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FLOW PROCESS CHART OF POWER PACK

POWER
PACK FROM
LRS

STRIPPING
SECTION

TG

ENGINE
BLOCK ON
MANUPUL
ATOR

ENGINE
BLOCK

TRACTION
MACHINE SHOP

POWER
PACK
ASSY.

POWER
PACK
TESTING
ON TEST
BED

ENGINE
BLOCK

HEAVY MACHINE SHOP

POWER
PACK TO LRS

POWER PACK SHOP (P.P.S.)


In this shop the power pack is wholly dismantled and built, then set to
L.R.S. for fitment on the Loco. When the locomotive completes 24 lakhs km
on the track or run for the 18 years then it is necessary to rebuild the
locomotive. A normal life span of the locomotive is 36 years after 6 years of
service or running 8 lakh kms an overhaul can be given to the engine. So
after 18 years of service rebuilding of the locomotive is required. The
function of the shop can be broadly classified into following types : Dismantling, Reconditioning and Assembling of power pack.
Load testing, specified fuel consumption testing and other type of
testing.

For this purpose there are many Sections in the Power Pack
Shop. These are given below : Stripping section
Reconditioning section
Turbo super charger section
Valve lever assembly section
Fuel injection pump room
Governor room
Piston and head section
Block Assembly section
Assembly section

Lube oil pump section


Sub assembly section
Power pack testing section

STRIPPING SECTION:
Power pack comes from the loco stripping section. Stripping of power pack
done in a sequence. Firstly exhaust pipe, water, lube oil are removed. Then
covers of fuel pump & fuel pump support, cylinder head, then fuel pump,
fuel pump support are removed. Control shaft, cylinder head, turbo super
charger, turbo charger support, governor, CC motor, camshaft gear, crank
shaft gear, vibration damper & upper cover are removed. Then extension
shaft, bearing caps, crankshaft, piston-connecting rod assembly are removed.
Then the engine block is removed from the sump. All these parts are send to
the concerning section. Check visually all these parts for any damage &
clean all these parts. Usable parts are used again & damaged parts are send
to condom section. engine block is send to H.M.S. for re-matching. Such
parts like crankshaft camshaft, piston, turbo charger, gear & fuel pump
injector all these are replace with new parts.

PISTON SECTION
In this section pistons are checked & prepared for use. pistons are made into
two parts i.e. upper & lower part. Upper part is steel cap. In the case of any
damage of the piston may save the other part of the piston i.e. lower part
because this lower part is easily changed. Piston rings are different types.
Compression rings, oil pressure rings, are used to maintain the pressure in
the chamber & control leakage.

CAMSHAFT SECTION.
In cam shaft section are checked & prepared for use. In 2600hp loco a single
piece camshaft is used but in 3300hp loco the stiffer camshaft is used. Stiffer
camshaft means not a single piece but into small 8 pieces. These 8 pieces are
joined together by small nut bolts. It is easy to fit & remove from the engine
block. In case of any damage it is easy to change one piece than the whole
shaft.

CYLINDER HEAD SECTION


In this section cylinder heads are repaired & re-build. The outer frame of the
cylinder head is same but inner parts like operating valve are replaced with
new. Studs, springs, rocker arm are new. Cylinder head cover is painted after
cleaning.

CONNECTING ROD SECTION


Connection rod is used to join the piston & crankshaft. Connecting rod is
manufactured in the L.M.S. shop. These are magnetized during
manufacturing. In this section these are demagnetized with the machine.

CYLINDER LINER SECTION


Cylinder liner are also manufactured in D.M.W. & prepared to use in
cylinder liner shop. Cylinder liner is fitted in the bores of the engine block.

ENGINE BLOCK & SUMP SECTION


From H.M.S. the engine block comes in this section. The block is checked
again by D.P.T. testing. After that all the parts are fitted on the block & put it
on the sump.

CRANKSHAFT SECTION
Crankshaft is important from ALCO company. In this section it is cleaned
with diesel & checked by dye penetration test. After that it is used in LOCO.
The cost of crankshaft is about 20 to 23 lakhs. In case of any damage it is
not accepted.

TURBO CHARGER SECTION


There are two type of turbo super charger. One is GE twin pipe i.e. two
outlets are given to the system. With this cooling is effective good & heat
looses are reduced. Second is. Which has single outlet. The turbo super
chargers are imported from other companies. Both types of turbo chargers
are used.

GOVERNOR SECTION
Governor is the controlling part of the power pack. Function of the governor
is control the speed w.r.t. changing load & fuel supply to the system
according to speed of the LOCO. The setting of the firing order is also
depend on the governor. There are two types of the governors. One is
mechanical & other is electrical governor.

FUEL PUMP SECTION


Fuel pump is main part of the fuel supply. Fuel pump consist of different
parts like, fuel injector, nozzle, outer casing, nozzle cap, rack, shims etc. all
these parts are use to control fuel supply in the chamber. It plays an
important role to supply fuel.

PIPE SECTION
There are different types of pipes used in power pack. Exhaust pipe, water
outlets, fuel pipes, lubricating oil pipes, air inlets & outlets. Like exhaust
pipe it is made in small different parts & joined by nuts & bolts. On the
exhaust pipe there are elbows are made, because during exhaust the gases
are very hot, the exhaust pipe will get expanded & size may be changed. So
for that reason elbows are made on the exhaust pipe.

CONTROL SHAFT SECTION


Control shaft is to control the fuel supply in the system. It is made into two
parts with the help of coupling. It is easy to remove from the block during in
the shed under service in any case of the damage. Function of the control
shaft to control the supply in injection pump.

MAIN ASSEMBLY SECTION


In the main assembly section all the parts of the power pack after re-pairing
testing or checking they are send to the assembly section. Here all these
parts are fitted according to the procedure of fitting. From small parts (nuts,
bolts, washers, etc) to larger parts (governor, turbo charger etc.) all these are
fitted. After that it is send to testing section.

TESTING SECTION
After assembly of the power pack it is send to the testing section. In this
section there are two test beds. Two power packs are tested simultaneously.
There are three excited motors are connected to the alternator side. The
electrical supply is given to these exciters & they start the alternator. Firstly

they start the power pack without load for some time on the idle speed i.e.
350 r.m.p. After that they put load on the power pack with two rods dipped
into the water. On increasing speed load will increase by dipping rods in thee
water at more depth. Leakage is checked & performance of the power pack
is checked on the idle speed i.e. it shut down or not. Any type of leakage &
heating of power pack is tested. After complete inspected it is send to the
L.R.S. shop.

DIFFERENT SUB ASSEMBLIES ARE AS FOLLOWS : Fuel Injection Assembly


Valve lever assembly
Yoke assembly
Control shaft
Lube oil pump assembly
Extension shaft assembly
Crank shaft
Crankshaft vibration damper
Cam shaft
Cam shaft vibration damper
Crank case exhauster
Traction generation
Brief description of selected machines used in the whole of the shop:
1) HYDRAULIC MANIPULATOR:
A hydraulic manipulator is installed in the shop. Manipulation of engine
block is done on it.

2) M.B. ELONGATOR:
A hydraulic tool is used for elongation of main bearing studs.
3) WOOD WORD GOVERNOR TESTING STAND:
A suitable of governor testing is being used. This facility is particularly
designed, for wood word governors. Old governors are reconditioned and
rechecked over there.
4) F.I.P CALIBRATING MACHINE:
This machine is used for calibration of fuel injection pump. As the fuel
injection is one of the precision and importance therefore this activity is
carried out carefully and meticulously.
5) INJECTOR TESTING STAND:
Injector is thoroughly examined and tested over here. Different aspects of
testing i.e. supply, spray pattern, leakage, nozzle etc. of injector are tested
here.
6) GEAR TESTING MACHINE:
On this machine various gears are tested for outer dia., pitch dia., profile,
addendum, dedendum.
7) PROCESS CLEANING PLANT
REASSEMBLY OF THE POWER PACK FROM ABNITIO
1. Fitment at the free end of the cylinder block from H.M.S.
a. extension shaft and crankshaft and vibration damper
b. LOP & WP.
c. TSC support/AC.
d. Free end oil seal/water fiping
e. TSC fitting.

f. Fuel filter, primary and secondary.


g. Lube oil pump
2. TOP END
a. Cylinder head stud.
b. Cylinder head
c. Air filter
d. Exhaust pipe
e. Water outlet flange
f. Valve lever assembly
g. Water jumper
h. Tappet facing
3. SIDE
a. cam bush
b. Camshaft/cam gear fit/TDC transfer.
c. Cam gear backlash
d. FP support and lifter
e. Balance FP support
f. Fuel feeding calibration
g. Fuel injection pump installed
h. HP tubing
i. Cam shaft techogenerator
j. Governor
4. BOTTOM
a. lube oil feeder system
b. filter
c. shaft to test bed

BRIEF

DESCRIPTION

OF

THE

MAIN

COMPONENTS USED IN POWER PACK:


1) PISTON:
Piston used is of positive flow, oil cooled, trunk type made of aluminum.
Lubricating oil is delivered to the piston cooling grooves from the crankshaft
by means of a hole through the connecting rod and piston pin. Escorts Mahle
supplies the pistons. A steel cap is fitted on the piston.
2) PISTON PIN:
The piston pin has a floating fit in the piston and running fit in the steel
backed, bronze lined connecting rod bushing. A rolled sleeve is installed in
the pin bore to seal in the cooling oil. Special snap rings are provided at each
end of the pin to hold it in place
4) PISTON RINGS:
The rings are wholly replaced. They maintain the compression in the
cylinder piston enclosure. Various types of rings are square, taper, and
conformable and scarper. Square and taper rings are cast.
5) CONNECTING ROD
The connecting rod is a high strength alloy steel forging with the
conventional rod cap. Pressed into the piston end of the rod is a steel backed,
bronze lined, spilt piston pin bushing. The crank shaft end of the rod is
provided with upper and lower precision-type coated bearing shells which
are held in position by locking tabs. The lower shell has a full groove for
lubrication; the upper one has a partial one. Joining both ends of the rod is a
drilled passage for pressure fed lubrication. The rod cap is aligned to the rod
by a short and long dowel and is secured by four bolts and nuts.6
5) CYLINDER LINER:

They fit in the cylinder block with a metal to metal fit. Each liner has a
collar on its upper end which seats in the cylinder block. One seal ring in a
groove near the top of the line and two seal rings in the groove near the
bottom of the liner seal the fits between the liner and cylinder block. Metal
to metal joints of the flat type from the compression seal between the liner
and cylinder heads.
6) HEADER, WATER OUTLET AND ELBOWS
Individual water outlet elbows are attached to each cylinder head. The water
outlet header is attached to the water outlet by means of U straps. A
gasket is used between the header and water outlet elbow. A gasket is also
used between the water outlet elbow and cylinder head.
7) CYLINDER HEAD
The cylinder head is secured to the cylinder block by seven studs. Individual
water jumpers from the cylinder block to each cylinder head, conduct water
from the cylinder block to water cooling passages in the cylinder heads. The
cooling water discharge from each head is carried to the water outlet header
by individual elbow connections.
Cored passages permit the admission of scavenging air and expulsion of
exhaust gases.
Metal-to-metal joints to the flat lap type form the gas seal between the
cylinder heads and cylinder liners and prevent the escape of gases from the
cylinders. No gasket is required between cylinder head and liner.
Each head has suitable chambers from two air inlet valves, two exhaust
valves and a fuel injection nozzle.
The valve lever bracket assembly, consisting of a bracket and two valve
levers mounted on a valve lever shaft, is applied to the top of the cylinder

head along with the equalizing yokes. The valve mechanism assembly and
fuel injection nozzle on top of the head are enclosed by Aluminum cover
CYLINDER HEAD
MODEL 251 ENGINES
CONVERSION TO/USE OF VALVE ROTATORS
DLW has introduced Valve-rotators to improve the engine performance
and, air and exhaust valve life. These Valve-rotators are now standard on
all new production engines. Valve-rotators provide circumferential
movement off the valves, thus helping to prevent the build up of deposits on
the valve faces and seats.
8) LUBE OIL PUMP:
It is a positive displacement helical gear pump. It is mounted on the free end
of the base and is derived by diesel engine crankshaft extension gear. The
pump discharge into external piping through a flange on the pump casing.
9) FUEL OIL INLET:
The fuel oil inlet header supplies to the injection pumps and is located in the
control shaft compartment of the cylinder block. Fuel is drawn from the
supply tank by a fuel booster pump filtered and discharged under pressure
through a secondary filter into the header at free end. From the header the
fuel is distributed to the individual FIPs. Excess fuel drains to the supply
tank.
10) FUEL PUMP CONTROL SHAFT AND CROSSOVER LINKAGE

The fuel pump control shaft is located in a compartment extending the full
length of the cylinder block. (Two are required on Vee type engines). It is
made up of sections of shafting on which are mounted spring levers, bearing
brackets and section coupling.
Located at the power take-off end of the shaft is an oil seal, oil seal retainer
with a special nut and governor link (right side shaft VEE engine).
Located at the free end of the shaft are shaft thrust collars with spirol pins to
lock the collars to the shaft and a control shaft compartment cover bushing
and gasket between the cover and cylinder block.
Rotation of the shaft controls the fuel pump rack settings through spring
loaded controls levers mounted on the shaft. Individual levers permit any
fuel pump to be manually cut out without affecting the control of the
governor over the remaining fuel pumps. They also permit the engine to be
shut down with one pump rack stuck in the open position.
Crossover linkage between the right and left side pump control shaft is
required on Vee type engines.
11) VALVE LEVER MECHANISM WITHOUT VALVE ROTATORS
The air inlet and exhaust valves are operated from the camshaft by means of
the lifter, pushrod and valve lever assemblies.
Each cylinder unit has a lifter assembly which consists of two pushrod lifters
having a common shaft as a fulcrum. The shaft is supported by a bracket
which is attached to the cylinder block. The lifters have rollers which are
forced to follow the profiles of the cams by the valve and equalizing yoke
springs.
The pushrod ends of the lifter are fitted with hardened steel seats into which
the lower ends of the valve levers carry hardened steel adjusting screws

which, having a spherical head, ride in hardened seats fixed in the upper
ends of the pushrods. These screws are used to adjust valve clearance. The
other end of the valve lever bears against the equalizing yokes through a ball
and socket joint. Each yoke operates two air or two exhaust valves, each pair
of valves being operated from a single cam, pushrod and valve lever.
The equalizing yoke slides up and down on a guide rod. A valve clearance
adjustment is provided at one end of the yoke to compensate for differences
in valve stem lengths.
Pressure lubrication is provided for the valve lever mechanism. Individual
lines conduct the oil from a common header to the cylinder head. The oil
then flows through drilled passages in the cylinder heads and valve lever
brackets to the valve lever shafts and bushings. The shaft and bracket are
designed to keep the lube oil passage aligned.
Drilled holes through the valve lever lead the oil from the bushing to the
thrust ball joint; a drilled passage in the ball-joint and yoke lubricate the
yoke guide and valve stems. In the other direction the oil passes to the ball
seat of the adjusting screw. All excess oil follows down the pushrods,
lubricating the push rod lifter rollers and camshaft lobes.

12) FILTER, PANELBATH, ENGINE AIR INTAKE


The panel bath filter makes use of the adhesive and viscous properties of oil
to remove dirt particles from engine intake air. By using these properties, the
panel bath filter method of cleaning air reduces engine parts wear and
lubricating oil contamination.
It is all welded construction and consists of a panel with as attached sumps
and cover assembly.

The filter incorporates an air stream to engine oil in a reservoir, carrying the
oil to the filtering media. After wetting the media, the oil drains from the
media carrying with it impinged dirt particles to a collecting sump. The oil
circulation is continuous, providing an efficient self-cleaning action.
13 CRANKCASE EXHAUSTER
The crankcase exhauster, driven by an electric motor, is a centrifugal blower
which exhausts crankcase vapours to the atmosphere. The entire assembly is
mounted on top of the cylinder block at the power take off end of the engine.
14) OIL CATCHER, POWER TAKE-OFF END
A cast aluminum oil catcher is mounted on the cylinder block and base and
surrounds the periphery of the cranks shaft flange oil slinger at the power
take-off end of the engine. Centrifugal force throws the lubricating oil away
from the crank-shaft flange and into the oil collecting grooves in the oil
catcher, thereby preventing it from escaping. The oil then drains from the
grooves to the engine base.
15) NOZZLES, GEAR SPRAY
WDM2LOCO
The gear train at the power take-off end of the engine is lubricated through
two (2) spray nozzles. They were located over the right and left side
camshaft gears. The left side nozzle is located in the cylinder block while the
nozzle on the right side located in the camshaft gear cover. Oil is piped to
the nozzles from the right and left side lube oil header.
16) TRACTION GENERATOR

The traction generator, driven by the diesel engine, furnishes power to the
locomotive traction motors.
The generator fans are dynamically balanced and may or may not have
weights welded in place. Under no circumstances should welded weights be
removed. Fans thereof applicable to and interchangeable on all generators.
17) AFTERCOOLER
The engine is equipped with an after cooler to cool inlet air to the engine
after it is discharged from the turbo supercharger. The cooler consists of a
tube bundle mounted in the air intake passage of the turbo supercharger
support. The top header contains the inlet and outlet cooler connections.
The tube bundle consists of a series of fines tubes. A water connection at the
base of the after cooler cavity assures complete draining of the tubes. A telltale pipe is provided to indicate after cooler tube water leaks
18) ENGINE OVERSPEED TRIP
The engine is equipped with an automatic over speed stopping device
consisting of a spring loaded device which, during normal operation, is held
within the carrier. However, when the centrifugal force is great enough to
overcome the spring force (an over speed condition) the plunger is instantly
thrown outward.
In the outward position, the plunger strikes a trip level, releasing the spring
loaded reset shaft. This shaft is directly coupled to the fuel pump control
shaft. As the spring unwinds, it causes rotation of the fuel pump control shaft
which moves the fuel pump racks to shut-off position. An over travel
mechanism off the governor end allows the over speed device to return the
racks to Off even through the governor may remain at full fuel.

Accessories such as the vibration damper or flywheel may be attached


between the carrier assembly and camshaft to help eliminate camshaft
vibrations.
In some applications a micro switch is mounted on a plate attached to the
over speed tripupper housing. This switch is operated by a cam attached to
the reset shaft and gives either an audible or a visual indication that over
speed has tripped.
To reset, pull the reset handle until it latches. This rewinds the torsion spring
and resets the trip lever.
To trip manually, pull the emergency shutdown handle in the direction of the
arrow shown on the lower housing cover.
19) ENGINE BASE
The engine base is a welded steel structure which provides the following: a
mounting surface for the cylinder block, lubricating oil pump, water pump
and four engine mounting pads: in addition it acts as a lubricating oil
reservoir.
Screens are fitted across the base at each cylinder location.
Openings on each side of the base give access to the connecting rod
bearings, crankshaft and main bearings; provides means for inspecting oil
lines, piston skirts and cylinder liners. Removable doors enclose these
openings. Also explosion doors are mounted on the right and left side of the
base at the power take-off end.
Lubricating oil is carried in the base below the base screens. A lubricating oil
drain plug, bayonet gauge with high and low level markings and a filler pipe
are located in the base.
A crankcase exhauster is used to vent the base.

20) CRANKCASE EXPLOSION DOOR


In the event of a crankcase explosion, a spring loaded cover plate on the
explosion door will blow out relieving the pressure. With the pressure
reduced the plate will snap shut.
21) SUPPORT, TURBOSUPERCHARGER
The turbo supercharger support of welded steel construction encloses the
free end of the cylinder block and base and provides a mounting surface for
the turbo supercharger, after cooler and oil catcher.
22) MAIN BEARING AND CAPS
The main bearings for crankshaft consist of two steel-backed, precision
fitted shells with well bonded linings. The upper one fits into a saddle on the
cylinder block; the lower, into a forged steel bearing cap. No Shims are used.
The number of main bearings for the 6, 12 and 16 cylinder engines are 7, 7,
10 respectively. Crank end thrust is restricted either by the use of thrust
collers installed in each side of the centre main bearing saddle; or by an
upper thrust bearing shell at the crankshaft journal nearest the power take-off
end (all locomotive engines). In stationery or marine applications, thrust
bearing shell are used in both upper and lower positions.
23.CRANKSHAFT SPLIT GEAR
The crankshaft gear for the 251 type engine is mounted at the power take-off
end of the shaft and meshes with camshaft gears. It is made in two halves of
hardened steel and is accurately fitted and keyed to the shaft. The gear is

held in place by four bolt and has locating dowels to position the halves as
they are assembled. Depending on the style used, the gear is either a 4-pitch
straight spur, or a 6-pitch helical type.
NOTE: Split gears are statically balanced and the halves are not
interchangeable. They must be replaced in matched pairs.
24) CRANKSHAFT
The crank shaft for the 12 and 16 cylinder V type engines is made of one
piece of forged steel alloy, with its main bearing journals and crankpins
machined to a high degree of smoothness. The shaft is slung under the
cylinder block and rotates on the main bearings (shells). It is supported by
bearings caps that are mounted to saddles in the block with stud bolts and
nuts. The shafts main bearings and crankpins are joined by a series of
crankshaft webs, to which counterbalances are welded at intermittent
locations for balancing purposes. Two rods (right and left bank of the same
cylinder number) are mounted side by side on each of the shafts crankpins.
The shaft is designed so that every two symmetrically opposite pins have the
same radial throw position.
A crankshaft gear, which drives the left and right camshaft gears, is applied
to the power take-off end of the shaft. The free end of the shaft provides the
drive for the engines cooling water and lubricating oil pumps.
The crankshaft forms an integral part of the engines lubricating system. A
continuous flow of oil passes under pressure from the main lubricating
header in the engines base to the bearing caps and bearings; through drilled
passages in the shaft to the crankpins; and on the connecting rod bearings.

Oil slingers and catchers are provided at both ends of the shaft to prevent oil
leakage.

16
Cylinder

Number of Location
Number of Lift
Main
of Center Crankpins Crankshaft
Bearing
Journal
at
Crankpins
9
5
8
2&7

Support
Crankshaft
at
Main
Journals
3&7

The crankshaft end thrust is restricted by the use of either: (a) individual
trust collars, installed in both sides of the center main bearings saddle or (b)
an upper main thrust bearing shell or upper and lower main bearing thrust
shells located at the journal nearest to the power take-off end of the shaft. All
shells, thrust or otherwise, are of the lead-tin overlay type and are suitably
strengthened by a steel backing.
25) CAMSHAFT
The camshaft on V type engines is located on either side of the cylinder
block and extends the entire length of the engine. The camshaft is divided
into sections- one for every two cylinders and is joined at the section
flanges by studs or stud bolts and nuts. A locating dowel is used to position
each section.
26) CAMSHAFT OUTBOARD BEARING (IF USED) POWER TAKEOFF END
The left and right camshaft outboard bearings consist of bearing housings
mounted on the power take-off end of the cylinder block and containing
pressed-in bushings. This arrangement provides additional bearing support
to the left and right side camshafts.

Lubrication, of the bushings is provided through oil passages in the ends of


the camshafts. Passages in the bearing housings permit oil to drain to the
engine base.
27) CRANKSHAFT DRIVE ASSEMBLY-FREE END
The extension shaft assembly is located at free end of the engine crankshaft
and is used for an auxiliary power take-off. Its major components consist of
an extension shaft, an oil seal, a drive gear and a vibration damper.
A. EXTENSION SHAFT
There are two styles of extension shaft. Style is 1 has oil passenger drilled in
it to supply oil to the vibration damper; whereas style 2 does not. Both styles
can be shorten in length, depending upon their power take-off application.
However, on certain engine applications, the extension shaft is not required.
In these cases, the drive gear and vibration damper are mounded with
through cap screws on crankshaft and a spacer ( or adapter ) is substituted
for extension shaft. A cover plate is applied at the end.
B.

OIL SEAL

The oil seal portion of the assembly consists of a slinger (grooves and
peaks), machined into the extension shaft, and an oil catcher, which fits
closely around the shaft to collect the oil flowing out of the free end of the
engine and return it to the crankcase. In the style 1 assembly, the seal is used
to supply oil to the vibration damper. The crankshaft oil hole is plugged and
pressurized oil flows from an inlet oil hole in the catcher, through a floating
bushing, into oil passages in the extension shaft, and into the cylinder in the
centre of the vibration damper. In style 2, seal just performs an oil catching
function.

c.

DRIVE GEAR

The drive gear is used to rotate the engines lubricating oil and water pump.
The gear is of spur type, pressed on the extension shaft (or adaptor) and held
in place by cap screws extending through the vibration damper into the
crankshaft flange
d. VIBRATION DAMPER
The vibration damper is of the hydraulic, paddle wheel in which some of the
vibration energy is absorbed by the work done in forcing engine lubrication
through narrow passage. A continuous circulation of oil is provided to the
damper, either by passages through the oil seal and extension shaft, or
through an oil passage in the crankshaft.
The damper consists of a spider, with external spur teeth and an intermediate
ring with internal spur gear teeth. Two outer rings (side plates) secure the
parts with bolts and nuts.
Oil flows from the chamber in the centre of the damper through radial holes,
beginning in the spider hub is much smaller than the remainder: thus
providing an oil flow restriction. The spider is designed so that each tooth is
directly supplied with oil. An auxiliary circumferential oil groove is
machined into each side face of the spider to supply oil for the rubbing
surfaces between the spider oil for the rubbing surfaces between the spider
and outer ring. These grooves are supplied by means of passages connecting
the grooves of the radial holes.
Two identical outer rings (side plates) are secured to the intermediate ring by
means of through bolts. These rings have been made fairly thick in order to
add considerable flywheel effect. The inner faces of the rings (adjacent to

the spider) are covered with oil which is continuously flowing through the
clearance and escaping to the crankcase.
28) CYLINDER BLOCK
The cylinder block, constructed from steel weldments, houses and supports
the major components of the engine: crankshaft and main bearings,
camshaft, pushrods and lifters, connecting rods and pistons, cylinder liners,
cylinder heads, crankcase exhauster, fuel pump crossheads and levers and
governor. It also provides mounting surfaces for the turbo supercharger
support, exhaust manifold, air intake elbows, water elbows, and generator.
A replacement liner sleeve is fitted into the lower liner bore of the cylinder
block. It provides a wear surface for the lower fit of the liner. On salvaged
blocks, a replaceable upper liner sleeve, with an O ring (the same type
used in the upper portion of the cylinder liner itself), is also fitted into the rebores upper liner bore.
The crankshaft main loading saddles, camshaft bearing supports, and the air
intake manifold are integral parts of the block.
Cooling water, circulated by the water pump, flows through the oil cooler,
into a passage in the cylinder block. There, it circulates around the cylinder
liners. Water from the block is conducted to the cylinder heads by water
jumper.
29) GOVERNOR DRIVE
There are two models of governor drives used. One governor is supported by
the bearing housing, while the other is supported by a separate bearing
casing that fits into the bearing housing. Both models are mounted on the
engine block over the camshaft gear. The governor is driven by camshaft

gear through a governor drive gear, a pinion gear and shaft and a bevel gear.
The camshaft gear meshes with a governor drive gear mounted on the pinion
gear and shaft. The pinion gear meshes with a bevel gear which is pressed
onto the vertical drive shaft.
Governor action is transmitted to the individual fuel pump racks through a
fuel pump control shaft and a system of control linkages.
30) AIR ELBOW
Individual air elbow conduct air from the air passage in the cylinder block to
the cylinder heads. A gasket, reinforced by a metal liner around the inside
opening. An assemble consisting of a flexitallic ring as sealing element
and held in a place by a steal locating plate, is used for the elbow to head
applications.
This type of arrangement not only insures a positive seal at elbow
connections but also eliminates the possibility of the gaskets working out of
palace.
31) EXHAUST MANIFOLD (SINGLEPIPE)
The single pipe exhaust manifold is made entirely of stainless steal tubing
and bellows joints. It consists of a numbers of identical sections, any single
one of which may be removed or replaced by unbolting the associated parts.
No sliding joints are used. Instead, a bellows connector is placed between
each section which joins a pair of cylinders. This arrangement eliminates
wear and galling caused by sliding motion of the parts.
The manifolds are not encased in an insulated box. However, a heat shield is
provided.

32) ACCELRATION CONTROL DEVICE LINKAGE


An acceleration control device controls the rates at which delivery of fuel is
increased. This is done to allow all time for the tuber charger to develop an
air manifold pressure which will efficiently burn the fuel being injected.
Fuel delivery is increased slowly from idle until an air manifold pressure
of about psi is obtained. After this, the fuel delivery is increased more
rapidly.
The device consists of an air cylinder connected through linkage to a cam.
Air from the engine air manifold is connected to the bottom of the air
cylinders. A cam stop, connected to the governor linkage through a
collapsible link, limits a predetermined amount of fuel available to the
nozzles when the throttle is opened. It is not until air manifold pressure
builds up and the air cylinder operates that additional fuel flows to the
nozzles.
33) LINKAGE, GOVERNER CONTROL
The governor is located on the right hand side of the power take-off
(generator) end of the engine. The PG type governors are gear driven from
the engine camshaft.
Governor action is transmitted to the individual fuel pump rack through a
fuel pump control shaft and a system of control linkage. A lever connects the
governor power piston (Pg type), to a pre-loaded torsion springs. This spring
transmits torque to a shaft that is connected to the a fuel pump control shaft
through two lever and an adjustable link. This over travel mechanism is
needed to allow the engine over speed device to return the rack to off even
through the governor may remain at full fuel.

34) FUEL INJECTION PUMP


MICO fuel injection pumps of single acting, constant stroke and plunger
type with the effective working stroke, however, being adjustable. The pump
consist of a housing, delivery valve and springs, delivery valve holder,
element (plunger and barrel assembly), plunger spring, a geared control
sleeve and control rack (rod) assembly. The barrel and a plunger, which are
match assembled to a very close tolerance.
The fuel injection pump has three functions:
To raise the fuel oil pressure to a valve which will efficiently atomise
the fuel.
To supply the correct quantity of fuel to the injection nozzle
commensurate with the power and speed requirement of the engine.
To accurately time the delivery of the fuel for efficient and
economical operation of engine
Fuel oil enters pump from oil header and the sump surrounding the plunger
barrel. When the plunger is at the bottom of its stroke (position 1), fuel flows
through the barrel ports, filling the space above the plunger and cut away
area of the helix.
As the plunger moves upward, fuel is pumped back into sump until barrel
ports are closed. Further upward movement of plunger (position 2) raises the
pressure of the trapped fuel. When pressure is sufficient to over come the
force exerted on delivery valve by valve springs, delivery valve opens and
fuel is discharged into high pressure pipe, leading to injector. Further upward
movement of the plunger increases fuel pressure to enable the injection to
occur. Delivery of fuel ceases when plunger helix opens the barrel ports
(position 3). During the remaining movement of the plunger, fuel spills into

sump. This termination of fuel delivery by helix controls the quantity of fuel
delivered per stroke. The angular position of plunger, with respect to barrel
ports, determines the effective stroke and, therefore, the quantity of fuel
injected. The total length of plunger stroke remains constant regardless of
engine speed or load.
When the plunger is rotated to a position (6)where the vertical groove is
aligned with the control ports, no pressure can builds up and consequently,
no fuel will be delivered.
The angular position of plunger, with respect to barrel, is altered by control
sleeve, the lower end of the sleeve being slotted to engage the flange (vane)
of the plunger gear ring, which engages the control rack. Movement of
control rack by engine governor rotates plunger, thereby varying the quantity
of fuel delivered by pump.
The delivery valve prevents excess draining of fuel discharge line. As
plunger uncovers the barrel ports, there is a sudden pressure drop in barrel
resulting in the closure of due to higher pressure in delivery pipe and
delivery valve spring force. As the valve snaps into its seat, the pressure is
reduced in the injection tubing below the opening pressure of nozzle. This
action of valve eliminates the possibility of secondary injection (after
dribble) from nozzle.
The sudden drop in pressure in the injection tubing is achieved by providing
an accurate relief piston at the upper end of delivery valve pin.
When plunger helix first uncovers the barrel ports the lower edge of the
relief piston slides into valve body and traps all fuel in injection tube.
Further movement of valve to its seat increases the space available for fuel
in tube and therefore reduces the fuel pressure.

The delivery valve also acts as a cheek valve to prevent combustion gases
from blowing back into pump, if nozzle valve is stuck in open position. The
metered quantity of fuel from injection pump passes through snubber valve
and high-pressure line, entering the nozzle holder at the pressure tube inlet
connection. Drilled passage in the nozzle holder conduct fuel to pressure
chamber adjacent to the different section of valve.
When the pressure of fuel action on the different section exceeds the spring
pressure, the nozzle valve is forced from its seat. Fuel flows through the
nozzle spray holes until fuel pump ceases to deliver fuel. Fuel flow is then
instantaneously and positively cut off, as the spring snaps the valve shut.
35) SNUBBER VALVE
A snubber valve assembly is fitted on the fuel injection pump at the top of
the delivery valve holder using a tubing union sleeve and nut.
It is basically a cheek valve which restricts fuel flow in the reserve direction
through a small orifice. Its function is to dampen shock waves traveling
through the high pressure line resulting from sudden closure of the delivery
valve and the nozzle valve.
35) NOZZLE HOLDER
The fuel injection nozzle holder conducts fuel from pump, snubber valve
and high pressure discharge tubing to fuel injection nozzle and provides a
means of adjusting the nozzle valve opening pressure. The nozzle atomizes
the fuel and directs it, in a definite spray pattern into the engine combustion
chamber. The major components of the holder body, pressure adjusting
spring, shims (compensating washers), guide bush, intermediate disc and
nozzle cap nut.

To adjust nozzle opening pressure shims are between nozzle holder body and
guide bush (spring cap), above the spring. The lower end of nozzle holder is
ground and lapped to provide leak proof and pressure fight seal with the
lapped upper surface of intermediate disc. The lower surface of intermediate
disc is also lapped to provide a pressure tight sealing with the lapped surface
of nozzle body. (Nozzle holder and nozzle assembly will hereafter be
referred as injector)
36) NOZZLE
The fuel injection nozzles are the closed, hydraulically operated, differential
type, consisting of two parts- nozzle body and nozzle valve (pin). Both these
parts are made out of special heat treated alloy steel to minimize wear.
The nozzle valve and nozzle body are matched to form an assembly. These
parts should not be exchanged individually but replaced only as an assembly.
At the tip of nozzle body are 9 spray holes through which fuel passes into
the combustion chamber. The spring loaded nozzle valve controls the flow
Multi hole nozzle is used in order to mix the fuel properly. The holes are
drilled non-symmetrically or symmetrically (in the case being discussed) to
meet certain specific requirements of the combustion.
37) STRAINER, LUBRICATION OIL
The lube oil strainer is of basket type with oil entering the strainer at the
bottom shell connection. The oil flows up through a hollow tube and flows
over the top into the space between the tube and strainer screen. The oil then
passes through the fine mesh screen and out of the strainer shell. The strainer
screen is star strainer to provide maximum straining area.

38) VALVE, BY-PASS AND RELIEF


FILTER BY-PASS VALVE:Piped around the lube oil filter is a by-pass valve, set for 20 psi for WDM2 &
30 psi for YDM4 differential pressure across the filter. one purpose of this
valve is to furnish a definite amount of oil to the at all times. If the filter
should become clogged, this valve will operate to by-pass all the oil around
the filter.
RELIEF VALVES
Two relief valves are used in the lube oil system (refer to lube oil system
schematic for use). The type of valve used is shown.
One is located in the oil pump discharge line and is set to relieve at 105-110
PSI for WDM2 & 125-130 PSI of YDM4. The second is located on the
discharge side of the cooler and is set for 20 psi differential pressure across
the filters.
39) RELIEF AND REGULATING VALVE
The purpose of pressure relief and pressure regulating valves is to protect
various components and regulate oil pressure within the lubricating oil
system.
On many units, the pressure relief valve and the pressure regulating valves
are the same type of the valve but with different bodies and / or pressure
testing.
OPERATION
The inner valve is an inverted cup which slides over a stationary piston.
Lifting of inner valve is opposed by a long spring which is designed to give
a constant regulating over full capacity range as possible. Inlet pressure is
transmitted to the underside of the cup disc through a small hole in the
center of the piston.

As the inner valve lifts, oil escapes through the opening between the cup lip
and the seat bushing. Venturi effect (lowered pressure at the small opening
area caused by high velocity flow) is held to a minimum by a narrow seating
lip on the cup. Because this venturi effect is not transmitted to the underside
of the cup disc, the effective diameter of the inner valve opposing the spring
force remains constant. Only the true effective pressure in the center of the
inlet line is transmitted to the cap chamber.
The velocity of oil flow through the inner valve, as it lifts, creates are
increased pressure in the cup chamber to compensate for the changing spring
force as the spring is compressed.
40) FILTER LUBRICATING OIL
The filter tank contains multiple elements. Each filter element may consist
of a metal cage with a paper filter with no cage and the baffle, contained in
the filter sock are 6-1/2 pounds of long strand cotton waste.
Two drains valves are provided in the filter tank as well as a vent line to
eliminate any formation of air pockets.
41) COOLER, LUBRICATING OIL
RECTANGULAR SHELL TYPE
The lubricating oil cooler is a heat exchanger of the vertical shell and tube
type consisting of the bundle of tubes rolled into tube sheets and closed in a
shell. Both tube sheets are fixed.
Cooling water from the radiator flows into the top end cover of the units.
Down through the tubes and out at the bottom end cover. The lubricating oil
enters the cooler at the top of the shell. During this process, heat is removed
from the oil due to its contact with the tubes through which the cooling

water is flowing. Baffles are provided inside the shell to channel the oil flow
in the most efficient manner.
42) SYSTEM, LUBRICATING OIL-GENERAL DATA
All locomotive with the model 251diesel engine have a serious system with
filter by-pass protection.
The system consists of following: circulating pump, regulating valves, filter
assembly, heat exchanger (cooler), strainer and associated piping.
The lubricating oil pump, mounted on the free end of the engine, draws the
lubricating oil from the engine sump and discharges it into the system. A
relief valve at the discharge side of the pump protects the pump from high
pressure and controls the discharge pressure at 105-110 psi by-passing a
portion of the oil back to the sump. The reminder of the oil flows through
the filter, which is equipped with a differential pressure by-pass valve to
hold a relatively constant pressure across the filter. From the filter the oil
flows on through the cooler, or heat exchanger; next, through the lubricating
oil strainer and then into the main lubricating oil header of the engine to
provide pressure lubrication to the bearing surfaces. A pressure regulating
valve, located at the cooler discharge and set at 55-60 psi, regulates the oil
flow through the cooler and the lube oil pressure in the system.
Lubricating oil is delivered to the main lubricating oil header in the engine at
pressure ranging from 40 psi to 60 psi. the delivery pressure is a function of
the lube oil temperature, engine rpm and setting of the regulating valves.
The normal operating pressure at full engine out put will be approximately
55-60 psi. The lube oil is distributed from the main header to the main
hearings. Two branch lines leading from the main header supply lubricating
oil to the turbo supercharger and camshaft bearings. Two secondary headers

supply oil to each bank of the cylinder head valve mechanisms, fuel pump
lifter and camshaft gears. The pump drives, at the free end, are provided
with lubricating oil by a spray nozzle.
The oil supplied to the main bearing flows through passage in the crankshaft
to the connecting rod bearings. The oil passage through the rifle drilled
connecting rods to hollow full floating piston pins, the oil then flows from
the pin through passages in the piston crown. The oil eventually discharges
from a hole inside the skirt of the piston to the engine sump.
A small line leads before the main header to the pressure gauge and the low
oil pressure switch.
43) VALVE, RELIEF AND REGULATING
The relief valve is located in the fuel line between the fuel booster and the
engine filter. The valve is set at 75 psi and normally does not function. If the
filter clogs or fuel flow stoppage occurs, the valve protects the pump and
motor against overload.
The fuel is maintained by a regulating valve located in the fuel return line
from the fuel manifold to the fuel tank. The valve pressure setting is 35 psi.
A sudden drop in the fuel pressure when the throttle is opened indicates a
sticky regulating valve.
The adjustable type regulating and relief valves are adjusted by removing the
valve cap and turning the adjusting screw clock wise to raise the pressure
and counterclockwise to lower the pressure.
Normally no priming of the fuel system is necessary, as the pressureregulating valve will vent the system when the booster pump is started.
44) FILTER, FUEL OIL, PRIMARY AND SECONDARY

Primary and secondary filters basically of same construction except in size


and fitting and filtering element.
The primary filter is located between fuel oil tank and suction side of
booster pump. The secondary filter is located between engine and discharges
side of booster pump.
When there is gradual drop in fuel oil pressure, check both primary and
secondary filters. Replace the element in the fuel filter.

45) GOVERNOR OIL


Servo prime 57
Diesel engine crankcase in areas with sulfur in fuel upto 0.5%.
Servo PR 408. Cylinder piston, servo gem- 3 (according to IOC
specification)
46) FUEL OIL SYSTEM:
Fuel used is high speed diesel of IS1460-1974 specification. Cetane number
is equal to 42. Total sulphur percentage by mass maximum is equal to 1%.
Low atmospheric pressure and engines operating at high altitudes may
require the use of fuels with higher Cetane number
All locomotive units have individual fuel oil system. Each locomotive has a
fuel supply tank located beneath the under frame between the trucks.
A fuel oil booster pump draws fuel from the tank and then distributes it
throughout the system.
The suction side is between the tank and the booster pump. All oil drawn
from the tank must pass through primary filter used.

The pressure side is between the booster pump and the pressure regulating
valve. As the oil flows through the system, it first passes by a pressure relief
valve set for 75 psi, the purpose of which is to protect the booster pump,
motor and system from overload. Oil then passes through the primary and
secondary filters into the right bank fuel header which feed the fuel injection
pumps on the right side of the engine. Fuel crosses over at the generator end
into the left bank header which feed the left back fuel injection pumps. The
35 psi pressure regulating valve, located at the discharge end of the left bank
header, controls the fuel oil pressure in both headers. Near this valve is the
line connecting to the fuel oil pressure gauge.
47) GAUGE, LIQUID LEVEL GLOW-ROD
The liquid lever Glo-Rod gauge uses the principle of piping light
(supplied by flashlight) through the vertical opening in the body of the gauge
in which the liquid is seen, by means of a translucent plastic rod. At the
lower end of the gauge is a circular concavity, or Target, through which
the lower end of the plastic rod is bent forward to receive flashlight
illumination when necessary.
Placing a flashlight against this target transmits light upward, through the
rod and liquid, to appear as dots below the surface of the liquid but as
horizontal bars above the surface of the liquid. Thus the usual light losses
due to reflection by the gauge window are eliminated, and readings are rapid
and accurate.
48) SWITCH, LOW WATER LEVEL
In addition to a hot engine alarm switch a low water level switch may be
used. The float switch is mounted in the expansion tank and when the water

drops to a predetermined level, the alarm will sound and the engine will shut
down.
Heavy duty sylphon bellows eliminates all packing. Designed as a balanced,
centre-pivoted until, the action of the float is transmitted through knife-edge
stainless steel bearings.
49) RADIATORS
Radiators panels are vertically mounted on each side of the rear of the
locomotives. Each of these panels consists of two or more cores. The cores
are bolted together through flanges at the ends. No filler pieces or centre
tanks are used on the two core radiators.
50) SYSTEM, COOLINGWATER GENERAL DATA
The engine in each locomotive unit has an individual cooling water system.
In which the water is circulated by a centrifugal pump, gear driven from the
crankshaft. Water flows from the pump from headers into the right and leftbanks of the engine block where the water circulates around the cylinder
liners. Water also flows from the pump to the turbo super charger and the
after cooler.
Cooling water from the engine block rises into the cylinders heads and flows
out through risers which are connected to two water outlets headers running
along the top of the engine. Water then flows to the radiators, and expansion
tank. Cooled water from the radiators flows through the oil cooler and
finally returns to the water pump. The cooling system is a closed one with
the expansion tank vented to atmosphere through an overflow pipe. To rid
the system of air and gases on all locomotives units vent pipes are connected

to air collecting domes and lead to the expansion tank. The radiators also
vented.
The water temperature into the engine is maintained between 1450 -1550 F by
switch controlling (Eddy current clutch).
The engine is protected against high water temperature by a switch which
sounds an alarm and on some locomotives returns the engine to idle when
the water outlet temperature reaches 1850F.
51) GOVERNOR:
Governor used are GE Electro-Mechanical or Woodward mechanical
governor. There are two coils, speed coil & stabilizing. The stabilizing coil
has 475 mA constant current supplied to it. Speed coil gets its feeding
current from Techno generator. Depending upon the increase or decrease in
the speed the piston moves up or down under the varying magnetic effect of
coil. The valve system moves the slave piston up or down. This is further
meshing with piston which is further connected to a lever of the control
shaft. Thus the control shaft control the FIP rack and hence the fuel inlet.
52 TURBO SUPER CHARGER
The charger is a self-contained unit, composed of a gas turbine and a
centrifugal blower mounted on a common shaft with the necessary
surrounding casing. The exhaust gas from the cylinders of the diesel engine
is conveyed through the exhaust manifold to the turbine, which utilized
some of the velocity energy in the exhaust gas, otherwise wasted. This
energy in the gas is used to drive the blower, which furnishes all the air
required by the engine, through the air intake manifold at a pressure above
atmospheric.

The turbocharger unit is used in conjunction with a multiple pipe or a single


pipe exhaust manifold. In this system the compressed air deliver by the
turbocharger accomplishes two ends: first, it scavenges the hot residual
gases otherwise left in the cylinder at the end of the exhaust stroke, and
replace with cooler fresh air; second, it fills the cylinder with an air charger
of higher density during the suction stroke. The provision of a greater
amount of fuel and consequently a higher output from a turbocharger engine
than from one not so equipped.
The valve timing of an engine arranged for pressure charging differs
primarily from that of the same engine normally aspired in that the exhaust
valve of the pressure charged engine close later and the inlet valves open
earlier. Thus, the valve overlap or period when both valve are open
simultaneously is considerably greater, permitting effective scavenging of
the cylinder. Timing of the valves and dimensions of the exhaust manifold
are determined so that timed pressure fluctuations are propagated in the
exhaust manifold. Both valves are open when the fluctuating pressure in the
exhaust manifold is at a minimum, thus permitting scavenging with lower
blower pressure than would otherwise be possible.
Scavenging the combustion space with cool air effects a considerable degree
of cooling of the cylinder heads, cylinder walls, valve and pistons. For this
reason, a greater amount of fuel can be burned and greater power develop by
a turbocharged engine without harmful effects to the engine parts due to
excessive heat.
No control over the turbocharger is necessary as the correlated action of the
turbine and blower is entirely automatic. The speed and output of the
turbocharger vary automatically and rapidly with variations in engine load
and/or speed.

DETAILS OF CONSTRUCTION OF TURBOCHARGER:


It consists of a single stage turbine wheel and a single stag centrifugal
blower impeller on a common shaft with necessary surrounding castings.
The turbocharger rotor is entirely independent of rotating engine parts.
Engine exhaust gases are conducted to the gas inlet casing by the exhaust
manifold. The turbine nozzle ring is attached to the center of the gas inlet
casing the veins of the nozzle ring directing the exhaust gases to the rotor
disk blades at the proper angle.