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Alvaro Andres Rocha Velasco

CoD:2094507
Law 400-1997.
This law is one of the most important in civil engineering, as it is set all the
minimum requirements for construction of earthquake resistant buildings (that can
withstand earthquakes and seismic vibration forces without affecting the human life
and without buildings collapsing), excluding construction of special structures such
as bridges, transmission towers, towers, piers, hydraulic structures, which also
identifies the responsibilities of each builder designer or engineer in charge if the
structures are affected by an earthquake.
The responsibility lies solely on the designs on professional manager is a clear
example for damage commissioned the construction process is the resident
engineer and the controller engineer, but if the damage is due to failure in a column
he had great weight stresses or the is responsible for the structural engineer to do
the design of the column.
Also the law 400 emphasizes the role of designers as well as managers in
approving building permits , in this last function with the curatorial or municipal or
district entities responsible for issuing building permits is that the plans both
structural and architecture to be used in all construction must be a true copy of
what curation is in addition to these designs should be reviewed by specialists in
each branch in charge of curating that approval and verify compliance Colombian
seismic resistant .
Law 400 provides that for a structural design must have five years of experience in
the area of structures or graduate school, five years of experience must be under
the guidance of a professional who is working in the same branch , and also
applies to geotechnical engineers which means a civil engineer fresh out of college
cannot make definitive designs a building unless it has postgraduate studies and
doctoral programs , specializations and masters , this greatly limits engineers that
only they can play in minor works while get the required experience. As for the
design of non-structural elements can be performed by a mechanical engineer who
has at least 3 years experience or having postgraduate and also meets the same
conditions as above .
Other chapters speak of the reviewers or auditors also called also applied the
same five years of experience from the professional card issuing such labor or
auditors must work independently of the builder of this structure.


Is clear that a of the biggest problems of an engineer is that the law limits their
profession and who cant perform structural designs or building until he is five
years of experience, which means that in this period the civil engineer must find
work less and have an engineer who can guide them to perform work in the near
future.
After being a resident engineer the closest office to which they can aspire to a
newly graduated civil engineer is to manage construction of which is required by
law to three years of experience under the supervision of a specialist in office
engineer, also required to demonstrate that experience with the "Standing Advisory
Committee for Earthquake Resistant Building System".
For the law 400 of 1997 does not have a misinterpretation has created the
Standing Advisory Committee for Earthquake Resistant Building Scheme "National
government, which is under the Ministry of Economic Development and will be part
of the National System for the Care and Disaster Prevention.
One function of this committee is to serve all queries to perform bodies or
individuals on the subject, also direct and monitor all research carried out on this
law 400-97 is another function the microzonation studies and establish far as the
scope of each professional and their respective branch comes as it is very
important to know what is the procedure, work and perform respective reports by
each professional branch and the importance of building.
Chapter 8 finally speaks of parameter design standards that must be met to the
letter , recommendations should be followed . This itself is divided into several titles
each refers to a specific topic of the technical requirements and scientists from "A "
to " K" in which these are engineering students must be trained to keep title
correctly " a ": general requirements for earthquake resistant design and
construction title " B " loads ," C " structural Concrete ," D " : structural masonry , "
E "houses of one and two story ," F " metallic structures ," G " structures wooden ,
"H" geotechnical studies , "I" technical Supervision, "J" requirements of fire
protection in buildings and " K" other additional requirements . This NSR -10
standard is based on several basic principles of which the most important are to
minimize the risk of loss of human lives as possible and defend the heritage of the
state and citizens.

Another basic principle of NSR-10 to be achieved is that a structure designed
following these lineaments of this standard must be able to withstand the forces
imposed by its use, low-intensity earthquakes without damage, moderate
earthquakes without structural damage possibly with some damage to
nonstructural elements and a strong tremor but without permanent damage to
collapse to save human life.
Law 400 of 1997 establishes what the minimum content that should have every title
in the Colombian earthquake resistant standard.
Another aspect you should always keep in mind a civil engineer is referred to the
Title IX disciplinary code that penalizes construction professionals, not subject to
the rules and provisions of NSR-10 law and the law 400 - 97, which means that
those who miss any of their professional duties, incurs a violation of the code of
professional ethics, therefore can be sanctioned by the "professional architectural
and engineering advice." In this case the National Board of Professional
Engineering COPNIA. This code also applies to disciplinary professionals
government offices (curatorship) authorizing any type of architectural and structural
plans that do not meet the requirements of the NSR-10.
Among the penalties if it be too early buildings in terms of construction that violates
the NSR-10 and the Law 400-97 mayor may authorize the demolition and in the
future can cost the lives of many people on the other side if you can still make
corrections in construction and partial demolition the law requires owners or
builders fined for each number built (m2) time and that corrective measures are not
taken. For professionals is more complicated since the penalties can range from
suspension of professional registration for a period of time until the cancellation of
this, depending on who committed the foul.
Finally the law makes explains that must be made when submitting the case of a
building constructed prior to this law, these constructions should be updated and
accommodate the requirements of the new law and comply with requirements may
be exempted from payment of taxes, also clarifies that building who are in this
situation and are of use to the community and indispensable only have 3 years to
study remodel and a total of 6 years must be completely retrofitted to bring them to
a level of optimum safety according to the law so that there is no risk of loss of
human life.
In conclusion this Act detailing earthquake resistant thematic and scientific content
of the NSR-10 and the steps to be followed for designs, but also the
responsibilities, limitations and warnings, penalties professionals have different
branches as geotechnical engineers structural, mechanical and architects and
other professions in the late civil engineering and curatorial or municipal or district
entities responsible for issuing building permits engineers.