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PLC

Programming
with
RSLogix 500
How to Program an
Allen-Bradley PLC with
Rockwell Automations
RSLogix 500
By Jack Rindell
Industrial Automation Series
engineer-and-technician.com
PLC Programming with RSLogix 500
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Table of Contents
...................................................................................... Introduction 1
............................................................................................... PLCs 2
......................................................................................... Hardware 3
........................................................................................ SLC Rack 3
.......................................................................... SLC Power Supply 3
.............................................................................. SLC Processors 3
............................................................................. SLC I/O Modules 4
.............................................................................. MicroLogix 1000 4
.............................................................................. MicroLogix 1200 4
.............................................................................. MicroLogix 1500 4
.................................................................................... Ladder Logic 5
........................................................................ The Dialect of PLCs 5
.............................................................................. Equivalent Logic 9
....................................................................................... Scan Time 10
.................................................................................. Project Scope 11
.................................................................. Summarizing the Scope 17
.................................................................................... Which PLC? 18
.............................................................................. Lay Out The I/O 18
............................................. Laying Out The Modules In The Rack 20
................................................................. Assigning I/O Addresses 21
.................................................................................. Analog Inputs 21
................................................................................... Digital Inputs 22
................................................................................ Digital Outputs 23
........................................................................... Installing RSLogix 24
.................................................................... Installing RSLogix 500 24
............................................................................ Running RSLogix 25
............................. Conguring Colors, Fonts and Address Display 31
....................................................... Adding Descriptors To Your I/O 31
........................................................................ Writing the Program 34
............................................... Setting Up An Overall Control Rung 34
.................................................................... Starting a Batch Cycle 37
................................................................................ Batching Steps 42
............................................................. Step 1 Adding City Water 42
.................................................................................. Analog Inputs 45
................................... Setting up an SCP to calculate Tank Weight 48
................................... Setting Up An SCP To Calculate Tank Level 50
............................................................... Back to Batching Step 1 51
........................................................ Step 2 Adding Chemical KM 54
........................................................ Step 3 Adding Chemical KM 58
............................................................................ Step 4 Blending 59
........................................................ Step 5 Pump to Filling Lines 64
.............................................................................................. Faults 66
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....................................................................... Valve Position Faults 66
......................................... Console Status Indicators Pilot Lights 75
................................................................. Adding Rung Comments 79
.............................................................. Expanding the Data tables 83
..................................... Connecting To The SLC And Going Online 87
....................................................................................... Run Mode 100
........................................................................ Editing in Run Mode 108
..................................................... A Final Note About Our Program 116
................................................................................ How Do I . . . ? 117
......................................................... Tips, Shortcuts and Warnings 119
...................................................................................... Conclusion 124
............................................................................................... Index 126
PLC Programming with RSLogix 500
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Introduction
The purpose of this book is to teach you how to set up, program and use an Allen-Bradley SLC
500 PLC. It will tell you what parts you need to buy for a common application.
It will tell you how to install RSLogix, how to write a ladder logic program, how to configure your
computer and your SLC so that you can download your ladder logic program.
There is a sample project included that contains a Project Scope. The Project Scope (or
Functional Specification, or whatever your company might call it) defines in detail how the
system is to operate when the project is finished.
You will learn how to take a Project Scope and turn it into a working PLC program.
It will show you, step by step, how to go online with your SLC to monitor your program to verify
your ladder logic and make sure it is functioning properly.
It will show you how to make changes to your program while you are online.
It will show you the keystrokes and mouse movements that you need to know to use RSLogix.
Finally, it provides a number of tips and a Frequently Ask Questions section that will save you
hours of frustration.
This book assumes you have a little background with PLCs perhaps you have worked with
other PLCs from other manufacturers or you have helped to install and wire PLCs. Perhaps you
are a Mechanical or Process Engineer and you need to learn how to use RSLogix.
If you need a more thorough understanding of basic PLC concepts, you might want to try the
Beginners Guide to PLC Programming How to Program a PLC (Programmable Logic
Controller). This ebook, along with the online tutorial, provides an example of how to automate a
drill press, while explaining all the basic concepts of PLC programming that are necessary to
write a solid PLC program.
The Beginners Guide to PLC Programming works well in conjunction with this book, in that it
concentrates on basic PLC programming methods that are common to all types of PLCs. In
addition, it provides an example of machine operation, whereas PLC Programming with
RSLogix 500 uses the example of a chemical batching process.
Go to engineer-and-technician.com if you would like to learn more about this book.
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PLCs
Nearly all the industrial equipment that you find in a modern manufacturing facility shares one
thing in common - computer control. The most commonly used controller is the PLC, or the
Programmable Logic Controller, using a programming language called Ladder Logic. The
language was developed to make programming easy for people who already understood how
switches, relay contacts and coils work. Its format is similar to the electrical style of drawing
known as the ladder diagram.
The most popular and most widely used manufacturer of PLCs is Rockwell Automation, who
produces the Allen-Bradley MicroLogix and SLC series of PLCs. The MicroLogix and SLC
families of processors and I/O modules are all programmed using Rockwells proprietary
software known as RSLogix.
In the book, we will concentrate specifically on the SLCs, MicroLogix PLCs and RSLogix. We
wont talk about other manufacturers or other Rockwell software, as RSLogix will (and currently
does) perform nearly all the programming requirements of a plants automation system.
When you are finished with this book, you will be able to sit down in front of any computer
running RSLogix and create a new program. You will be able to edit existing programs. You will
be able to professionally document any changes you have made.
Rockwell Automation Technical Support
Unfortunately, we cant anticipate all the problems you might face as you are troubleshooting a
program on the factory floor. There are just too many variables. This is why you must establish a
relationship with your local Rockwell Automation technical support team. Get to know them
before you are in the final stages of a start-up and you run into a problem. They are very helpful
and they can save you hours of frustration.
The Rockwell reps are not just technical support personnel; they are skilled engineers that are
responsible for running their own projects and writing and troubleshooting their own programs. If
you run into a problem, more than likely they have already seen it and have come up with a
solution.
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Hardware
One of the nice things about Allen-Bradleys smaller PLCs is the relative simplicity of assembling
the hardware to create a system.
First, lets see what it takes to assemble an SLC 500 system. You only need to have a few
components: a rack, a power supply, a processor and some I/O modules.
SLC Rack
These come in four configurations, with varying capacity for installing the I/O modules.
1746-A4 4-Slot chassis
1746-A7 7-Slot chassis
1746-A10 10-Slot chassis
1746-A13 13-Slot chassis
A rack is a frame that holds the modules of an SLC 500 system. It is similar to the motherboard
and case in your personal computer. It provides a physical structure to hold the modules that
create a system, like your computers case. It also provides an electronic back plane that allows
modules to communicate and interact.
In an SLC system, the SLC 500 processor always resides in Slot 0, which is the first slot.
SLC Power Supply
Power supplies come in varying capacities.
1746-P1
1746-P2
1746-P3
1746-P4
1746-P5
1746-P7
SLC Processors
There are five SLC 500 processors available:
SLC 5/01
SLC 5/02
SLC 5/03
SLC 5/04
SLC 5/05
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The 5/01 is the most basic processor, with each succeeding model having more capabilities.
The most important difference is found in the SLC 5/05, which has the capability of Ethernet
communications.
SLC I/O Modules
There are an incredible amount of I/O (input/output) modules available for the Allen-Bradley SLC
family. There are 4-20mA and 0-10VDC analog modules. There are digital (also known as
discrete) modules that work in a variety of voltage configurations and capacities.
Use the link below to download Allen-Bradleys literature on the SLC 500 systems:
http://literature.rockwellautomation.com/idc/groups/literature/documents/sg/1747-sg001_-en-
p.pdf
Use this link to find manuals regarding Allen-Bradley PLCs:
http://literature.rockwellautomation.com/idc/groups/public/documents/webassets/
browse_category.hcst
Lets see what it takes to assemble a MicroLogix System.
MicroLogix 1000
The MicroLogix 1000 is a self-contained unit that offers up to 20 digital I/O points and 5 analog I/
O points. It differs from the SLC family in that it is just one physical unit.
MicroLogix 1200
The MicroLogix 1200 is a modular unit, allowing you to customize and expand your I/O. The
highest capacity racks provide space for four additional I/O modules.
MicroLogix 1500
The 1500 continues in that theme with six expansion slots, providing over 256 I/O points and a
couple of counters and outputs.
A full description of the MicroLogix family can be found on Rockwells site at the link below.
http://literature.rockwellautomation.com/idc/groups/literature/documents/br/1761-br006_-en-
p.pdf
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Ladder Logic
Before we open RSLogix and start programming, there are a few things you need to know about
PLCs in general. I have summarized the basic terms and techniques required to work with
ladder logic. It isnt a comprehensive summary, but if you are just starting out, the information
presented here will be very helpful.
Every PLC programmer, no matter what skill level, must know the principles described in this
section and the Equivalent Logic section. There is simply no way around it.
To effectively write a program, or even edit one, the programmer must know how to visualize the
effects of the changes he will make.
In other words, you have to be able to look at the logic on paper and imagine how the logic will
work when it is entered into the PLC.
The Dialect of PLCs
Lets' define some terms and symbols:
INSTRUCTION RSLogixs command language is comprised of instructions. An XIC (it looks
like a normally open contact --] [-- ) is an instruction. A timer is an instruction. A few of the most
common instructions are described below.
BIT - an address within the PLC. It can be an input, output or internal coil, among others.
In RSLogix, there are a couple of ways to show the address of a bit. The default is:
[type]:[word]/[bit]
For example, an address that references an output of an SLC 500 is O:5/0. That is:
O:5/0 means that it is a physical output.
O:5/0 means that it uses Slot 5 (the 6
th
physical slot) in the rack.
O:5/0 means that it is the first output on the card.
Remember that the first slot in an SLC 500 rack is Slot 0. That means a card that is installed in
the 6
th
physical slot is addressed as Slot 5.
Allen-Bradley PLC slots, like many computer numbering systems, always start with 0.
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By the way, dont get the capital Os confused with zeroes.
RUNG - A section of the PLC ladder program that terminates in an output function of some type.
Just like in an electrical ladder diagram, a rung has some type of output that is turned on or
turned off by the preceding entities in the rung. The first rung in a ladder program is always
0000.
HARDWIRED INPUT - a physical connection to the PLC from an input device (switch or sensor,
etc.).
Allen-Bradley uses the capital letter I to designate a hardwired input. An address that
describes an input on an SLC 500 is I:4/0.
Similar to the output structure,
I:4/0 means that it is a physical input.
I:4/0 means that it uses Slot 4 (the 5
th
slot in the rack).
I:4/0 means that it is the first input on the card.
Dont get the capital Is confused with ones.
HARDWIRED OUTPUT - a physical connection from the PLC to an output device (relay or pilot
light, etc.) As was said above, an address that references an output of an SLC 500 is O:5/0.
INTERNAL COIL
This is a programmable bit used to simulate a relay within the PLC. The internal coil has no
connection to the outside world. It does not connect to an output card. Internal coils are used to
store information. The contacts of this relay can then be used multiple times in other parts of
the program.
In RSLogix, the B3 (binary) file is commonly used for all the internal coils. There are many
other words in other files that have bits you can use as internal coils, but we are going to stick
with the B3 file for our application.
B3:0/0 means that it references an internal Binary file
B3:0/0 means that it uses the first word in the table
B3:0/0 means that it is the first bit in the word.
Note that, unlike the Output and Input files, you have to use the file number in the address. In
this case, the default file number is 3.
TIMER
A timer is a programmable instruction that lets you turn on or turn off bits after a preset time.
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The two primary types of timers are TON for timer on delay and TOF for timer off delay.
Timers in A-B SLC and MicroLogix processors use file 4 for their timers.
T4:0 means that it references an internal Timer file
T4:0 means that it uses the first timer in the table
The address T4:0 simply refers to the timer. Each timer has bits that turn on after the timing
function is complete. You can address this bit by simply putting a /DN after the timer address.
DN stands for done.
For example, if timer T4:0 is a TON (timer on delay), then the bit T4:0/DN will turn on after the
timer has reached its preset value.
COUNTER
A counter is a programmable instruction that lets you turn on or turn off bits after a preset count
has been reached.
There are different types of counters available in the RSLogix, but the CTU (counter up)
instruction covers everything we will talk about here.
Counters in A-B SLC and MicroLogix processors use file 5.
C5:0 means that it references an internal Counter file
C5:0 means that it uses the first counter in the table
The address C5:0 simply refers to the counter. Each counter has bits that turn on after the
counting function is complete. You can address this bit by simply putting a /DN after the
counter address. DN stands for done.
For example, if counter C5:0 is a CTU (counter up), then the bit C5:0/DN will turn on after the
counter has reached its preset value.
--] [-- Normally Open Contact
When used with a hardwired input, this instruction is off until there is a voltage applied to the
input. The bit address then goes high, or on, and the instruction becomes true. It works the
same way when it has the same address as an internal coil, except that the coil must be turned
on by logic in the program.
Allen-Bradley calls these normally open contacts XIC, or eXamine If Closed instruction.
An XIC instruction can reference a hardwired input, a hardwired output, an internal coil or a
timer done bit, among others.
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--]/[-- Normally Closed Contact
This is an inverted normally open contact.
When used with a hardwired input, this instruction is "true" until there is a voltage applied to the
input. It then goes low, or off, and becomes false.
It also can be used with an internal coil, becoming true when the coil is off and becoming false
when the coil is on.
Allen-Bradley calls these normally closed contacts XIO, or eXamine If Open instructions.
-( )- Output Coil
When used with a hardwired output, this function is off until the logic in the program allows it to
turn on. It then becomes true, and will energize the device that is wired to the respective
output.
If it is used as an internal coil, it will toggle the instructions associated with it. That is, it will close
a normally open instruction and open a normally closed instruction.
Allen-Bradley calls these outputs OTE, or OutpuT Energize.
An OTE may be used with a hardwired output or an internal coil.
TRUE - A state that indicates an instruction is allowing logic to flow through it.
Also, if the logic in a rung turns on the output of the rung, then the rung is said to be true.
FALSE - Without stating the obvious, this is the opposite of true.
OK, that was a lot to cover and for you to understand dont worry, this will start getting easier.
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Equivalent Logic
Suppose we want to use a PLC to operate a pilot light. In its elementary form, PLC logic is very
similar to the hard-wired logic you would find in an electrical ladder diagram.
For example, if you wanted to turn on a light with a momentary pushbutton, you would wire it like
the circuit below. When you press PB1, the pilot light PL1 lights up.
H N
| PILOT |
| LIGHT |
| PB1 PL1 |
|---] [---------------------------------------(L)----|
| |
|
Now let's do the same thing in an SLC. To duplicate the hardwired circuit on a PLC, you would
wire the switch PB1 to input I:4/0 and wire the light PL1 to output O:5/0.
The I/O (hardwired inputs and outputs) is set up like this:
- There is a PB1 pushbutton switch wired to I:4/0 of the PLC.
- There is a PL1 pilot light wired to O:5/0 of the PLC.
In RSLogix 500, the screen would look like this.

Now lets examine the sequence of events. When you first turn on the PLC, the PB1 pushbutton
is off, or false. Therefore, the PL1 output is off. Pressing PB1 will make I:4/0 true, O:5/0 will
come on and the light will be energized. It will stay on only as long as you hold the button in.
Just like electrical current has to flow through the switch to turn on the light in the hardwired
circuit, the logic has to "flow" through the normally open instruction (which is closed when you
press the switch) of I:4/0 to energize the output that turns on PL1.
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The green highlight indicates the instruction is on or true.
One nice feature of Allen-Bradley PLCs is that you can document each bit in the program. In the
example above, INPUT1 is somewhat meaningless on its own. After you add the descriptive
text Start Motor PB1, things make more sense.
Scan Time
One critical difference between a PLC program and the equivalent electrical circuit is the issue
of scanning. It works like this:
The PLC looks at the state of the inputs, and stores that information in a temporary buffer. Then,
it ignores what is happening electrically at the inputs. The PLC will use the information in the
temporary buffer to execute the logic in the program. It will solve the logic from top to bottom,
determining the truth of each rung, and turn on or turn off the appropriate addresses in the
temporary buffer.
When it reaches the last rung in the program, the PLC will use the data in the temporary buffer
to turn on or turn off the corresponding outputs. The scan cycle is complete, and the PLC will
once again look at the inputs. The amount of time this takes is called scan time, and is
measured in milliseconds.
Stated more simply, the PLC reads the inputs, performs the logic and adjusts the outputs as
needed.
Heres the difference: An electrical circuit has events occurring simultaneously a PLC performs
its logic in steps.
The very best way to learn a programming language is to see a real world application of a
working program. You can see how things are done and refer to the program in the future as you
write or edit your own programs.
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Project Scope
We will use a batching operation as an example. Batching, as you may know, is the term that
describes the mixing of assorted ingredients to make a finished product.
There are techniques that are common to batching, whether you are making soap or cake mix.
We are going to write a program that mixes a hypothetical window cleaner.
Someone has to define the batching procedure. Usually, this is done by a process engineer or a
chemical engineer. If the job of defining the project is done well, a document called a Project
Scope (or something similar) is generated.
It is extremely important that you clearly understand the entire process that is defined in the
scope. If you have any questions or concerns, you need to resolve those before you begin
programming. If you dont, then the responsibility of errors and omissions, and perhaps the
blame, may be placed on you.
If you bring up questions that result in changes to the defined sequence of operations, ask the
originator to revise the Project Scope. In fact, it is not uncommon for a Project Scope to undergo
a number of revisions.
If there is a change that is not documented in the scope, you should document it by getting an
email from the originator that explains the change. If nothing else, you want to make sure you
understand what the change involves.
For our project, the project scope is as follows.
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Hyper-Glass Cleaner
Batching Project Scope
Goal
The goal of this project is to install a new automated batching system for mixing Hyper-Glass
Cleaner.
Overview
Three ingredients (city water, ingredient QR and ingredient KM) are added in specified amounts
by weight to the Mixing Tank. After all the ingredients have been added to the Mixing Tank, the
mixture is blended by running the agitator for a given time. When the blending time is complete,
the finished product is pumped to the Filling Lines for bottling and final packaging.
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Component Function
Valve AV-CW Supplies city water to the Mixing Tank
Limit Switch LS-CW1 Indicates when valve AV-CW is closed
Limit Switch LS-CW2 Indicates when valve AV-CW is open
Pump PUMP-QR Pumps ingredient QR to the Mixing Tank
Valve AV-QR Supplies QR to the Mixing Tank
Limit Switch LS-QR1 Indicates when valve AV-QR is closed
Limit Switch LS-QR2 Indicates when valve AV-QR is open
Pump PUMP-KM Pumps ingredient KM to the Mixing Tank
Valve AV-KM Supplies KM to the Mixing Tank
Limit Switch LS-KM1 Indicates when valve AV-KM is closed
Limit Switch LS-KM2 Indicates when valve AV-KM is open
Scales Provides the current weight of the
ingredients in the tank to the PLC
Agitator MTR-MTA Blends the ingredients in the Mixing Tank
Pump PUMP-MT Pumps ingredient MT from the Mixing Tank
Valve AV-MT Supplies the finished product to the Filling
Lines
Limit Switch LS-MT1 Indicates when valve AV-MT is closed
Limit Switch LS-MT2 Indicates when valve AV-MT is open
Ultrasonic Level Sensor ULS-1 Indicates the level in the Mixing tank
System Components
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Operator Panel Layout
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Operator Panel Components
Component Function
SYSTEM READY pilot light PL1 Indicates the system is ready for batching
SYSTEM FAULT pilot light PL2 Indicates the system has a fault and is
stopped
START BATCH pushbutton switch PB1 Starts a new batch
STOP BATCH pushbutton switch PB2 Stops the batching process
ADDING WATER pilot light PL3 Indicates the system adding water to the
Mixing Tank
ADDING QR pilot light PL4 Indicates the system adding ingredient QR
to the Mixing Tank
ADDING KM pilot light PL5 Indicates the system adding ingredient KM
to the Mixing Tank
BLENDING pilot light PL6 Indicates the system is blending the
ingredients
PUMPING TO LINES pilot light PL7 Indicates the system is pumping the batch
to the Filling Lines
E-STOP PB3 Immediately stops the entire system
Electrical Specifications
The Ultrasonic Level Sensor ULS-1 provides a 0-10VDC signal to the PLC.
The Scales provide a 0-10VDC signal to the PLC.
All other input signals are 120VAC.
All output signals are 120VAC. A dry contact type of output module is required.
Detailed Sequence of Operations
There are 5 steps in the Batching process:
1. Add City Water
2. Add Ingredient QR
3. Add Ingredient KM
4. Mix the batch
5. Pump the batch to the filling lines
To begin a new batch, the operator will verify that the SYSTEM READY pilot light is on and
that the Mixing Tank is ready to receive ingredients.
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The operator will then press the START BATCH pushbutton to begin the batching process. The
SYSTEM READY pilot light will turn off. No further operator input is required.
Step 1 City Water
Automatic valve AV-CW will open. The ADDING WATER pilot light will illuminate.
Valve AV-CW will remain open until 1275 lbs. of City Water is in the Mixing Tank. Valve AV-CV
will close.
The state of AV-CW will be verified by limit switch LS-CW2. If LS-CW2 is not made within 2
seconds after the valve was told to open, a fault will be generated and the system will shut
down. The pilot light SYSTEM FAULT PL2 will illuminate indicating that a fault has occurred.
LS-CW1 will verify that the valve is closed within 2 seconds after the valve was told to close. If
the valve closure is not verified within 2 seconds, a fault will be generated, the system will shut
down and PL2 will illuminate.
All valves and their respective limit switches will work in the manner described above.
After the City Water has been added, valve AV-CW will close and the ADDING WATER pilot
light will turn off.
Step 2 Ingredient QR
Valve AV-QR will be opened. After the valve position has been verified by LS-QR2, PUMP-QR
will pump 390 lbs. of ingredient QR into the Mixing Tank. The ADDING QR pilot light will be
illuminated while the pump is running.
After the ingredient QR has been added to the Mixing Tank, PUMP-QR stops and the ADDING
QR pilot light will turn off. Valve AV-QR will close.
Step 3 Ingredient KM
Valve AV-KM will be opened. After the valve position has been verified by LS-KM2, PUMP-KM
will pump 173 lbs. of ingredient KM into the mixing tank. The ADDING KM pilot light will be
illuminated while the pump is running.
After the ingredient KM has been added to the Mixing Tank, valve AV-KM will close. PUMP-KM
will stop. The ADDING KM pilot light will turn off.
After LS-KM1 indicates the valve has been closed, the agitator motor MTR-MTA will start. The
BLENDING pilot light will illuminate.
Step 4 Mixing
The agitator will run for 3 minutes. The BLENDING pilot light will illuminate.
After the agitator is finished, the BLENDING pilot light will turn off.
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Step 5 Pump to filling lines
Valve AV-MT will open. After LS-MT1 indicates the valve is open, the PUMPING TO LINES
pilot light will illuminate.
PUMP-MT will pump the entire batch to the filling lines. When the Ultrasonic Level Sensor
ULS-1 indicates that the tank is empty, PUMP-MT will turn off, valve AV-MT will close and the
batching cycle is complete. The PUMPING TO LINES pilot light will turn off and the SYSTEM
READY pilot light will illuminate.
During every phase of the batching process, the liquid level must be monitored by the PLC. If
the level rises to greater than 95% of that Mixing tanks capacity, the system will generate a fault
and the batching process must be halted.
The operator may press the E-STOP pushbutton PB3 to stop the process at any time.
END OF HYPER-GLASS CLEANER BATCHING PROJECT SCOPE
Summarizing the Scope
So, what did we get from the scope? Lets summarize:
First, 1275 lbs. of water will be added to the Mixing Tank. Then, 390 lbs. of QR will be added.
The last ingredient is KM, of which we will add 173 lbs.
After all the ingredients are in the Mixing Tank, we have to blend it for 3 minutes.
After the batch is blended, we will pump the finished product in the tank to the filling lines.
We have to make sure all the valves open or close in less than 2 seconds. If they do not, then
we need to shut down the process.
We need to turn on the appropriate pilot lights to indicate what stage the batching process is in.
We need to make sure the level in the Mixing Tank doesnt get too high. If it does, we must shut
down everything.
We need to make sure that the respective valves for the pumps are open before we turn on the
pumps.
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Which PLC?
There are certainly a number of factors that will determine which PLC you need. Without getting
into all of those, lets just say that an SLC 5/03 has plenty of processing power for this project
and the cost is reasonable, so we will use one.
Before you can determine what modules, rack or power supply you need to buy, you will have to
know what your I/O requirements are. This involves the very critical step of laying out your I/O.
A bit of advice here: Dont skimp on this step. Make sure the I/O is right before you begin
programming. A mistake or omission here will cost you ten-fold further down the road.
Lay Out The I/O
Now we need to layout the I/O. This will tell us the addresses for the I/O points, what PLC
modules we need and how the PLC modules need to be wired.
There are three types of signals in the batching system: 120VAC digital inputs (limit switches
and pushbutton switches) 120VAC digital outputs
1
(valves, motors and pilot lights) and analog
0-10VDC inputs.
List all of the components in the system that are connected
to the PLC. Categorize each component according its type
(digital input, digital output or analog 0-10VDC). It is best to
do this in an Excel spreadsheet. I have provided one for this
project it is called IO_List.xls and is included in the files
you downloaded.
Try to keep associated devices together. For example, the
ADDING WATER pilot light should be near Valve AV-CW.
This will make the electrical prints easier to read and also
help to keep the PLC program organized.
This is a good time to call
your local Allen-Bradley
representative and have him
assist you in selecting the parts
you need. He can work directly
from your I/O listing and
probably save you a bunch of
time.
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1
Technically, the valves themselves are not 120VAC devices, but in this case, the solenoids that subsequently drive
the valves are. Likewise, the motors that run the pumps and the agitators may not be 120VAC, but the control
circuitry that operates the motors is 120VAC.
Notice the Descriptor column. This is a statement providing a shorthand description of the
device when the associated input is on, or true. We will use these descriptors in the actual PLC
program.
Descriptors look like this in RSLogix 500.
I cant stress how important it is to get the verbiage right in a descriptor. For example, lets look
at LS-CW1. This particular limit switch is normally open, but held closed when the valve is
closed.
When the limit switch is closed, the input to the PLC will be on, or true.
If we used the descriptor
Limit Switch
LS-CW1
that wouldnt tell us too much without referring to the prints. Plus, it is a little redundant, as we
know it is a limit switch based on the LS prefix in the device name.
If, however, we use the descriptor
City Water
Valve AV-CW
Closed
LS-CW1
then that tells us immediately, without referring to the prints, that the City Water valve is closed
as indicated by the limit switch LS-CW1.
After you go online with a PLC, if an input is on, the symbol for the bit is highlighted. You can
quickly realize the descriptor statement is currently true, as shown below.
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Now we must determine what input and output modules we need.
The Project Scope said that the Scales and the Ultrasonic Level Sensor provide 0-10VDC
signals. We can use an Allen-Bradley 1746-NI4 Analog 4 channel Input Module. Make sure that
the DIP switch on the module is set for 0-10VDC (the same module can be configured to read
4-20mA signals).
For the inputs, we can use the 1746-IA16 120VAC Input module. Since 11 inputs are needed for
the system, this card will provide 5 spares.
You might recall from the Project Scope that contact output modules are required. We will use
the 1746-OW16 16-output relay module here. However, since 15 outputs are required by the
system, that only leaves us one spare. It is best to buy and install two modules.
Now we can see that four modules will provide the I/O we need to operate the system. The next
part we need to determine is the rack. SLC racks come with 4, 7, 10 or 13 slots. Since the
processor consumes one slot, the best choice is the 1746-A7 7-slot rack. That will give us two
spare slots.
The final choice is the rack power supply. RSLogix will help you determine what power supply is
needed, but it would be best to consult with your A-B rep on this again, save time and hassles.
Laying Out The Modules In The Rack
The processor must go in Slot 0. It seems logical to put the analog card in the next slot.
Most engineers like to put the output cards to the far right, so we will put the OW16s in Slot 6
and Slot 7.
That leaves a gap of three slots in the middle of the rack. Since there is a good chance that
additional analog card might be needed in the future, we will put the remaining IA-16 in Slot 5,
next to the outputs.
The bottom line here is that, with the exception of the processor, it really does not matter where
you place the modules. It is more a matter of personal taste, and what layout you think will be
easiest to troubleshoot while allowing for future expansion.
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Assigning I/O Addresses
Here is the final layout for the cards in the rack:
Slot 0 SLC 5/03
Slot 1 1746-NI4 Analog 4 Channel Input Module
Slot 2 empty
Slot 3 empty
Slot 4 1746-IA16 120VAC Input Module
Slot 5 1746-OW16 Relay Output Module
Slot 6 1746-OW16 Relay Output Module
Look at the I/O List spreadsheet. The first address we need to assign is the input for the Scales.
Analog Inputs
Addressing some analog modules is a little different from addressing digital modules.
The NI4 has four inputs and uses one word for each input. The first input starts with 0 and the
module is in Slot 1, so the address for the first input is I:1.0.

I:1.0 means that it is a physical input
I:1.0 means that it uses Slot 1 (the 2
nd
slot) in the rack
I:1.0 means that it is the first input on the card.
The Ultrasonic Level Sensor uses the second input. Its address is I:1.1.
The address for the third input is I:1.2. The fourth input is I:1.3. Since we dont need those for
this project, they are labeled as spares.
The analog inputs for this project are as follows:
Component Signal/Module Type Slot Address
Scales 0-10VDC Input 1 I:1.0
Ultrasonic Level Sensor ULS-1 0-10VDC Input 1 I:1.1
spare 1 I:1.2
spare 1 I:1.3

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Digital Inputs
Our first digital input starts in Slot 4. Therefore, our first input will be I:4/0.
I:4/0 means that it is a physical input
I:4/0 means that it uses Slot 4 in the rack
I:4/0 means that it is the first input on the card.
Dont confuse capital I with 1.
As a side note, RSLogix 500 lets you display the same address in a couple of different ways.
You can display the first bit in Slot 4 as:
I:4/0 (known as slot/bit)
or
I:4.0/0 (known as slot word/bit)
This is configurable in RSLogix. We will see how to do that in a few moments.
Most people prefer the slot/bit method of displaying I/O addresses, so that is what we will use.
The digital inputs for this project are as follows:
Component Signal/Module Type Slot Address
START BATCH pushbutton switch PB1 120VAC Input 4 I:4/0
STOP BATCH pushbutton switch PB2 120VAC Input 4 I:4/1
Limit Switch LS-CW1 120VAC Input 4 I:4/2
Limit Switch LS-CW2 120VAC Input 4 I:4/3
Limit Switch LS-QR1 120VAC Input 4 I:4/4
Limit Switch LS-QR2 120VAC Input 4 I:4/5
Limit Switch LS-KM1 120VAC Input 4 I:4/6
Limit Switch LS-KM2 120VAC Input 4 I:4/7
Limit Switch LS-MT1 120VAC Input 4 I:4/8
Limit Switch LS-MT2 120VAC Input 4 I:4/9
spare 120VAC Input 4 I:4/10
spare 120VAC Input 4 I:4/11
spare 120VAC Input 4 I:4/12
spare 120VAC Input 4 I:4/13
spare 120VAC Input 4 I:4/14
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E-STOP PB3 120VAC Input 4 I:4/15
Digital Outputs
Our first digital output is in Slot 5. That makes the first output O:5/0.
O:5/0 means that it is a physical output
O:5/0 means that it uses Slot 5 in the rack
O:5/0 means that it is the first output on the card.
Dont confuse capital O with 0.
In our project, the first output is for the SYSTEM READY pilot light PL1. Its address is O:5/0.
The digital outputs for this project are as follows:
Component Signal/Module Type Slot Address
SYSTEM READY pilot light PL1 120VAC Output 5 O:5/0
Valve AV-CW 120VAC Output 5 O:5/1
ADDING WATER pilot light PL3 120VAC Output 5 O:5/2
Valve AV-QR 120VAC Output 5 O:5/3
Pump PUMP-QR 120VAC Output 5 O:5/4
ADDING QR pilot light PL4 120VAC Output 5 O:5/5
Valve AV- KM 120VAC Output 5 O:5/6
Pump PUMP-KM 120VAC Output 5 O:5/7
ADDING KM pilot light PL4 120VAC Output 5 O:5/8
Agitator MTR-MTA 120VAC Output 5 O:5/9
BLENDING pilot light PL6 120VAC Output 5 O:5/10
Pump PUMP-MT 120VAC Output 5 O:5/11
PUMPING TO LINES pilot light PL6 120VAC Output 5 O:5/12
Valve AV-MT 120VAC Output 5 O:5/13
spare 120VAC Output 5 O:5/14
SYSTEM FAULT pilot light PL2 120VAC Output 5 O:5/15
A final note about the I/O list take the time to do it right and keep it updated as the project
progresses.
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Installing RSLogix
There are a number of versions of RSLogix that are used with the many PLCs Rockwell offers.
We are going to reference RSLogix 500 in this book, as that is the software used to program the
SLC 500 PLCs.
Most Rockwell software uses a copy protection scheme that involves the use of an activation
file. RSLogix 500 uses this. You can install the software, but functions will be limited without the
activation file.
Activation files are first installed from the master disk supplied by Rockwell. They can be moved
from computer to computer, or back to the original master disk. The idea is that Rockwell knows
that hardware changes, so that if you want to replace an old computer that you use for
programming, you can move the activation file from the old computer to your new one without
buying a new activation file.
An alternative is to download the RSLogix Starter Kit. This software applies only to the
MicroLogix series, but it is very similar to the software used to program the SLCs.
Installing RSLogix 500
The installation of the software is straightforward. Put the disk in the drive and follow the
prompts. The only catch is that it will ask you for a serial number. Though any 10-digit number
will work, you should use the number assigned to your company by Rockwell. This is the
number that Rockwell Technical Support will reference if you call them with a question.
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Running RSLogix
To run RSLogix, click:
Start > All Programs > Rockwell Software > RSLogix 500 English > RSLogix 500 English
A quick side note about conventions used in this book:
We are going to use the format shown above to indicate what menu items you should
click on as you navigate the menus and sub-menus.
For example, the line above means:
Click on Start.
Click on All Programs.
Click on Rockwell Software.
Click on RSLogix 500 English.
Click on RSLogix 500 English.
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You will see this on your monitor.
Now choose
File > New
In the Processor Name field, type in BATCHING.
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Scroll down in the window and select 1747-L532C/D 5/03 CPU 16K Mem. OS302.
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Click OK and this screen will appear.
On the left, you see an explorer-type menu. This is called the Project tree. All of these folders
and files allow you to configure or view properties of the PLC or data files within the PLC.
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The first thing we need to do is configure the I/O. Double-click on IO Configuration.
In the first Racks drop-down menu, choose 1746-A7 7-Slot Rack.
Now, we need to define what I/O modules we are using. The box on the left shows the 7 slots
that are available in our rack. Slot 0 (the first slot) is used by the processor.
In referring to our I/O spreadsheet, Slot 1 is reserved for the analog input module. In the Current
Cards Available window to the right, scroll down until you find 1746-Ni4 Analog 4 Channel Input
Module. Double-click on it and you will see that it has been moved to the window on the left and
now occupies Slot 1.
Again, looking at our I/O spreadsheet, we see that Slots 2 and 3 are not used.
Click on Slot 4 so that it is highlighted. In the Current Cards Available window, scroll until you
find 1746-I*16 Any 16pt Discrete Input Module. Double-click on it and it is shown in Slot 4.
Make sure Slot 5 is highlighted and find 1746-O*16 Any16pt Output Module. Double-click on it
so that it shows up in Slot 5.
Double-click on it again and it will appear in Slot 6.
If you want to remove a card, highlight the card and press the Delete key,
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When you are finished, your configuration should look like this:
The Power Supply button will help you select the right power supply for the rack based on the
modules you have specified, but it is best to contact your Rockwell representative to help you
with this.
If you are online for the first time with a PLC, the Read IO Config button will tell you how the
PLCs I/O is configured.
The Adv Config button allows you to perform advanced configuration functions for each card.
In this case with our modules, there is no need to change any of the default values.
When you are done with the I/O configuration, close the window. Your settings will be saved and
you will see the main programming screen.
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Configuring Colors, Fonts and Address Display
This is something that you can certainly configure to your own liking. However, I prefer to
change the defaults as follows to make the display easier to read when I am online.
Select
View > Properties > Colors
In the Set Colors for: window, click on Descriptions. Choose white as a background color.
Select the Fonts tab. Depending on your monitor, you may prefer something else, but I like
Arial. Select the font size of your choice and click OK.
Select the Address Display tab.
Choose Single Line for Bit Address Format.
Choose Word/Bit for Binary Bit Display Mode.
Choose Slot/Bit for I/O Bit Display Mode.
Adding Descriptors To Your I/O
A descriptor is the text that is associated with any instruction, such as an XIO, XIC, timer or
counter. These are essential when you are writing or trouble-shooting a program.
In RSLogix, find the output file O0 OUTPUT in the Data Files folder and double-click on it. The
screen below will appear.
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Scrolling to the right or stretching out the window will reveal what type of card is configured for
each slot.
Output O:5/0 is highlighted, so you can double click on the Desc: box to type in the description.
However, since you did your work in advance, there is an easier and more accurate method.
Open your I/O List spreadsheet.
Copy the descriptor for the spreadsheet for O:5/0. You may need to put a return in to get the
device name to appear by itself on the bottom line.
Click OK.
Now click on the next position to the left in the Data File.
This is output O:5/1, and is indicated in the field just below
the scroll bar.
Double-click on the Desc: field and copy and paste the
descriptor for O:5/1 from your spreadsheet into the box.
Again, you may have to insert a hard return here or there to
get it to appear the way you would like.
Continue in this manner until you have entered all the
descriptions for the outputs. Close the window.
If the windows on the
main screen are
rearranged accidentally,
choose:
Window > Arrange > Default
Project > OK
and the normal view will be
restored.
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Now find the input file I1 INPUT in the Data Files folder and double-click on it.
This looks a little different from the output file. It is because we have an analog input card.
Again, scrolling to the right or stretching out the window will reveal what type of card is
configured for each slot.
The first line showing address I:1.0 is for the first channel of the Analog NI4 card. In our case,
this is where the Scales for the Mixing Tank will be wired. Since it is a word we will be seeing,
and not just one bit, we want to add the descriptor to the entire word.
In the Offset column, click on I:1.0. The whole line will be highlighted. Now double-click on
the Desc: field and paste the description from the spreadsheet for the Scales. Click OK.
Click on I:1.1 to add the description for the Ultrasonic Level Sensor.
We are not using channels 3 and 4, so we can go to the discrete inputs.
Click on the 0 in the lower right of the table so that I:4/0 shows up in the box. Add the
descriptor just like you did for the outputs. Continue until you have all the inputs labeled. Close
the window.
You can enter descriptors for Binary (B3) files, Timer (T4) files, Counters (C5) and so in the
same way. If you know how these files are going to be laid out then it is a good idea to add
descriptors now. In our case, we will add descriptors to these bits and files as we program.
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Writing the Program
Setting Up An Overall Control Rung
Typically, a program will start with some kind of overall or master control rung. This rung will
define a bit that must be on for the entire system to operate, and we include bits that we know
must be true for the whole system to run.
In this project, we certainly want the E-Stop to be part of this logic. Our E-Stop (or, emergency
stop) pushbutton switch is wired in such a way that the input must be on for the system to
operate.
Make sure you have the default view displayed in RSLogix. It will show one rung with the (END)
instruction all the way to the right. This rung cannot be deleted or edited.
We need to insert a new rung. Right-click in the LAD 2 window on the rung number 0000. A
menu will appear. Choose Insert Rung.
Your screen should look like this:
We want to use the E-Stop input in this rung. Find the XIC (examine if closed) tool button in
the User menu.
Click and drag it toward the new rung you just created. You will see that as you get near the
rung, two red squares will appear. These are possible landing points for your instruction. Move
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your pointer toward the one on the left. As you get near it, the square will change color from red
to green. Release the mouse button and your screen should look like this.
Press the enter key on your keyboard. Type in the address of the E-Stop pushbutton input,
which is I:4/15. Your screen now looks like this.
Notice how the instruction descriptor appeared automatically.
Remember that we want to create the logic for a bit that must be on if the system is to run. We
will use an internal bit from the B3 file.
Click and drag the OTE (output energize) tool button from the User menu down to the new
rung. Place it on the marker at the far right.
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Press enter. Type the address B3:0/0 and press enter. This is the first bit in the B3 file, and since
this bit has a lot of importance in our program, that is appropriate.
The address description box appears automatically. Type System Enable into the box.
We know from the Project Scope that the system must stop if there is a fault. We are not sure of
the details of all those faults yet, but we do know that we will summarize those faults
somewhere in the program. It will result in a bit. We will use the address B3:0/1 for that bit. We
also know that we want the System Enable to be on if we do not have a fault.
Bear with me here and it will make sense. Click and drag the XIO (examine if open) tool button
from the User menu down to the new rung. Place it just to the right of the E-stop input.
Press enter and type B3:0/1. Press enter and type System Fault in the descriptor box.
It should look like this:
Lets see what we have. The logic of the rung works just like an electrical circuit. If the E-Stop is
cleared and there is not a System Fault, the System Enable bit will be on. That is exactly what
we want. We will work out the fault logic later.
Notice that the System Fault bit is highlighted. That means the XIO instruction is true; that is,
there is currently no system fault.
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The last thing we need to do is verify the rung. Right-click on the rung number and choose
Verify Rung. Notice that the lower case e will disappear.
Starting a Batch Cycle
The Project Scope said that the operator may start a batch
by pressing the Start Batch pushbutton on his console.
Lets start with that input.
Right-click on the last rung and choose Insert Rung. Click
and drag the XIC (examine if closed) tool button from the User menu to the left side of the
new rung. Enter the address I:4/0.
Click and drag the OTE (output energize) tool button from the User menu down to the new
rung. Place it on the marker at the far right. We are creating a new bit that indicates the system
is currently batching. Enter the address B3:0/2. Label this bit System Batching.
If the operator chooses, he may stop the batch. We will make use of the Stop Batch
pushbutton. Click and drag the XIO (examine if
open) tool button from the User menu down to
the new rung. Enter the address I:4/1.
We dont want the operator to be able to start a
batch if the System Enable bit is not on. We will
add that by dragging the XIC (examine if closed)
tool button to the left side of the new rung.
Enter the address B3:0/0.
This rung will work much like a traditional motor
starter circuit that uses a contact from the motor
starter wired in parallel with the start button to hold
in the coil. In the PLC, the contact is an XIO with
the same address as the coil, which is B3:0/2.
We need to wire the contact in parallel with the start button. We do this with a branch
instruction. Drag the Branch tool button and place it on the marker between the System
Enable bit and the Start Batch bit.
It is a good idea to save
your work frequently.
This is done in RSLogix
like it is in any other Windows
program, CTRL-S or File > Save
You can also insert a rung by
clicking on the rung number and
pressing the insert key. You can
select a rung and choose
Edit > Insert Rung.
There are a number of ways to perform
many functions in RSLogix. Throughout
the remainder of this book, I will use what
I believe is the easiest method for you to
understand and remember.
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It will look like this.
We want the branch to go around the Start Batch bit. Now click and drag the right side of the
branch to marker just to the right of the Start Batch bit.
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Release the mouse button and the branch will appear around the Start Batch bit.
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Click and drag the XIC (examine if closed) tool button from the User menu to the left side of
the new branch. Type in the address B3:0/2.
This is called a latching rung. If the System Enable bit is on, the System Batching bit can be
latched by momentarily pressing the Start Batch pushbutton. The System Batching bit will stay
on and the rung will remain latched until the Stop Batch pushbutton is pressed or the System
Enable bit goes off.
Thinking ahead, though, we know that the system will stop the batch automatically after it has
pumped all the finished product to the filling lines. We are not sure how we will know that yet,
but we know we need a bit to unlatch the rung.
Click and drag the XIO (examine if open) tool button from the User menu down to the
marker just in front of the System Batching OTE instruction. Address it as B3:0/3 and type in the
descriptor Batch Complete.
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Right-click on the rung number and verify the rung. It should appear like this.
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Batching Steps
As you recall from the project scope, there are a number of steps needed to create the finished
product. They are:
1. Adding City water
2. Adding chemical QR
3. Adding chemical KM
4. Blending the mixture with the agitator
5. Pumping the finished product to the filling lines.
Step 1 Adding City Water
We need to initiate Step 1. Before we do that, thought, we need to add another permissive bit.
We will call that bit System Ready.
We know that if the system is enabled but not currently batching, it is ready to begin a batch. We
need insert a new rung and create a System Batching and System Ready bit.
Insert a new rung and program it as shown in Rung 0002.
You can see how Rung 0002 should look in the picture below. The System Ready bit will be on
when the system is enabled, but not batching.
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To actually initiate the batch and hold the batch in Step 1, we are going to use the Output Latch
(OTL) instruction. This instruction works in conjunction with the Output Unlatch (OTU)
instruction. The instructions will work on the same bit address, but are typically found on
different rungs.
The batch will be started when the operator pushes the Start Batch button. We will latch that bit
and label it Step 1.
As a side note, I am going to skip a few addresses in the B3 file. It is always a good idea to
leave a gap here and there in the event that you need to add a bit later. It doesnt affect the
operation of the program, but it makes the data files more organized and easier to troubleshoot.
Insert a new rung at the bottom of the ladder. We need an XIC for the System Ready bit and an
XIC for the Start Batch pushbutton at the beginning of the new rung.
Click and drag the XIC (examine if closed) tool button from the User menu to the left side of
the new branch. Type in the address B3:0/2 and press enter.
To save some typing, you can copy and paste instructions. Highlight the Start Batch instruction
in Rung 0001.
Press CTRL-C.
Click on the rung number for Rung 0003.
Press CTRL-V. The instruction is duplicated on Rung 0003. Copy and paste bit in the same way
Click and drag the OTL (output latch) tool button from the User menu to the right side of the
new branch. Type in the address B3:0/10 and add the descriptor Batch Step 1.
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However, what if the button is pressed if the system is already batching and in another step? To
prevent that from happening, we will make sure that the only way the system can enter Step 1 is
if it is not in another step already. Add a series of XIO instructions. Address them from B3:0/11 to
B3:0/14. Type in the appropriate descriptors. Verify the rung.
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You can see how RSLogix handles rungs that are too long to be displayed on one side. You can
compensate for this by maximizing the LAD 2 window, or stretching it to the left. Remember that
if you want to return to the default view, choose Window > Arrange > Default Project.
You may wonder why we chose not to use the OTL output latch instruction in Rung 0001. Many
times, it is a matter of personal choice; sometimes a traditional latch rung is better than using
an OTL. In Rung 0001, we were able to keep all the logic affecting the System Batching bit on
one rung. This makes it easier to read and a little more condensed. Some people view a
traditional latch as a bit safer. Its your call, though.
Analog Inputs
Before we continue with Step 1, we need to program the Mixing Tank Scales and the Ultrasonic
Level Sensor. Since the logic associated with these devices is not necessary tied to Step 1, but
common to the entire program, lets put them in a sub-routine.
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We do this by right-clicking on Program Files in the Project menu on the left and choosing
New. The Name is limited to 11 characters, so we will call it ANALOG. The description will be
Mixing Tank Scales and Level Sensor. Click OK.
That reminds us that we did not name LAD 2. Lets do that right now. Right-click on LAD 2 and
choose Rename. We will call it MAIN.
LAD 2 is, by default, the program that will run when the SLC is first powered up. Like
subroutines in other programs like Visual Basic or C, we need to tell the main program to
execute the sub-routine.
We need to put a JSR (jump to subroutine) instruction in LAD 2. In this case, it really doesnt
matter where it is placed, but putting it at the top makes sense.
Insert a rung at the top of the ladder. In the Instruction menu, click on the right arrow until the
Program Control tab is shown. Click on the tab.
Drag the Jump to Subroutine (JSR) tool button to your new rung. Type in a 3 to tell the
instruction to go to LAD 3.
Add the descriptor Mixing Tank Scales and Level Sensor. Verify the rung.
In the Project menu, double-click on LAD 3 ANALOG. This opens the new ladder file you just
created. Insert a new rung.
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We are going to enter an instruction in a new way. Double-click on 0000 for Rung 0000. This
opens up the ASCII editor.
Type SCP in the box and press enter. SCP stands for Scale with Parameters. It allows you to
take an analog input from a sensor and scale it to the output units you want.
Before we start scaling, lets take a moment to see how the Allen-Bradley NI4 converts a
0-10VDC signal to a number. The NI4 is an analog-to-digital processor that takes the 0-10VDC
signal and converts it to a number between 0 and 16384.
The NI4 will yield a number from 0 to 16384 that is directly proportional to the 0 to 10VDC signal
that is applied at the input.
In other words, zero volts on the input of the NI4 means that the NI4 will provide 0 as a value to
the PLC. Ten volts on the input will yield 16384. Five volts on the input will yield half of 16384, or
8192, and so on.
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The SCP instruction starts out looking like this.
Each of the six parameters (Input, Input Min., Input Max., Scaled Min., Scaled Max. and Output)
has two fields associated with them. Each field is currently filled with a question mark. The first
field is a value that you assign. The second field is the actual value returned by the processor.
Setting up an SCP to calculate Tank Weight
The Input parameter is the value that will be scaled. Lets use this SCP instruction for the
Scales. The input we will use is the address we assigned to the analog input card; that is, I:1.0.
The Input Min parameter is the value that is read by the analog card when there is no liquid in
the tank. With our scales, this value is 0.
The Input Max is the value that is read by the card when the tank is full. Our Mixing tank weighs
2000 lbs. when it is full of liquid. We measured the voltage that the Scale put out when the tank
was full and found it to be 10 volts.
So, in this case, 2000 lbs. in the tank equals 10 volts, which means the NI4 will read out 16384
when the tank has 2000 lbs. of liquid in it.
The Scaled Min parameter is the lowest value you want the SCP to calculate in the units you
want. In this case, it is 0, and we are using pounds as our units.
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The Scaled Max parameter is the highest value you want the SCP to calculate. For the Scales in
our project, it is 2000.
The Output parameter is typically an address where you want to store the result of the SCP. We
are going to put it in the N7 file (integer). We will store it specifically in N7:0.
Here is how the SCP instruction for our Scales looks.
Admittedly, the numbers rarely work out like this, but for simplicitys sake, I made them easy to
work with.
The real beauty of the SCP is apparent after you go online. Lets say that you couldnt really
calibrate the scales previously by using voltmeter.
After you go online, and you are getting live data from the SCP instruction, you can visually
verify that the tank is empty.
Hoverer, you are reading 133 from the NI4. You simply enter 133 as the Input Min parameter.
When the tank is full, you see that the reading is 14733. Enter 14733 as the Input Max
parameter and the SCP will calculate the rest for you.
The important thing to remember is that the value in N7:0 is the actual weight of the tank in
pounds. We will use that when we program the setpoint logic.
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Setting Up An SCP To Calculate Tank Level
First, lets insert a new rung and create an SCP the same way we did the first time.
This time, the Input will be I:1.1
The Input Min will be 0.
The Input Max will be 16384.
The Scaled Min is 0.
The Scaled Max is 100. We want to read the level of the tank as a percent of full.
The Output is stored in N7:1, with the descriptor Liquid Level of Mixing Tank (%).
It looks like this.
There is one more rung we need to add to this ladder file. Do you remember the JSR instruction
we used to get the program here? We have to tell it to go back.
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Insert a new rung and the RET (return) instruction.

Back to Batching Step 1
Click on the Main tab at the bottom on the Ladder window to return to the LAD 2 MAIN file.
Now that we have our Scales working, we can add some water.
Insert a new rung at the bottom of the ladder.
We will open the city water valve in this rung, so we want to make sure that it is still safe and
desirable to open the valve. That is, make sure that there are no faults, the E-Stop button has
not been pressed and the Stop Batch pushbutton has not been pressed. Using an XIC with the
System Batching bit will confirm all of that. Insert an XIC with the address B3:0/2.
Since we only want to open this valve and add city water in Step 1, insert an XIC with the
address B3:0/10.
Insert an OTE for the city water valve (O:5/1).
Remember that we want to put 1275 lbs. of water in the Mixing Tank. We will use the LEQ (Less
than or Equal To) instruction to accomplish that.
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Select the Compare tab on the instruction tool menu. Click and drag the LEQ tool button to
the marker just to the left of the OTE.
Source A in the instruction is the Tank Weight, which is N7:0. Enter that address. Source B is our
setpoint, which as you recall from the Project Scope is 1275 lbs. Enter 1275 for Source B.
The LEQ instruction will remain true as long as the tank weight does not exceed 1275 lbs.
After the correct amount of city water has been added, we need to proceed to Step 2.
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We will make use of the fact that we know the system is currently in Step 1, but the Mixing Tank
has enough water (1275 lbs) to go to the next step.
We will use the OTU (Output Unlatch) instruction to turn off the bit we latched in Rung 0004.
Rung 0006 works like this:
The XIC instruction B3:0/10 Batch Step 1 is on. The Mixing Tank weight has reached the
setpoint of 1275, so the GEQ (Greater Than or Equal To) instruction is also true. As a result, the
bit B3:0/10 Batch Step 1 is unlatched (turned off) and B3:0/11 Batch Step 2 is latched (turned
on).
Take a moment to make sure you understand how as the weight in the tank rises past 1275, the
City Water valve is turned off and the system transitions to Step 2.
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Step 2 Adding Chemical KM
Step 2 will be similar to Step 1, so rather than creating new rungs from scratch, we are going to
copy and paste the rungs from Step 1.
Click on the rung number for Rung 0005. Hold the SHIFT key and click on the rung number for
Rung 0006. Both rungs will be highlighted in red.
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Press CTRL-C.
Click on Rung 0007.
Press CTRL-V. You now have new rungs, 0007 and 0008.
We will start with rung 0007.
Change B3:0/10 to B3:0/11.
We will be looking for a setpoint of 1275 + 390, since there is already 1275 lbs. of water in the
Mixing Tank and we need to add 390 lbs. of QR. Change Source B in the LEQ instruction to
1665.
Refer to your I/O list spreadsheet and note that the QR automatic valve is addressed as O:5/3.
Change the OTE from O:5/1 to O:5/3.
In Rung 0008, change B3:0/10 to B3:0/11.
Change Source B in the GEQ instruction to 1665.
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Change the OTU (Output Unlatch) instruction from B3:0/10 to B3:0/11.
Change the OTL (Output Latch) instruction from B3:0/11 to B3:0/12.
It should look like this.
There is a major process difference between adding City Water and adding QR the QR
chemical needs to be pumped. This means that not only do we have to open a valve, but also
we have to turn on a pump.
First, we want to make sure the valve is being instructed to open, so we will use an XIC from
pump AV-QR in the logic. Next, we will wait to turn on the pump until the valve is verified to be
open by limit switch LS-QR2. As a failsafe, we will look at limit switch LS-QR1 to make sure it is
not indicating the valve is closed.
Right-click on Rung 0008 and choose Insert Rung.
So that you can learn a bit more about ASCII editing, we will construct the entire rung from the
ASCII command line.
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Double-click on Rung 0008. The ASCII string input box appears. Type in the following string:
XIC O:5.0/3 XIO I:4.0/4 XIC I:4.0/5 OTE O:5.0/4
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Press enter and the instructions appear.
Verify the rungs.
Step 3 Adding Chemical KM
Step 3 will have the same logic as Step 2, so will cut and paste to create new rungs.
Click on Rung 0007, hold down the SHIFT key and click on Rung 0009 to select the new rungs.
Press CTRL-C. Click on the last rung and press CTRL-V.
Change all the addresses for the XIO and XIC instructions to match the new step.
We will be looking for a setpoint of 1665 + 173, since there is already 1665 lbs. of water in the
Mixing Tank and we need to add 173 lbs. of KM. Change Source B in the LEQ instruction to
1838.
Change Source B in the GEQ instruction to 1838.
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Change the latch and unlatch outputs to increment the system to Step 4.
It should look like this after you have made the changes and verified the rungs.
Step 4 Blending
After all the ingredients are in the Mixing Tank, we have to run the Agitator for 3 minutes.
We will set up a timer to run for 3 minutes. When the timer is done, we will increment the system
to Step 5. That will turn off the Agitator.
Start by inserting a new rung at the bottom.
Insert an XIC instruction with the address of B3:0/2.
Insert an XIC instruction with the address B3:0/13.
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Click the Timer/Counter tab on the instruction tool menu. Click and drag the TON tool button
down to the right side of the new rung.
This type of timer is called a Timer On Delay. As soon as the instructions preceding it are true, it
will begin timing. The Enable bit (EN) will turn on. After it reaches its Preset value, the Done bit
(DN) will turn on.
First, we have to assign an address to the timer. All timers in RSLogix 500 use the T4 data file.
They start with 0 and continue up until they reach they end of the data file. We will address this
timer as T4:0.
Press enter and type T4:0.
Type Agitator Run Time for the descriptor.
There are a number of time bases available that interact with the preset and accumulated
values. To find the total time that a timer will be timing, multiply the time base by the preset
value.
We want to time for 3 minutes, or 180 seconds, so we will choose a Time Base of 1.0 and enter
a preset of 180.
Select a Time Base of 1.0.
Double-click on the Preset field and type 180. Press enter.
Leave the accumulated value at 0, as this will be changed as the timer begins timing. The
completed rung looks like this.
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To run the Agitator, insert a new rung at the bottom.
Click on the User tab of the tool button menu and drag an XIC instruction to the first
marker of the new rung. We will use the Enable bit (EN) of the timer for the address.
To assign a timers enable bit, simply add the suffix /EN to the address. For this instruction, the
address is T4:0/EN. Now add an OTE instruction with the agitator motors address, which is O:
5/9.
The enable bit of a timer is on only when the timer is enabled. In Rung 0013, for example, if the
System Batching bit turns off, or the Batch Step 4 bit turns off, the timer will no longer be
enabled. Consequently, its enable bit, T4:0/EN will turn off.
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We will turn off the timer by incrementing the system to the next step when the timer is done.
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Insert a new rung at the bottom and drag an XIC to the first marker. We will assign the Done bit
(DN) of the timer to this instruction. It is formatted just like the Enable bit, except you use /DN as
the suffix. Address this instruction as T4:0/DN.
We will use the same method to increment the system to Step 5 that we have used previously.
Drag an OTU instruction to the last marker in the rung. Address the instruction to be Step 4,
which is B3:0/13.
Insert a new branch around the OTU by dragging a Branch tool button to the marker in front
of the output. Grab the right leg of the branch and move it to the marker after the output.
Insert an OTL instruction on the bottom of the branch and address it as B3:0/14.
Verify the rungs.
Now, when the timer is done and T4:0/DN turns on, it will unlatch Step 4 and start Step 5.
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Step 5 Pump to Filling Lines
Since this step involves a pump, it will be similar to Step 3. Lets save ourselves some typing
and copy all of Step 3.
Click on Rung 0010. Hold down the SHIFT key and click on Rung 0012.
Press CTRL-C.
Click on Rung 0016 (the last rung). Press CTRL-V.
In Rung 0016, change B3:0/12 to B3:0/14.
Change the address of the output instruction to O:5/13.
We want to pump until the Mixing tank is empty.
We will use the Ultrasonic Level Sensor to determine if the tank has liquid in it. We will use a
GEQ instruction to accomplish this.
Double-click on the LEQ text in the LEQ instruction. Type GEQ (for Greater than or equal to) in
that space. Change Source A of the instruction to N7:1. This is the address of the scaled level
sensor.
We may be tempted to put a value of 0 into Source B, but that could be risky. First, pumping the
tank dry might be hard on the pump. Second, because of drift in the level sensor, we might
never get a reading of zero in some instances.
The Process engineers have told us that emptying the tank to 3% is desirable. Put a 3 in for the
value of Source B.
Change Rung 0017 to show the correct valve, limit switches and pump addresses.
Since this is the last step in the batching process, we will use Rung 0018 to increment out of
Step 5 and complete the batching cycle.
Change the first XIC in Rung 0018 to B3:0/14.
Copy the GEQ instruction from Rung 0016. Click on the instruction, press CTRL-C and click on
the GEQ instruction in Rung 0018. Press CTRL-V.
Delete the other GEQ from Rung 0018 (the one that references the tank weight).
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Change the remaining GEQ in Rung 0018 to a LEQ.
Change B3:0/12 to B3:0/14.
Right-click on the OTL (L) instruction in the bottom branch. Choose Change Instruction Type
and make it an OTE. Change the address to B3:0/3. This is the Batch Complete bit.
Verify all the rungs and it should look like this.
When the system enters Step 5, the Mixing Tank will be nearly full. The GEQ instruction will be
true and open the Mixing Tank valve.
When the valve has been opened and verified by the limit switches, the pump will run.
When the level in the tank drops to 3%, the valve will close and the Mixing Tank pump will stop.
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Simultaneously, the Batch Step 5 bit will be unlatched and the Batch Complete OTE instruction
will be turned on. It will trip the latch in Rung 0002 and turn off the System Batching bit.
The system returns to its idle state and is ready to begin a new batch.
Faults
The program may be complete in an operational sense, but we need to add the logic to detect
faults.
Lets create a new ladder file to do that.
Right-click on Program Files in the Project menu and choose New. Name the file FAULTS
and enter System Faults as the description.
Double-click on the new ladder file.
Valve Position Faults
We were told in the Project Scope that the valve position must be verified by the limit switches
within 2 seconds.
We will use an individual timer for each valve to accomplish this.
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Type in the logic as shown below.
We must accommodate the two conditions that indicate a fault. The first is that the valve was
told to open, but did not open. The second fault condition is that the valve was told to close, but
did not close.
Remember that the limit switches on the valves are electrically normally open and will be
physically held closed by the valve when it is in position.
When the valve is open, we should not get a signal to the input I:4/2, as limit switch LS-CW1 is
not activated by the valve.
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When the valve is closed, we should not get a signal to the input I:4/3, as limit switch LS-CW2 is
not activated by the valve.
We use the XIO (examine if open) instruction. We want to know if we do not get a signal from
the limit switches when we should. An XIO instruction used on an input will always be true if
there is no signal on the input.
Lets look at how it handles the first fault condition (the valve was told to open, but did not open).
The City Water valve output (O:5/1) is on but the limit switch LS-CW2 is electrically open. That
means the XIO instruction for LS-CW2 in Rung 0000 is true. This creates an undesirable
condition and the timer will begin timing.
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The screenshot below shows what the state of the instructions would be after 1 second of the
valve being instructed to open, but LS-CW2 not yet being activated.
You can see that the City Water valve is being told to open, as O:5/1 is highlighted. You can also
see that LS-CW2 says that the City Water valve is not open, as it is also highlighted. The timer
has begun timing and has reached, or accumulated, 1 second.
If the timer reaches 2 seconds, the timer done bit T4:1/DN will come on and turn on the System
Fault bit B3:0/1 in Rung 0001.
Since we used the System Fault bit B3:0/1 in Rung 0001 of the MAIN ladder, this will cause the
System Enable bit to turn off.
Consequently, Rungs 0002 and 0003 of the MAIN ladder will become false and the system will
stop batching.
Lets look at the other condition; that is, the valve was told to close, but did not close.
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That is what is accomplished in the branch in Rung 0001. If the valve output (O:5/1) is not on
but the limit switch is not activated, then the timer will begin and generate a fault.
Sometimes it gets confusing when you are working with the XIO instruction . The logic is
inverted and you have to flip some things around in your head.
The logic we have used here to detect a valve fault is fairly standard and its use is widespread.
The nice part about this logic is that it is pretty easy to troubleshoot. You can physically look at
the valve to see if it is open or closed. Then, you can look at the input you are receiving from the
limit switch. If you are getting a fault when you should not, then just invert the instruction for the
limit switch. Change it from an XIO to an XIC, or vice versa.
Lets create the fault timers for the remaining valves. This is the screenshot for the QR valve and
KM valve fault logic.
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This is the screenshot for the Mixing Tank valve fault logic.
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Notice how the System Fault rung has grown.
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To complete our fault logic, we need to add the Liquid High Level alarm. We can achieve this
with one GRT instruction in the System Fault rung. It is agreed that if the liquid level reaches
95% of the tanks capacity, it will fault.
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Adding a return (RET) instruction completes the ladder.
Dont forget to add a JSR instruction to the main ladder.
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Console Status Indicators Pilot Lights
I have held off putting the logic in for the Pilot Lights in an effort to keep the text as simple as
possible. Now that you understand how the system operates, we can go back through the
program and add the pilot lights.
The first is the System Ready PL1 pilot light. Find Rung 0003 in the MAIN ladder. Clicking twice
on the rung number will open the rung for editing.
Insert a branch around the B3:0/4 System Ready output. Put an OTE instruction on the bottom
rung of the new branch and address it O:5/0. With this logic, the light will come on when the
System Ready bit is on.
We will add the remaining pilot lights in a similar fashion.
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Adding water
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Adding QR
Adding KM
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Blending
Pumping to Lines
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System Fault
We need to add a little logic to the System Fault pilot light. This light needs to stay on after it
detects a fault; otherwise, the system will stop and the operator wont know there was a fault.
We are using the STOP BATCH pushbutton to reset the fault light.
Add the rung as shown below.
Adding Rung Comments
A good rung comment explains in plain language what the rung is supposed to do. These are
very valuable. First, it is a way to double-check your own work. I have been surprised at the
number of times I have found a mistake in my logic as I was writing the rung comments!
Second, it helps a person who is unfamiliar with the program quickly learn how the program is
supposed to work.
Finally, it adds value to your finished program. A well-documented program is worth more money
to a client (or your company) than a program that is not documented.
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They can even get you out of a jam. If you have to troubleshoot a system 6 months after you
first programmed it, I can guarantee that you will not remember every reason for every line of
code you wrote. If you have written code in some other language before, you certainly can
understand the value of documenting your work.
The default for RSLogix is to attach the rung comment to the rung number. This is fine until a
rung is inserted above that rung. It is a much better practice to set the rung comment to be
attached to the Output Address.
Choose
Tools > Options... > System Preferences
and select Output Address for Default Rung Comment/Page Title Attachment.
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Lets use a rung from our program as an example.
Right-click on the rung number 0008 and choose Edit Comment. This box will appear.
Make sure the Attach To selection shows Output Address.
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Type this in the Rung Comment field:
Run QR pump PUMP-QR after the QR valve is opened and the valve position is verified by both
valve limit switches. Turn on the "Adding QR" pilot light.
Notice that you dont have to put details such as PLC addresses in the rung comment just
document the concept of the rung.
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Expanding the Data tables
Before we go online and download the program, we should expand our data tables in case we
need to add a timer or a new integer after we go online. RSLogix 500 only allows you to expand
data tables if you are off line in program mode. This means the process system must be shut
down.
Lets start with the B3 file. Right click on the B3-BINARY file in the Project tree. Choose
Properties. It will initially show 1 element, which means we have one word of 16 bits. That
means that we will only be able to use bits up to B3:15.
Change the number of elements to 4. This will give us 48 bits to work with; that should be plenty
for this project, and we still have more than enough memory in the PLC.
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We will do the same with the Timers. In the case of timers, counters, integers and floating point
decimals, 1 element means 1 word.
That is, if we want to be able to use 16 timers, we have to make sure the data table contains 16
elements.
You will notice that 16 elements gives us 16 timers (T4:0 ~ T4:15).
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Do the same with the C5 counter file. We dont have any counters in the program yet, but we
might need one or two before we are done.
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Do the same with the N7 integer file.
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Connecting To The SLC And Going Online
You have written your program and now you are ready to download, or send, the Batching
program to the computer.
First, backup up your original file and put it in a safe place.
Check the serial port settings of your computer in Control Panel. Make sure the baud rate (or
bits per second) of your COM port is set as high as possible 57600 should work there.
Allen-Bradley provides a cable to connect the serial port of your computer to the 9-pin serial port
on the SLC 500 processor. Connect the cable and turn power on to the PLC.
Turn the key operated switch on the processor to the center position PROG (program).
If you do not have RSLinx installed, you will have to do that now.
After you install RSLinx, you will have to configure it for your computer and your PLC.
To do that,
Choose
Start > Programs > Rockwell Software > RSLinx > RSLinx
In the Notification are of your Taskbar (the lower right of your Windows screen) that looks like
this.
The one on the left is the RSLinx Communications Service. The other one is for the RSI
Directory Service.
Click on the left one, the RSLinx Communications Service. The RSLinx screen will appear.
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Choose
Communications > Configure Drivers
The driver screen appears.
Choose RS-232 DF1 devices from the Available Driver Types drop-down menu.
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Click Add New.
Click OK.
You probably have your cable connected to COM1 of your computer. Click Auto-Configure.
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In the box to the right of the Auto-Configure button, you should see a message that says Auto
Configuration Successful. In addition, the Device: box should show SLC-CH0/Micro/
PanelView.
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Click OK. You should see a screen like this.
Click Close. You may close the RSLinx screen RSLinx will still run, as indicated by the icon
in the Notification area of your taskbar.
Open RSLogix.
WARNING
There are dangerous voltages present on
terminals of the PLC. Follow all warnings and
instructions from the Allen-Bradley manual for
connecting power to the PLC. If you are not
familiar with hazards and the potential dangers of
these voltages, please STOP RIGHT NOW.
Consult a trained professional who is able to
assist you.
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Choose Comms > System Comm from the menu. You will see a screen like this. You may have to
maximize the screen and resize the panels to get the right view.
In the explorer panel on the left, click on the + next to AB_DF1-1, DH-485. You should see
animation in the icon, as the tiny blue square moves around the little network symbol. The
computer icon for address 00 indicates your computer. The icon for address 01 indicated the
PLC. In our case, it is an SLC-5/03.
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Select the SLC in the left window and click OK. The communications window will close.
In the RSLogix 500 main screen, choose File. Select your program from the Recent File List (it
is probably 1).
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Choose Controller Properties from the Project tree. Click on the Controller Communications
tab.
Click on the Driver dropdown box and select AB_DF-1-1.
Click Apply then OK.
Choose Comms > Download
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You should get a screen similar to this.
Choose Yes.
The program will begin downloading.
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Since we are downloading a new configuration, this screen will appear.
Choose Apply. The program is now in the PLC.
If things go well, you may be able to go online right away.
Choose Comms > Go Online
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Choose Browse and find the folder where you file is located. Click OK.
The file name will show in the bottom box. Click on it to select it, then click Upload Use File.
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You may need to change the Baud Rate of the PLC. Click Channel Configuration in the Project
tree and click on the Chan. 0 System tab. Choose 19200 from the Baud dropdown menu.
Click Apply and OK.
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You will now see a screen like this. Notice that the ladder icon is animated to indicate you are
online.
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Run Mode
Before you go into Run Mode, make sure that the E-stop button works properly. I have not
included wiring diagrams in this book, but most codes state that all control power is removed if
the E-Stop button is pressed.
NFPA 79 Electrical Standard for Industrial Machinery states the following:
9.2.2* Stop Functions. The three categories of stop functions
shall be as follows:
(1) Category 0 is an uncontrolled stop by immediately removing
power to the machine actuators . . .
9.2.5.4.1 Emergency Stop. Emergency stop functions provided
in accordance with 9.2.5.3 shall be designed to be initiated
by a single human action.
9.2.5.4.1.1 In addition to the requirements for stop, the
emergency stop shall have the following requirements:
(1) It shall override all other functions and operations in all
modes.
(2) Power to the machine actuators, which causes a hazardous
condition(s), shall be removed as quickly as possible
without creating other hazards . . .
(3) Reset of an emergency stop circuit shall not initiate a restart.
(National Fire Protection Association, 79-22, 79-23)
Make sure you follow your companys start-up procedures as you begin testing the system.
The next step is to put the processor in Run Mode. Do not enter this step lightly; you MUST
keep the safety of your co-workers in mind. Look around the machine and make sure everyone
is safely located.
Find the mode drop-down menu in the upper left. It currently says PROGRAM. This means
that the PLC is not currently running the program.
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The key switch in the PLC has 3 positions: RUN (run mode), REM (remote run mode, meaning
that the mode can be selected from RSLogix) and PROG (program mode).
Carefully switch to REM. This puts the processor in remote run mode. Notice what the
dropdown menu indicates.
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Click on the dropdown and choose Test Continuous. This is a special mode that allows the
program to run, but disables all outputs.
Scroll through the program using the scrollbar to the right in the LAD 2 MAIN window.
Looking at Rung 0003, for example, you can see that the System Enable bit B3:0/0 XIC is true,
as indicated by the green highlight on the instruction.
Any XIC instruction tells the PLC to look at a bit, and if the bit is ON, then the instruction is true.
The system is not batching as shown by the XIO instruction used for B3:0/2. An XIO instruction
tells the PLC to look at a bit, and if the bit is OFF, then the instruction is true. The XIO instruction
in Rung 0003 is true because bit B3:0/2 is off.
Because all of the preceding instructions before the B3:0/4 System Ready bit are true, the OTE
is true. Again, it is highlighted.
Sometimes it is
necessary to cycle
power on your computer.
Making the first connection to a
PLC can be tricky. Prepare
yourself by having the phone
number for your Rockwell rep
handy.
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Think of the equivalent hardwired relay circuit that would generate the same function as Rung
0003. Imagine that we have 3 relays, labeled B3:0/0, B3:0/2 and B3:0/4. We have wired a
normally open contact of B3:0/0 in series to a normally closed contact of B3:0/2 and to the coil
of B3:0/4. We have also wired a pilot light in parallel with the coil of our imaginary relay B3:0/4.
The coil for relay B3:0/0 is energized, so the normally open contact is closed. The coil for relay
B3:0/2 is not energized, so the normally closed contact of B3:0/2 remains closed. The coil of
B3:0/4 is now energized. The pilot light is illuminated.
Getting back to our PLC rung, you can see that the branch that contains the pilot light output
shows that OTE is true also. However, since we are in TESTCONT mode, the output on the
module is not electrically energized. You can look at the card and see that the LED for this
output is off.
Look at Rung 0007. The first two instructions look right, as the system is not batching and we
are not in Batch Step 2. Neither of these is highlighted. However, the LEQ (less than or equal to)
is true; Source A is 0, which is certainly less than the value of 1665 in Source B.
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RSLogix does not highlight some instructions, such as an LEQ. You have to mentally compare
the numbers yourself to see if the instruction is true.
In Allen-Bradley PLC
vernacular, upload means get
the program from the PLC and
load it in RSLogix on your computer.
Download means send the program
from RSLogix on your computer to the
PLC.
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We need to check our analog inputs. Double-click on LAD 3 ANALOG in the Project tree.
There is no liquid in the tank, so our input reads 0. The SCP instruction puts a value of 0 in the
output register N7:0.
Rung 0001 of the analog ladder also reads correctly. Click on the MAIN tab at the bottom of
the ladder window to return to the main ladder.
After you are convinced that all of your logic is working properly, click on the mode dropdown
and select Run. A screen will appear asking you to verify the mode change to Run. If you
choose Yes, the outputs on the PLC will be energized, so be ready with the E-Stop switch.
Choose Yes.
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The dropdown menu will now display REMOTE RUN.
You can look at the LED on the PLC for output O:5.0/0 and see that it is on. This output is for the
System Ready pilot light.
Scroll to Rung 0004. Press the Start Batch pushbutton and you should see the XIC instruction
for I:4/0 highlighted. This makes the rung true, and B3:0/10 is turned on. Release the
pushbutton and the rung will look like this.
Notice that even though the rung is no longer true, B3:0/10 is on. This is because it is a latch
instruction and will remain on until the corresponding unlatch instruction is true.
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Scroll to Rung 0005. You can see that system is in Batch Step 1 and that the City Water valve is
open. The pilot light is on. The liquid weight in the tank is rising as shown in the LEQ instruction.
The sequence continues as the specified weight for each ingredient is reached.
As the ingredients are added, the tank weight rises. When all the ingredients have been added,
the batch is blended and sent to the filling lines. The program functions as specified in the
original Project Scope.
Test your E-Stop circuit thoroughly, even if you are working on
a system that has been running for months or years. Be ready to hit
the E-Stop button if you see a hazardous situation developing.
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Editing in Run Mode
As happens many times, though, there is a change in the project procedure.
There is a storage tank on the filling lines that Mixing Tank Pump PUMP-MT feeds. The Process
Engineer indicates that there may be a possibility of supplying too much finished product to this
tank and that it could overflow. He decides the storage tank should have a high level switch
mounted in it. If the level in the storage tank gets too high, he wants you to disable the Mixing
Tank pump.
We still have spare inputs available. Lets use I:4/14. It is decided that the high level switch will
be wired in the failsafe mode; that is, the level switch will be closed until a high level is reach.
When wired in that fashion, if the wiring to the switch fails, you will not receive a signal from the
storage tank pump and the PLC will stop the Mixing Tank Pump. The system will not run until the
problem is corrected.
Scroll to Rung 0017. Double-click on the rung number. A column of es will appear. The rung is
now open for editing.
Click and drag the XIC tool button to the first marker after I:4/9. When the marker turns
green, release the mouse button.
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Type I:4/14 and press enter. Add the descriptor Filling Line Storage Tank Ready and click
OK.
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Up to this point, your changes have not been integrated into the sequence of the program. You
will notice that just below the rung you are editing the original version of the rung is displayed.
To get your changes into the sequence, you must perform 3 steps:
1. Accept the current rung edits
2. Test the edits
3. Assemble the edits.
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Make sure the rung number area is still highlighted in red. Locate the Accept Current Rung
Edit tool in the ladder window.
By the way, if you want to cancel your current edits, click the tool to the immediate right of the
Accept Current Rung Edit tool. This is called Cancel Current Rung Edits .
Click on the Accept Current Rung Edit tool .
The tool will be now grayed out and the Test Edits tool now becomes available. In addition,
the Cancel Edits tool is available. You can click this if you want to cancel your edits.
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The rung number area now shows a column of vertical bars and the revision rung below shows
a column of vertical Rs.
Click on the Test Edit button . A dialog box will appear asking you to verify this action.
Choose Yes.
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The ladder window now looks like this screenshot. The output has still not changed, but you can
see that the new input for the Filling Line Storage Tank is on and is working properly.
You could still cancel your edits at this point with the Untest Edits tool button .
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The final step is to Assemble Edits. Locate the Assemble Edits tool icon .
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Click on the icon. A dialog box will appear asking you for confirmation. Choose Yes.
Your online edit is now complete. The Mixing Tank pump will not run unless it receives a signal
from the Filling Line Storage tank indicating the tank is ready to receive finished product.
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A Final Note About Our Program
You may have noticed that we ignored some aspects of the system that perhaps should have
been addressed.
For example, in a real world system, you would probably have to make sure that the supply of
ingredients QR and KM are available. If not, the pumps could run dry, and this is probably
undesirable.
Another nice feature of the program would be to make sure the weight in the tank is changing if
we are adding an ingredient. If not, this certainly indicates some kind of problem and the system
should probably be shut down.
I have intentionally left out features like this for simplicitys sake. I dont want to overwhelm you
with too many what ifs.
The bottom line is that we fulfilled the Project Scope. This is the single most important aspect of
creating a successful program.
Feel free to ponder enhancements to this batching logic. Perhaps you can use those ideas on
your first real-world batching program.
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How Do I . . . ?
Here is an FAQ section to address the most asked questions regarding RSLogix.
How do I . . . ?
Turn off Rung Comments
View > Properties > Comment Display uncheck Show Rung Comments
Change The Screen Font
View > Properties > Fonts
Show 3D Instructions
View > Properties > Miscellaneous
Check Show 3D Instructions
Edit A Rung In Run Mode (see the Editing in Run Mode section in this book)
Double-click on the rung number
Make the changes to the rung.
Click Accept Current Rung Edits
Click Test Edits
Confirm the dialog box.
Click Assemble Edits .
Confirm the dialog box.
Hint: instead of moving your pointer to confirm each dialog box, just press the space bar this is
much faster.
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Cancel An Edit In Run Mode
Depending on what stage of the edit you are in, click one of these icons:
Cancel current rung edits .
Cancel Edits .
Untest Edits .
Find An Instruction In The Program When You Only Know Some Of The Descriptor Or
Rung Comment
Press CTRL-F. Make sure the appropriate right boxes are checked. Type the text in the Find
What: box. Click Find Next or Find All.
Go Back To The Last Rung I Was Working On
Use the Logic Trace toolbar.
If it is not visible, choose View > Toolbars and check Logic Trace. You can also drag it to the ladder
window and it will become free floating.
Open Another Program, But Still Keep My Existing Program On Screen
Just start RSLogix again. You can open a number of RSLogix windows simultaneously.
Compare One Program To Another For Differences
This is handy if you have two programs for the same machine and there is confusion over which
is the latest revision.
Choose Tools > Compare and fill in the blanks.
Force An Output On A Module To Come On
Right-click on the output in the ladder logic. Choose Force On.
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In the Forces Disabled/Enabled drop down, choose Enable All Forces. This will force on the
output and turn on the device that is connected to the output, no matter what the logic in
the rung says. The corresponding LED on the output module will come on. Use this with
caution.
Force An Input On A Module To Come On
This differs from forcing on an output in that you cant force electricity to become present at an
input, but the PLC will think there is.
Right-click on the input in the ladder logic. Choose Force On. Unlike forcing an output, the
corresponding LED in the input module will not come on.
Find Out How Much Memory Is Left In The PLC
Choose File > Summary Info > Statistics
Get Help On A Specific Instruction
Choose Help > SLC Instruction Help
Disconnect From The PLC After All The Programming Changes Are Made
Choose File > Save (save the data tables). Disconnect the interface cable.
Tips, Shortcuts and Warnings
Use The Data Table To Find Unused Bits As You Write Your Program.
If you are writing a large program and using many B3 file bits, it is easy to lose track of what bits
are available.
Right-click on an instruction and choose Goto Data Table. Click the Usage button and an X will
show what addresses you have already used. This technique works with any type of file, such
as timers, counters and integers.
The Date Attribute Of The File Is Updated Every Time You Go Online Even If You Dont
Save The Program.
Keep this in mind as you track your revisions.
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You Cannot Add Program Files Or Expand Data Tables When You Are In Run Mode.
Try to think ahead and include all the files as you write the program offline. Sometimes you dont
have the option of shutting a machine down because, for example, you have used all the timers
in your T4 file and you need a new timer.
Use Search And Replace With Caution.
Try to avoid the Replace All button unless you are absolutely, positively sure that things will
come out right. There is no Undo.
It is much safer to use the Find Next and Replace buttons. That way you can evaluate each
change you make.
Attach Rung Comments To The Output, Not The Rung Number.
The default in RSLogix is to attach comments to the rung number.
Choose Tools > Options > System Preferences and select Output Address.
Dont Fault The Processor In Run Mode.
Make sure you dont ask the PLC to do anything like dividing by zero. The PLC will fault and the
machine will stop. This can be very embarrassing.
Backup Your Files Frequently.
The easiest way is to rev your filename every so often, at least once every 30 minutes.
Choose File > Save as and put a number in the filename.
Sometimes, files are corrupted through no fault of your own. You can always go back to the
previous version so that you have not lost all of your work.
Disable A Rung With An AF.
If you want to temporarily disable a rung, set aside a bit that you know will always be false.
Label it AF for always false and use it with an XIC to temporarily disable a rung.
Dont Turn Off Power To The PLC OR Your Computer During An Online Edit.
There is a good chance this will corrupt your current file.
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Keep The Original Program In A Very Safe Place.
If you need to make some changes on an existing program, upload the program from the PLC
and store it on a floppy or a CD. If things go awry with your editing, you can always put the
program back the way it was.
Keep Track Of What You Are Doing If You Modify An Existing Program.
People will want to know.
Rung Comments Are Extremely Important.
Not only will they explain the operation of the program to someone else, they will remind you of
why you programmed the logic the way you did.
Set The Date And Time.
Double click on Processor Status in the Project tree. To the right, you will see the fields you
need to fill in to set the date and time. You can also use these words (S:37 through S:42) in your
ladder logic.
Use Passwords Carefully.
If you use one, dont forget it . . . but if you do, your Rockwell rep can show you how to get
around it.
Find Errors After A PLC Fault.
Open the Processor Status file in the Project tree and click on the Errors tab. Take note of
the Error Description and click Clear Major Error. Find the logic in your code and correct it
before you go back online.
Make Sure Your Program Is Programmed Properly For A System Power-Up.
There can be no machine motion until the operator initiates it.
Set Up A Printout.
Choose File > Report Options. This shows you everything you can print. If you are not careful,
though, you may get hundreds of pages, many of which you dont need. Use the Print Preview
button to make sure you are getting only what you want.
Address ONS (One Shots) Individually.
An ONS instruction is used to turn on a bit for one scan. The trick here is to remember that in an
A-B PLC, each ONS needs its own unique address. If you are working on a large program, it
may behoove you to create a new binary file just to hold your one-shots.
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Load And Save Your Workspace.
This is a nifty way for RSLogix to remember your window positions and the files that you would
like to be opened the next time you run RSLogix.
Choose File > Load/Save Workspace to access this.
Symbols
This is a type of label that can be used as a substitute for an address. There are some
advantages in terms of exporting the database, but in my experience, they are not used much.
Use CTRL-G To Goto Places Real Fast.
CTRL-G brings up a dialog box. Enter in a rung number or text to go to the first occurrence of
the search string.
When You Are Done, Store Your Program To The EEPROM In The PLC.
It is a good idea to save your ladder file to the EEPROM. The onboard battery will keep your
program in the PLCs RAM, but if the battery fails, the EEPROM will hold the program.
Dont Lose All Your Rung Comments And Address Descriptors.
Your rung comments and address descriptors are not stored in the PLC when you download
your program.
If you were to go online without choosing a database, upload the file to your computer and save
it, there is a chance that you could overwrite the file that has all the rung comments and address
descriptors.
Use Revision Notes
That way, you will know what you did the last time you were there.
Use Tools > Options to switch on revision notes.
Use The Built-In Automatic Program Backup
Choose Tools > Options and set your Project Files Search Path. Make sure AutoSave is enabled.
RSLogix will automatically save your file every few minutes (the default is 10 minutes).
Create An HMI In RSLogix.
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RSLogix provides quick way to create an HMI (Human Machine Interface). It is not something
you might want to use as a final solution for a factory floor, as anyone could get in and change
your program, but it is pretty handy for start-up and troubleshooting.
Double-Click on CGM 0 in the Custom Graphical Monitors section of the Project tree.
Click on a button at the top of the CGM screen to select it. In the screen area, click and drag a
square to create the object. Click and drag an address from your ladder program and drop it on
the object you just made. Double-click on the object to change parameters and you will end up
with something like this.
When you are in Run Mode, click on the blue arrow to run the CGM.
Write Your Rung Comments In The Present Tense.
You can then cut and paste them into a document to make an operators manual.
Write Your Rung Comments In A Standalone Word Processor (such as Word)
Spell check them, then cut and paste them into RSLogix.
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Conclusion
I hope that you have found the information in this book useful. Some of the concepts we have
covered may seem confusing at first, but with time and effort, you will be able to program a PLC
to do whatever you want it to do.
I wish you the best of luck in your endeavors.
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Supplementary recommendations that will help, available at engineer-and-technician.com.
Beginners Guide to
PLC Programming
ebook and tutorial
$9.95
PLC Programming
with RSLogix 5000
ebook
$19.95
How to Program
RSView32
ebook
$19.95
How To
Troubleshoot With
A PLC
ebook
$19.95
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Index

1746-IA16 120VAC Input Module, 27
1746-NI4 Analog 4 Channel Input Module,
27
1746-OW16 Relay Output Module, 27
AB_DF1, 99
Accept Current Rung Edit, 116
Accept Current Rung Edits, 122
Analog Inputs, 27
Assemble Edits, 119, 122
Assigning I/O Addresses, 27
Backup Your Files, 125
Baud Rate, 104
BIT, 11
Cancel An Edit, 123
CGM, 128
Change The Screen Font, 122
COM1, 96
Configuring Colors, Fonts and Address
Display, 36
COUNTER, 13
Create An HMI In RSLogix, 128
Descriptors, 37
Digital Inputs, 28
Digital Outputs, 29
Disable A Rung With An AF, 125
Done bit (DN), 66, 69
Download, 9, 10, 101, 104
Downloading, 9
EEPROM, 127
Enable bit (EN), 66, 67
Expand Data Tables When You Are In Run
Mode., 125
Fault The Processor, 125
Find Errors After A PLC Fault, 126
Force, 123, 124
GEQ, 59, 61, 64, 70, 71
Goto, 127
GRT, 79
HARDWIRED INPUT, 12
HARDWIRED OUTPUT, 12
I/O Modules, 7
Installing RSLogix, 30
INSTRUCTION, 11
JSR, 52, 56, 80
LED, 109, 111, 124
LEQ, 57, 58, 61, 64, 70, 71, 109, 112
limit switches, 22, 24, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 88
Memory, 124
MicroLogix, 5, 7, 8, 9, 13, 30, 132
NFPA, 106
normally open, 11, 14, 16, 24, 73, 109
One Shots, 127
online edit, 120
OTE, 14, 42, 43, 47, 57, 58, 61, 63, 67, 71,
72, 81, 108, 109
OTL, 49, 51, 62, 69, 71
OTU, 49, 59, 62, 69
Passwords, 126
Pilot Lights, 81
Printout, 126
PROG, 93, 107
program mode, 89, 107
Project Scope, 17
REM, 107
REMOTE RUN, 111
remote run mode, 107
RET, 57, 80
Revision Notes, 127
RS-232, 95
RSLinx, 9, 10, 93, 94, 98, 132
RSLinx Communications Service, 93, 94
RSLinx Lite, 9, 10
RSLogix 500 Software, 8
run mode, 107
RUNG, 12
Rung Comments, 85, 122, 125, 126, 127,
128
Running RSLogix, 31
Scan Time, 16
Search And Replace, 125
Set The Date And Time, 126
SLC 5/03, 27
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SLC 500, 1, 6, 7, 11, 12, 30, 93
SLC Power Supply, 6
SLC Rack, 6
System Fault, 42, 43, 75, 78, 79, 84
System Power-Up, 126
Test Continuous, 108
Test Edit, 117
Test Edits, 116, 122
The Date Attribute Of The File Is Updated
Every Time You Go Online Even If You
Dont Save The Program., 125
Time Base, 66
timer, 11, 13, 14, 37, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70,
72, 74, 75, 76, 89, 125
TIMER, 13
Timer On Delay, 66
Ultrasonic Level Sensor, 19, 21, 22, 25, 27,
39, 51, 70
Untest Edits, 118, 123
upload, 104, 126, 127
Use The Built-In Automatic Program
Backup, 128
Use The Data Table To Find Unused Bits As
You Write Your Program, 124
voltage, 7, 14, 54
Workspace, 127
XIC, 11, 14, 37, 41, 43, 44, 46, 49, 57, 59,
62, 63, 65, 67, 69, 70, 76, 108, 111, 113,
125
XIO, 14, 37, 42, 43, 44, 47, 50, 63, 74, 76,
108
PLC Programming with RSLogix 500 127
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THE FOLLOWING ARE TRADEMARKS OF ROCKWELL AUTOMATION, INC.
Allen-Bradley
MicroLogix
PanelView
RSLinx
RSLogix
RSLogix 500
SLC 500
THE AUTHOR OR THE PUBLISHER OF THIS BOOK IS IN NO WAY AFFILIATED WITH ROCKWELL AUTOMATION, INC.
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PLC Programming with RSLogix 500 128
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