Hawassa University
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RC II (CEng 3111) Chapter 1
1
Chapter 1 DESIGN OF COLUMNS
Columns are the members that take axial compressive load and bending moments. The bending
effect may be due to the lateral loads, end moments, and/or due to eccentricity of the axial loads.
Reinforced concrete columns are classified in EBCS 2, as unbraced (sway) or braced (non
sway), based on how the horizontal loads are transmitted by the super structure to the foundation.
Unbraced Columns (in sway frames): An unbraced structure is one in which frame action is
used to resist horizontal loads (lateral loads due to wind or earthquake). In such structure, beam
and column members may be designed to act together as a rigid frame in transmitting the lateral
forces down to the foundations through bending action in the beams and columns. In such an
instance the columns are said to be unbraced and must be designed to carry both the vertical
(compressive) and lateral (bending) loads. Moments in the columns can substantially reduce the
vertical load carrying capacity. The frame as a whole may exhibit significant lateral
displacement. The bending moment can increase due to second order effect.
Braced columns (in nonsway frames): If the lateral loads in a frame are transmitted to the
foundation through a system of bracing or shear walls, the column member in such a frame is
said to be braced column and consequently carry only vertical loads. In such a case, second
order effect will be negligible.
a). Braced columns in a non sway b). Unbraced columns in Sway type
Second order effect or P effect: Consider a slender column subjected only to equal and
opposite end moment, M, as shown in figure. The column is bent into a single curvature with a
maximum deflection at the mid height as shown. If the axial compression is applied at the ends
of the column now, additional bending moment is caused due to the axial load acting on the
deformed shape. This additional bending moment causes additional deflection and so on, until
the final maximum deflection is reached at the stage of equilibrium under combined axial force
and bending moments. This is referred to as P effects. It should be observed that due to P
effects the maximum moment in the column is larger than the externally applied end moment M.
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RC II (CEng 3111) Chapter 1
2
If the column is short, P effect is negligible. If the column is slender, P effect is to be
considered.
(Section 4.4.4.4 of EBCS 2) Isolated columns: Columns may be considered as isolated
columns when they are isolated compression members (such as individual isolated columns and
columns with articulations in a nonsway structure), or compression members which are integral
parts of a structure but which are considered to be isolated for design purposes (such as slender
bracing elements considered as isolated columns, and columns with restrained ends in a non
sway structure).
(Section 4.4.5 of EBCS 2) Slenderness ratio:
On the basis of the slenderness ratio columns may be classified as short or long (slender).
 For isolated columns, the slenderness ratio is defined by
Where L
e
is the effective buckling length
i is the minimum radius of gyration of the concrete section only.
(Section 4.4.6 of EBCS 2) Limits of slenderness ratio:
Generally, the slenderness ratio of concrete columns shall not exceed 140.
Secondorder effects in compressive members need not be taken into account in the following
cases:
(a). For sway frames, the greater of the two
d
v
15
25
s
s
(b). For non sway frames
( )
( )
2
1
25 50
M
M
s
Where M
1
and M
2
are the firstorder (calculated) moments at the ends, M
2
being always positive
and greater in magnitude than M
1
, and M
1
being positive if member is bent in single curvature
and negative if bent in double curvature.
i
L
e
=
M
M
M
M
P
P
Max. Moment = M + P
Max. Moment = M
A
I
i =
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RC II (CEng 3111) Chapter 1
3
( ) load axial design N
A f
N
sd
c cd
sd
d
= v
Effective length of compression members
The effective height (length) of a column is the distance between the two consecutive points of
contra flexure or zero bending moments. The figure shown below may serve this purpose.
In accordance with EBCS2, 1995, the effective length Le for an RC Column is given as,
a. Nonsway mode 7 . 0
8 . 0
4 . 0
>
+
+
=
m
m e
L
L
o
o
b. Sway mode
( )
15 . 1
5 . 7
6 . 1 4 5 . 7
2 1
2 1 2 1
>
+ +
+ + +
=
o o
o o o o
L
L
e
Or Conservatively . 15 . 1 8 . 0 1 > + =
m
e
L
L
o
For the theoretical model shown below:
2
2 1
22 21
2
2
12 11
1
1
o o
o
o
o
+
=
+
+
=
+
+
=
m
c
c
K K
K K
K K
K K
where K
1
and K
2
are column stiffness coefficients (EI/L) for the lower and the upper column
respectively. K
c
is the stiffness coefficient (EI/L) of the column being designed.
Kij is the effective beam stiffness coefficient (EI/L)
= 1.0 (EI/L) for opposite end elastically or rigidly restrained.
= 0.5 (EI/L) for opposite end free to rotate.
= 0.0 (EI/L) for a cantilever beam.
For a non sway frame 1 . 0 s
cr
sd
N
N
Where: N
sd
the design value of the total vertical load.
N
cr
critical vertical load for failure in a sway mode given as
L
c2
L
c
L
c1
I
b11
I
b12
I
b22
I
b21
I
c
I
c1
L
e
5 . 1 =
0.7L 1.2L
L
e
=
L
0.5L
L
e
65 . 0 = L
e
8 . 0 = L
e
2 . 1 =
0.8L
L
e
8 . 0 =
I
c2
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RC II (CEng 3111) Chapter 1
4
2
2
e
e
cr
L
EI
N
t
=
EI
e
= 0.2E
c
I
c
+ E
s
I
s
(or conservatively EIe
=
( )
c c
bal
bal
I E
r
M
4 . 0
1
> )
E
c ( )
3
10
5 1
1100
 = ~
d r
Curvature f
bal
cd
I
c
= Moment of inertia of the concrete sections of the substitute column w.r.to centre
I
s
= Moment of inertia of reinforcement sections of the conc. section
A frame may be classified as braced if its sway resistance is supplied by a bracing system which
is sufficiently stiff to assume that all horizontal loads are resisted by the bracing system. (Not
more than 10% of the horizontal loads are attracted by the frame)
Reinforcement arrangement & Minimum Code Requirements
Functions of Lateral Reinforcement
Rules for the arrangement:
 Diameter of ties, 
t

t
> 6mm or 4

 C/C spacing s ( )
mm
ension lateral least b
bars al longitudin of diameter imum
ml
300
dim
) (min 12
 Pitch of spiral s 100mm
 Ties shall be arranged such that every bar or group of bars placed in a corner and
alternate longitudinal bar shall have lateral support provided by the corner of a tie
with an included angle of not more than 135
o
and no bar shall be farther than
150mm clear on each side along the tie from such a laterally supported bar.
Main or Longitudinal reinforcement
 Area of longitudinal reinforcement, A
s
.

l
s15
t
s 300mm
At center
Equal or less
than 150mm
May be greater than 150mm
No intermediate tie is required
At center
135
0
s
1
5

t
s
3
0
0
m
m

t

l
= longitudinal bars

t
= main ties
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RC II (CEng 3111) Chapter 1
5
0.008A
c
s A
s
s 0.08A
c
or 0.008 s 08 . 0 s
c
s
A
A
 Min. # of bars
=
. 6
tan 4
t arrangemen Circular in
t arrangemen gular rec in
 The diameter of longitudinal bars, . 12mm
l
> 
 The minimum lateral dimension of a column shall be at least 150mm
 The Min. cover to reinforcement should never be less than
(a) or mm or
n
), 40 (s  
(b) ( ) ( ) . 32 5 5 mm d if mm Or mm
g n
> + +  

n
=  , 55 mm n s n = no. of bars having the same diameter
d
g
the largest nominal maximum aggregate size.
Minimum reinforcements are provided:
Example 4.1. (Classification of columns)
The frame shown in figure below is composed of members with rectangular cross sections. All
members are constructed of the same strength concrete (E is the same for both beams and
columns). Considering bending in the plane of the frame only, classify column EF as long or
short if the frame is braced. All girders are 300 x 600 mm.
Solution:
Moments of inertia
Girders:
4 8
3
10 54
12
600 300
mm x
x
I
g
= =
Columns:
4 8
3
10 16
12
400 300
mm x
x
I
DE
= =
. 10 71875 . 10
12
350 300
4 8
3
mm x
x
I
EF
= =
F
E
I
H
G
E
D
C
B
A
M
2
= 45 KNm
M
1
= 30 KNm
7.5 m 9 m
3.80 m
3.80 m
400
600
600
350
300 x 400
300 x 350
525 KN
F
300
300
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RC II (CEng 3111) Chapter 1
6
Stiffness Coefficients:
( )( )
( )( )
= = =
= = =
=
. 10 2 . 7
7500
10 54
. 10 6
9000
10 54
:
5
8
5
8
E x
x E
K K
E x
x E
K K
L
EI
K Girders
FI EH
cF BE
g
g
g
Columns:
( )( )
( )( )( )
= =
= =
=
E x
x
E
K
E x
x
x E
K
L
EI
K
EF
DE
c
c
c
5
3
8
5
3
8
10 82 . 2
10 8 . 3
10 71875 . 10
10 21 . 4
10 8 . 3
10 16
The column being considered is column EF.
Rotational stiffnesses at joints E and F.
( )
( )
( )
( )
eff g f
col
eff g f
col
L I
L I
L EI
L EI
/
/
/
/
o o
o
E
E
=
E
E
=
Joint E: 53 . 0
10 2 . 7 10 6
10 82 . 2 10 21 . 4
5 5
5 5
=
+
+
=
+
+
=
x x
x x
K K
K K
EH BE
DE EF
E
o
Joint F: 21 . 0
10 2 . 7 10 6
10 82 . 2
5 5
5
=
+
=
+
=
x x
x
K K
K
FI CF
EF
F
o
37 . 0
2
21 . 0 53 . 0
2
=
+
=
+
=
F E
m
o o
o
For a braced column (Non sway structure ) for design
7 . 0 66 . 0
8 . 0 37 . 0
4 . 0 37 . 0
8 . 0
4 . 0
> =
+
+
=
+
+
=
m
m e
L
L
o
o
L
e
= (0.7) (3.8) = 2.66m = 2660mm
The slenderness ratio:
( ) ( ) 350 300 10 71875 . 10
2660
8
x x
A I
L
I
L
e e
= = =
.
! 66 . 66
45
30
25 50
. 327 . 26
short is colum The
ok
= 
.

\

s
=
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RC II (CEng 3111) Chapter 1
7
Design of short Columns subjected to Axial compression
The ultimate capacity of an axially loaded short column can be determined by
P
du
= f
cd
(A
g
 A
s
) + f
yd
A
st
, = f
cd
A
g
(1 ) + A
g
f
yd
Where, =
g
st
A
A
or A
st =
A
g
P
du
= A
g
[
f
cd
(1 ) + f
yd
]
A
g
= Gross concrete area; A
st
= Area of main reinforcement
A column may be classified as long when the slenderness factor is defined as
; 12 =
b
L
e
For long (Slender) columns a load reduction factor Cr is introduced in such a way that the
concrete concentric design axial load capacity can be given by
P
duc
= C
r
P
du
Where C
r
= 1.25 L
e
/48b
L
e
= Effective height; b = least lateral dimension
Example: A column resting on an independent footing supports a flat slab. The super imposed
factored load transferred from the slab is 1000 kN. Design the column assuming a gross steel
ratio of (a) 0.01 (b) 0.02. Use concrete C30, steel S300 and class I works. Assume column
height h = 4 m.
Solution: fcd = 13.6 MPa; fyd = 260.87 MPa
P
du
= A
g
[
f
cd
(1 ) + f
yd
]
(a) For = 0.01 and Pd = 1000 kN,
] ) 1 ( [
yd cd
d
g
f f
P
A
+
=
S
2
=
) 87 . 260 ( 01 . 0 ) 01 . 0 1 ( 6 . 13
10 * 1000
3
+
S = 249 mm
Use 250 mm 250 mm cross section
A
st =
A
g
= 0.01 (250)
2
= 625 mm
2
Use 4 numbers of 16 mm dia rods; A
st
provided = 804 mm
2
Ties: d 6 mm (or) S 12* dia of main bar = 192 mm
Dia of main bar/4 = 16/4 = 4 mm Least lateral dimension = 250 mm
300 mm
Therefore, use 6 mm dia rods at 190 mm center to center
(b) For = 0.02 and Pd = 1000 kN,
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RC II (CEng 3111) Chapter 1
8
] ) 1 ( [
yd cd
d
g
f f
P
A
+
=
S
2
=
) 87 . 260 ( 02 . 0 ) 02 . 0 1 ( 6 . 13
10 * 1000
3
+
S = 232 mm
Use 240 mm 240 mm cross section
A
st =
A
g
= 0.02 (240)
2
= 1125 mm
2
Use 4 numbers of 20 mm dia rods; A
st
provided = 1256 mm
2
Ties: d 6 mm (or) S 12* dia of main bar = 240 mm
Dia of main bar/4 = 20/4 = 5 mm Least lateral dimension = 240 mm
300 mm
Therefore, use 6 mm dia rods at 240 mm center to center
Design of Columns with moments (eccentrically Loaded Columns)
When a member is subjected to combined axial load and bending moment it is more convenient
to replace the axial load and moment with an equivalent load applied at an eccentricity e.
I nteraction diagram: It is a plot of axial load capacity of a column against the bending moment
it sustains. To illustrate conceptually the interaction between axial load and moment in a
column, an idealized, homogeneous and linearly elastic column with compressive strength f
cu
equal to its tensile strength f
tu
is considered. This type of column fails in compression when
max
= f
cu.
;
cu
f
I
My
A
P
= + or 1 = +
I f
My
A f
P
cu cu
(1)
But P
max
= f
cu
A & M
max
=
y
I f
cu
Equation (1) becomes, 1
max max
= +
M
M
P
P
; This equation is called interaction equation.
P
d
M
d
e
P
d
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RC II (CEng 3111) Chapter 1
9
It shows the interaction of (or) relationship between P and M at failure.
Reinforced concrete is not elastic, and it has f
t
<< f
c
. Tensile strength, of course, is developed by
rebars, on the tensile zone of the member. Therefore, calculation of interaction in concrete
member is complicated. However the general shape of the diagram resembles the figure given
below.
 Any combination of loading with in the curve is a safe loading
 Any combination of loading outside the curve represents a failure combination
 All combinations of Pu and Mu between points A and C will cause the concrete to fail in
compression before the tension rebars yield.
 All combinations of Pu and Mu between points C and F will result in tensile yielding
before the concrete fails in compression.
Design specifications from EBCS 2, 1995
Section 4.4.10: Design of isolated columns
Total eccentricity
Moment
Axial load
Pure compression
Balanced failure point
M
b
P
b
Interaction curve
Compression failure
Tensile failure
A
C
F
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RC II (CEng 3111) Chapter 1
10
Where e
e
=equivalent constant firstorder eccentricity of the design axial load.
e
a
=
additional eccentricity in account of geometric imperfections.
e
a
= mm
L
e
20
300
>
e
e
= e
o,
for e
o
equal at both ends of a column
For first order moments varying linearly along the length, the equivalent eccentricity is the higher
of the following two values.
{
e
o1
and eo
2
are first order eccentricities at the ends with e
o2
being positive and greater in
magnitude than eo
1
and eo1 is the smaller and positive for single curvature and negative for
double curvature.
e
2
= Secondorder eccentricity and is ignored if column is short.
For non sway frames, e
2 =
( )
10
1
2
1
r L K
e
. 35 0 . 1
35 15 75 . 0
20
1
1
> =
s s =
f or K
f or K
3
2
10
5
sec
1

.

\

=
=
d
K
tion critical the at Curvature
r
Where d = the Column dimension in the buckling plane less the cover to the center of the
longitudinal reinforcement.
K
2
=
bal
sd
bal
sd
M
M
=
M
sd
= design moment at the critical section including secondorder effects.
M
bal
= balanced moment capacity of the column.
Design of columns for uniaxial bending
A column is said to be bending uniaxially if it is loaded with a bending moment only in one
direction, in addition to axial force. For the design of such a column interaction charts are
prepared using nondimensional parameters, and , in which,
bh f
N
cd
sd
= v and
2
bh f
M
cd
sd
=
A chart showing the interaction diagrams are prepared (and compiled in EBCS 2  part 2) for
different values of d' and h as given in the sample chart. A
s
can be calculated by the formula,
yd
cd c
s
f
f A
A
e
=
In using these charts for design, the following procedure may be adopted.
Given: axial load and bending moment, (BM = axial load total eccentricity)
* Assume the cross section dimensions b and h.
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RC II (CEng 3111) Chapter 1
11
* Assume d' and evaluate d'/h to choose appropriate chart number
* Calculate and ,
* The coordinate (, ) gives the value of from the appropriate chart chosen
* Determine
yd
cd c
s
f
f A
A
e
=
Sample design chart
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RC II (CEng 3111) Chapter 1
12
Example 1
Design a slender braced (nonsway) column subjected to uniaxail bending.
Given:  factored load=1650KN
factored 1
st
order equivalent constant
Moment=130KNm
Geometric length: L=7m and Le=0.7L
Material data; C30, S460 class I work
Assume Column size
b = 400mm; h = 400mm;
Required:  quantity of reinforcement.
Solution
Assume cover = 20mm;
long
= 20mm and
lat
. = 10mm
400
40 '
=
h
d
= 0.1 and d = 40040 = 360mm
e
a
>=
300
e
L
=
300
7000 * 7 . 0
= 16.33 or 20mm
Therefore; e
a
=20mm
Check for second order effect
 =
A
I
L
e
=
12
400
4900
2
= 42.4

max
= 5025(
2
1
M
M
) ; here first order moment is constant throughout the column.
Therefore;
max
= 5025=25
As >
max,
second order effect has to be considered
M
sd
= e
tot
*N
sd
=(e
e
+e
a
) N
sd
=ee* N
sd
+ ea* N
sd
=first order moment + moment due to e
a
= 130+ (1650*0.02) =163kNm
For C30 concrete; f
ck
= 24; f
cd
=
s
ck
f
85 . 0
=
5 . 1
24 * 85 . 0
= 13.6MPa
f
yd
=
s
yk
f
=
15 . 1
460
= 400MPa
sd
=
cd c
sd
f A
N
=
6 . 13 * 400
10 * 1650
2
3
= 0.76
h f A
M
cd c
sd
sd
= =
400 * 6 . 13 * 400
10 * 163
2
6
=0.187
Using chart no 2; for
sd
= 0.76 and
sd
= 0.187; = 0.32;
bal
= 0.25
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RC II (CEng 3111) Chapter 1
13
K
2
=
bal
sd
=
25 . 0
187 . 0
= 0.75,
r
1
= K
2
(
d
5
) 10
3
= 0.75(
3
10 *
360
5
= 10.42*10
6
e
2 =
(
10
2
1
Le K
r
1
) here K
1
= 1 for > 35
= ) 10 * 42 . 10 (
10
) 4900 ( 1
6
2
= 25mm
e
tot
= e
e
+ e
a
+e
2
= mm 8 . 123 25 20
1650
10 * 130
3
= + +
M
sd
= 1650*
1000
8 . 123
= 204.3kNm ,
6 . 13 * 400
10 * 3 . 204
3
3
= = 0.236 implies =0.45
Recalculating k
2
,
bal
=0.3
k
2
=
3 . 0
235 . 0
= 0.78 ,
r
1
= 0.78(
3
10 * )
360
5
= 10.8*10
6
e
2
= 26mm
e
tot
= 124.8
M
sd
= 1650*
1000
8 . 124
= 205.09 kNm ,
h f A
M
cd c
sd
sd
= =
400 * 6 . 13 * 400
10 * 1 . 205
2
6
= 0.236
= 0.45
Interaction can be stopped.
400
6 . 13 * 400 * 45 . 0
2
=
st
A
= 2448mm
2
Use 8 number of 20mm diameter rods.
A
s
provided = 2512, compare the result with minimum and maximum code requirements
>0.008*400
2
=1280
<0.08*400
2
=12800 Hence ok
Lateral ties: > 6 or 20/4=5 Hence use 10 bar
s {
Use 10mm diameter bar @240mm c/c.
Example 2
A uniaxial column is to be constructed from a materials C30, S400 class I works. If the
diagram for 1
st
order end moment and axial force are as shown, determine the area of
reinforcement assuming nonsway frame system.(use b/h =300/400 and Le=0.75L, with
L=7.5m)
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___________________________________________________________________________
RC II (CEng 3111) Chapter 1
14
Soln: Assume d= 40mm;
h
d'
=
400
40
= 0.1 use uniaxail chart no2
e
e
> 0.6eo
2
+0.4eo
1
or 0.4eo
2
eo
2
= 1000 *
1280
155
=121.1mm
eo
1
= 1000 *
1280
82
=64.1mm
{
ea >
300
le
=
300
7500 * 75 . 0
=18.75mm or 20mm; use ea =20mm
Check for e
2
; =
12
400
7500 * 75 . 0
2
=48.7 ;
max
=5025(
155
82
)=63.2
<
max;
therefore; neglect second order eccentricity
e
tot
=eo
2
+ea =121.1+20=141.1mm
M
sd
= N
sd
*e
tot
=1280*
1000
1 . 141
=180.6kNm; fcd= 13.6 ; fyd=347.8
=
400 * 300 * 6 . 13
10 * 1280
3
=
bh f
N
cd
sd
=0.78 and =
2
6
2
400 * 300 * 6 . 13
10 * 61 . 180
=
bh f
M
cd
sd
=0.28
implis =0.6
A
s
=
yd
cd c
f
f A * * e
=
8 . 347
6 . 13 * 300 * 400 * 6 . 0
= 2815.4mm; use 822mm bar
As
pov
= 8*
4
* 22
2
t
=3041mm
2
< As
max
= 0.08*A
g
=9600mm
2
>As
min
=0.008A
g
=960mm
2
Lateral reinforcement
>6 or 22/4 Ss12* 22 =264 or 300
Use 6mm ties at 260mm spacing.
School of Civil & Urban Eng., IOTec. Hawassa University
___________________________________________________________________________
RC II (CEng 3111) Chapter 1
15
Design of columns for biaxial bending
A column may receive moments from beams and grade framing to it, in addition to the axial
loads. This situation of a biaxial loaded rectangular section is shown below with the
corresponding interaction curves.
Uniaxial loading about yy.
Uniaxil loading about XX
Biaxial loading about a diagonal axis xx where: r=arc tan
dy
dx
e
e
=arc tan
dx
M
Mdy
Threedimensional interaction diagram Interaction surface
 Any combination of P
dn
, M
dx
,and M
dy
lying inside the surface can be applied safety.
 Any point lying outside the surface would represent failure.
 Due to the mathematical complication arising from the construction of interaction surface,
in practice a simpler approximation methods are used of which the one developed by
Bresler is satisfactory.
School of Civil & Urban Eng., IOTec. Hawassa University
___________________________________________________________________________
RC II (CEng 3111) Chapter 1
16
It is given as reciprocal load equation.
do dny dnx dn
P P P P
1 1 1 1
+ = , which simplifies to
dny dnx dny dnx do
dny dnx do
dn
P P P P P
P P P
P
+
=
) (
Where: P
dn
is the desing axial load capacity when applid at e
dx
and e
dy
simultaneously.(biaxial bending ).
P
dnx
and P
dny
 design axial load capacity when e
dx
and e
dy
are only acting ( case of
uniaxal loading).
P
do
Design axial force capacity for concentric load case.
However, in EBCS 1995, interaction charts are prepared for this purpose and they can be easly
used for actual design where the following procedures need be followed.
 Given : P
d
; M
b
and M
h
 Assume a cross section and evaluate
h
h
b
b
' ,
=
 Calculate b , h, and
c cd
d
A f
N
= u ,
b A f
M
c cd
b
b
= and
b A f
M
c cd
h
h
=
 Select suitable chart, which nearly satisfy the calculated
h
h
b
b
' ,
= and
 Enter the chart for suitable value of ( 0.0,0.2,0.41.4)
Note:  > 1.4 shows very small concrete cross section
 For intermediate value of ,use interpolation
 Select corresponding to , b , h
 Compute As, tot
yd
cd
f
bhf e
=
 Check minimum and maximum requirements.
Example 1
Design a column to sustain a factored design axial load of 900KN and biaxial moments of
M
dx
=270KNM and M
dy
=180KNm including all other effects. Use C30, S300 class I works.
Soln: f
ck
= 24MPa ;f
cd
=13.6MPa; fyd=260.87MPa
Assume b*h = 400*600mm and
b
b'
= =
h
h'
=0.1, N
sd
= 900kN
M
h
=M
dx
=270kNm
M
b
=Mdy=180kNm
=
600 * 400 * 6 . 13
10 * 900
3
=0.28(between0.2 and0.4)
School of Civil & Urban Eng., IOTec. Hawassa University
___________________________________________________________________________
RC II (CEng 3111) Chapter 1
17
b A f
M
c cd
b
b
= =
2
6
400 * 600 * 6 . 13
10 * 180
=0.14 and
h A f
M
c cd
h
h
= =
2
6
600 * 400 * 6 . 13
10 * 270
=0.14
Using biaxial chart no 9 thus:
for u =0.2;
h
=0.14 ,
b
=0.14; =0.4
for u =0.4;
h
=0.14,
b
=0.14; =0.4
By interpolation for u =0.28; =0.4
A
s
=
yd
cd c
f
f A * * =
=
87 . 260
6 . 13 * 600 * 400 * 4 . 0
=5005mm2
< As
max
= 0.08*A
g
=19200mm2
>As
min
=0.008A
g
=1920mm2
use 830mm bar
Lateral reinforcement
>6 or 30/4 s
{
Use 8mm ties at 300mm spacing.
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