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METEUGURI

STRVECHI N
SUDUL OLTENIEI

ANCIENT CRAFTS IN SOUTHERN OLTENIA

ANCIENT CRAFTS IN SOUTHERN OLTENIA

lritul Vdastra, judeul Olt


Vdastra este o localitate pe malul Dunrii, n
sudul Romniei. Aici s-a descoperit una din cele
mai vechi civilizaii ale Europei, datnd de acum 7000
de ani. Aceast cultur neolitic din epoca pietrei, este
deosebit de rafinat, reprezentnd o provocare pentru
specialiti. Vasele negre cu incizii albe au desene geometrice sofisticate, dovad a unei spiritualiti remarcabile.
Cultura neolitic Vdastra nseamn o ntreag civilizaie
(locuine, port, tradiii) ale crei elemente se pstreaz
pn astzi n cultura romn.
Tehnica obinerii culorii negre a vaselor prin ardere dirijat a fost descoperit de meterii populari din comun.

ottery - Vadastra, Olt County


Vadastra is a settlement on the Danubes shore, in
southern Romania. Here one of the oldest civilizations
of Europe was found, dating back 7000 years. This Neolithic
culture is very refined and represents a real challenge for archaeologists. The black vessels are carved with sophisticated
geometric white incisions, proof of a remarkable spirituality.
The archaeological evidence found at Vadastra is representative for an entire civilization (housing, port, traditions) whose
elements are preserved even today in Romanian culture. This
unique black colour of Vadastra pottery is an outcome of repeated burning sessions. The technique was discovered by
pottery craftsmen from the villages.

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lrit Oboga, Romana, Bal, judeul Olt


La Oboga, judeul Olt, mai sunt nc olari care s povesteasc despre meteugul lor de-o via - olritul.
Pmntul care va fi folosit la realizarea vaselor i obiectelor din lut este adus de ctre olari de toamna, ca s
nghee, transformndu-l astfel ntr-un material de lucru mai bun. Olarii din Oboga aduc pmntul din malul
Olteului, luat de la o adncime de 2, 3 metri.
nainte de a prelucra lutul, trebuie spat de cteva ori,
nc de cnd este adus, udat i curat de impuriti
pietre, rdcini. Dup aceste prime procedee este dus la
malaxor, pentru a fi frmntat, presat i udat de mai multe ori, devenind un material de lucru elastic i fin. Abia
atunci poate fi dus n atelier la prelucrat.
n atelier pmntul este frecat, btut bulgri de dimensiuni
corespunztoare obiectelor pe care olarul vrea s le fac. Lutul trebuie btut bine ca s ajung de consistena plastilinei.
Principalele instrumente ale olarului sunt roata, fichiasul
i plotogul. Bulgrele de lut se netezete, se ngurete,
se aaz pe roat ct mai centrat ca s nu ias strmb.
Odat aezat, i se d forma vasului care urmeaz s fie
fcut. Pentru asta se folosesc fichiasul i degetele ca s
netezeasc, n timp ce olarul nvrte roata. Plotogul se
pune pe buza vasului ca s ias rotund i drept. Mna
meterului trebuie s stea fix n timp ce netezete i d
forma vasului.
Un olar cu experien poate s lucreze pn la 100 de vase
pe zi. De obicei sunt implicai mai muli membri ai unei
familii n practica acestui meteug brbatul este cel care
prelucreaz vasele din lut, iar femeia le decoreaz.
Dup ce sunt gata vasele, se las la zvntat pentru a putea
fi decorate. Instrumentul folosit la decorarea vaselor din
lut este cornul de vit, avnd n vrf o pan de gin sau
de gsc. Coarnele sunt foarte rezistente i de obicei se
transmit din generaie n generaie. Pentru fiecare culoare se folosete cte un corn.

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ottery - Oboga, Romana and Bals (Old county)


There are still potters at Oboga who pass on
the secrets of this technique to their apprentices.
The clay is brought by potters in autumn, to freeze, thus making it a better working material. Potters obtain this clay from the bank of the Oltet river, at a depth of 2-3 meters. They
spade this clay several times, douse it and remove its impurities (roots and stones). It is
then ready to be blended (kneaded, squeezed and soaked), thus becoming an elastic and
soft material. Only then can it be taken for processing in the workshop. The clay is then
rubbed, and shaped into balls of appropriate size depending on the desired outcome. It
must be repeatedly beaten in order to obtain a softness similar to plasticine.
The pottery wheel and two unique romanian tools (fichiasul and plotogul) are required when making these pots. The clay ball is smoothed, drilled through, and positioned

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Culorile folosite la decorat sunt naturale, fcute din pmnt. Roul de exemplu se obine dintr-un pmnt bogat n oxid de fier numit ruseal. Pmntul trebuie transformat ntr-o past de consistena laptelui, fiind rnit,
amestecat cu ap i trecut prin sit. Se folosesc culori
deschise dar i culori nchise, predominnd verde, ruginiu, negru, alb, galben i rou.
n ce privete decorurile, ceramica de Oboga este asemntoare cu ceramica de Horezu dar n ceramica de
Oboga exist un cmp de respiraie fa de ceramica de
Horezu, care e ncrcat vasul este ncrcat de motive
decorative.
n Oboga, dar i n restul Olteniei, se fac ulcioare cu
modele complexe, bogat ornamentate i intens colorate.
Ulcioarele sunt vase care necesit mult ndemnare i
rbdare n prelucrarea lor.

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centrally on the wheel. Once set, it is given the form of the


pot using the fingers and the fichias. The plotog is set on
the lip of the pot, while the potter spins the wheel. Steady
hands are required to smooth and give form to the pot.
An experienced potter can complete up to 100 pots a day,
but normally, several members of a family are involved
in this craft. The males role is making the pots, the females - decorating them.
Once the pots are ready, they must be dried in the sun
before decorating can begin. The main tool used for
decorating clay pots is the horn with a goose or chicken feather. The horns are very resistant and are usually
passed down from generation to generation. A different
horn is used for each colour. Colours used for decorating and made out of clay. Red, for instance is obtained
from a soil rich in iron oxide. The clay must be made
into milky paste by grounding, mixing with water and
filtering. Both light and dark colours are used, but green,
copper, black, white, yellow and red are predominant.
In comparison to Horezu pottery, which features tightly decorated patterns, Oboga style makes use of less
decorations, set in a loose pattern.

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Olarii din Oboga i Oltenia, n general, le dau diverse forme,


repezentnd diverse figurine (animale, psri) sau avnd mai
multe brae. Aceste ulcioare se foloseau mai ales n trecut, la
nuni stenii erau invitai la nunt de doi flci, clare pe cai
mpodobii. Flcii treceau pe la fiecare cas i mpreau vin n
astfel de ulcioare, invitnd oamenii la nunt. Pe mesele mirilor i
ale nailor se aflau astfel de ulcioare umplute cu vin.
Dup ce au fost decorate, vasele se smluiesc i se ard n cuptoare speciale. Cuptoarele, n Oltenia, se fac n pmnt, ca s nu
se dilate din cauza cldurii i ca s pstreze cldura mai bine.
Pe marginea cuptorului se face un canal, pentru ca focul s nu
ajung direct la vase, iar focul se nteete treptat. Meterii cu
experien i dau seama de temperatur chiar n funcie de culoarea flcrii. Pentru ardere se folosete lemn de brad i grni.

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In Oboga and Oltenia, potters prefer jugs with complex patterns and intense colours. These jugs are given unique shapes
such as birds or animals or several arms.
The jugs were used in the past to announce weddings.
Two lads riding garnished horses and carrying such jugs filled
with wine visited the villagers, inviting them to the wedding.
At the wedding feast, wine was drunk from such jugs at the
grooms table.
After being decorated, the pots are glazed and burned in special furnaces. Furnaces in Oltenia are inside the earth, to better maintain the heat. On the edge of the furnace, a ditch is
dug to keep the fire from reaching the pots.
Experienced potters know the temperature depending on the
flames colour. Pine and oak wood are used to make the fire.

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NCONDEIATUL
OULOR

EGG DECORATING

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ncondeiatul oulor Dobridor- judeul Dolj, Clui i Bal - judeul Olt


Meteugul ncondeierii oulor se practic nc i astzi aa cum se practica n trecut.
Oule se aleg s fie proaspete i cu coaja de preferin
alb. Se spal cu ap i cu oet, se fac dou incizii fine n
ambele capete pentru a fi golite de coninut i se las la
uscat. Dup ce s-au uscat sunt astupate cele dou incizii
pentru ca vopseaua s nu intre n interiorul lor atunci
cnd sunt scufundate n culoare. Condeiul cu care se deseneaz decorurile este un beior de lemn ce are fixat
la unul din capete o plnie minuscul confecionat din
alam, prin care este petrecut un fir de pr de porc. Culorile se aplic ncepnd cu cea mai deschis i continund
pn la cea mai nchis. Se folosesc nc destul de mult
vopsele naturale. Prima culoare n care scufunzi oul este
galben i se obine din coaja de mr pdure care se fierbe
i creia i se adaug piatr acr dup ce au fiert cojile de mr.

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gg decorating - Dobridor - Dolj county, Calui


and Bals - Olt County
The egg decorating craft is still practiced today as it
was in the past.
The craftsmen chose fresh eggs with white skin. The eggs
are then washed with water and vinegar, two tiny incisions are made in both ends to be emptied of content and
then allow to dry.
After drying the two incisions are filled so that the paint
does not come inside when they are immersed in color.
The special pen with which you draw is a wooden stick
that is clamped at one end a tiny funnel made of brass,
with a pig hair. Colors are applied starting with lightest
and continuing with a darker.
Natural dyes are still widely used. The first color in which
the eggs are sunk is yellow (obtained from boiled crab
bark to which alum stone is added).

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Oule se pun n apa galben, puin cldu. Dup ce i-au
cptat culoarea se scot i se pun la uscat, apoi se pic
cear pe locul unde dorim s rmn culoarea galben,
pentru a o proteja de amestecul cu alte culori.
A doua culoare n care se pun oule este culoarea roie
care se obine prin fierberea a minim un kilogram de
petale de mac. Dup ce au fiert petalele de mac, se adaug piatr acr. Oule se fierb n culoarea roie 10, 15
minute, dup care se pun la uscat i se acoper cu cear
locurile n care dorim s rmn culoarea roie.
Ultima culoare n care se pun oule, este culoarea neagr. Negrul este foarte important n acest proces pentru
c d culoarea de final a oului, cea mai intens. Culoarea
neagr se obine din coaj de anin i arar care se fierb i
crora li se adaug i piatr vnt sau piatr acr. Oule
se pun n culoarea pregtit dup ce aceasta s-a rcit vreo
10, 15 minute. n ultima etap oule uscate se pun n ap
cldu, pentru a topi ceara aplicat pe fiecare culoare,
rmnnd astfel culorile aa cum dorim s rmn.

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Eggs are placed in yellow water, slightly warm. After being colored, they are taken out and dried and waxed in
areas that must retain the colour.
The second color used is red (obtained by boiling at least
one kilogram of poppy petals). After boiling the poppy
petals, alum stone is added. Eggs are boiled in red dye
for 10 to 15 minutes, then put to dry and covered with
waxed in a similor fashion as before, but with regards to
the red colour.
The last color used is black. Black is very important
in this process as it gives the final color of the egg,
the most intense. The black colour is obtained from
boiled bark of black alder and maple to which alum
stone or bluestone are added. Eggs are placed in
color after it has been cooled for 10 to 15 minutes.
In the last stage, the dried eggs are placed in warm
water melting the protective wax and thus unraveling
the colours.

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NSTRUMENTE
MUZICALE

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MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS

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onfecionarea instrumentelor muzicale populare fluier, ocarine Localitatea Terpezia, judeul Dolj, localitatea Corbeni- judeul Olt i cteva localiti din Vlcea
Meteugul confecionrii ocarinelor este o tradiie n Terpezia /
Dolj, care s-a transmis din tat n fiu.
Primele ocarine confecionate n scopul comercializrii au fost
lucrate pentru civa artiti din ar. Ulterior, vznd c produsele au cutare, meterii din comun au participat la mai multe
festivaluri de art popular desfurate n ar, apoi la expoziii cu
vnzare n Germania, America i sud-estul Europei.

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anufacture of popular musical instruments - flute,


ocarina - Terpezita - Dolj county, Corbeni - Olt
county, and some villages from Valcea county
The craft of making ocarina is a tradition in Terpezita, Dolj
countyl, which has been handed down from father to son.
The first ocarinas were made for several artists in the country.
Then, seeing that products are sought, the craftsmen of the village participated in many folk art festivals held in the country
and, later on expositions and fares in Germany, America and
Southeast Europe.

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OVOARE
OLTENETI
OLTENIAN CARPETS

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ovoare olteneti Osica de Sus, judeul Olt


Bechet i Argetoaia- judeul Dolj
n Oltenia, Zona Romanaiului este renumit
pentru confecionarea covoarelor olteneti. Specificul
acestor covoare, de aici, din sudul rii, este acela c au
un colorit foarte viu n comparaie cu covoarele produse
n alte zone ale rii.
Covoarele se lucreaz att pe rzboaie de esut verticale,
ct i orizontale, pe care se face mai nti urzeala, folosind drept instrument bttorul n form de furculi.
Se acord mare atenie firului de urzeal, acesta reprezentnd scheletul oricrei esturi. Prin urzit, firele de
pe mosoare sunt aezate pe o lungime stabilit, care va
fi lungimea esturii, iar numrul firelor va da limea
viitoarei esturi. Nvditul reprezint stabilirea numrului de ie i ordinea n care acestea sunt ridicate sau
coborte, el fiind similar cu ceea ce astzi am numi un
program care conduce la obinerea unui anumit tip de
estur. Practic, prin nvdire se nelege trecerea firelor
de urzeal prin ie. Dup ce s-a terminat esutul, se taie
firele de urzeal i se trece la finisarea esturii. La finisare se leag nodurile firelor de urzeal, se cur estura
de impuritile ascunse ale lnii i se calc estura.
Materiile prime utilizate n meteugul esutului au fost
inul, cnepa i lna, prelucrate n gospodriile proprii. Firele de urzeal i de bttur suportau un lung proces de
prelucrare. Astfel, pentru realizarea produselor din ln,
dup tunderea oilor, urmeaz splatul lnii, scrmnatul,
drcitul, pieptnatul prin fusli i torsul. Se foloseau n
acest scop unelte cunoscute: piepteni, fusli, fus, drug,
rchitor, letc, vrtelni i altele. Astfel pregtit, lna ia
drumul esutului. Astzi se folosete n mod special lna
sau bumbacul. Urzeala trebuie s se potriveasc tipului
de ln folosit la esutul covoarelor. Dup ce s-a fcut urzeala se poate trece la lucrul covorului.
Se folosesc att culori naturale ct i din cele chimice.
Culorile naturale se obin din plante: din vrejurile de ardei - culoarea verde, din frunzele de nuc - culoarea maro,
din frunzele de ceap - culoarea bej deschis, iar culorile
rou i negru de obicei sunt chimice, pentru c din plante
se obin mai greu.
n ierarhia valorilor artei populare ocup un loc deosebit
scoarele i chilimurile. Ca tip de estur scoara este de
veche tradiie fiind piesa decorativ principal de interior din zestrea fetelor de rani. Confecionarea i posesia
de scoare confereau prestigiu social fetelor cu ndemnare tehnic. Transportarea zestrei la casa ginerului se
fcea printr-un adevrat ceremonial, unde fiecare pies
trebuia s fie prezentat comunitii.
Scoara olteneasc se impune prin motivul vegetal.
De obicei, cmpul i chenarul scoarei olteneti sunt

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ltenian Carpets - Osica de Sus - Olt county, Bechet and Argetoaia - Dolj county
In Oltenia, the Romanati area is famous for manufacturing carpets. Unique to these rugs are its vivid colors,
not found in carpets in any other parts of the country.
The carpets are made on both vertical and horizontal
looms. The first step in making them, is using a beater
fork-shaped tool to make the warp. Special attention is
given to the warp yarn, the literal skeleton of any carpet.
By warping, yarn bobbins are placed in an established
length, which is the carpets length and the number of
threads represents the carpets width.
Navaditul represents determining the number of knives
and the order in which they are raised or lowered; it is
similar to what we would call today a program that produces a certain type of fabric. Basically, by navadire, warp
threads passing through the knives.
After the weaving is finished, warp threads are cut.
The final stage involves binding the nodes, cleaning hidden dirt from the wool fabric and ironing. Carpet making
materials used were linen, hemp and wool, processed in
their own households. Warp and weft yarns bear a long
manufacturing process. Thus, to complete wool products,
after shearing, wool washing, combing with a special tool
and skewering is necessary.
The following tools were used in this regard: combs, skewers, wheels and many others.
Nowadays wool or cotton are most commonly used. The
warp must match the type of wool used in carpet weaving.
After the warp is finished, work can begin on the carpet.
Both natural and chemical colours can be used. Natural
colors are obtained from plants: green is obtained from
the stalks of green pepper, brown from the leaves of walnuts, beige from the leaves of onions and red and black are
usually chemicals.
In the hierarchy of folk art values, a special is reserved for
Kilims and Stelims.
As a fabric, Stelims are the main decorative carpets for the
peasant girls dowry.
Manufacture and possession of Stelims were a symbol
of prestige skill for the girl in question. Transporting the
dowry to the grooms household was a ceremony at which
each and every piece was proudly presented to the community. The Oltenian Stelim has a vegetal pattern and,
usually, the frame and interior are covered by bouquets
of flowers, leaves and branches (daisies and tulips) horizontally displayed. Decorative composition is developed
by using figurative (birds, animals and humans) or anthropomorphic motifs - often women figures in dance or
movement through different characters sometimes appear
as small components of a real scene.

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acoperite cu buchete i ramuri cu frunze i flori (margarete, lalele) dispuse orizontal n rnduri dese.
Compoziia ornamental este dezvoltat prin folosirea unor motive figurale (animale i oameni) integrate
compoziiei vegetale. Motivele antropomorfe figuri de
femei adesea n micare prinse n hor sau diverse personaje apar uneori ca fiind componentele unei veritabile
mici scene. Coloritul scoarelor este nuanat i rafinat.
Cmpurile, de obicei colorate n bleumarin, viiniu, azuriu, verde, cafeniu se remarc prin strlucirea lor inegalabil. n repertoriul ornamental al scoarelor apar adesea
psri, animale i diferite personaje.
Spre deosebire de celelalte esturi, chilimul se caracterizeaz prin anumite particulariti att n ceea ce privete
dimensiunile ct mai ales n ceea ce privete ornamentaia,
forma dreptunghiular, bine proporionat i cu un decor preponderent vegetal i zoomorf avnd unele motive
de import mpletite organic cu cele de tradiie autohton.
Este confecionat dintr-o foaie lat, lucrat n tehnica chilim, care permite realizarea unor motive bine conturate.
Covorul oltenesc este considerat unul dintre cele mai valoroase tipuri de scoar romneasc. Regsim simboluri i motive care provin din inventarul artei rneti i
brncoveneti, motive a cror semnificaie este legat de
sensul fundamental al spiritualitii romneti ca vorbele
vieii, calul i clreul, cocoul, cucul, cerbul. Coloritul este
dat de albastrul ultramarin, verdele pastelat, rou viiniu care
reprezint fondul i determin cromatica ornamentelor.

Stelim colours are refined and nuanced. The main background is blue, purple, azure, green, brown and has areas of
unequalled brightness.
Unlike other fabrics, the kilim is characterized by certain
peculiarities both in terms of size and ornamentation. The
latter is rectangular, well proportioned, with a mainly
vegetable and zoomorphic decoration and a mix between
turkish and native motifs. It is made from a wide sheet,
worked in carpet technique, which allows well-defined
reasons. It is made from a wide sheet, worked in kilim
technique, which allows well-defined decorations.
The Oltenian Carpet is considered one of the most valuable types of Romanian bark. Motifs and symbols from
peasant art and Brancoveanu style can be identified, symbols related to the fundamental meaning of Romanian
spirituality such as life words, horse and rider, rooster,
cuckoo, deer. They are often of an ultramarine blue, pastel
green or cherry red colour that makes up the background
and determine ornaments.

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USTURI
POPULARE

SEWING, EMBROIDERING

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onfecionarea (cusutul, brodatul) portului


popular oltenesc Poboru, Cezieni, Icoana,
Curtioara, Priseaca - judeul Olt
Grijile femeilor erau n principal hainele i esturile
din interior. Portul rnesc avea ca cea mai rspndit pies cmaa. Lungimile ei variaz, uneori pn
ceva mai jos de bru, alteori pn la glezne. Partea de
sus a cmilor este bogat decorat, la femei aceast
decoraiune ajungnd s acopere masiv poriunea de
peste umeri.
Pe cap femeile purtau basma sau maram din fir de borangic. Acesta este unul dintre elementele legate de obiceiuri, ntru-ct un important moment al nunii este
acoperirea capului miresei, semn ca a devenit femeie.
De acum ncolo ea nu mai poate intra n biseric dect
cu capul acoperit. Brbaii purtau pe cap cciula cea mai
mare parte a anului. Chiar dup moarte, erau ngropai
cu cciula pe cap, pentru a o purta i in lumea de dincolo.

anufacturing (sewing, embroidering)


Oltenian costumes - Poboru, Cezieni, Icoana, Curtisoara, Priseaca - Olt county
A womans main household tasks were making clothes
and interior fabrics.
The long shirt is the most commonly worn piece of peasant clothing and varies in length from the ankles to the
lower waist.
The upper part of the shirt is richly decorated. Mens
shirts featured decorations around the neck and womens
shirts also added decorations on the shoulders, the arms
and breast.
Women wore head scarfs or veils of silk thread.
This tradition draws its roots from covering the girls
head at weddings, a symbol of becoming a woman.
As of now, she may only enter church with her head covered. Men wore fur caps most of the year and, after death,
were buried with it.

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OSTUME POPULARE
ROMNETI
ROMANIAN Folk COSTUMES

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ostume populare Craiova, Bechet, judeul


Dolj; Cezieni, judeul Olt
Portul popular atrage atenia prin miestrie i diversitate. Fiecare zon etnografic a avut un specific n
ce privete portul popular, piesele de port fiind mrci de
recunoatere a membrilor comunitii, mijloace de apreciere a vrstei i a strii sociale.
Portul rnesc avea ca cea mai rspndit pies, cmaa.
Lungimile ei variaz, uneori pn ceva mai jos de bru,
alteori pn la glezne. Partea de sus a cmilor este bogat decorat, la femei aceast decoraiune ajungnd s
acopere masiv poriunea de peste umeri. Pe cap, femeile purtau basma sau maram din fir de borangic. Acesta
este unul dintre elementele legate de obiceiuri, ntruct
un important moment al nunii este acoperirea capului
miresei, semn c a devenit femeie. Din acest moment ea
nu mai poate intra n biseric dect cu capul acoperit. n
timpul ceremoniei nupiale capetele nframei erau inute
de cei doi miri, semn al venicei legturi ce se formeaz
ntre ei. Brbaii purtau cciula pe cap, cea mai mare parte a
anului. Chiar dup moarte, erau ngropai cu cciula pe cap,
pentru a o purta i n lumea de dincolo.
Acopermntul de cap, la femei, i cmaa, att la femei
ct i la brbai au o folosin special: nframa era folosit la nunt, ca semn al transformrii tinerei fete n
femeie cstorit, dar aceeai nfram era pus n bradul
de pe mormntul celui mort necstorit. Cmile purtate
n timpul nunii de ctre mire i mireas sunt pstrate apoi
toat viaa, ele fiind i vemntul lor de nmormntare. n picioare nclmintea obinuit era opinca, pus peste obiele,
nvelitoare din benzi de estur din ln, ce apra piciorul.
Costumele se confecionau att pentru portul de zi cu zi
dar i pentru diverse ocazii: hora, nunta, srbtori.
Costumele de zi cu zi erau simple, fr custuri i broderii.
Costumul popular de srbtoare din zona Romanai
(judeul Olt), purtat de femeie, se compune dintr-o cma, o ie cu poale, care pot face sau nu corp comun; cele
dou zvelci sau boscelele, aezate una n fa, cealalt
n spate, apoi marama pentru acoperitul capului, avnd
diferite moduri de a fi legat, n funcie de vrst i condiia social. Cmaa are alti cusut cu rou. Poalele au
abac, sunt frumos cusute, alese n rzboi, de asemenea,
de culoare roie; sunt mpodobite cu paiete, dar mult mai
puine fa de celelalte zone, n care costumul poate fi
ncrcat i cu mrgele. La costumul de Romanai frapeaz acel rou, precum i motivele policrome: galben, alb,
albastru, verde. Se remarc, de asemenea, pe zvelcile de
srbtoare la femei, diferite motive: coarnele berbecului,
pomul vieii, hora, diferite motive zoomorfe, avimorfe,
chiar antropomorfe, care au o vechime pierdut n timp.
Costumul de brbat n zona Romanai, cel de var de
exemplu, se compune din izmene mpodobite cu abac
i coliori pe margine, croetai n cas, o cma cu
poale, lung, peste genunchi. Brbaii se ncingeau cu
un bru colorat, ales n rzboi, tot de culoare roie, cu
diverse modele. Brul pentru munc era mai nchis la culoare, de regul negru. Cmaa brbteasc era aleas n

olk Costumes - Craiova, Bechet, judetul Dolj;


Cezieni, Olt County
Each ethnographic area had a specific characteristics in terms of costumes and wearable items, means
to identify community members, assess age and social
status. Headgear, for women and shirts, for both men
and women have special meanings: the veil was used
at weddings as a sign of the transformation from girl to
woman but the same veil was placed in the pine at the
funeral of a single young person. Common footwear for
these cultures was a special kind of leather sandals called
opinci worn over wool foot wraps. There were two large
uses for costumes: common costumes for day-to-day use
and celebration costumes for special occasions such as
marriages, holidays. The common costumes were simple,
and featured no stiches or embroidery.
The holiday folk costume of the Romanati area (Olt
county) worn by women consisted of: a long shirt, two
special embroided fabrics (zavelci or boscele) knit
from the waist down both in front and on the back of the
shirt and the veil which was stitched differently depending on age and wealth. The shirt was decorated with a red
woven pattern around the neck sleeves. The two special
fabrics mentioned above are masterfully loomed in a red
pattern. Other colours used in the making of this fabric are yellow, white, blue and green. The decorating patterns have symbolistic value for Romanian history such as
ram horns, the tree of life, the dance. The summer male
costume from the Romanati area is composed of special
tight pants (called izmene) embroided and knitted, o
long, over the knee shirt. Around the waist the men wore
a special belt named brau, also loomed in red patterns.
The usual belt for working was decorated in black. As
for headgear, a straw hat was worn by men. The winter
male suit included a rough pair of pants named itari,
homemade from thick wool and adorned with chenille, a
cape named Shuba - very thick and decorated with blue
chenille on the sleeves and, in some cases, a hood (influences from Boian -Olt county).
All these traditional items were painstakingly and skillfully worked by women in ancient looms. Shirts, pants
and the veils were woven from silk threads.
In the Cezieni common of Olt County, people still celebrate the holiday of the ie(the traditional women shirt
mentioned above) every year around St. Elijah. This holiday feast dates from the time of Princess Brancoveanu,
who had a mansion in the village Cezieni.
Princess Brancoveanu gathered all the orphan girls from
the village at the manor during World War II and gave
them work. It offered girls the necessary materials to
make such a shirt. To encourage them to finish work on
the shirts, the Princess organized a village dance the first
tuesday after Easter every year. She offered prizes to every girl who finished a shirt during winter. This custom
has survived to this day.
The calusar suit was and still is worn at the calus
dance, whose origin is related to Roman military dances
and wars. This dance is dynamic, passionate and represents a symbol for fighting off evil spirits and protecting

39

METEUGURI STRVECHI N SUDUL OLTENIEI

78
79

77

40

ANCIENT CRAFTS IN SOUTHERN OLTENIA

80

81
rzboi, cu abace, mai puin mpodobit dect o cma
de femeie. Alt accesoriu este plria din paie.
Costumul de iarn includea acei pantaloni de dimie sau
ab, iarii, confecionai din ln foarte groas, mpodobii cu gitane. Nu poate lipsi uba, foarte groas i decorat cu gitane bleumarin pe la mneci, iar n unele zone
avea i glug, o influen din zona Boianului (judeul
Olt). Toate aceste articole tradiionale erau lucrate cu
migal i pricepere de femei, la strvechile rzboaie de
esut. Iile, cmile, izmenele i maramele se eseau din
borangic, motivele fiind alese pe rosturi, n rzboi.
Dei tradiia portului i realizrii costumului popular
este pe cale de dispariie, sunt zone n care se ncearc
pstrarea i renvierea meteugului confecionrii de
costume populare.

the community. The Pentecost is the only occasion when


the calus is danced. The calusar suit strongly resembles
Roman military war suits. The hat is made out of different
fabrics and adorned with fringes and ribbons representing a roman soldiers headgear. A special decorated stick
replaces the roman legionnaires short sword. The shirt and
skirt are decorated with red threaded patterns (red symbolizing the power to ward off evil spirits). A system of belts
cover the shirt: 2 diagonal red/black belts form Xs on the
back and front of the chest and a third belt is tied around
the waist. This system of belts symbolizes the roman breastplate. The lower part of the costume is made up of leggings
and greaves. Foot wraps and opinci replace the traditional roman sandals. They are adorned with spurs and bells.
During the dance the spurs and bells make specific sounds
meant to banish evil spirits and dispel negative energy.

41

METEUGURI STRVECHI N SUDUL OLTENIEI

83

82

84
42

ANCIENT CRAFTS IN SOUTHERN OLTENIA

85

86

Costumul de cluar ntru-ct se crede c originea obiceiului se afla n dansurile i rzboaiele militare romane, cluul este
un dans, dinamic, ce implic for dar i pasiune, cu ajutorul cruia membrii formaiei se lupt cu spiritele rele ncercnd
s asigure protecie ntregii comuniti. Costumul purtat de cluari pe perioada Rusaliilor se aseamn fizic dar i simbolic
cu costumul de lupta al soldailor romani din rzboaie, astfel: plria este confecionat din stof i mpodobit cu ciucurai
i panglici, reprezentnd coiful soldatului lupttor; bul reliefeaz sabia cu care acetia luptau i se aprau; cmaa i fusta
cusut cu arnici rou (nc din timpuri vechi i necunoscute, rou este culoarea puterii prin care se alung spiritele rele,
aduc belugul i bunstarea); bru (bete sau diagonala) - cluarul poart deasupra cmii, att pe fa ct i pe spate, un
X format din aceste bete, fapt ce simbolizeaz scutul i ideea de aprare; pantaloni i jampieri; pantofi opinci prevzute
cu pinteni- acesta este totodat i obiectul care are una din cele mai mari puteri carmice, favorabile, ntruct sunetul lsat de
ciocnirea opincilor dotate cu pinteni sperie i ndeprteaz orice energie i spirit negativ.

43

METEUGURI STRVECHI N SUDUL OLTENIEI

87

88

COANE
ICONS

ANCIENT CRAFTS IN SOUTHERN OLTENIA

89

coane pe lemn i sticl, pictura popular pe lemn


i sticl Craiova,judeul Dolj; Corbu, Slatina
judeul Olt
Conform datelor deinute de Muzeul Olteniei, exist
informaii c meterii iconari din Transilvania treceau
munii pentru a-i vinde icoanele n Oltenia i, de foarte
multe ori, campestau n mnstirile din nordul provinciei. Icoanele pe lemn dateaz, din secolul al XVIII i, mai
ales, din sec. al XIX-lea. Majoritatea icoanelor pe lemn
exprim pictura rneasc n relaie direct cu iconografia bisericilor din secolele al XVIII lea i al XIX-lea.
De-a lungul anilor, i mai cu seam n ultimul secol,
meteugurile tradiionale au fost supuse unei serii de

ood and glass icons and folk paintings Craiova (Dolj county) and Corbu, Slatina
(Olt county)
According to data held by the Museum of Oltenia,
craftsmen icon painters of Transylvania crossed over
the mountain to sell their crafts in Oltenia and, often
stayed in monasteries in northern Oltenia. Wood icons
date back from the eighteenth and nineteenth century.
Most of these icons express the direct relation between
peasant paintings and the iconography of eighteenth and
nineteenth century churches.
Over the years, and especially in the last century, traditional crafts have undergone a series of changes, and the

45

METEUGURI STRVECHI N SUDUL OLTENIEI


90

91

92
schimbri, iar numrul meteugarilor a sczut n mod
alarmant. Despre unele meteuguri se poate vorbi doar
la trecut, altele sunt n stare latent. Pictura popular
constituie unul dintre cele mai importante capitole din
vechea art romneasc. Tradiia bizantin, datorat
circulaiei pictorilor - zugravi de biserici pe cele dou
versante ale Carpailor i utilizrii izvoadelor i manualelor de pictur a dinuit pn la jumtatea secolului al
XIX-lea.

46

number of craftsmen has decreased alarmingly.


Folk painting is one of the most important chapters of
the old Romanian art. The Byzantine tradition, due to
the movement of folk artists - church painters on the two
sides of the Carpathians - and use of painting textbooks
and historical testimonies, lasted until the mid nineteenth century. Icon painting is, alongside murals, an important branch of folk painting and was done on wood,
canvas, metal or glass, with the purpose of adorning

ANCIENT CRAFTS IN SOUTHERN OLTENIA

67

93

47

METEUGURI STRVECHI N SUDUL OLTENIEI

94
Pictura icoanelor e, alturi de cea mural, o ramur important a picturii populare.
Zugrvirea icoanelor se fcea pe lemn, pnz, metal sau
pe sticl, n scopul mpodobirii caselor rneti i intrig prin utilizarea de elemente folclorice.
Pictura pe sticl este o ndeletnicire destul de trzie,
comparativ cu icoanele zugrvite pe lemn i pnz (prapori). n casele rneti, icoanele pe sticl erau aezate
alturi de tergare, cuiere cu blide, ulcioare etc., obiecte
decorative ce se armonizau, dnd interiorului o unitate
compoziional.
Icoanele iniial obiecte de cult (cu atribute protectoare
i vindectoare), mbogite cu valene artistice, actualmente sunt privite i ca obiecte de art care se integreaz perfect sensibilitii moderne. Din aceeai categorie,
a obiectelor populare cu conotaie religioas, care sunt
considerate n zilele noastre arta decorativa, fac parte:
pristolnicele, crucile de mna i troiele.

48

houses. Its defining feature is the folk element of life.


Painting on glass is a very late occupation, compared with
icons painted on wood and cloth (banners). In peasant
houses, glass icons were placed on towels, near pegs with
dishes and pots.

95

ANCIENT CRAFTS IN SOUTHERN OLTENIA

96

97

98

99
49

METEUGURI STRVECHI N SUDUL OLTENIEI

100

TI
POPULARE
Folk Masks

50

ANCIENT CRAFTS IN SOUTHERN OLTENIA


101

102

51

METEUGURI STRVECHI N SUDUL OLTENIEI

ti populare - Osica, Drgneti Olt judeul Olt i cteva localiti din Vlcea
Miestria cu care sunt confecionate mtile
justific existena unui adevrat metesug, ce presupune
caliti deosebite pentru cel care l practic: imaginaie,
talent, ndemnare, i un deosebit sim al umorului.
Pentru confecionarea mtilor se folosete o gam larg
de materiale: materiale textile, piele i blan de animale,
fasole, ln, pene de psri, mrgele, nasturi, cli de cnep, etc. n compunerea lor intr de asemenea buci de
metal sub form de plci sau cercuri, sfoar groas colorat, pene de psri, cli de cnep, pr de cal sau porc,
carton colorat, mrgele, nasturi, buci de sticl, boabe
de fasole, coarne de animal, oglinzi etc. Deseori n construcia mtilor se folosesc resturi de obiecte altdat
utile: doage de cofe, funduri de putini. Cele mai utilizate
unelte pentru confecionarea mtilor sunt cuitul, scoaba, foarfeca, ciocanul, tesla, sfredelul, cletele.
Un adevrat depozit de obiceiuri i simboluri strvechi,
mtile aveau la nceput un rol ritualic. Prin jocurile cu
mti oamenii au dorit s influeneze benefic destinul,
s-i asigure bunstarea, s alunge spiritele rele sau s capete bunvoina spiritelor lumii de dincolo.
Personaje din mitologia popular i din folclor sunt prezentate i ele n aceast lume fantastic ce se dezlnuie cu
tria unui ritual la anumite date ale anului, n miezul iernii
de Crciun i Anul Nou, n preajma solstiiului de var, de
Rusalii, sau cu prilejul unor evenimente memorabile din
devenirea individului i a colectivitii, cum ar fi nunta i
moartea. Mtile se folosesc n cadrul unor ritualuri ale
fertilitii, ale chemrii ploii, vntorii sau n dansuri ritualice. Doar brbaii sunt cei care se mascheaz i este
interzis divulgarea numelui celui mascat, obiceiuri derivate probabil din strvechile ritualuri de iniiere. Vatra
satului este scena pe care se desfoar jocurile populare
cu mti, spectatorii fiind membrii colectivitii.
Mtile au reprezentri antropomorfe i zoomorfe i ntruchipeaz chipul omului n diferite ipostaze (fericire,
tristee, tineree, btrnee). Regsim astfel, mti de
mo, bab, igan, unchei, bdrani, api, draci, etc.
Unele din cele mai interesante urme, prin varietatea i
expresivitatea lor, se afl n Romnia rspndite n toate provinciile istorice: Moldova, Transilvania, Oltenia,
Muntenia, Dobrogea.

104

52

103

olk masks - Osica, Drgneti Olt - Olt county


and some villages fromValcea county
The Craftsmanship with which masks are made
justifies the existence of a true set of skills required for
those who practice it: imagination, talent, skill, and a
great sense of humor.
Mask-making requires a wide range of materials: textiles,
leather and fur, beans, wool, bird feathers, beads, buttons,
hemp tow, metal slabs or circles, thick colored rope, horse
or pig hair, colored cardboards, pieces of glass, animal
horns, mirrors. Often masks also contain debris of once
useful objects: coffee staves, little bottoms. The most commonly used tools in mask-making are: knives, clamps,
scissors, hammers, adzes, drills and pliers. A true repository of customs and ancient symbols, masks initially had
a ritual role. This ritualistic mask dance symbolizes life,
mans wish to beneficially influence destiny, to ensure the
welfare of the household, to drive away evil spirits or to
gain the favor of spirits of the underworld.
Popular mythological and folk figures are also presented
in this fantasy world that is celebrated on certain dates
of the year, in midwinter, Christmas and New Years Eve,
around the summer solstice, the Pentecost, or on special
occasions such as wedding and death. Masks are used in
rituals of fertility, rain calling, hunting or dances. Only
men are allowed to weak masks and the disclosure of
ones name is forbidden -probably derived from ancient
customs, rituals of initiation. The center of the village is
the scene that unfolds popular games with masks.
The masks have anthropomorphic and zoomorphic representations and embody the image of man in different
situations (happiness, sadness, youth, old age). Identifiable masks include the old man, the old woman, the
gypsy, the uncle, the oaf, goats, demons and so forth.

ANCIENT CRAFTS IN SOUTHERN OLTENIA


105

53

METEUGURI STRVECHI N SUDUL OLTENIEI

106

OJOCRIE

Sheepskin Wintercoat Crafting


107

54

ANCIENT CRAFTS IN SOUTHERN OLTENIA

108
55

METEUGURI STRVECHI N SUDUL OLTENIEI

109

ojocrie - Vdastra, judeul Olt


Tradiia cojocritului n judeul Olt, dei nceput
n Vdastra, s-a practicat intens la Corabia, ora
circulat n vremuri, unde exista un singur meter care
lucra cu ucenici din diverse pri ale judeului, care mai
apoi duceau meteugul n satele de unde veneau.
Lna de oaie trece prin mai multe procedee nainte de a
putea fi folosit pentru a croi din ea cojoacele i pieptarele,
i se prelucreaz de obicei pe toat durata verii. Pielea trebuie curat de ln i argsit, iar materialul care rmne
pentru croial se numete ir. Argsitul sau tbcitul pieilor de oaie avea rolul de a le face trainince, impermeabile i flexibile. Operaiunea const n acoperirea pe partea
jupuit cu un amestec de tre de gru, chileac sau zer
i sare, dup care se ruleaz i se aeaz ntr-un ciubr, la
cald, unde sunt lsate s dospeasc aproximativ o sptmn. Urmeaz splatul, uscatul la umbr i apoi trasul cu
crligul, dup care urmeaz nlbitul, utilizndu-se nalba
sort de ipsos mprtiat pe toat suprafaa i apoi raderea cu ajutorul unei rape speciale, de obicei confecionat dintr-un capt de coas fixat ntr-un mner de lemn.
Fiecare cojocar avea propriile sale reete de prelucrare,
care constituiau un obicei de familie, ct i propriile momente pe care le considera optime pentru prelucrarea ulterioar, care erau destinuite doar membrilor familiei,
cojocarii de obicei, neprimind ucenici, practica din urm
fiind specific doar atelierelor oreneti.

56

110

111

heepskin Wintercoat Crafting - Vadastra- Olt


County
Sheepskin wintercoat crafting is a tradition in Olt
county. Although the tradition originally began at Vadastra, it was also practiced at Corabia by a craftsman
and his many apprentices, apprentices who spread the
tradition in their own villages.
Wool sheep goes through several processes before it can
be used to make coats and doublets, and is usually processed during the summer.
The skin should be cleaned and tanned in order to be
used, and the obtained material is called an ira.
Tanning sheepskin makes it resistant, waterproof and
flexible. This transformation consists of: skinning the
sheep, coating the skinned part of the fur with a mixture
of wheat bran, whey and salt, rolling and depositing it in
a tall kit for a duration of a full week to soften.
The sheepskin is then washed, dried (in an area avoiding
sunlight), stretched, bleached using mallows spread over
its surface.
Each craftsman had his own recipe for this skinning process, which usually was a family custom.
This process was passed down from generation to generation and no divulged outside the family. The craftsman
never took on apprentices outside the family.
The craftsmen process sheepskin, goatskin, ramskin into
objects and clothing for festive ocassions: fuspeluri -

ANCIENT CRAFTS IN SOUTHERN OLTENIA


112

57

METEUGURI STRVECHI N SUDUL OLTENIEI


Cojocarii prelucrau i mai prelucreaz, pieile de oaie, de
miel, dar i de berbec i confecionau obiecte de port srbtoresc, fuspeluri cergi sau ploczi cptuite cu blan,
folosite ca nvelitori sau ca aternut, bondie sau pieptare,
cume, cciuli, brie.
Bondia sau pieptarul, cum i se mai spune n zona Olteniei, se
regsete n numeroase forme, rmnnd piesa reprezentativ a portului popular de zi cu zi, putnd fi purtat chiar i sub
cojoc, n toate anotimpurile anului. Pieptarul este un obiect
de mbrcminte fr mneci, un cojocel scurt din blan de
oaie care acoper partea superioar a corpului. Pieptarele se
foloseau n special pentru a ine de cald dar aveau i cteva
elemente artizanale i puteau fi purtate i la srbtori. Pieptarul se croiete pe ir. Se croiesc patru pri: doi piepi i dou
buci pentru spate. Cele patru pri se lucreaz separat se
decoreaz -, dup care se asambleaz. Apoi se pune zgraua (o margine-contur de culoare neagr, din ln). La sfrit
se pune pe interior piele cu ln, ca s fie clduroas, i se
ncheie. Pieptarele brbteti se ncheie pe partea stng, pe
lateral. Primul trasament care se face pe ir i care va fi apoi
cusut cu a verde se numete ,,drumul robilor. Apoi se cos
buline de culoare roie care se numesc ,,stele. Dup buline
se cos rozete (cercuri zimate, stilizate), care reprezint razele
soarelui. Restul spaiului se umple cu custuri (flori ale grdinii i ale cmpului). Aceleai custuri se fac i pe pieptarele
femeieti i pe cele brbteti.
n vremuri, pieptarele fceau parte din zestrea fetelor mai
ales. Pieptarele erau foarte scumpe la trg, oamenii ddeau
un car de gru ca s poi lua lna din care s faci un pieptar.

fur blankets and sheets, fur coats, fur caps and belts.
The bodice or Bondita, as it is called in Oltenia, has
many forms and is the representative piece of day-to-day
folk clothing. It can be worn under waistcoat regardless
of season.
The Bondita is a sleeveless sheepskin waistcoat that assures body warmth in both day-to-day activities as well
as holidays or festivals.
Over time, these breastplates, for lack of a better word,
have been decorated in various patterns.
This bodice is tailored from four pieces of ira - two for
the back and two for the front. The four pieces are each
decorated separately and then sewn together.
The first step of decorating an ira was sewing a green
threaded pattern called the road of slaves into the material. Red threaded circles -called Stars - are then sewn
parallel to the mentioned pattern.
After the Stars are finished, rosettes in the shape of the
sunrise are sewn. The remaining space is decorated with
small sewn flowers. The same decorations are made onto
both female and male versions of the bodice. After being
sewn, it is hemmed using a piece of black wool named
zagarea. Lastly, wool is stitched to the insides.
The male version of this bodice is closed using buttons
positioned on the lower left part of the torso.
Bodices were part of a girls dowry, were very expensive
and were often worth as much as a cart of grain.

113
58

ANCIENT CRAFTS IN SOUTHERN OLTENIA

114
59

METEUGURI STRVECHI N SUDUL OLTENIEI


115

EST DE
PMNT
116

Earth Ovens

ANCIENT CRAFTS IN SOUTHERN OLTENIA

est de pmnt comuna Milcov, judeul Olt


estele de pmnt sunt specifice judeului Olt i
dateaz nc din vremea stpnirii romane.
Dintre toate sistemele folosite pentru copt pinea n
judeul Olt ns, cel mai vechi este estul.
estul se confeciona la nceputul secolului trecut ntr-o atmosfer plin de multe credine magice. Erau anumite zile,
imediat dup Pate, cnd grupuri de femei se adunau la un
loc i dup un minuios sistem de practici, clcau i modelau esturi de pmnt. Btrnii i amintesc c esturile
se fceau la srbtoarea Ropotinului. n majoritatea satelor
srbtoarea Ropotinului se inea a treia mari dup Pate.
Sunt i sate n care aceste srbtori se ineau trei mari, trei
joi i trei smbete dup Pate, ori numai joile dup Pate.
n credinele poporului, aceste zile erau adevrate srbtori
n care, dac sunt serbate atunci nu bate piatra sau gheaa,
adic grindina, pometurile i semnturile.
estul se lucreaz de femei, adunate n grupuri de 3 5
persoane. Se folosesc 5,6 saci de pmnt, un sac de hum
i un sac de baleg de cal i cteodat i cli. Se amestec
pmntul, huma, balega de cal si clii, se ud i se las
peste noapte nvelit. A doua zi amestecul se bate, se sap,
se mai ud cu ap i se frmnt cu picioarele de nou ori.
Lutul astfel pregtit se mparte n guguloaie i se modeleaz cu mna pe un muuroi de paie i frunze, n forma
unui clopot aezat cu gura n jos. Tehnica de confecionare a estului este similar cu cea a ceramicii primitive,

arth ovens - Milcov commune, Olt county


Earth ovens - called test - are specific to Olt
county and date back to the early years of the Roman occupation and is the oldest bread baking system in
Romania.
At the beginning of the 20th century the test was a mystic symbol for life and spirituality in a small community
and they were only built on certain dates. Village elders
remember these ovens being built during the Ropotin
celebration. In most villages this holiday is celebrated on
the third Tuesday after Easter, but some villages celebrated this event every three Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays after Easter. The days when test were built were
also occasions for special holidays and rituals - mainly
rituals for good weather.
These ovens were built by women in groups of three to
five. Five sacks of dirt, one sack of loam, one sack of horse
dung and tow were mixed together and soaked. The following day, the mixture is watered, spaded, battered and
knead nine times using the feet.
The clay obtained is then made into small balls and
spread over a leaf and straw hillock in the form of a bell.
The technique of making this oven is similar to primitive

117
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METEUGURI STRVECHI N SUDUL OLTENIEI


modelat cu mna i lsat s se usuce la soare. La partea
superioar a clopotului se fac dou orificii, prin care se
introduce fierul estului, cu ajutorul cruia se aga de
lanul coului cnd se pregtete pentru copt.
Prima dat cnd se pune la foc estul, se pun crmizi de o
parte i de alta a lui ca s nu se abureasc i s nu se rup.
n judeul Olt, n comunele Frcaele i Milcov se confecioneaz i n prezent esturi din pmnt, acest lucru
fiind un apanaj n exclusivitate al femeilor. Faptul c doar
femeile fac esturi, cel mai probabil este urmarea unor
implicaii de natur magicoreligioas, care au persistat
n decursul timpului.

pottery and, upon completion, the oven is left to dry in


the sun. Two holes are made in the upper part of the bell,
through which an iron rod was inserted. The rod was
hanged by an iron chain in the kitchen.
The first time the oven is used, bricks are laid out on the
sides, so that the oven does not brake.
In the communes of Farcasele and Milcov such ovens are
still made by women every year. The fact that only women make such ovens is related to the mythic and religious
symbolism of fertility.

118

62

ANCIENT CRAFTS IN SOUTHERN OLTENIA


119

63

METEUGURI STRVECHI N SUDUL OLTENIEI


120

RELUCRAREA
FIERULUI
IRON WORKING

64

ANCIENT CRAFTS IN SOUTHERN OLTENIA

relucrarea fierului Brncoveni, Drgneti


Olt, judeul Olt
Ateliere de fierrit mai existau n prima jumtate a
secolului XX n fiecare comunitate rural, deservind solicitri locale, adic producerea de instrumente agricole
sau repararea lor, producerea de instrumente de tiere
sau despicare a lemnului, de accesorii necesare n construirea caselor, de potcoave pentru vite etc. Ele erau indispensabile comunitilor.
Arhitectura unui asemenea atelier inea de posibilitile
proprietarului. Recuzita unei fierarii cuprindea n primul rnd cuptoare de nclzit fierul ce trebuia btut. Se
ardeau, ca i la topitoriile fierului crbunii obinui de la
bocerii, iar focul era ntreinut cu ajutorul foalelor fcute din piele, acionate de obicei prin presiune, cu piciorul.
Dincolo de cuptor, activitatea n atelier se derula n jurul nicovalei sau ileului cum i spuneau n zon, una sau
dou n fiecare atelier, pe care era btut fierul nclzit,
nmuiat pentru obinerea piesei dorite. Baterea se fcea
cu ciocane speciale, n frunte cu barosul, iar manipularea
lui se fcea cu ajutorul cletilor, i ele diverse: cletele
cu tureac mare (cu mnere lungi), cu care se lucra cnd
unealta era n foc; cletele cu col, cletele cu tureac
mic, cletele pentru reparat barostul. Dintre instrumentele specifice acestui metesug, mai erau i tietoarea
pentru fier, utul, un recipient cu ap, troc, pentru rcirea fierului lucrat n vederea clirii lui.
Transmiterea meteugului se fcea de obicei de la tat la
fiu, dar i prin angajare de ucenic.
n fierrii se realizau cu precdere unelte agricole precum: sape, hrlee, seceri, coase. Sapele erau i ele de diferite categorii, ele avnd formele n funcie de utilizarea
lor. Astfel, sapa ascuit pentru pmntul mai tare, sapa
rotund pentru pmntul mai afnat, trsa pentru solurile mai pietroase sau pentru curirea terenurilor de
tri, respectiv spini. Sapele i secerile erau fcute n serii
mari pentru c erau absolut necesare muncilor agricole.
Coasele vin mai trziu n repertoriul de instrumente al
fierriilor, pentru c, se tie, iniial cerealele se tiau cu
secera, ca i porumbul, de unde i tierea cerealelor se
numea secerat, nu cosit ca la fnee. De asemenea, realizarea coaselor era mai pretenioas, puini fierari se
ncumetau la ea.
Fierarii asigurau ns i feroneria necesar pentru construirea carelor i cociilor. Confecionate din lemn, aceste mijloace de transport aveau foarte multe ntrituri,
piese de legtur etc. din fier, ncepnd cu resteiele i cuiul de la jug, care puteau fi ns i de lemn, i continund
cu armturile ce se aplicau pe loitre, pe iregle, pe leuci,
cuiele ce legau ruda de car, dricul din fa cu cel din spate, rafurile de pe roi, lanurile ce legau ireglele sau erau
folosite la mpiedicatul carului pe povrniuri abrupte.

ron Working - Brncoveni, Drgneti Olt, Olt


county
Blacksmithing workshops were still used in the first
half of the twentieth century in rural communities and
produced agricultural tools, woodcutting and splitting
tools, construction tools and horseshoes crucial to the
communitys needs.
The size of the workshop depends on the wealth of the
owner. The heart of the workshop was the forge, where
iron was heated to a point where it could be given shape.
Coal was used in the forge and bellows maintained the
fire. Every workshop included an anvil called ileu used
for shaping iron. Shaping the iron was done using a
sledgehammer.
Smiths handled the iron differently in each phase of the
process: large tongs for heating the iron, pliers, small
tongs and a special kind of pliers used for repairing the
sledgehammer. Other tools necessary in a forge were the
whetstone and a bucket or keg of water for cooling the
iron. The craft was usually handed down from father to
son, but taking on apprentices was not uncommon.
Answering to the needs of the village, blacksmiths were
often tasked with making large quantities of agricultural
tools such as sickles, scythes and spades.
Spades came in different shapes depending on their use:
sharp spades for rough land, round spades for soft land
and pickaxes for rocky land or clearing thorns. Sickles
were initially used for harvesting cereals but, in time,
some blacksmiths began producing the sickles more useful cousin, the scythe.
Blacksmiths also supplied the necessary iron components for carts and carriages including nails, rebars for
the side of the cart, the iron parts of the wheel, chains
and others.
Smiths were also tasked with supplying carpenters and
woodcutters with their tools: peaveys, single bit axes,
double bit axes, pickeroons, pickaxes.
Peaveys were used for moving logs, double bit axes to
hew the wood, single bit axes for cutting small pieces of
wood and pickeroons for making holes.
Blacksmiths engraved their mark on both agricultural
and carpentry tools. In any fare, a blacksmiths mark was
viewed as a certificate of warranty for the item on which
it was engraved.
There is a Folk Village Museum in Fagetelu commune of
Olt county where traditional blacksmithing tools can be
found on display.

METEUGURI STRVECHI N SUDUL OLTENIEI


Importante erau, dintre uneltele realizate de fierari, i cele pentru practicarea unor meteuguri, n special pentru
lucrul cu lemnul. Printre ele: apinele, securile, pranul, brzile, teslele, trncoapele. apinele erau folosite n exploatrile forestiere pentru manipularea butenilor, securile mari cu coad lung (pranuri) pentru cioplirea, finisarea
grinzilor mari de lemn, brzile cu coad scurt, de obicei curbat, tot pentru cioplit, teslele pentru scobirea lemnului
pentru torace, dli speciale, sfredele. Att instrumentarul agricol ct mai ales instrumentarul din dulgherit era frumos decorat de meteri, prin tanare, cu o serie de semne ce reprezentau de fapt i marca de meter. n orice trg
semnul de meter era o garanie pentru cumprtorul care mai folosise unelte cu semnul meterului respectiv.
In judeul Olt, n comuna Fgeelu, exist un Muzeu al Satului care pstreaz obiecte de meteug tradiional, printre
care i obiecte specifice meteugului fierriei.

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ANCIENT CRAFTS IN SOUTHERN OLTENIA

122
67

METEUGURI STRVECHI N SUDUL OLTENIEI

123

MPLETITURI
VEGETALE
Plant weavings

124

ANCIENT CRAFTS IN SOUTHERN OLTENIA

125

mpletituri vegetale /prelucrarea artistic a papurei


- obiecte decorative, de uz casnic, jucrii - Bileti
- judeul Dolj; Clui - judeul Olt
eteugul mpletitului, n special din paie, ca i
toate meteugurile din fibre naturale de altfel,
este cunoscut nc din antichitate.
n ziua de azi meterii care mai practic meteugul
mpletitului confecioneaz diverse obiecte decorative,
obiecte de uz casnic sau jucrii din paie de secar, ovz,
orz sau gru, acestea fiind materiale 100% naturale.
Dei numrul practicanilor este tot mai mic, cei care
mpletesc fac acest lucru att pentru supravieuire ca
modalitate de existen ct i datorit aciunii pozitive a paielor prin proprietile lor curative, demonstrat i de specialiti sau chiar a practicrii propriu-zise a
meteugului.
Alun - mpletitul din nuiele de alun sau rchit este cunoscut din cele mai vechi timpuri. Dac cele mai groase
nuiele erau folosite pentru couri de porumb sau garduri
n jurul curilor, din nuielele mai subiri se fceau couri

126

lant weavings / artistic processing of reeds - decorative and household objects, toys - Bailesti,
Dolj county; Calui - Olt county
The art of weaving, especially straw, like all other crafts
from natural fibers, has been known since antiquity.
Nowadays craftsmen who still practice the art of weaving, only make decorative, household objects and toys
from natural materials such as straw, oats, barley or
wheat. The few left knitters only practice their craft as a
way of life and of strengthening their health through the
curative properties of these plants.
Weaving hazel tree twigs or willow switches into wicker
has been practiced since the beginning of time.
Thicker pieces of wicker were used to make corn baskets
and fences and the thin pieces were used in the production of fruit baskets. Weaving these baskets was handled
by the women, as it requires great patience and attention
to detail. There are several stages to this process, the first
of which involves obtaining the necessary raw materials
from hazelnut or spruce trees.

69

METEUGURI STRVECHI N SUDUL OLTENIEI


pentru cratul fructelor sau a strugurilor. De mpletitul courilor se ocup mai mult femeile deoarece se cere migal
iar ntreaga operaiune necesit parcurgerea mai multor etape. ntr-o prim faz se procur materia prim care poate
fi alunul sau molidul dup caz. Dup ce se fierb nuielele pentru o elasticitate i o rezisten mai mare, se despic cu un
obiect tios i se mpletesc.
Pnua - mpletiturile din pnu sunt rspndite mai mult n Transilvania, dar exist i n celelalte zone ale rii.
Pnua, adic foaia ce nvelete tiuletele de porumb, este folosit pentru diverse obiecte decorative sau de uz casnic
cum ar fi: flori, linguri, geni i poete, perne pentru scaune etc. Procedeul de mpletire a pnuei se aseamn cu cel de
mpletire a papurei. mpletit propriu-zis este firul rezultat prin rsucirea foilor de porumb. Acestea se alipesc, apoi se
introduce foaia urmtoare cu faa subire nainte, dup care se continu rsucirea. Rsucirea se face spre partea stng,
iar mpletirea spre dreapta. Produsul final poate fi ornamentat dup cum dorete fiecare meter. Elementele decorative
sunt lucrate separat i aplicate la final pe couri, poete sau geni.
Papura - Folosit la obiecte a cror uzur i umiditate este mare, papura a fost din cele mai vechi timpuri considerat
un material solid i uor de gsit n apropierea aezrilor omeneti cum ar fi bli sau iazuri. Ea poate fi utilizat att
la confecionarea de obiecte de gospodrie ct i pentru realizarea de decoraiuni.
n prezent se utilizeaz 3 metode de mpletire a obiectelor din papur.
Cea mai cunoscut modalitate este mpletitul dup calapod. Prima dat se face un model din lemn al obiectului care
trebuie realizat. Procesul ncepe de la baza calapodului folosind unul, dou sau chiar trei fire rsucite de papur sau
fire separate, de o calitate mai bun. Se fac prin metoda calapodului tvie, plrii, couri sau coulete i esturi
pentru mbrcarea buteliilor de sticl sau a damingenelor att pentru protecie ct i pentru un aspect plcut.
O alt metod este mpletitul papurei prin utilizarea rzboiului vertical de esut. Se confecioneaz n acest sens rogojinele la care urzeala poate fi din fire de papur rsucit, din cnep sau liber de tei. Bttura ns trebuie s fie ntotdeauna din fire de papur. Sacoele pentru pia se pot realiza prin aceast metod.
A treia metod este confecionarea articolelor folosind o band mpletit din trei fire de papur. Se pot realiza
tergtori, diverse suporturi de form oval, rotund sau ptrat. Banda obinut se coase utiliznd tot fire de papur.
Prin aceast metod pot fi confecionate chiar i obiecte de nclminte tradiional.
Pai - Meteugul este realizat de femeile pricepute deoarece presupune ndemnare, migal i un dezvoltat sim al esteticului.
Paiele, fragile pe de o parte dar i extrem de rigide, mpletite respectnd anumite reguli, sunt recoltate n lunile iulie
august cnd cerealele ajung la maturitate i la nuana de un alb glbui.
Pentru a obine lungimea maxim ele se taie de la nivelul pmntului dup care se expun la soare cel mult dou zile ca
s aib o culoare uniform. Paiul se taie de la noduri i i se scoate nveliul deoarece este folosit doar miezul. n final
se obin cam 7-8 categorii din paiele prelucrate, pentru fiecare gsindu-se diverse ntrebuinri. Dup ce au fost tiate
i curate se umezesc n vase cu ap pe toat lungimea lor. Astfel pregtite, paiele sunt utilizate la mpletitul plriilor
de lucru sau de srbtoare.

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ANCIENT CRAFTS IN SOUTHERN OLTENIA


129

128

METEUGURI STRVECHI N SUDUL OLTENIEI

130

131
72

The third method involves using a rush ribbon (made


from three rush thread) to create doormats, various
round or square supports and traditional footwear.
The craft of straw weaving involves painstaking efforts,
great patience, attention to detail and aesthetic sense.
Straws make good material for weaving if harvested during July and August when they reach maturity.
The white-yellow colour indicates that they are now rigid and fragile and can be easily used in wicker weaving.
The straw is cut at the base to ensure maximum length
and then left out in the sun for two days to blend colour.
Upon cutting the straws, the outer layer is trimmed and
discarded and the core of the straw is sunk in water. After drying, the straw is woven into common or festive hats.

ANCIENT CRAFTS IN SOUTHERN OLTENIA


The wicker wands were boiled until becoming elastic and sturdy and then split in two and woven together.
Corn husk leaf weaving is widespread in Transylvania but is also common in the south of the country. Corn leaves are
used in the making of various decorative objects such as flowers, spoons, purses, handbags and chair pillows. Weaving
corn leaves is similar to weaving rushes. Through the twisting of corn leaves a weaving thread is obtained. The corn
leaves are bound together, then the next leaf is added with the thin side up and the twisting continues. The twisting is
done on the left side and the weaving on the right side. Decorative elements are prepared beforehand and then added
to the final product, depending on craftsman preference.
Rush - Used for objects whose wear and humidity is high, rush was always considered a solid and easily obtainable
material. It can be used both in the making of household objects and decorations. Currently, three main techniques
for rush weaving exist, the most common among them being pattern weaving. Initially a wooden model of the desired
object is crafted. Starting from the base of this model, one, two or even three rush threads are woven together upward.
Trays, hats, baskets and bottle covers are made in this way.
Another method involves vertically looming the rush. Mattings and market baskets are made in using this technique.

132
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METEUGURI STRVECHI N SUDUL OLTENIEI

RTA LEMNULUI
WOOD ART

133
74

ANCIENT CRAFTS IN SOUTHERN OLTENIA

134

135

136
75

METEUGURI STRVECHI N SUDUL OLTENIEI

137

rta lemnului, cioplitul n lemn i os - lzi de zestre,


furci de tors, linguri, plote, casete, bte ciobneti,
codrite de bici, troiele, obiectele gospodreti
localitile Craiova - judeul Dolj; Cmpia Boianului, Corbu, Iancu Jianu - judeul Olt
Creator al unei arte de o mare bogie i originalitate, poporul romn a furit valori artistice pline de fantezie n
domeniul sculpturii lemnului. Cu unelte simple ca securea, ferstrul, tesla, horjul, scoaba, cuitul, dalta, compasul, potricala, ghinul, tiparul de pirogravat au fost create
de-a lungul timpului forme i figuri diferite de la o zon
la alta a rii dar unite toate pe pmnt romnesc.
Experiena milenar n arta lemnului a nvat meterii
ntrebuinarea adecvat a fiecrei esene lemnoase: bradul i stejarul la construcii; fagul pentru lzi de zestre; cornul i alunul pentru bte ciobneti i codiriti
de bici; frasinul pentru cadre de ui i ferestre; paltinul
i teiul pentru furci de tors, linguri, plote i casete.
Meteugarii romni au simit ntotdeauna nevoia s
nfrumuseeze obiectele produse de ei. n arta romneasc a prelucrrii lemnului, stilul ornamental predominant
este cel geometric, dar n decorul obiectelor din lemn sunt

76

ood and bone carving, dowry chests, pitchforks, spoons, flasks, caskets, bats, whip
handles, traditional wooden crosses Craiova, Dolj county; Campia Boianului, Corbu, Iancu Jianu - Olt county
Wood carving and engraving has been practiced in Oltenia for hundreds of years.
The tools used for wood processing are: axes, saws, wood
chisels, claw hammers, mallets, rasps, awls, gimlets,
gouges, compasses.
Craftsmen understood long ago that the different types
of wood were used for different tasks: Oak and pine construction, beech - dowry chests, cornel and hazel
- sheepherder walking sticks, whip handles, ash - door
and window frames, sycamore and linden - pitchforks,
spoons, flasks and caskets.
Romanian masters always decorated their crafts in different styles but the main pattern used was geometrical
and the themes were ones related to flowers, animals and
humans.
Each geographic region of the country had its own
craftsmen and, thus, its own decorative styles. These are

ANCIENT CRAFTS IN SOUTHERN OLTENIA

138
rspndite i motivele florale, zoomorfe i antropomorfe.
n diferite regiuni ale rii, pornind de la stlpii casei, care
pot fi stlpi cu mr, stlpi rotunzi, n form de cruce, stlpi
erpuii s-au difereniat diferite terminologii decorative:
mr, roata, bru, creste n cruci, scara mei, erpi, zimuri,
stea, par, chip de om etc.
Aceste forme, generale sau particulare, sunt folosite de toi
meterii populari din Romnia chiar i n ziua de astzi.
Ei vor lsa motenirea strmoeasc ctre cei tineri, care va
fi dus mai departe, cci, pn la urm, arta tradiional nsemn continuitate i evoluie.

most easily noticed in house support pillars which


were engraved with various decorations such as apples, wheels, belts, crosses, snakes, stairs, stars, pears,
human faces etc. All of these decorations have mystic
connotations to Romanian beliefs and traditions.
These shapes are still used in modern times by the few
remaining Romanian craftsmen.

140

139
77

METEUGURI STRVECHI N SUDUL OLTENIEI



1 12

Ceramica nesmluit Vdastra, judeul Olt

13 16

Ceramica smluit Oboga, judeul Olt

17 -20
23

Meteugul olritului Oboga, Romana, judeul Olt


Cuptor pentru arderea ceramicii Oboga, judeul Olt

21, 22, 24, 25

Ceramica smluit i nesmluit Oboga, Romana, judeul Olt

26 27

Meteugul Olritului judeul Olt

31 Cuptor pentru arderea ceramicii Clui, judeul Olt


28 33

Ceramica smluit i nesmluit judeul Olt

34, 36, 40, 41

ncondeiatul oulor Clui, Bal (judeul Olt); Dobridor (judeul Dolj)

35, 37, 38, 39, 42, 43 Ou ncondeiate, judeul Olt i Dolj


44-55

Instrumente muzicale zona Terpezia (Dolj); Corbeni (Olt); Vlcea

56, 58, 59

esutul covoarelor Osica, judeul Olt; Bechet, Argetoaia, judeul Dolj

57

Unealt tradiional pentru tors manual

60, 61, 62, 63

Carpete, scoare, covoare olteneti

65-75

Custuri populare zona Olteniei, judeele Olt i Dolj

76, 78, 80 86

Costume populare, zona Olteniei, judeele Olt i Dolj

77, 79, 84

Costum de cluar, zona Olteniei, judeele Olt i Dolj

87 - 93

Icoane pe lemn - Corbu, judeul Olt

94 99

Icoane pe sticla Slatina, judeul Olt

100 105

Mti populare - Osica, Drgneti Olt - judeul Olt

106 114

Cojocrit zona Vdastra, judeul Olt

115 119

este de pmnt zona Olteniei

120 122

Prelucrarea fierului Brncoveni, Drgneti Olt, judeul Olt

123 132

mpletituri vegetale - Bileti- judeul Dolj, Clui -judeul Olt

133 - 140

Arta lemnului cioplit - Craiova Dolj, Cmpia Boianului, Corbu, Iancu Jianu- judeul Olt

ANCIENT CRAFTS IN SOUTHERN OLTENIA



1 12

Crockery Vadastra, Olt county

13 16

Glazed pottery Oboga, Olt county

17 -20
23

Pottery Oboga, Romana, Olt county


Furnace used in pottery masking Oboga, Olt county

21, 22, 24, 25

Crockery and glazed pottery Oboga, Romana, Olt county

26 27

Pottery Olt county

31 Furnace used in pottery masking Calui, Olt county


28 33

Crockery and glazed pottery Olt county

34, 36, 40, 41

Egg decorating Calui, Bals (Olt county); Dobridor (Dolj county)

35, 37, 38, 39, 42, 43 Decorated eggs - Olt county, Dolj county

44-55

Musical instruments Terpezita (Dolj); Corbeni (Olt); Valcea

56, 58, 59

Carpets manufacturing Osica Olt, county; Bechet, Argetoaia, Dolj county

57

Traditional tool for manual thread spinning

60, 61, 62, 63

Carpets, upholstery, oltenian rugs

65-75

Sewing, embroidering - Oltenia region, Olt county, Dolj county

76, 78, 80 86

Folk costumes, Oltenia region, Olt county, Dolj county

77, 79, 84

The calusar suit - Oltenia region, Olt county, Dolj county

87 - 93

Wood icons - Corbu, Olt county

94 99

Glass icons Slatina, Olt county

100 105

Folk masks - Osica, Draganesti Olt - Olt county

106 114

Sheepskin Wintercoat Crafting Vadastra region, Olt county

115 119

Earth ovens Oltenia region

120 122

Iron working Brancoveni, Draganesti Olt,Olt county

123 132

Plant weavings - Bailesti- Dolj county, Calui - Olt county

133 - 140

Wood art - Craiova Dolj, Campia Boianului, Corbu, Iancu Jianu- Olt county

CUPRINS

CONTENT

Olrit................................................................................... 2

Pottery........................................................................ 2

ncondeiatul oulor........................................ 16

Egg decorating................................................... 16

Instrumente populare................................... 22

Musical instruments...................................... 22

Covoare olteneti............................................. 28

Oltenian carpets............................................... 28

Custuri populare............................................ 34

Sewing, embroidering................................... 34

Costume populare romneti.................. 38

Romanian folk costumes............................. 38

Icoane...................................................................... 44

Icons......................................................................... 44

Mti populare................................................... 50

Folk masks............................................................ 50

Cojocrie............................................................... 54

Sheepskin Wintercoat Crafting.............. 54

est de pmnt................................................... 60

Earth ovens.......................................................... 60

Prelucrarea fierului........................................ 64

Iron working....................................................... 64

mpletituri vegetale........................................ 69

Plant weavings................................................... 69

Arta lemnului..................................................... 75

Wood art................................................................ 75

Ministerul Dezvoltrii Regionale i Turismului


Autoritatea de Management pentru Programul Operaional Regional
Str. Apolodor nr. 17, Bucureti, Sector 5
Telefon: 0372 11 14 09
Email: info@mdrt.ro
www.inforegio.ro
Organism Intermediar: Direcia Gestionare Fonduri Comunitare pentru Turism
B-dul Dinicu Golescu, nr. 38, Sector 1, Bucureti
Telefon: 0372 14 40 00, Fax: 0372 14 40 01
Beneciar: Federaia Patronatelor din Regiunea Oltenia F-PRO
Brazda lui Novac, bl. N 11-12, parter
Telefon: 0351 41 60 41
E-mail: ofce@fpro.ro
www.fpro.ro

Legend
Foto coperta 1: Meteugul olritului, Oboga, Olt
Foto 1: Ceramic Vdastra, Olt
Foto 2: Icoane pe lemn Corbu, Olt
Foto 3: Cojocrit Vdastra, Olt
Foto 4: ncondeierea oulelor Clui, Olt

Foto 5: Feronerie Brncoveni, Olt


Foto 6: Cojocrit Vdastra, Olt
Foto 7: Costum popular femeie zona Olteniei
Foto 8: Costum de cluar Osica, Olt
Foto 9: Instrumente muzicale, Olt

Investim n viitorul tu!

Proiect selectat n cadrul Programului Regional i co-nanat de Uniunea European prin Fondul European pentru Dezvoltare Regional

Sudul Olteniei, judeele DOLJ i OLT - ntre istorie i folclor


Federaia Patronatelor din Regiunea Oltenia F-PRO
APRILIE 2012

Coninutul acestui material nu reprezint n mod obligatoriu poziia ocial


a Uniunii Europene sau a Guvernului Romniei

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