancing supply and
demand through measuring, analyzing, and improving
supply chain processes.

This APICS CSCP Exam Content Manual is intended to
provide you with an overview of the program, an outline
of its body of knowledge, key terminology, and
references. The outline is divided into three diagnostic
areas, and the relative emphasis of each of the areas is
indicated by a percentage figure. A sample of ten
illustrative questions is also provided. The APICS CSCP
Exam Content Manual should not be the only reference
you use to prepare for the CSCP exam; however, it
should be the first. We wish you success in your pursuit
of the CSCP designation.


Joanne Gorski, CFPIM, CSCP,
CSCP Subcommittee Chair











CSCP Exam Content Manual 1

Introduction

This exam content manual provides guidance for
individuals preparing for the certification examination.
The objective of this manual is to outline the APICS
CSCP tested body of knowledge.

The main section of this manual begins with a statement
about the scope of the subject matter, followed by a
descriptive outline of the content. Key terminology and a
bibliography of references are provided. The section
concludes with sample questions similar to those that
appear on the examination, the correct answers for the
sample questions, and brief explanations of why they are
correct.

The recommended procedure for mastering the subject
matter is to
review the content outline, which defines the scope
of the material
study each topic, using the suggested references.

At the end of each major section is a list of the
references that apply to the topics in that section. The
first number indicates the sequence number for the
reference in the bibliography section, and the numbers in
parentheses indicate the chapters within that reference.

Candidates should understand the definitions of key
terms and the application of the outlined tools and
techniques.

Sufficient references are given that provide different
approaches to the material covered in each diagnostic
area and different styles of presenting the information.
Reading periodicals, such as APICS magazine and the
APICS Operations Management Now e-newsletter, will
help you keep up-to-date about changes in the industry.

About the APICS CSCP
Examination

The APICS CSCP exam consists of 175 multiple-choice
questions (150 operational and 25 pretest). Pretest
questions do not contribute to the total score, but are
necessary for research purposes. Candidates should
answer all exam questions. There is a four-hour time
limit for the exam.

For more information about testing and registration
policies and procedures, call APICS Customer Service
at 1-800-444-2742 (United States and Canada) or
+1-773-867-1777 and order a current APICS CSCP
Certification Bulletin, or visit the APICS website at
apics.org/cscp. Candidates who plan to test in North
America should request stock #09056, and candidates
testing outside North America should request stock
#09057.

Students who successfully complete the CSCP
examination may be eligible to receive up to three
semester hours of either undergraduate or graduate
college credit recommendations from the New York
State Regents Research Fund, National College Credit
Recommendation Service, based on an academic
evaluation of student learning outcomes. Detailed
information about the outcomes and credit
recommendations is available at www.nationalccrs.org.
Transcripts are available through APICS.

Questi on Format
All of the questions on the CSCP examination are
intended to test one's understanding of the CSCP body
of knowledge. In addition, it is helpful to understand the
various formats of questions on the examination. The
following five examples illustrate the types of multiple
choice questions found on the examination:

For Example 1, choose the response that best
completes the statement.

Example 1: The 80-20 rule is an application of:

(A) statistical process control
(B) defect measurement
(C) root cause analysis
(D) Pareto analysis
(The correct answer is D.)

For Example 2, choose the response that best answers
the question.

Example 2: Which of the following is used as a key
performance indicator (KPI) to measure variability of
demand through the supply chain?

(A) bullwhip effect
(B) fill rate
(C) inventory turns
(D) internal failure
(The correct answer is A.)

2 2014 APICS The Association for Operations Management

For Example 3, choose the one response that does NOT
correctly complete the statement.

Example 3: All of the following are examples of
voice of the customer EXCEPT

(A) collecting point-of-sale (POS) data
(B) customer panel groups
(C) recording customers problems with recent
purchases
(D) surveying customers online
(The correct answer is A.)

For Examples 4 and 5, evaluate the statements and
provide the MOST or LEAST appropriate response.
The answer is not one persons opinion; it is the
accepted choice according to the APICS body of
knowledge.

Example 4: The MOST significant advantage of
strategic sourcing is:

(A) finding suppliers who can provide materials at
lowest cost
(B) using technology to select low-cost, high-quality
sources of materials
(C) developing long-term supplier relationships
(D) having a process for recurring transactions
with single suppliers
(The correct answer is C.)

Example 5: Which of the following factors has had
the LEAST impact on the growth of customer
relationship management?

(A) increased customer expectations
(B) reduced commodity prices
(C) increased ease in comparison shopping
(D) reduced cost of gaining new customers
(The correct answer is C.)

Taking the Test
The test is designed to evaluate a candidates
knowledge of the subject matter. Therefore, the key to
success is a thorough understanding of the subject
matter. All questions are based on the current CSCP
body of knowledge as defined in the exam content
manual.

When you start your exam, read the directions carefully.
Be sure you understand the directions before you begin
to answer any questions.

Read each question carefully and thoroughly. If a
question includes stimulus material such as a table,
graph, or situation, be sure to study it before you answer
the question. Avoid assuming information not given, as
well as assuming you know what is being asked without
reading the question completely, or second guessing
the question. Every effort has been made to avoid
misleading wording and to provide sufficient information
for each question.

Choose the best answer from the choices given. Care
has been taken to avoid misleading choices. Do not look
for hidden tricks or exceptions to the norm. For each
question, one and only one of the four choices
represents the correct answer.

Once you begin the test, approach the questions in
order, but do not waste time on those that are unfamiliar
or seem difficult to you. Go on to the other questions and
return to the difficult ones later if you have time. If you
have some knowledge about a particular question, you
may be able to eliminate one or more choices as
incorrect. Your score on the test will be based on the
number of questions you answer correctly, with no
penalty for incorrect answers; therefore, it is to your
advantage to guess rather than not answer a question.
Avoid changing an answer unless you are absolutely
certain you marked the wrong answer.

Interpreting Test Scores
Scoring is based on your correct responses. There is no
penalty for incorrect answers. The omission of an
answer will be counted the same as an incorrect answer.

The APICS CSCP scaled score range is 200350. The
minimum passing score is 300.

You will receive your final exam score along with
diagnostic information on your performance.

Studying for the APICS
CSCP Exam

APICS offers a number of resources to help individuals
prepare for the APICS CSCP examination.

APICS CSCP References
Bibliography. The APICS CSCP Examination
Subcommittee has identified a number of references for
the APICS CSCP examination. These are listed in the
Bibliography section of this manual. All the references
contain excellent material that will assist in test
preparation. For additional information on the APICS
CSCP references, visit the APICS website at
apics.org/cscp, or call APICS Customer Service at
1-800-444-2742 (United States and Canada) or +1-773-
867-1777.

CSCP Exam Content Manual 3

A candidate may discover that the material covered in
the chapters of one reference duplicates material
covered in another reference. Both sources are included
as references to allow candidates some discretion in
selecting test preparation materials that they find
accessible and understandable.

In deciding if a single reference is sufficient, candidates
should assess their own level of knowledge against both
the descriptive examination specifications and the
detailed topic list contained in the content outline. If there
are any areas of weakness, the candidate should consult
another reference as part of the test preparation
process.

It is not practical to list all texts that contain excellent
material. The serious student of supply chain
management who wishes to stay current with industry
should take advantage of publications such as those
listed in the comprehensive APICS Educational
Resources Brochure (stock #01041), featuring APICS
reference materials. To receive the brochure, call APICS
Customer Service at 1-800-444-2742 (United States and
Canada) or +1-773-867-1777, or at apics.org/shop.

Content outline. The content outline provided in this
document should be considered a primary resource for
exam preparation. It provides an overview of the major
topics included in the exam, as well as a list of the
concepts that are relevant to that topic.

APICS Dictionary. The APICS Dictionary, 14th edition,
is an essential reference to the exam content manual
and exams. Within the profession, terminology varies
among industries, companies, and the academic
community. The examination uses standard terminology
as defined in the APICS Dictionary and the
Supplemental Glossary section in this manual.
Recognizing the terms and understanding their
definitions are essential.

Terminol ogy
In studying for the APICS CSCP certification exam,
candidates may discover multiple terms used to denote
the same technique. An example of this is lateral
integration versus horizontal integration. APICS has
attempted to provide consistency with preferred
terminology. However, synonyms are often used by
authors in the various references used to compile the
body of knowledge. Candidates are encouraged to be
familiar with all terms and concepts listed within each
outline and key terminology section, using the APICS
Dictionary as the primary guide for definitions. The
Supplemental Glossary, included in this manual,
provides needed additional information identified by the
exam committee.
Additional Resources for
APICS CSCP Candidates
In addition to the cited references, it may be helpful for
you to pursue chapter-sponsored courses, college
courses, APICS workshops, self-study courses, or
courses offered by the APICS network of authorized
education providers (AEPs) as a means of learning the
body of knowledge tested in the certification program.
A wide variety of courses and materials is available.
As with any investment, you should research various
courses before choosing one.

APICS CSCP Learning System
The APICS CSCP Learning System is a comprehensive
professional development and certification preparation
program. This self-directed program combines print
material and online interactive tools. This system is also
offered in instructor-led formats.

The APICS CSCP Learning System does not teach the
test and in many areas reviews concepts but does not
teach concepts. The APICS CSCP Learning System
provides a thorough review of the subject matter, but it
should not be used without the most current APICS
CSCP Exam Content Manual as a means to direct the
candidates study. There will likely be some content in
the APICS CSCP Learning System not covered by the
exam; conversely, there will likely be some content in the
exam not covered by the learning system. Thus, it is
essential for candidates to use the current exam content
manual in their studies.

APICS CSCP Instructor-Led Revi ew
Courses
The instructor-led format combines the APICS CSCP
Learning System print and online components with the
leadership of a qualified instructor; peer collaboration;
company networking; and a structured, set schedule to
keep participants on track. Learn more about APICS
recognized instructors at apics.org/recognized
instructors or find local APICS partners that provide
APICS CSCP courses at apics.org/finder.

For courses in North America, visit the Partner and
Event Finder on the APICS website at apics.org/finder
or call APICS Customer Service at 1-800-444-2742
(United States and Canada) or +1-773-867-1777 to
obtain contact information for your local chapter. For
courses outside North America, visit
apics.org/international to locate the nearest partner.

4 2014 APICS The Association for Operations Management

APICS Educati onal Programs
In addition to the annual APICS International Conference
& Expo, APICS offers a variety of educational programs.
For a list of APICS learning opportunities and
information on course availability, call APICS Customer
Service at 1-800-444-2742 (United States and Canada)
or +1-773-867-1777.

APICS Certi fied i n Production and
Inventory Management (CPIM) Basi cs
of Suppl y Chai n Management (BSCM)
Revi ew Course and Exami nation
The APICS CPIM BSCM module introduces terminology,
approaches, and techniques for managing the internal
supply chain in a manufacturing organization. For that
reason, the references and the review course may be
valuable resources for APICS CSCP candidates who are
not familiar with the production and inventory
management environment. Additionally, individuals who
are not experienced with certification examinations using
the multiple-choice format of items typically find it
beneficial to take the BSCM examination.

For a complete list of APICS resources, visit the APICS
website at apics.org or call APICS Customer Service at
1-800-444-2742 or +1-773-867-1777 and request a
complimentary APICS Educational Resources Brochure
(stock #01041).

APICS CSCP
Certification
Maintenance:
Continuing
Professional
Development

The Importance of Certifi cation
Maintenance
The growing number of individuals choosing to pursue
professional development through the APICS CSCP
program indicates a strong awareness that continuing
education and skills development are essential to
meeting the information and technological challenges in
todays rapidly evolving workplace and global
marketplace. Professional development opens doors to
individual career opportunities and organizational
success.
Although APICS CSCP recognition and maintenance are
voluntary programs, they equally demonstrate ones
commitment to achieving the highest level of
professional development and standards of excellence.

The APICS CSCP certification maintenance program
upholds both the objectives of the APICS CSCP
program and the APICS vision to promote lifelong
learning. This flexible program recognizes that
individuals are at various levels in their careers, come
from many industries, have different educational needs
and career goals, and have varying access to continuing
education. Thus, requirements for maintaining
certification can be met through multiple sources and a
variety of professional development activities intended to
help prepare for the challenges ahead and maintain a
professional edge by
preserving the currency of hard-earned certification
credentials expanding your knowledge of the latest
industry practices
expanding your knowledge of the latest industry
practices reinforcing skills
exploring new technology solutions
reinforcing skills
improving job performance
demonstrating commitment to excellence
increasing competitive advantage

To promote professional growth and lifelong learning,
APICS CSCP designees must complete the certification
maintenance program every five years. Complete details
on how to maintain your APICS CSCP designation will
be mailed to candidates upon successful completion of
the certification requirements. For information, log on to
apics.org/careers-education-professional-
development/certification/maintenance.

APICS Code of Ethics

When you start an examination, you will be asked to
pledge to abide by the APICS Code of Ethics. Once
certified, you pledge to continue your education to
increase your contribution to the supply chain
management profession. After achieving the APICS
CSCP designation, you pledge also to share your
knowledge with others by participating in APICS
research and educational activities at local, district,
national, and international levels.

CSCP Exam Content Manual 5

APICS Code of Ethics
Maintain exemplary standards of professional
conduct;
Not misrepresent your qualifications,
experience, or education to APICS or others you
serve in a professional capacity;
Respect and not violate the United States
Copyright of all APICS materials, including but
not limited to courseware, magazine articles and
other APICS publications, APICS conference
presentations, and CPIM and CSCP
examination resources. In this same spirit, you
must not violate the copyright of other
organizations and individuals in your
professional capacity;
Not engage in or sanction any exploitation of
ones membership, company, or profession;
Encourage and cooperate in the interchange of
knowledge and techniques for the mutual benefit
of the profession;
In your professional capacity, respect the
fundamental rights and dignity of all individuals.
You must demonstrate sensitivity to cultural,
individual, and role differences, including those
due to age, gender, race, ethnicity, national
origin, religion, sexual orientation, disability,
language, and socio-economic status;
In your professional capacity, not engage in
behavior that is harassing or demeaning to
others based on factors including, but not limited
to, age, gender, race, ethnicity, national origin,
religion, sexual orientation, disability, language,
or socio-economic status;
Adhere to this Code of Conduct and its
application to your professional work. Lack of
awareness or misunderstanding of an ethical
standard is not itself a defense to a charge of
unethical conduct;
Contact the Ethics Committee when uncertain
whether a particular situation or course of action
violates the Code of Conduct; and
Not to become the subject of public disrepute,
contempt, or scandal that affects your image or
goodwill.

Failure to abide by APICS Code of Ethics policy may
result in sanctions up to and including decertification.


6 2014 APICS The Association for Operations Management

APICS Certified Supply
Chain Professional
(CSCP)

Effective for January 1, 2014December 31, 2014
exams.

CSCP Subcommittee
J oanne E. Gorski, CFPIM, CSCP (Chair)
Sustainable Insights, LLC
Nishat Ahmed, CPIM, CIRM, CSCP, CPM
M.C. Dean, Inc.
Vinod Lall, Ph.D., CSCP
Minnesota State UniversityMoorhead
Robert Pinchot, CPIM, CSCP
DuPont
Andrea M. Prudhomme, Ph.D., CPIM, CIRM,
CSCP, The Ohio State University
Eduardo A. Shelley, CFPIM, CIRM, CSCP
Solmex

Scope of the Subject Matter
Please read the introductory material in this manual for
essential information about the examination.

APICS CSCP covers concepts, strategies, processes,
tools, and technologies applied to managing the end-to-
end forward and backward flow of materials, information,
and value in a supply chain.

The subject matter is organized into three content areas:

Fundamentals of Supply Chain Management
This section provides the foundation for the exam by
addressing the concepts and strategies used for
effective supply chain management. It includes an
overview of supply chain management, managing the
supply chain, and improving the supply chain.

Strategy, Design, and Compliance
This section addresses considerations in the design of a
supply chain, the processes that support the
organizations strategy, improvement of the sustainability
of the organization and its trading partners, and
compliance with applicable regulations and voluntary
standards.

Implementation and Operations
This section covers managing and balancing supply and
demand through measuring, analyzing, and improving
supply chain processes.

The successful candidate will be able to recognize and
analyze specific supply chain situations and
opportunities and select the appropriate approaches,
tools, techniques, and technologies. The candidate will
be able to define the actions necessary to implement
selected solutions. This includes an understanding of
and the ability to manage
alignment of supply chain processes and capabilities
with strategic business goals
organizational roles and infrastructures in the supply
chain
material, information, and financial flows
intra- and inter-organizational relationships
the selection and use of technologies to enable
effective process management. Many of the items
on this exam require the candidate to apply one or
more of the items identified in the outline and key
terminology.

APICS CSCP Content
Three content areas have been designed to organize the
APICS CSCP domain. The relative importance of these
topics will vary among industries, but the figures given
below show the percentage designated for each section
on the exam.

Diagnostic
part
Main topic Percentage
of exam
I Fundamentals of Supply
Chain Management
33.33%
II Supply Chain Strategy,
Design, and Compliance
33.33%
III Implementation and
Operations
33.33%

CSCP Exam Content Manual 7

Content Outli ne
I. Fundamentals of Supply Chain Management
This section addresses the fundamental concepts used
for effective supply chain management and will provide
the foundation for the APICS CSCP exam. It includes an
overview of supply chain management concepts and the
need to align resources with the strategy of the
organization. Management and improvement of the
supply chain are then addressed. Exam questions
covering this area will include elements related to the
following:

A. Supply chain management concepts: A thorough
understanding of the roles in a supply chain network
and the flow of value through it is required. A broad
understanding of the supply chain management
processes, objectives, integration, and benefits is
also required. Knowledge in this area encompasses:

1. Basic supply chain
a. Entities
b. Structures
c. Flows

2. Supply chain management processesSCOR
model
a. Planning demand and supply
b. Sourcing goods and services
c. Producing goods and services
d. Delivering goods and services
e. Planning for and processing returns

3. Vertical and horizontal integration

4. Supply chain management objectives
a. Improved customer service
b. Efficient use of system-wide resources
c. Effective use of system-wide resources
d. Leverage of partner strengths

5. Supply chain management benefits
a. Improved market knowledge
b. Increased velocity in the flows of goods and
services, funds, and information
c. Increased visibility of flows
d. Reduced variability of flows
e. Integrated operations
f. Improved management of risk
g. Increased sustainability

B. Supply chain alignment with business strategy: The
supply chain strategy should align with and enable
the business strategy. Achieving appropriate
alignment requires an understanding of the forms of
competitive advantage being pursued. It also
requires an understanding of the organizational
strategy, priorities, capabilities, and the resolution of
misalignments or gaps. Knowledge in this area
encompasses:

1. Competitive advantages

2. Business capabilities and strategy
a. Organizational strategy
b. Prioritization options
c. Organizational capabilities
d. Alignment of capabilities and strategy

3. Resolving misalignment or gaps

4. Collaboration among trading partners
a. Benefits of collaboration
b. Requirements for success

C. Supply chain design and improvement
considerations: The supply chain strategy should be
designed with an understanding of the marketplace.
It also requires an understanding of supply chain
management design and continuous improvement
considerations. Knowledge in this area
encompasses:

1. Understanding the marketplace

2. Supply chain design considerations
a. Network configuration
b. Inventory location and levels
c. Product design
d. Information technology
e. Support systems

3. Continuous improvement
a. Product considerations
b. Process improvement initiatives
c. Managing change

D. Inventory management: Inventories throughout the
supply chain must be planned and controlled for
effective supply chain management. Managing
inventories, in turn, requires an understanding of
the costs of maintaining and not maintaining
inventory. Knowledge in this area encompasses:

1. Need for inventory

2. Aggregate and item inventory management

3. Flow of material

4. Functions of inventory

5. Inventory-related cost categories

6. Effects of inventory on the financial statements
8 2014 APICS The Association for Operations Management

E. Logistics fundamentals: An understanding of the
logistics function is required. Understanding the role
of logistics, types of logistics service providers, and
reverse logistics is required. Knowledge in this area
encompasses:

1. Role of logistics in supply chain management
a. Logistics functions
b. Logistics value proposition
c. Flow of goods and information
d. Push, pull, and push-pull systems

2. Logistic service providers
a. Types of logistics services
b. Advantages of using logistics service
providers
c. Disadvantages of using logistics service
providers

3. Reverse logistics
a. Activities supported
b. Design for reverse logistics
c. Benefits

F. Market segmentation: An understanding of market
segmentation is required. Understanding the
reasons for identifying market segments, ways to
segment markets, and understanding the wants and
needs of each segment is important. Knowledge in
this area encompasses:

1. Reasons to identify and understand market
segments

2. Ways to segment markets

3. Understanding the wants and needs of each
segment

G. Demand planning: An understanding of demand
forecasting, the components of demand
management, associated linkages, and demand
management functional responsibilities and
interfaces is required. Knowledge in this area
encompasses:

1. Forecasting demand
a. Demand forecasting concepts
b. Qualitative methods
c. Quantitative methods
d. Combination methods
e. Measures of forecast error
f. Demand management over product life-cycle


2. Components of demand management
a. Planning demand
b. Communicating demand
c. Influencing demand
d. Prioritizing demand

3. Linkages among the components

4. Demand management functional responsibilities
and interfaces
a. Product development
b. Marketing
c. Sales
d. Operations

H. Customer relationship management (CRM)
concepts: Effective customer relationship
management includes an understanding of the CRM
philosophy. It also requires the understanding of the
need, scope, elements, and benefits of CRM.
Knowledge in this area encompasses:

1. Need for CRM

2. Scope of CRM

3. Elements of CRM

4. Benefits of CRM

5. Implementing CRM

6. Need for, and uses of, customer information in
CRM

I. Supply management concepts: Effective
management of all sources of supply requires an
understanding of the components of the total cost of
ownership and the considerations in deciding
whether to source an item internally or externally. It
also requires an understanding of the types of
relationships that can exist between a firm and its
suppliers, the development of supply plans, and
supplier relationship management. Knowledge in
this area encompasses:

1. Total cost of ownership

2. Make versus buy analysis

3. Range of buyer-supplier relationships

4. Developing supply plans

5. Supplier relationship management (SRM)

CSCP Exam Content Manual 9

References: 1; 2 (16); 3 (12, 67, 9); 4 (1, 58); 5 (1,
3, 5, 89, 12), 11

II. Supply Chain Strategy, Design, and
Compliance
This section addresses considerations in the design of a
competitive supply chain, the processes that support the
organizations strategy, improvement of the sustainability
of the organization and its trading partners, and
compliance with applicable regulations. Exam questions
covering this area will include elements related to the
following:

A. Sustainability: Designing and operating a supply
chain requires an understanding of the concepts of
sustainable business practices and how to adapt
and apply them to a specific supply chain.
Knowledge in this area encompasses:

1. Triple bottom line (TBL)considerations related
to conservation and stewardship
a. Economic
o Micro and macro considerations
o Leading and lagging economic
indicators
o Balancing short-term and long-term
performance
b. Environmental
o ISO 14000environmental
management systems
o Governmental regulatory compliance
o Industry-specific guidelines and
standards
o Impact of supply chain decisions
c. Social
o ISO 26000guidance for social
responsibility
o Corporate social responsibility
considerations

2. United Nations Global Compact

3. Global Reporting Initiative (GRI)

B. Risk management: Designing a robust supply chain
requires recognizing the sources and forms of risks,
the magnitude and potential impact of each, and
methods of mitigating each form of risk. Knowledge
in this area encompasses:

1. Identification, mitigation, and response to risk
a. Forms of risk
b. Assessing the risk in a supply chain
c. Mitigating significant risks
d. Responses to events


2. Security and regulatory concerns
a. Risk of loss of tangible and intangible assets
b. Complying with import and export
requirements
c. Costs and benefits of participating in
security partnerships
d. Costs and benefits of meeting sustainability
regulations
e. Product traceability and configuration
management

3. ISO 31000risk management principles and
guidelines

C. Globalization: Managing globally dispersed sources
of supply and demand requires an understanding of
the requirements for operating in multiple countries
and for moving goods and funds among countries.
Knowledge in this area encompasses:

1. Effects of globally dispersed supply and demand
a. Export and import participants
b. Currency considerations
c. Harmonized tariff schedule (HTS)
d. Total, or landed, cost of acquisition

2. Free trade zones
a. Definition
b. Benefits
c. Requirements

3. Trading blocs
a. Definition
b. Effects on supply chains within the bloc
c. Effects on supply chains that extend outside
the bloc

4. Operational considerations
a. Exporting issues
b. Importing issues
c. Incoterms

5. Implications of globalization
a. Legal and regulatory considerations
b. Acceptable standards of conduct
c. Glocalization

D. Logistics: An understanding of the total effect that
globalization and supply chain management has on
inbound and outbound logistics is important. An
understanding of trade-offs among warehousing,
transportation, and logistics services decision
making is also required. Knowledge in this area
encompasses:

10 2014 APICS The Association for Operations Management

1. Transportation
a. Transportation objectives and
considerations
b. Stakeholders in transportation decisions
c. Modes of transportation
d. Considerations in mode selection

2. Warehousing
a. Warehousing objectives and considerations
b. Warehouse capabilities
c. Automated material handling

3. Transportation and warehousing trade-offs
a. Public/private
b. Owning/leasing assets
c. Capacity constraints

E. Managing the supply chain: Managing the supply
chain requires an understanding of the dynamics of
supply and demand and the need to balance
efficiency and responsiveness in the supply chain.
It also requires a set of comprehensive measures
that are agreed upon and used by the organizations
in the supply chain. Knowledge in this area
encompasses:

1. Indicators of supply chain performance
a. Customer-focused metrics
b. Financial metrics
c. Operational metrics
d. Other key performance indicators (KPIs)

2. Responsive versus efficient supply chains
a. Attributes of an efficient supply chain
b. Attributes of a responsive supply chain
c. Supply chain fit with the organizations
market requirements

3. Sales and operations planning (S&OP)
a. Relationship to business plan (strategy and
economics)
b. Reviewing performance
c. Evaluating demand levels
d. Evaluating supply capability
e. Reconciling demand, supply, and financial
plans

F. Technology: An understanding of technologies that
enable designing, tracking, operating, and
communicating among trading partners within a
supply chain is necessary. The correct application of
appropriate technology is needed for efficient and
effective supply chain management. Knowledge in
this area encompasses:



1. Role of technology in supply chain management
a. Information system architecture
b. Use of information technology in the supply
chain
c. Comprehensive supply chain management
system
d. Need for timely and accurate data

2. Key application tools
a. Enterprise resources planning (ERP)
systems
b. Advanced planning and scheduling (APS)
systems
c. Supply chain event management (SCEM)
d. Warehouse management systems (WMS)
e. Transportation management systems (TMS)

3. Data acquisition and communications tools
a. Interface devices
b. Data communications methods
c. Databaseshierarchical/relational/network
d. Acquisition and use of data
e. Automatic identification technologies

4. Supply chain design and optimization tools
a. Supply network design
b. Supply network optimization

5. Inter-organization integration tools
a. Information technology in collaborations and
joint processes
b. Standardization
c. Challenges

6. Electronic business
a. Enabling virtual organizations
b. Internet-enabled supply chains
c. E-business considerations
d. Business-to-business (B2B) commerce and
business-to-consumer (B2C) sales

G. Influencing and prioritizing demand: A thorough
understanding of how the members of a supply
chain can influence demand and how they may need
to prioritize demand when necessary is required.
Knowledge in this area encompasses:

1. Designing products and services
a. Standardization
b. Modularization
c. Simplification
d. Customization
e. Sustainability considerations
f. Design and development collaboration



CSCP Exam Content Manual 11

2. Marketing
a. Market research
b. Demand generation
c. Influencing demand

3. Selling

4. Matching customer orders to supply
a. Need for matching
b. Approaches to matching

H. Customer relationship management (CRM):
Effective customer relationship management
includes understanding the underlying concepts;
enabling technologies; and requirements for
improved demand management, customer service,
and alignment of customer-facing processes and
resources. Knowledge in this area encompasses:

1. Developing and implementing CRM as a
strategy
a. Components of CRM strategy
b. Aligning CRM strategy and product or
service life cycle
c. Creating a CRM strategy
d. Developing CRM strategy for various types
and segments of customers

2. Using technology to implement CRM
a. Benefits of using a customer data
warehouse
b. Sales force automation
c. Keys to successful CRM implementation

3. Measuring customer service
a. Response to inquiries
b. Order processing
c. Level of service
d. Product or service quality
e. Customer satisfaction

4. Challenges in implementing CRM

I. Supplier relationship management (SRM):
Successful implementation of supplier relationship
management requires an understanding of the
underlying concepts, the enabling technologies, and
the requirements for improved management of
sources of supply. Knowledge in this area
encompasses:

1. Supplier selection
a. Corporate social responsibility (CSR)
b. Negotiations
c. Internet-enabled sourcing
d. Contract performance
e. Alignment with supply chain needs
2. Developing and implementing SRM strategies
a. Steps in implementing SRM
b. Managing risk

3. Creating alliances with suppliers
a. Characteristics of a successful relationship
b. Commitment required for a successful
alliance
c. Steps in creating and maintaining an
alliance
4. Using technology to implement SRM
a. Components of a SRM system
b. Portals and trading exchanges
c. Processes enabled by SRM
d. Effects of SRM on the firm and its suppliers

5. Measuring SRM

6. Challenges in implementing SRM

J . Inventory planning and control: Inventories
throughout the supply chain must be planned,
located, and controlled for effective supply chain
management. Managing inventories in turn requires
an understanding of the total costs of maintaining
and not maintaining inventory and the techniques for
planning and controlling inventory. Knowledge in this
area encompasses:

1. Inventory planning
a. Locations of inventory
b. Levels of inventory

2. Inventory control
a. Determining order quantities
b. Ordering systems
c. Safety stock and safety lead time
d. Organization of storage locations
e. Methods of tracking inventory
f. Methods for assessing inventory accuracy

References: 1; 2 (710, 16); 3 (1, 35, 811, 1213, 17);
4 (19); 5 (212, 1415); 6; 8; 9; 11

III. Implementation and Operations
This section addresses managing and balancing supply
and demand by measuring, analyzing, and improving
supply chain processes. Exam questions will include
elements related to the following:

A. Supply chain dynamics: Managing supply chains
requires an understanding of the dynamics of supply
and demand and the need to balance efficiency and
responsiveness in the supply chain. It also requires
a set of measures that are agreed upon and used by
the organizations in the supply chain. Knowledge in
this area encompasses:
12 2014 APICS The Association for Operations Management

1. Sources of variability in demand

2. Sources of variability in supply

3. Synchronizing supply and demand

4. Metrics

B. Managing supply from internal sources: Managing
supply from internal sources requires an
understanding of the operations planning and control
processes. Knowledge in this area encompasses:

1. Operations planning and control
a. Implementation of sales and operations
planning (S&OP)
b. Controlling priorities
c. Materials and inventory
d. Capacity management

2. Communicating requirements and priorities

3. Measuring performance
a. Operational measures
b. Financial measures

C. Managing supply from external sources: Managing
supply from external sources requires an
understanding of the basic purchasing processes,
selecting suppliers, and evaluating suppliers.
Knowledge in this area encompasses:

1. Communicating requirements and priorities

2. Supplier performance management
a. Ethical and legal considerations
b. Negotiations
c. Contract issues
d. Internet-enabled sourcing
e. Scorecards and performance metrics

3. Supplier certification
a. Customer and supplier benefits
b. Third-party certification
c. Supplier certification process

D. Implementation of demand plans: Requires an
understanding of the methods for prioritizing and
fulfilling demand. Knowledge in this area
encompasses:

1. Demand prioritization
a. Time fences
b. Allocation of supply
c. Measures of customer service levels
o Fill rates
o Lead-time monitoring
o Order-status reporting

2. Capturing and communicating point-of-sale data
a. Capturing data at point-of-sale
b. Sharing demand data among trading
partners

E. Continuous Improvement: Enhancing the
competitiveness of a supply chain requires an
understanding of the techniques and tools of
continuous improvement and the appropriate
application of each. Knowledge in this area
encompasses:

1. Continuous improvement philosophies
a. Lean
b. Six sigma
c. Theory of constraints (TOC)
d. Total quality management (TQM)

2. Continuous improvement tools
a. Basic seven tools of quality (B7)
b. Seven new tools (N7)

3. Sustainability tools
a. Life cycle assessment
b. ISO 14001
c. Global Reporting Initiative (GRI)
d. Sustainability scorecards

References: 1; 2 (11-16); 3 (911, 1415);
5 (2, 4, 7, 12); 7; 8, 9, 11

Key Termi nol ogy
An understanding of the following list of terms is
recommended. The list is intended to be thorough but
not exhaustive. The candidate is also expected to be
familiar with the definitions of terms identified in the
content outline. Definitions of these terms can be found
in the APICS Dictionary, 14th edition.

A
active tag
advanced planning and scheduling (APS)
agent
alliance development
anticipation inventories
assemble-to-order
automatic identification and data capture (AIDC)
available-to-promise (ATP)
B
balanced scorecard
blanket purchase order
buffer
business intelligence
business-to-business commerce (B2B)
business-to-consumer sales (B2C)
CSCP Exam Content Manual 13

business process management (BPM)

C
capable-to-promise (CTP)
cash-to-cash cycle time
collaborative planning, forecasting, and
replenishment (CPFR)
configuration management system
consortia trade exchanges (CTX)
content management applications
continuous replenishment
cost of quality
cross-docking
cross-selling
customer relationship management (CRM)
customer service ratio
cycle time

D
database management system (DBMS)
data cleansing
data dictionary
data normalization
data warehouse
define, measure, analyze, improve, control
(DMAIC) process
demand forecasting
demand management
demand planning
demand pull
demand shaping
design for the supply chain
distribution inventory
distribution requirements planning (DRP)

E
electronic commerce (e-commerce)
electronic data interchange (EDI)
electronic document
electronic product codes (EPCs)
end-of-life management
enterprise resources planning (ERP)
environmentally responsible business
environmentally responsible manufacturing
environmentally sensitive engineering
extensible markup language (XML)
extranet

F
feedback
file transfer protocol (FTP)
fill rate

G
Global Reporting Initiative (GRI)
global strategy
glocalization
H
harmonized system classification codes
horizontal marketplace
hypertext markup language (HTML)
hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP)

I
incoterms
independent demand
information system architecture
interplant demand
intranet
inventory optimization software
inventory valuation
inventory velocity
inventory visibility
ISO 14000environmental management systems
ISO 26000guidance for social responsibility
ISO 31000risk management principles and
guidelines

J
joint replenishment system
joint venture

K
kaizen
kaizen event
kanban
keiretsu
key performance indicator (KPI)

L
landed cost
legacy systems
level of service
level strategy
life-cycle analysis
line haul costs

M
make-to-order
make-to-stock
market demand
market research
market share
master production schedule (MPS)
middleware
mix forecast
modular design strategy
modular system
multicountry strategy
multisourcing


14 2014 APICS The Association for Operations Management

O
ordering cost
order losers
order qualifiers
order winners
outsourcing

P
Pareto analysis
partnership
passive tag
pipeline inventory
planning horizon
portal
private trading exchange (PTX)
product differentiation
product family
product life cycle
pull system
push system

Q
quality function deployment (QFD)
quick response program (QRP)

R
radio frequency identification (RFID)
rapid replenishment
return on assets (ROA)
return on investment (ROI)
reverse auction
reverse logistics
reverse supply chain
risk pooling


S
seasonality
semipassive tag
service industry
service-oriented architecture (SOA)
single-source supplier
software-as-a-service (SaaS)
sole-source supplier
sourcing
spend management
stockkeeping unit (SKU)
strategic alliance
strategic planning
strategic sourcing
subcontracting
supplier certification
supply chain event management (SCEM)
supply chain management (SCM)
supply chain risk
supply chain visibility

T
tactical buying
tariff
third-party logistics (3PL)
total cost of ownership (TCO)
trade bloc
trading bloc
transportation management system (TMS)

U
universality

V
value-added
value-added network (VAN)
value chain
value stream
value stream mapping
vendor-managed inventory (VMI)
virtual trading exchange

W
warehouse management system (WMS)
waste
web services

X
XML (extensible markup language)

Supplemental Gl ossary The following
concepts, not found in the APICS Dictionary, 14th
edition, will be helpful in preparing for the CSCP
examination.

Global Trade Management: The management and
optimization of shipments across international borders
including: ensuring compliance with all international
regulations and documentation, streamlining and
accelerating the movement of goods, while minimizing
the global supply chain costs within and outside of the
organization.

CSCP Exam Content Manual 15

Bibli ography
All test candidates should familiarize themselves with the
following references for this examination. The
recommended references pertaining to the diagnostic
area are listed at the end of each section of the content
outline. All of these references are available from the
APICS Bookstore.

1. APICS Dictionary, 14th ed., 2013.
2. Bowersox, Donald, David Closs, and M. Bixby
Cooper. Supply Chain Logistics Management,
4th ed., McGraw-Hill, 2010.
3. Crandall, Richard, William Crandall, and Charlie
Chen. Principles of Supply Chain Management,
CRC Press, 2010.
4. Ross, David F. Introduction to Supply Chain
Management Technologies, 2nd ed., CRC Press,
2010.
5. Simchi-Levi, David, Philip Kaminsky, and Edith
Simchi-Levi. Designing & Managing the Supply
Chain, 3rd ed., McGraw-Hill Irwin, 2008.
6. United Nations Global Compact: Corporate
Sustainability in the World Economy. 2011.
UN Global Compact Office.
http://www.unglobalcompact.org/docs/news_events/
8.1/GC_brochure_FINAL.pdf
7. UN Global Compact Management Model:
Framework for Implementation. 2010. Deloitte
Touche Tohmatsu. Welcome message by Georg
Kell. Foreword by J ohn Connolly.
http://www.unglobalcompact.org/docs/news_events/
9.1_news_archives/2010_06_17/UN_Global_Compa
ct_Management_Model.pdf
8. The G3.1 Guidelines. Global Reporting.
http://www.globalreporting.org/resourcelibrary/G3.1-
Sustainability-Reporting-Guidelines.pdf
9. GRI Sustainability Report GuidelinesReference
Sheet.
http://www.globalreporting.org/resourcelibrary/G3.1-
Quick-Reference-Sheet.pdf
10. Security Risk Assessment for Transport Operators:
A practical guide for small to medium-sized
organisations. 2012. Department of Transport,
Planning and Local Infrastructure.
http://www.transport.vic.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_fil
e/0010/67699/security-risk-assessment-guide-for-
transport-operators.pdf
11. Additional reference materials that are relevant to
the CSCP body of knowledge can be found at
apics.org/cscp. Questions appearing on the exam
may be based on these additional references.

Internet links cited in the bibliographic references above
can be found in a more usable format on the APICS
website at apics.org/cscp.
16 2014 APICS The Association for Operations Management

Sample Questions

The following ten questions are similar in format and
content to the questions on the CSCP exam. These
questions are intended for practicethat is, to enable
you to become familiar with the way the questions are
asked. The degree of success you have in answering
these questions is not related to your potential for
success on the actual exam, and should not be
interpreted as such. Read each question, select an
answer, and check your responses with the explanations
on pages 1920.

1. Which of the following is the primary advantage of
using web-based electronic data interchange (EDI)
for communication of transactions?

(A) There is more flexibility in transaction formats.
(B) It lowers the cost per transaction.
(C) It eliminates translation of transactions.
(D) A larger number of transactions are supported.

2. Quality remains an elusive concept in most
organizations because

(A) it depends on customer perception.
(B) there are many quality philosophies.
(C) it is everyones responsibility.
(D) quality targets change frequently.

3. An example of the use of a third-party logistics (3PL)
company would be when a company contracts with
another company to

(A) perform its shipping and receiving functions.
(B) produce and deliver a major subassembly.
(C) provide payroll services.
(D) act as a sales agent in another country.

4. Which of the following is an expected benefit of
implementing supply chain event management?

(A) It will reduce the need for supply chain
performance reporting.
(B) It will improve forecasting accuracy.
(C) It notifies partners when a deviation from plans
occurs.
(D) It reduces the cost of communications between
partners.

5. Which of the following applications would enable a
company to detect patterns in the preferences of a
customer segment?

(A) Business intelligence
(B) Advanced planning system



(C) Sales force automation
(D) Artificial intelligence

6. Cash-to-cash cycle time is a measure of how
efficiently a company

(A) recovers its investment in plant and equipment.
(B) manages assets to generate cash flow.
(C) converts inventory into sales.
(D) collects on sales to customers.

7. Which of the following types of inventory is used to
protect against variations in supply and/or demand?

(A) Cycle stock
(B) Transportation inventory
(C) Safety stock
(D) Anticipation inventory

8. Which of the following is typically a characteristic of
strategic sourcing?

(A) It includes automation of contract management
processes.
(B) It reduces the price of goods and services.
(C) A supplier receives all of the companys orders
for a product or product family.
(D) The focus of the relationship is on large
transactions.

9. Which of the following measures would be most
appropriate for trading partners to use to assess the
delivery performance of the manufacturer of items
built to forecast?

(A) Percentage of items shipped within the final
assembly lead time.
(B) Percentage of orders shipped complete within
24 hours of their receipt.
(C) Number of items shipped within 24 hours of their
receipt.
(D) Revenue from orders shipped in a week.

10. Which of the following is an expected benefit of
collaborative supply chain management?

(A) Maximizing the performance of the firm
(B) Reducing the number of competitors
(C) Increasing scope of operations
(D) Synchronizing supply and demand
CSCP Exam Content Manual 17

Answers to Sample
Questions

Note: References to the content outline appear in
parentheses.

1. B (IIF1) B is the best choice because a web-based
EDI system would eliminate the cost of a private or
value-added network. A is not the best choice
because the EDI transaction formats are
independent of the network used for transmission.
C is not the best choice because the transactions
still must be translated to and from the standardized
format. D is not the best choice because the
standards are independent of the transmission
method used.

2. A (IIIE) A is the best choice because the customers
are the ultimate judges of quality and they may have
differing requirements and priorities. B is not the
best answer because the philosophies have similar
definitions of quality and address how to improve it.
C is not the best choice because the fact that it is
everyones responsibility has nothing to do with the
concept of what is quality. D is not the best choice
because targets should change once they have
been achieved.

3. A (IE2) A is the best choice because a 3PL
company is a company that manages part or all of a
companys product delivery operations and shipping
is part of the product delivery operations. B is not the
best choice because neither producing the
subassembly nor delivering it is part of the
companys product delivery operations. C is not the
best choice because payroll services are not a part
of the companys product delivery operations. D is
not the best choice because selling does not
necessarily include any delivery operations.

4. C (IIF2) C is the best choice because supply chain
event management monitors the supply chain and
notifies designated individuals when specified
events or exceptions occur or when trends are
recognized. A is not the best choice because it
enables performance reporting but does not reduce
the need for it. B is not the best choice because
supply chain event management itself does not
affect any specific application. D is not the best
choice because supply chain event management
does not directly affect the amount or cost of
communications among partners.

5. A (IIH2) A is the best choice because business
intelligence applications collect, organize, and
analyze information. Use of these applications on
customer data would allow the company to detect
patterns in the data. B is not the best choice
because advanced planning systems address
operations rather than customers. C is not the best
choice because sales force automation does not
capture or organize the data required to detect
patterns in customer preferences. D is not the best
choice because artificial intelligence applications are
intended to learn and reason like humans to address
specific problems.

6. B (IA5) B is the best choice because the definition of
cash-to-cash cycle time is that it is an indicator of
how efficiently a company manages assets to
improve cash flow. It is the inventory days +
accounts receivable days accounts payable days.
A is not the best choice because cash-to-cash cycle
time does not consider the investment in plant and
equipment. C is not the best choice because it is
limited to the inventory days component of cash-to-
cash cycle time. D is not the best choice because it
is limited to the accounts receivable component of
cash-to-cash cycle time.

7. C (ID) C is the best choice because safety stock is
maintained to protect against variability in either
supply or demand. A is not the best choice because
cycle stock is related to lot sizing. B is not the best
choice because transportation inventory is inventory
that is in transit between locations. D is not the best
choice because anticipation inventory is inventory
held to cover trends or planned events, such as
promotions or plant shutdown.

8. A (II) A is the best choice because strategic sourcing
focuses on the long-term relationship and, from an
information technology perspective, typically
includes automation of contract management. B is
not the best choice because the focus is on the total
cost of ownership rather than on the quoted price.
C is not the best choice because strategic sourcing
can include contracting with more than one partner
for a part or family of parts to reduce the risk of
disruptions. D is not the best choice because the
focus of the relationship is on a long-term
relationship between the partners rather than on
individual transactions.

18 2014 APICS The Association for Operations Management

9. B (IIIB3) B is the best choice because the items are
being produced to forecast and should be shipped
from stock shortly after receipt of the order. A is not
the best choice because the final assembly lead
time should not be needed before shipment because
the items are produced to forecast. C is not the best
choice because it is a measure of the number of
items shipped and there is no indication of the actual
number of items that were ordered. D is not the best
choice because revenue is a financial measure, but
does not indicate delivery performance.

10. D (IIIA) D is the best choice according to the APICS
Dictionary definition of supply chain management. A
is not the best choice because SCM should improve
the performance of the entire chain, not a single
member of the chain. B is not the best choice though
it may be an outcome of collaborative supply chain
management. C is not the best choice because
there is no direct relationship between collaborative
supply chain management and the scope of
operations for one of the partners.
CSCP Exam Content Manual 19
apics.org