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Chapter 1

1.1 What Log|c Is



LCGIC
1he sLudy of Lhe meLhods and prlnclples used Lo dlsLlngulsh correcL
from lncorrecL reasonlng
1.2 ropos|t|ons

kCCSI1ICN
An asserLlon LhaL someLhlng ls (or ls noL) Lhe case, all proposlLlons are
elLher Lrue or false.

S1A1LMLN1
1he meanlng of a declaraLlve senLence aL a parLlcular Llme, ln loglc,
Lhe word sLaLemenL" ls used lnsLead of proposlLlon."

SIMLL kCCSI1ICN
A proposlLlon maklng only one asserLlon.

CCMCUND kCCSI1ICN
A proposlLlon conLalnlng Lwo or more slmple proposlLlons.

DISIUNC1IVL (Ck AL1LkNA1IVL) kCCSI1ICN
A Lype of compound proposlLlon, lf Lrue, aL leasL one of Lhe
componenL proposlLlons musL be Lrue.

nC1nL1ICAL (Ck CCNDI1ICNAL) kCCSI1ICN
A Lype of compound proposlLlon, lL ls false when Lhe anLecedenL ls
Lrue and Lhe consequenL ls false.




1.3 Arguments

INILkLNCL
A process of llnklng proposlLlons by afflrmlng one proposlLlon on Lhe
basls of one or more oLher proposlLlons.

AkGUMLN1
A sLrucLured group of proposlLlons, reflecLlng an lnference.

kLMISL
A proposlLlon used ln an argumenL Lo supporL some oLher
proposlLlon.

CCNCLUSICN
1he proposlLlon ln an argumenL LhaL Lhe oLher proposlLlons, Lhe
premlses, supporL.
1.4 Deduct|ve and Induct|ve Arguments

DLDUC1IVL AkGUMLN1
Clalms Lo supporL lLs concluslon concluslvely, one of Lhe Lwo classes
of argumenL.

INDUC1IVL AkGUMLN1
Clalms Lo supporL lLs concluslon only wlLh some degree of probablllLy,
one of Lwo classes of argumenL.

VALID AkGUMLN1
lf all premlses are Lrue, Lhe concluslon musL be Lrue, applles only Lo
deducLlve argumenLs.

INVALID AkGUMLN1
1he concluslon ls noL necessarlly Lrue even lf all Lhe premlses are
Lrue, applles only Lo deducLlve argumenLs.



CLASSICAL LCGIC
1radlLlonal Lechnlques, based on ArlsLoLle's works, for Lhe analyses of
deducLlve argumenLs.

MCDLkN SM8CLIC LCGIC
MeLhods used by mosL modern loglclans Lo analyze deducLlve
argumenLs.

kC8A8ILI1
1he llkellhood LhaL some concluslon (of an lnducLlve argumenL) ls
Lrue.
1.S Va||d|ty and 1ruth

1kU1n
An aLLrlbuLe lf a proposlLlon LhaL asserLs whaL really ls Lhe case.

1. vALlu: 1 1C
2. vALlu: l lC
3. lnvALlu: 1 1C
4. lnvALlu: 1 lC (because of form)
3. vALlu: l 1C
6. lnvALlu: l 1C
7. lnvALlu: l lC

INVALID AkGUMLN1S
1rue Concluslon lalse Concluslon
1kUL kLMISLS 3 4
IALSL kLMISLS 6 7

VALID AkGUMLN1S
1rue Concluslon lalse Concluslon
1kUL kLMISLS 1 -
IALSL kLMISLS 3 2


SCUND
An argumenL LhaL ls valld and has only Lrue premlses
Chapter 2
2.1 araphras|ng and D|agramm|ng
2.2 kecogn|z|ng Arguments

CCNCLUSICN INDICA1Ck
A word or phrase LhaL Lyplcally lnLroduces an argumenL's concluslon.

kLMISL INDICA1Ck
A word or phrase LhaL Lyplcally lnLroduces a premlse ln an argumenL.

knL1CkIC ULS1ICN
A quesLlon whose answer ls assumed Lo be obvlous.

CCMMAND
A dlrecLlve sLaLemenL.

LN1nMLML
An argumenL conLalnlng an unsLaLed proposlLlon
Chapter 6: Categor|ca| ropos|t|ons
6.1 1he 1heory of Deduct|on

DLDUC1IVL AGkUMLN1
An argumenL LhaL clalms Lo esLabllsh lLs concluslon concluslvely, one
of Lhe Lwo classes of argumenLs.




VALID AkGUMLN1
A deducLlve argumenL ln whlch, lf all Lhe premlses are Lrue, Lhe
concluslon musL be Lrue.

6.2 C|asses and Categor|ca| ropos|t|ons

CLASS
1he collecLlon of all ob[ecLs LhaL have some speclfled characLerlsLlc ln
common

6.3 1he Iour k|nds of Categor|ca| ropos|t|ons

CA1LGCkICAL kCCSI1ICN
A proposlLlon, used ln deducLlve argumenLs, LhaL asserLs a
relaLlonshlp beLween one caLegory and some oLher caLegory.

UNIVLkSAL AIIIkMA1IVL kCCSI1ICNS (A kCCSI1ICNS)
roposlLlons LhaL asserL LhaL Lhe whole of one class ls lncluded or
conLalned ln anoLher class. All S ls .

UNIVLkSAL NLGA1IVL kCCSI1ICNS (L kCCSI1ICNS)
roposlLlons LhaL asserL LhaL Lhe whole of one class ls excluded from
Lhe whole of anoLher class, no S ls .

Ak1ICULAk AIIIkMA1IVL kCCSI1ICNS (I kCCSI1ICNS)
roposlLlons LhaL asserL LhaL Lwo classes have some member or
members ln common, Some S ls .

Ak1ICULAk NLGA1IVL kCCSI1ICNS (C kCCSI1ICNS)
roposlLlons LhaL asserL LhaL aL leasL one member of a class ls
excluded from Lhe whole of anoLher class, Some S ls noL .

6.4 ua||ty, uant|ty, and D|str|but|on

UALI1
Ann aLLrlbuLe of every caLegorlcal proposlLlon, deLermlned by
wheLher Lhe proposlLlon afflrms or denles some form of class
lncluslon.

UAN1I1
An aLLrlbuLe of every caLegorlcal proposlLlon, deLermlned by wheLher
Lhe proposlLlon refers Lo all members (unlversal") or only some
members (parLlcular") of Lhe sub[ecL class.


*Genera| Schema: CuanLlfler !"#$%&' '%)* copula +)%,-&.'% '%)*

DIS1kI8U1ICN
A characLerlzaLlon of wheLher Lerms ln a caLegorlcal proposlLlon refer
Lo all members of Lhe class deslgnaLed by LhaL Lerm.



LefL (Aff): ls undlsLrlbuLed
8lghL (neg): ls dlsLrlbuLed
1op (unl): S ls dlsLrlbuLed
8oLLom (ar): S ls undlsLrlbuLed
A: S only
L: 8oLh
l: nelLher
C: only
unlversal
Amrmauve
unlversal
negauve
arucular
Amrmauve
arucular
negauve

6.S 1he 1rad|t|ona| Square of Cppos|t|on

CCSI1ICN
Any loglcal relaLlon among Lhe klnds of caLegorlcal proposlLlons (A, L,
l, and C) exhlblLed on Lhe Square of CpposlLlon

CCN1kADIC1CkILS
1wo proposlLlons LhaL cannoL boLh be Lrue and cannoL boLh be false.

CCN1kAkILS
1wo proposlLlons LhaL cannoL boLh be Lrue, lf one ls Lrue, Lhe oLher
musL be false. 1hey can boLh be false.

SU8CCN1kAkILS
1wo proposlLlons LhaL cannoL boLh be false, lf one ls false Lhe oLher
musL be Lrue. 1hey can boLh be Lrue.

SU8AL1LkNA1ICN
1he opposlLlon beLween a unlversal proposlLlon (Lhe superalLern) and
lLs correspondlng parLlcular proposlLlon (Lhe subalLern) ln classlcal
loglc, Lhe unlversal proposlLlon lmplles Lhe LruLh of lLs correspondlng
parLlcular proposlLlon.

SUAkL CI CCSI1ICN
A dlagram showlng Lhe loglcal relaLlonshlps among Lhe four Lypes of
caLegorlcal proposlLlons (A, L, l, and C). 1he LradlLlonal Square of
CpposlLlon dlffers from Lhe modern Square of CpposlLlon ln
lmporLanL ways.

IMMLDIA1L INILkLNCL
An lnference drawn dlrecLly from only one premlse.

MLDIA1L INILkLNCL
An lnference drawn from more Lhan one premlse, Lhe concluslon ls
drawn from Lhe flrsL premlse Lhrough Lhe medlaLlon of Lhe second.

G|ven as a true
A Ll, l1, Cl
L Al, ll, C1
I Ll, ACuu
C Al, Lluu
A C1, Lluu
L l1, CAuu
I Al, L1, C1
C A1, Ll, l1

6.6 Iurther Immed|ate Inferences

CCNVLkSICN
A lnference formed by lnLerchanglng Lhe sub[ecL and predlcaLe Lerms
of a caLegorlcal proposlLlon. noL all converslons are valld.

vALlu CCnvL8SlCnS
CCnvL81Lu CCnvL8SL
A: All S ls . I: All ls S (by llmlLaLlon)
L: no S ls L: no ls S.
I: Some S ls . I: Some ls S
C: Some S ls noL . (converslon noL valld)

CCMLLMLN1 CI A CLASS
1he collecLlon of all Lhlngs LhaL do noL belong Lo LhaL class.

C8VLkSICN
An lnference formed by changlng Lhe quallLy of a proposlLlon and
replaclng Lhe predlcaLe Lerm by lLs compllmenL. Cbverslon ls valld for
any sLandard-caLegorlcal proposlLlon.

Cbvers|ons
Cbverted Cbverse
A: All S ls . L: no S ls non-
L: no S ls . A: All S ls non-.
I: Some S ls . C: Some S ls noL non-.
C: Some S ls no . I: Some S ls non-

CCN1kACSI1ICN
An lnference formed by replaclng Lhe sub[ecL Lerm of a proposlLlon
wlLh Lhe complemenL of lLs predlcaLe Lerm, and replaclng Lhe
predlcaLe Lerm by Lhe complemenL of lLs sub[ecL Lerm. noL all
conLraposlLlons are valld.

CCN1kACSI1ICN
kLMISL CCN1kACSI1IVL
A: All S ls . A: All non- ls non-S.
L: no S ls C: Some non- ls noL non-S. (by
llmlLaLlon)
I: Some S ls . (conLraposlLlon noL valld)
C: Some S ls noL-. C: Some non- ls noL non-S.
6.7 Lx|stent|a| |mport and the |nterpretat|on of Categor|ca|
ropos|t|ons

8CCLLAN IN1LkkL1A1ICN
1he modern lnLerpreLaLlon of caLegorlcal proposlLlons, ln whlch
unlversal proposlLlons (A and L) are noL assumed Lo refer Lo classes
LhaL have members.
6.8 Symbo||sm and D|agrams for Categor|ca| ropos|t|ons
Chapter 7

7.1 Standard-Iorm Categor|ca| Sy||og|sms

SLLCGISM
Any deducLlve argumenL ln whlch a concluslon ls lnferred from Lwo
premlses.

CA1LGCkICAL SLLCGISM
A deducLlve argumenL conslsLlng of Lhree caLegorlcal proposlLlons
LhaL LogeLher conLaln exacLly Lhree Lerms, each of whlch occurs ln
exacLly Lwo of Lhe consLlLuenL proposlLlons.

S1ANDAkD-ICkM CA1LGCkICAL SLLCGISM
A caLegorlcal sylloglsm ln whlch Lhe premlses and concluslons are all
sLandard-form caLegorlcal proposlLlons (A, L, l, or C) and are arranged
wlLh Lhe ma[or premlse flrsL, Lhe mlnor premlse second, and Lhe
cocnluslon lasL.

Ak1S

MAICk 1LkM: 1he predlcaLe Lerm of Lhe concluslon.
MINCk 1LkM: 1he sub[ecL Lerm of Lhe concluslon.
MIDDLL 1LkM: 1he Lerm LhaL appears ln boLh premlses buL noL ln Lhe
concluslon.
MAICk kLMISL: 1he premlse conLalnlng Lhe ma[or Lerm. ln sLandard
form, Lhe ma[or premlse ls always sLaLed flrsL.
MINCk kLMISL: 1he premlse conLalnlng Lhe mlnor Lerm.

MCCD
Cne o Lhe 64 3-leLLer characLerlzaLlon of caLegorlcal sylloglsms
deLermlned by Lhe forms of Lhe sLandard-form proposlLlons lL
conLalns.

IIGUkL
1he loglcal shape of a sylloglsm, deLermlned by Lhe poslLlon of Lhe
mlddle Lerm ln lLs premlses, Lhere are four posslble flgures.

llrsL Second 1h|rd Iourth
M-
S-M
S-
-M
S-M
S-
M-
M-S
S-
-M
M-S
S-

7.2 1he Iorma| Nature of Sy||og|st|c Argument
7.3 Venn D|agram 1echn|que for 1est|ng Sy||og|sms
7.4 Sy||og|st|c ku|es and Sy||og|st|c Ia||ac|es
Sy||og|st|c ku|es and Ia||ac|es
kULL ASSCCIA1LD IALLAC
Avold four Lerms Iour terms
ulsLrlbuLe Lhe mlddle Lerm ln aL
leasL one premlse.
Und|str|buted m|dd|e
Any Lerm dlsLrlbuLed ln Lhe
concluslon musL be dlsLrlbuLed ln
Lhe premlses.
I|||c|t Ma[or
I|||c|t M|nor
Avold Lwo negaLlve premlses Lxc|us|ve prem|ses
lf elLher premlse ls negaLlve, Lhe
concluslon musL be negaLlve.
Draw|ng an aff|rmat|ve
conc|us|on from a negat|ve
prem|se.
lrom Lwo unlversal premlses no
parLlcular concluslon may be
drawn.
Lx|stent|a| fa||acy

7.S Lxpos|t|on of the 1S Va||d Iorms of the Categor|ca|
Sy||og|sm

7.6 Deduct|on of the 1S Va||d Iorms of the Categor|ca|
Sy||og|sm

A
1. 8arbara AAA-1
L
2. Camestress ALL-2
3. Camenes ALL-4
4. Ce|arent LAL-1
S. Cesare LAL-2
I
6. Dar|| All-1
7. Dat|ts| All-3
8. D|sam|s lAl-3
9. D|mar|s lAl-4
C
10. 8aroko ACC-2
11. Ier|o LlC-1
12. Iest|no LlC-2
13. Ierr|son LlC-3
14. Ires|son LlC-4
Chapter 8
8.1 Sy||og|st|c Arguments

SLLCGIS1IC AkGUMLN1
An argumenL LhaL ls a sLandard-form caLegorlcal sylloglsm, or can be
formulaLed as one wlLhouL any change ln meanlng.

kLDUC1ICN 1C S1ANDAkD ICkM
8eformulaLlon of a sylloglsLlc argumenL lnLo sLandard form.

8.2 keduc|ng the Number of 1erms to 1hree

1. L||m|nat|ng synonyms

wealLhy" and rlch" are synonymous, as are lawyer" and aLLorney"

no wealLhy persons are vagranLs
All lawyers are rlch people
1herefore no aLLorneys are Lramps.
no wealLhy persons are vagranLs.
All lawyers are wealLhy persons.
1herefore no lawyers are vagranLs.

2. L||m|nat|ng c|ass comp|ements
lnvalld (urawlng an afflrmaLlve concluslon from a negaLlve premlse)
buL when LranslaLed lnLo sLandard form, valld. 8educe Lerms Lhrough:
! converslon (mammals" and nonmammals")
! obverslon (concluslon)

All mammals are warm-blooded anlmals.
no llzards are warm-blooded anlmals.
1herefore all llzards are nonmammals.
All mammals are warm blooded anlmals.
no llzards are warm-blooded anlmals.
1herefore no llzards are mammals.

Cr by worklng wlLh Lhe premlses lnsLead of Lhe concluslon

All non(warm-blooded anlmals) are nonmammals.
All llzards are non (warm-blooded anlmals).
1herefore all llzards are nonmammals.

8educlng Lerms can be done ln more Lhan one way.

llrsL premlse: converL and obverL (All clLlzens are resldenLs)
Second premlse: conLraposlLlve (All voLers are clLlzens)

no nonresldenLs are clLlzens.
All nonclLlzens are nonvoLers.
1herefore all voLers are resldenLs.
All clLlzens are resldenLs.
All voLers are clLlzens.
1herefore all voLers are resldenLs.
8.3 1rans|at|ng Categor|ca| ropos|t|ons |nto Standard Iorm

1. SINGULAk kCCSI1ICNS
A proposlLlon LhaL asserLs LhaL a speclflc lndlvldual belongs (or
does noL belong) Lo a parLlcular class.

Un|t C|ass - A class wlLh only one member.

SocraLes ls a phllosopher"
1hls Lable ls noL an anLlque"

! 1hey have no expllclL LranslaLlons have been provlded for
slngular proposlLlons, LradlLlonally Lhey have been classlfled as
A and L proposlLlons as Lhey sLand.
! unlversal proposlLlons do noL have exlsLenLlal lmporL. uslng
8oolean lnLerpreLaLlon, we flnd LhaL lf slngular proposlLlons
are LreaLed mechanlcally as A and L propos|t|ons ln sylloglsLlc
argumenLs and Lhose argumenLs have Lhelr valldlLy checked
by venn dlagrams or Lhe rules seL forLh ln Ch 7 arlse.

Case 1: Slngular proposlLlons LranslaLed

valld (8arbara - AAA-1)

All P ls M
s ls an P
*s ls an M
All P ls M.
All S ls P.
*All S ls M.

1hey LranslaLe lnLo lnvalld. (All-3 - LxlsLenLlal lallacy)

s ls M
s ls P
*Some P ls M
All S ls M.
All S ls P.
*All P ls M.

Case 2: 1ranslaLe slngular proposlLlons lnLo parLlcular proposlLlons.

vALlu (All-1)

All P ls M.
s ls an P.
*S ls an M.
All P ls M.
Some S ls P.
*Some S ls M

lnvALlu (lll-3)

s ls M.
s ls P.
*Some P ls M.
Some S ls M.
Some S ls P.
*Some P ls M.

*ulfflculLy ln LranslaLlon: A slngular proposlLlon conLalns more
lnformaLlon LhaL ls conLalned ln any slngle one of Lhe four sLandard-
form caLegorlcal rpoposlLlons.

lf All ls " - whaL ls losL ls Lhe exlsLenLlal lmporL of Lhe slngular
proposlLlon
lf Some ls " - Lhen whaL ls losL ls Lhe unlversal aspecL of Lhe slngular
proposlLlon

1hus Lhe soluLlon ls Lo consLrue slngular proposlLlons as con[uncLlons
of sLandard-form caLegorlcal proposlLlons.

s ls " = All S ls " and Some S ls "
s ls noL " = no S ls " and Some S ls noL "

8u1 lf Lhe exlsLenLlal lmporL ls kepL ln mlnd, lL ls an accepLable
pracLlce Lo regard slngular proposlLlons as unlversal proposlLlons.
(defaulL)

2. CA1LGCkICAL kCCSI1ICNS 1nA1 nAVL ADILC1IVLS Ck
ADILC1IVAL nkASLS AS kLDICA1LS, kA1nLk 1nAN
SU8S1AN1IVLS Ck CLASS 1LkMS ("attr|butes")

8eauLlful" and avallable for acLlve duLy" are aLLrlbuLes. Lvery
aLLrlbuLe deLermlnes a class. 8eplace Lhe ad[ecLlval predlcaLe wlLh
a Lerm deslgnaLlng Lhe class of all ob[ecLs of whlch Lhe ad[ecLlve
may Lruly be predlcaLed.

Some flowers are beauLlful.
no warshlps are avallable for acLlve duLy.
Some flowers are beauLles.
no warshlps are Lhlngs avallable for acLlve duLy.


3. CA1LGCkICAL kCCSI1ICNS WnCSL MAIN VLk8S AkL
C1nLk 1nAN 1nL S1ANDAkD-ICkM CCULA "1C 8L" ("not
to be")

8eplace words by a Lerm deslgnaLlng Lhe class deLermlned by LhaL
class-deflnlng characLerlsLlc and may be llnked Lo Lhe sub[ecL wlLh a
sLandard copula.
All people seek recognlLlon.
Some people drlnk Creek wlne.
All people are seekers of recognlLlon.
Some people are Creek-wlne drlnkers.

4. S1A1LMLN1S IN WnICn 1nL S1ANDAkD-ICkM INGkLDILN1
AkL ALL kLSLN1 8U1 NC1 AkkANGLD IN S1ANDAkD-ICkM
CkDLk ("unarranged")



8acehorses are all Lhoroughbreds.
All ls well LhaL ends well.
All racehorses are Lhoroughbreds.
All Lhlngs LhaL end well are Lhlngs LhaL are well.


S. CA1LGCkICAL kCCSI1ICNS WnCSL UAN1I1ILS AkL
INDICA1LD 8 WCkDS C1nLk 1AN 1nL S1ANDAkD-ICkM
UAN1IIILkS "ALL," "NC," AND "SCML"

ALL = every" and any"

Lvery dog has lLs day.
Any conLrlbuLlon wlll be appreclaLed.
All dogs are creaLures LhaL have Lhelr days.
All conLrlbuLlons are Lhlngs LhaL are appreclaLed.

A" and an" = all or some buL dependlng on Lhe conLexL

A baL ls a mammal.
An elephanL ls a pachyderm.

*A baL flew ln Lhe wlndow.
An elephanL escaped.
All baLs are mammals.
All elephanLs are pachyderms.

*uCLS nC1 8LlL8 1C ALL so
Some baLs are creaLures LhaL flew ln Lhe wlndow.
Some elephanLs are creaLures LhaL escaped.

1he" = can be unlversal or parLlcular

1he whale ls a mammal.
1he flrsL presldenL was a mlllLary hero.
All whales are mammals.
Already ln sLandard form as an A proposlLlon (a slngular proposlLlon
havlng exlsLenLlal lmporL)

*noL every = Some S ls noL (C)
noL any S ls = no S ls (L)

6. LkCLUSIVL kCCSI1ICNS ("on|y" and "none but")

CaLegorlcal proposlLlons lnvolvlng Lhe words only" or none buL"
asserL LhaL Lhe predlcaLe applles excluslvely Lo Lhe sub[ecL named.
Ceneral rule: reverse Lhe sub[ecL and Lhe predlcaLe, and replace Lhe
only" wlLh all" and none buL S's are 's" are usually undersLood Lo
express All ls S."

Cnly clLlzens can voLe.
none buL Lhe brave deserve Lhe falr.
All Lhose who can voLe are clLlzens.
All Lhose who deserve Lhe falr are Lhose who are brave.

*1here may be cases when only" and none buL" are used Lo convey
some furLher meanlng. 1hus, lL may suggesL All S ls " or LhaL Some
S ls ."

7. CA1LGCkICAL kCCSI1ICNS 1nA1 CCN1AIN NC WCkDS A1
ALL 1C INDICA1L UAN1I1 ("no quant|f|er")

Meanlng ls deLermlned only Lhrough Lhe conLexL.

uogs are carnlvorous.
Chlldren are presenL.
All dogs are carnlvorous
Some chlldren are presenL.

8. kCCSI1ICNS 1nA1 DC NC1 kLSLM8LL S1ANDAkD-ICkM
CA1LGCkICAL kCCSI1ICNS A1 ALL, 8U1 CAN 8L
1kANSLA1LD IN1C S1ANDAkD ICkM

noL all chlldren belleve ln SanLa Claus.
1here are whlLe elephanLs.
1here are no plnk elephanLs.
noLhlng ls boLh round and square.
Some chlldren are noL bellevers ln SanLa Claus.
Some elephanLs are whlLe Lhlngs.
no elephanLs are plnk Lhlngs.
no round ob[ecLs are square ob[ecLs.

9. LkCL1IVL kCCSI1ICNS

roposlLlons of Lhls klnd make Lwo asserLlons raLher Lhan one. lL
asserLs LhaL all members of some class - excepL for members of one
of lLs subclasses - are members of some oLher class.

S = employees"
= ellglble"

All non-S ls " and no S ls "

All excepL employees are ellglble.
All buL employees are ellglble.
Lmployees alone are noL ellglble.
All non-employees are ellglble and no employees are ellglble.
(compound)

*ArgumenLs wlLh quanLlflers

1. ASS?LCClS1lC
one," Lwo," Lhree," many," a few," mosL"

2. S?LLCClS1lC
almosL all," noL qulLe all," all buL a few" and almosL everyone"

1hey afflrm LhaL some sLudenLs were aL Lhe dance and denles LhaL all
sLudenLs were aL Lhe fance.

AlmosL all sLudenLs were aL Lhe dance.
noL qulLe all sLudenLs were aL Lhe dance.
All buL a few sLudenLs were aL Lhe dance.
Some sLudenLs are person who are aL Lhe dance an some sLudenLs are
noL persons who are aL Lhe dance.

**LxcepLlve proposlLlons are noL caLegorlcal proposlLlons buL
con[uncLlons, argumenLs conLalnlng Lhem are noL sylloglsLlc
argumenLs as we are uslng LhaL Lerm. 8uL Lhey may neverLheless be
suscepLlble Lo sylloglsLlc analysls and appralsal. Pow an argumenL
conLalnlng am excepLlve proposlLlon should be LesLed depends on Lhe
excepLlve proposlLlon's poslLlon ln Lhe argumenL.

ln a premlse:

Lveryone who saw Lhe game was aL Lhe dance.
noL qulLe all Lhe sLudenLs were aL Lhe dance.
So some sLudenLs dldn'L see Lhe game.
1esL 1: undlsLrlbuLed mlddle
All persons who saw Lhe game are persons who were aL Lhe dance.
Some sLudenLs are persons who were aL Lhe dance.
1herefore some sLudenLs are noL persons who saw Lhe game.
1esL 2: vALlu (8aroko - ACC - 2)
All persons who saw Lhe game are persons who were aL Lhe dance.
Some sLudenLs are noL persons who were aL Lhe dance.
1herefore some sLudenLs are noL persons who saw Lhe game.

ln a concluslon: lnvALlu

ll 8C1P: 1esL all

8.4 Un|form 1rans|at|on

AkAML1Lk
An auxlllary symbol LhaL alds ln reformulaLlng an asserLlon lnLo
sLandard form.

1emporal
always" = all Lhe Llmes"

1he poor always you have wlLh you.
All Llmes are Llmes when you have Lhe poor wlLh you.

lace
Where Lhere ls no vlslon Lhe people perlsh.
All places where Lhere ls no vlslon are places where Lhe people perlsh.

ConLexL
!ones loses a sale whenever he ls laLe.
All cases ln whlch !ones ls laLe cases ln whlch !ones loses a sale.

Solled paper plaLes are scaLLered only where careless people have
plcnlcked.
1here are solled paper plaLes scaLLered abouL here.
1herefore careless people musL have been panlcklng here.
8arbara AAA-1

All places where solled paper plaLes are scaLLered are places where
careless people have plcnlcked.
1hls place ls place where solled paper plaLes are scaLLered.
1herefore Lhls place ls a place where careless people have plcnlcked.

Synonyms, wherever = place

1he hounds bay wherever a fox has passed, so Lhe fox musL have
Laken anoLher paLh, slnce Lhe hounds are quleL.
CamesLress ALL-2

All places where a fox has passed are places where Lhe hounds bay.
1hls place ls noL a place where Lhe hounds bay.
1herefore Lhls place ls noL a place where a fox has passed.