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Calibrating Images Tutorial In this tutorial, you will calibrate a QuickBird Level-1 image to spectral

Calibrating Images Tutorial

In this tutorial, you will calibrate a QuickBird Level-1 image to spectral radiance and reflectance while learning about the various metadata fields that ENVI uses to perform calibration.

Files Used in This Tutorial

The tutorial data files are available in a single ZIP file from the Exelis website. Extract this file to a local directory. Go to the folder named ENVI Orthorectification

Module\005606990010_01_P008_MUL.

Files

Description

005606990010_01_P008_

QuickBird Level-1 multispectral imagery for Phoenix, AZ from 11 July 2005

MUL\05JUL*.TIF

QuickBird files are courtesy of DigitalGlobe and may not be reproduced without explicit permission from DigitalGlobe.

Background

Calibrating imagery is a common pre-processing step for remote sensing analysts who need to extract data and create scientific products from images. Calibration attempts to compensate for radiometric errors from sensor defects, variations in scan angle, and system noise to produce an image that represents true spectral radiance at the sensor.

ENVI's Radiometric Calibration tool provides options to calibrate imagery to radiance, reflectance, or brightness temperatures. See the "Radiometric Calibration" topic in ENVI Help for more information on how each option is computed.

The available calibration options depend on what metadata is included with the imagery. Most vendors distribute a metadata file or ephemeris data along with the image data.

Note: It is important to select the correct metadata file (using the File > Open menu option) when opening data from various satellite sensors so that ENVI reads the required calibration parameters. Refer to the following table:

    Calibration Options   Sensor Radiance Reflectance Brightness Metadata File to Open
   

Calibration Options

 

Sensor

Radiance

Reflectance

Brightness

Metadata File to Open

Temperature

ALOS AVNIR-2

 

• •

 

HDR*.txt

and PRISM

Level-2B data

Disaster

 

• •

 

*.dim

Monitoring

Constellation

(DMC) DIMAP

EO-1 ALI

 

• •

 

Use the File > Open As > EO1 > HDF menu option and select a *_HDF.L1G file. A *_ MTL.L1G file must be in the same directory.

EO-1 Hyperion

 

• •

 

Use the File > Open As > EO1 > HDF menu option and select an .L1R file. Calibration metadata is hard-coded into the application and not read from any metadata files.

GeoEye-1

 

• •

 

*_metadata.xml

IKONOS

 

• •

 

metadata.txt

Landsat TM,

 

• •

*_MTL.txt, *WO.txt, or *.met

ETM+, and

Landsat Data

 

Continuity

Mission

OLI/TIRS data

OrbView-3

 

• •

 

Image file (.tif, .ntf)

Pleiades Primary or Ortho (single or mosaic)

 

• •

 

DIM*.xml

    Calibration Options   Sensor Radiance Reflectance Brightness Metadata File to Open
   

Calibration Options

 

Sensor

Radiance

Reflectance

Brightness

Metadata File to Open

Temperature

RapidEye Level-

 

*_metadata.xml

1B

(A NITF/NSIF

license is

required to

open these

files.)

SPOT DIMAP

 

METADATA.DIM

QuickBird

 

Image file (.tif, .ntf)

WorldView-1

 

Image file (.tif, .ntf)

and -2

To open QuickBird or WorldView data, select the image file. ENVI will read the necessary metadata from the accompanying *.IMD file.

Open a QuickBird Image and View Its Metadata

1. Start ENVI.

2. From the menu bar, select File > Open. A file selection dialog appears.

3. Navigate to the folder where you saved the tutorial data and select the file

05JUL11182931-M1BS-005606990010_01_P008.tif.

4. In the Layer Manager, right-click on the filename and select View Metadata.

5. Click the Spectral category on the left side of the Metadata Viewer. This shows
5. Click the Spectral category on the left side of the Metadata Viewer. This shows

5. Click the Spectral category on the left side of the Metadata Viewer. This shows several metadata fields related to calibration. ENVI needs gain and offset values in units of W/(m 2 * µm * sr) to calibrate imagery to radiance. You can see these values under the Gains and Offsets columns. The gains and offsets are already in the correct units in this image. If they are not in the correct units, you can use the Scale Factor field (discussed in the calibration steps below) to scale the calibrated image to the correct units.

below) to scale the calibrated image to the correct units. 6. Select the Image Parameters category.

6. Select the Image Parameters category. You can see the values for Sun Azimuth and Sun Elevation that were derived from the QuickBird metadata.

7. Select the Time category. The Acquisition Time for this scene is listed in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). The Sun Azimuth, Sun Elevation, and

Acquisition Time are used in combination with the various fields under the Spectral category when

Acquisition Time are used in combination with the various fields under the Spectral category when calibrating the image to reflectance.

8. Close the Metadata Viewer.

Calibrate the Image to Radiance

1. From the Toolbox, select Radiometric Correction > Radiometric Calibration. The Select Input File dialog appears, with the QuickBird file already selected.

2. Click OK. The Radiometric Calibration dialog appears.

3. Leave the default options as-is. You will create a floating-point radiance image (BSQ interleave) in units of W/(m 2 * µm * sr). Keeping the Scale Factor at 1.00 ensures the units will remain the same as the original gain and offset values.

4. The FLAASH Settings button is for users who will subsequently perform atmospheric correction using the FLAASH ® tool. You can skip this step for the tutorial, but here is some background information if you plan to use FLAASH in the future:

The use of FLAASH requires a separate "Atmospheric Correction Module: QUAC and FLAASH" license. FLAASH requires input imagery to meet the following criteria:

l

The image must be calibrated to radiance in units of µW/(cm 2 * nm* sr).

l

The input image can be floating-point, long integer (4-byte signed), or integer (2-byte signed or unsigned).

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The image can be in band-interleaved-by-line (BIL) or band-interleaved- by-pixel (BIP) format.

Clicking the FLAASH Settings button will create a radiance image in BIL, floating-point format. It will apply a scale factor of 0.1 to the radiance image to get it in units of µW/(cm 2 * nm* sr). Clicking this button prevents you from having to separately convert the interleave of the radiance image and figuring out the appropriate scale factor for use with FLAASH.

When you start FLAASH, select the radiance image that you just created with the Radiometric Calibration tool. When the Radiance Scale Factors dialog appears, leave the default value of 1 for the Single Scale Factor field.

5. Select an output folder for the radiance image, and name it qb_radiance.dat.

6. Ensure that the Display Result check box is selected.

7. Click OK. When processing is complete, the calibrated radiance image is displayed. 8. To

7.

Click OK. When processing is complete, the calibrated radiance image is displayed.

8.

To visually compare the original and calibrated images, toggle the qb_ radiance.dat layer off and on in the Layer Manager.

qb_ radiance.dat layer off and on in the Layer Manager. 9. With both layers selected in

9.

With both layers selected in the Layer Manager, click the Cursor Value icon in the main toolbar.

9. With both layers selected in the Layer Manager, click the Cursor Value icon in the

10.

In the Cursor Value dialog, look for the "Data" values for each image. The original image has integer pixel values, while the calibrated image has floating- point values. The following figure shows an example where the calibrated image is displayed in true color:

l

Band 3 is assigned to the red channel

l

Band 2 is assigned to the green channel

l

Band 1 is assigned to the blue channel

For the current pixel location, the calibrated image has a radiance value of

2

126.556503 W/(m * µm * sr) in the red band, while the original image has a

raw DN value of 709 in the red band.

11. Close the Cursor Value dialog. Another way to quickly verify the radiance values is
11. Close the Cursor Value dialog. Another way to quickly verify the radiance values is

11. Close the Cursor Value dialog.

Another way to quickly verify the radiance values is to display a spectral profile:

1. Uncheck the original QuickBird image (05JUL*) in the Layer Manager so that only the calibrated image is displayed.

2. Select Display > Spectral Profile from the main toolbar.

3. Click anywhere inside the image to display a plot of radiance values for the selected pixel location. You can use a spectral profile to help identify features of interest:

The following example shows a pixel that represents soil. The radiance values peak in the red wavelength region (~ 650 nm).

The next example shows a pixel that represents water. The radiance values peak in the
The next example shows a pixel that represents water. The radiance values peak in the

The next example shows a pixel that represents water. The radiance values peak in the blue wavelength region (~ 485 nm).

Page 9 of 12 Calibrating Images Tutorial © 2013Exelis Visual Information Solutions, Inc. All Rights
Page 9 of 12 Calibrating Images Tutorial © 2013Exelis Visual Information Solutions, Inc. All Rights
The next example shows a pixel that represents vegetation. The radiance values peak in the

The next example shows a pixel that represents vegetation. The radiance values peak in the near-infrared wavelength region (~ 900 nm).

peak in the near-infrared wavelength region (~ 900 nm). 5. When you are finished, close the

5. When you are finished, close the Spectral Profile dialog.

6. Right-click on each layer name in the Layer Manager, and select Remove.

Calibrate the Image to Reflectance

Next, you will calibrate the QuickBird image to top-of-atmosphere reflectance. This image has all the metadata needed to calibrate to reflectance:

l

Gains

l

Offsets

l

Solar irradiance

l

Solar elevation

l

Acquisition time

Follow these steps:

1. From the Toolbox, select Radiometric Correction > Radiometric Calibration . 2. In the Select

1.

From the Toolbox, select Radiometric Correction > Radiometric Calibration.

2.

In the Select Input File dialog, select the original QuickBird image (05JUL*), then click OK.

3.

In the Radiometric Calibration dialog, change the Calibration Type to Reflectance.

4.

Leave the other options as-is.

5.

Select an output folder for the reflectance image, and name it qb_ reflectance.dat.

6.

Ensure that the Display Result check box is selected.

7.

Click OK. When processing is complete, the reflectance image is displayed.

8.

Click the Cursor Value icon in the main toolbar.

Click the Cursor Value icon in the main toolbar.

9.

Look at the "Data" values for each band in the Cursor Value dialog and verify that the values are less than 1.0.

10.

Select Display > Spectral Profile from the main toolbar.

11.

Click anywhere inside the image to display a plot of reflectance values for the current pixel location. The following figure shows an example of a pixel that represents water. Reflectance values range from 0.04 to 0.09 across all four bands, with the lowest value (0.04) in the near-infrared wavelength region:

12. When you are finished, exit ENVI. For more information on the topics covered in
12. When you are finished, exit ENVI. For more information on the topics covered in

12. When you are finished, exit ENVI.

For more information on the topics covered in this tutorial, see the "Radiometric

topics covered in this tutorial, see the "Radiometric Calibration" topic in ENVI Help, or click the

Calibration" topic in ENVI Help, or click the help button in the Radiometric Calibration tool.