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MITIGATION OF SUB SYNCHRONOUS RESONANCE BY STATIC


COMPENSATOR
Project Report Submitted
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
for the Degree of
Bachelor of Technology
in
Electrical & Electronics Engineering
by
Aditya Prakash Saras (1001021901)
Ram Kumari (0901021080)
Salehin Bharti (1001021903)
Sayeeda Anjum (0901021099)
Under the Supervision of
Mr.Vinod Vishwakarma
Lecturer
Department of Electrical Engineering

United College of Engineering & Research Naini Allahabad (Code 010)

Gautam Buddh Technical University Lucknow
ii

CERTIFICATE

Certified that work presented in this Report entitled Mitigation of Sub Synchronous
Resonanace By Static Compensator for the award of Bachelor of Technology from
Gautam Buddh Technical University, Lucknow, embodies results of original work, and
studies are carried out by us and the contents of the thesis do not form the basis for the
award of any other degree to the candidate or to anybody else from this or any other
University/Institution.

Aditya Prakash Saras
Roll No-1001021901

Ram Kumari
Roll No-0901021080
Name & Signature of Guide
Salehin Bharti Mr. Vinod Vishwakarma
Roll No-1001021903

Sayeeda Anjum
Roll No-0901021099


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ABSTRACT

The aim of development of this project is towards the mitigation of sub synchronous
resonance existing in power system by using STATCOM. Series compensation in long
transmission lines is a drastic solution to enhance power transfer capacity of powersystem
networks. However, usage of series capacitors may cause subsynchronous resonance (SSR)
between electrical and mechanical systems. This phenomenon may damage turbine
generator shaft. static compensator (STATCOM) is one of the important Flexible ac
transmission systems (FACTS) devices which uses to control power factor , to regulate
voltage, to stabilize power flow and to improve the dynamic performance of power
system, moreover, it is able to provide efficient solution to damp the SSR , but it is
essential to add an auxiliary controller to the STATCOM for the purpose of mitigating
the SSR.
























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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
This is to place on record my appreciation and deep gratitude to the persons without whose
support this project would never seen the light of day.
I have immense pleasure in expressing my thanks and deep sense of gratitude to my guide
MR.VINOD VISHWAKARMA, LECTURER, UCER, ALLAHABAD for his guidance
throughout this project.
I also express my sincere thanks to MR. ABDUL ZEESHAN, Head of the Department for
extending his help.
Finally I express my sincere gratitude to all the members of faculty and my friends who
contributed their valuable advice and helped to complete the project successfully.




ADITYA PRAKASH SARAS
RAM KUMARI
SALEHIN BHARTI
SAYEEDA ANJUM

















v

TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page No
Certificate i
Acknowledgement ii
Abstract iii
List of Tables iv
List of Figures v
Abbreviation Used vi
CHAPTER 1
1.1 Introduction 1
CHAPTER 2
2.1 SSR Phenomenon 2-3
2.2 Causes of SSR 3-4
2.3 Compensation Techniques 4-7
2.3.1 Shunt Compensation 5-6
2.3.2 Series Compensation 6-7

CHAPTER 3
3.1 Types of SSR 8-10
3.1.1 Induction Generator Effect 8-9
3.1.2 Torsional Interaction Effect 9
3.1.3 Transient Torque Effect 9-10


CHAPTER 4
4.1 Analytical Tools 11-15
vi

4.1.1 Frequency Scanning 11-13
4.1.2 Eigen Value Analysis 13-15
4.1.3 EMTP Analysis 15

CHAPTER 5
5.1 Mathematical Analysis Of The Shaft System Model 16-20

CHAPTER 6
6.1 Mitigation Of SSR 21
6.2 Facts Controllers 21-22
6.2.1 Objectives Of Facts 22
6.2.2 Advantages Of Facts 22
6.3 STATCOM 22-26
6.3.1 Components Of STATCOM 23-24
6.3.2 Operating Principle Of STATCOM 25-26
6.3.3 Advantages 26
6.3.4 Applications 26
CHAPTER7
7.1 MATLAB Model And Results 27-31



1

LIST OF TABLES

Table 5.1 Data Of Six Mass Torsional Model 16



2

LIST OF FIGURES

Page no.

Figure 2.1 Series compensation in power system 2
Figure2.3.1(a) Power system without compensation 5
Figure2.3.1(b) Power system with shunt compensation 5
Figure2.3.2(a) Power system without compensation 6
Figure4.1.1 Frequency analysis 12
Figure5.1(a) Turbine shaft system model 16
Figure5.1(b) Torsional natural frequencies and mode shapes of a
600 MVA, 3600 rpm turbine generator with a rotating
Shaft exciter 20
Figure6.3.2 Block diagram of STATCOM 25
Figure7.1(a) Shaft Model without STACOM 27
Figure7.1(b) Result showing without STATCOM 28
Figure7.1(c) Shaft model with STATCOM 29
Figure7.1(d) Result showing with STATCOM 30


























3

ABBREVIATIONS

1. DC : Direct Current
2. AC: Alternate Current
3. SSR: Sub Synchronous Resonance
4.IEEE: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
5. MMF: Magnetomotive Force
6. EMTP: ElectroMagnetic Transients Program
7.VSC: Voltage source converter
8.VSI: Voltage source inverter
9.IGBT: Insulated gate bipolar traansistor
10.FACTS: Flexible ac transmisson system
11.GTO: Gate Turn Off
12.SVC: Static variable compensator
























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CHAPTER 1

1. INTRODUCTION

The development of high performance motor drives is very important in industrial as well
as other purpose applications. Generally, a high performance motor drive system must
have good dynamic speed command tracking and load regulating response. The dc motors
are used in various applications such as defense, industries, Robotics etc. DC drives,
because of their simplicity, ease of application, reliability and favourable cost have long
been a backbone of industrial applications. DC drives are less complex with a single power
conversion from AC to DC. DC drives are normally less expensive for most horsepower
ratings. DC motors have a long tradition of use as adjustable speed machines and a wide
range of options have evolved for this purpose. In these applications, the motor should be
precisely controlled to give the desired performance. Many varieties of control schemes
such as P, proportional integral (PI), PID, adaptive, and FLCs, have been developed for
speed control of dc motors. The proposed controller systems consist of PID controller and
DC drive for the speed control.
1.1 DC MOTOR WORKING PRINCIPLE
The principle of operation of a d.c. motor is that whenever a current-carrying conductor is
placed within a magnetic field, a force acts on that conductor which is perpendicular to that
field -in other words, the force acts to push the conductor out of the field. If a pivoted loop
of wire is placed within the same magnetic field, the forces on opposite sides of that loop
act in opposite directions to each other, and a torque is applied to that loop. If the relative
directions of current and field are maintained, then the loop will continue to rotate -this is
done through the use of a split-ring commutator, a type of rotary switch, which also acts to
supply the rotating loop from a fixed external circuit.
The principle of operation of dc motors can be understand with the help of the diagram as
shown below-

5



Figure 1.1 Operation of DC Moto

1.2 DC MOTOR CLASSIFICATION

DC Machines can be classified according to the electrical connections of the armature
winding and the field windings. The different ways in which these windings are connected
lead to machines operating with different characteristics. The field winding can be either
self-excited or separately-excited, that is, the terminals of the winding can be connected
across the input voltage terminals or fed from a separate voltage source . Further, in self-
excited motors, the field winding can be connected either in series or in parallel with the
armature winding. These different types of connections give rise to very different types of
machines, as we will study in this section.

1.2.1 SEPARATELY EXCITED MACHINES

i. The armature and field winding are electrically separate from each other.
ii. The field winding is excited by a separate DC source.


Figure1.2 Separately excited DC Motor


The voltage and power equations for this machine are same as those derived in the
previous section.
Note that the total input power = Vf If + Va Ia

1.2.2 SELF EXCITED MACHINES
6

In these machines, instead of a separate voltage source, the field winding is connected
across the main voltage terminals.

1.2.2.1 SHUNT MACHINE
i. The armature and field winding are connected in parallel.
ii. The armature voltage and field voltage are the same.


Figure1.3 Shunt DC Motor

Notice that in this type of motor,
Total current drawn from the supply, IL = If + Ia
Total input power = VT IL

1.2.2.2 SERIES DC MACHINE

i. The field winding and armature winding are connected in series.
ii. The field winding carries the same current as the armature winding.

A series wound motor is also called a universal motor. It is universal in the sense that it
will run equally well using either an ac or a dc voltage source. Reversing the polarity of
both the stator and the rotor cancel out. Thus the motor will always rotate the same
direction irregardless of the voltage polarity.

Figure 1.4 Series DC Motor
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1.2.2.3 COMPOUND 3 DC MACHINE

If both series and shunt field windings are used, the motor is said to be compounded. In a
compound machine, the series field winding is connected in series with the armature, and
the shunt field winding is connected in parallel. Two types of arrangements are possible in
compound motors:

Cumulative compounding - If the magnetic fluxes produced by both series and shunt field
windings are in the same direction (i.e., additive), the machine is called cumulative
compound.

Differential compounding - If the two fluxes are in opposition, the machine is differential
compound.

In both these types, the connection can be either short shunt or long shunt.


1.3 MANY PRACTICAL CONTROL ISSUES (MOTOR CONTROL
PROBLEMS):

1. Variable and unpredictable inputs
2. Noise propagation along a series of unit processes
3. Unknown parameters
4. Changes in load dynamics
Major problems in applying a conventional control algorithm in a speed controller are the
effects of non-linearity in a DC motor. The non-linear characteristics of a DC motor such
as saturation and friction could degrade the performance of conventional controllers. Many
advance model-based control methods such as variable-structure control and model
reference adoptive control have been developed to reduce these effects. However, the
performance of these methods depends on the accuracy of system models and parameters.
Generally, an accurate non-linear model of an actual DC motor is difficult to find, and
parameter values obtained from system identification may be only approximate values.

1.4 SPEED CONTROL TECHNIQUES IN SEPARATELY EXCITED
DC MOTOR:
The speed of a motor is given by the relation

Where Ra is the armature resistance
V is the applied voltage
K=(60A)/(ZP)
is the flux
8

Hence the speed can be controlled by varying
(i) Flux/pole, (Flux Control)
(ii) Resistance Ra of armature circuit (Rheostatic Control) and
(iii) Applied voltage V (Voltage Control).


1.5 SPEED CONTROL OF SHUNT MOTOR:

1.5.1 VARIATION OF FLUX OR FLUX CONTROL METHOD:

By decreasing the flux, the speed can be increased and vice versa. The flux of a dc motor
can be changed by changing Ish with help of a shunt field rheostat. Since Ish is relatively
small, shunt field rheostat has to carry only a small current, which means I2shR loss is
small, so that rheostat is small in size.


Figure 1.5 Flux Control Method

1.5.2 ARMATURE OR RHEOSTATIC CONTROL METHOD:
This method is used when speeds below the no-load speed are required. As the supply
voltage is normally constant, the voltage across the armature is varied by inserting a
variable rheostat in series with the armature circuit. As controller resistance is increased,
voltage across the armature is decreased, thereby decreasing the armature speed. For a load
constant torque, speed is approximately proportional to the voltage across the armature.
9

From the speed/armature current characteristic, it is seen that greater the resistance in the
armature circuit, greater is the fall in the speed.
Figure 1.6 Armature Control Method

1.5.3 VOLTAGE CONTROL METHOD:
1.5.3.1 MULTIPLE VOLTAGE CONTROL:

In this method, the shunt field of the motor is connected permanently to a fixed exciting
voltage, but the armature is supplied with different voltages by connecting it across one of
the several different voltages by means of suitable switchgear. The armature speed will be
approximately proportional to these different voltages. The intermediate speeds can be
obtained by adjusting the shunt field regulator.
1.5.3.2. WARD-LEONARD SYSTEM:
This system is used where an unusually wide and very sensitive speed control is required
as for colliery winders, electric excavators, elevators and the main drives in steel mills and
blooming and paper mills. M1 is the main motor whose speed control is required. The field
of this motor is permanently connected across the dc supply lines. By applying a variable
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voltage across its armature, any desired speed can be obtained. This variable voltage is
supplied by a motor-generator set which consists of either a dc or an ac motor M2 directly
coupled to generator G. The motor M2 runs at an approximately constant speed. The
output voltage of G is directly fed to the main motor M1. The voltage of the generator can
be varied from zero up to its maximum value by means of its field regulator. By reversing
the direction of the field current of G by means of the reversing switch RS, generated
voltage can be reversed and hence the direction of rotation of M1. It should be remembered
that motor generator set always runs in the same direction.


Figure 1.7 Ward Leonard System









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CHAPTER 2
2. SEPARATELY EXCITED DC MOTOR


Figure 2.1 Separately Excited DC Motor
i. The field windings are used to excite the field flux.
ii. Armature current is supplied to the rotor via brush and commutator for the
mechanical work.

2.1 OPERATION:

i. When a separately excited motor is excited by a field current of If and an armature
current of Ia flows in the circuit, the motor develops a back emf and a torque to balance the
load torque at a particular speed.
ii. The If is independent of the Ia .Each windings are supplied separately. Any change in
the armature current has no effect on the field current.
iii. The If is normally much less than the Ia.



2.2 FIELD AND ARMATURE EQUATIONS:

When an input voltage is applied to the field windings, the equation that relates the field
voltage (V
f
) and the field current (I
f
) is as follows:

12

V
f
= R
f
*I
f
+ L
f
(dI
f
/dt)

Where R
f
is the field resistance and L
f
is the field inductance
The input field voltage and input field current control the speed, induced electromotive
force (E
a
), terminal voltage (V
t
), and armature current (I
a
). The rotor consists of the
armature windings. When an input voltage is applied to the field terminals of a DC motor,
the terminal voltage (V
t
) and the armature current (I
a
) is related through the following
equation:

V
t
= I
a
*R
a
+ E
a
+ L
a
(dI
a
/dt)

R
a
is the armature resistance
L
a
is the armature inductance


2.3 BASIC TORQUE EQUATION:

Once the field and terminal voltages are found, the speed of the rotor can be found. Using
the voltage constant (K
e
), the speed of the rotor () is dictated by the equation:

T
e
= J*d/dt+B+T
L

T
e
= K
e
*If*I
a


T
e
is the electrical torque
T
L
is the load torque
J is the moment of inertia
A magnetic field is created by the field windings; when the armature rotates in this
magnetic field, a voltage is induced in the armature winding. This voltage is referred to as
the back emf (E
a
). It can be found by the following equation:

E
a
= K
e
* I
f
*

Using all four equations, the separately excited DC motor can be controlled directly by
applied armature voltage, armature current, and field current.

2.4 STEADY STATE OPERATION:

Figure 2.2 separately excited DC motor in steady state

Under study state operation, time derivative is zero. Assuming the motor is not saturated.
13

For field circuit,

V
f
=I*R
The back emf is given by:

I. E
g
=Kv I
f

The armature circuit,

V
a
= I R +E
g
= I R +KI


2.4.1 STEADY-STATE TORQUE AND SPEED:

The motor speed can be easily derived. If Ra is a small value (which is usual), or when the
motor is lightly loaded, i.e. Ia is small, that is if the field current is kept constant, the motor
speed depends only on the supply voltage.
The developed torque is:

T
e
= K
e
*I
f
*I
a
= B**T
L


The required power is:
P
e
= T
e
*
2.4.2 TORQUE AND SPEED CONTROL:

From the derivation, several important facts can be deduced for steady-state operation of
DC motor.
i. For a fixed field current or flux (), the torque demand can be satisfied by varying
the armature current (I
a
).
ii. The motor speed can be varied by:
1. Controlling V
a
(voltage control)
2. Controlling V
f
(field control)
These observations lead to the application of variable DC voltage for controlling
the speed and torque of DC motor.

2.5 VARIABLE SPEED OPERATION:

Figure 2.3 Torque vs Speed Characteristic for Different Armature Voltages
14

Family of steady-state torque speed curves for a range of armature voltage can be drawn as
above.
i. The speed of DC motor can simply be set by applying the correct voltage.
ii. Note that speed variation from no-load to full load (rated) can be quite small. It depends
on the armature resistance.

2.6 BASE SPEED AND FIELD WEAKENING:

Figure 2.4 Torque vs Speed and Power vs Speed Characteristic of Separately Excited DC
Motor
BASE SPEED (
base
):
The speed which corresponds to the rated V
a
, rated I
a
and rated I
f
.

CONSTANT TORQUE REGION (>
base
):
I
a
and I
f
are maintained constant to meet torque demand. V
a
is varied to control the speed.
Power increases with speed.

CONSTANT TORQUE REGION (<
base
):
V
a
is maintained at the rated value and I
f
is reduced to increase speed. However, the power
developed by the motor (= torque x speed) remains constant.
This phenomenon is called field weakening.









15



CHAPTER 3
3.1 CONTROL THEORY
Control theory is an interdisciplinary branch of engineering and mathematics that deals
with the behavior of dynamical systems. The desired output of a system is called the
reference. When one or more output variables of a system need to follow a certain
reference over time, a controller manipulates the inputs to a system to obtain the desired
effect on the output of the system


Figure 3.1 Feedback Loop to Control the Dynamic Behavior of the Reference

Concept Feedback Loop to Control the Dynamic Behavior of the Reference of the
Feedback Loop to Control the Dynamic Behavior of the Reference If we consider an
automobile cruise control, it is design to maintain the speed of the vehicle at a constant
speed set by the driver. In this case the system is the vehicle. The vehicle speed is the
output and the control is the vehicle throttle which influences the engine torque output.
One way to implement cruise control is by locking the throttle at the desired speed but
when encounter a hill the vehicle will slow down going up and accelerate going down. In
fact, any parameter different than what was assumed at design time will translate into a
proportional error in the output velocity, including exact mass of the vehicle, wind
resistance, and tire pressure. This type of controller is called an open-loop controller
because there is no direct connection between the output of the system (the engine torque)
and the actual conditions encountered; that is to say, the system does not and cannot
compensate for unexpected forces. For a closed-loop control system, a sensor will monitor
the vehicle speed and feedback the data to its computer and continuously adjusting its
control input or the throttle as needed to ensure the control error to a minimum therefore
maintaining the desired speed of the vehicle. Feedback on how the system is actually
performing allows the controller (vehicle's on board computer) to dynamically compensate
for disturbances to the system, such as changes in slope of the ground or wind speed.An
ideal feedback control system cancels out all errors, effectively mitigating the effects of
any forces that may or may not arise during operation and producing a response in the
system that perfectly matches the user's wishes

3.2 CLOSED LOOP TRANSFER FUNCTION

The output of the system y(t) is fed back through a sensor measurement F to the reference
value r(t). The controller C then takes the error e (difference) between the reference and the
output to change the inputs u to the system under control P. This is shown in the figure.
16

This kind of controller is a closed-loop controller or feedback controller. This is called a
single-input-single-output (SISO) control system; MIMO (i.e. Multi-Input-Multi-Output)
systems, with more than one
input/output, are common. In such cases variables are represented through vectors instead
of simple scalar values. For some distributed parameter systems the vectors may be
infinite-dimensional (typically functions).



Figure 3.2 Closed-loop controller or feedback controller

If we assume the controller C, the plant P, and the sensor F are linear and time invariant
(i.e.: elements of their transfer function C(s), P(s), and F(s) do not depend on time), the
systems above can be analyzed using the Laplace transform on the variables. This gives the
following relations:





Solving for Y(s) in terms of R(s) gives:




The expression



is referred to as the closed-loop transfer function of the system. The numerator is the
forward (openloop) gain from r to y, and the denominator is one plus the gain in going
around the feedback loop, the so-called loop gain. If , i.e. it has a large
norm with each value of s, and if , then Y(s) is approximately equal to R(s).
This means simply setting the reference controls the output.

3.3 OPEN LOOP VS CLOSED LOOP CONTROL
17

An open-loop controller, also called a non-feedback controller, is a type of controller
which computes its input into a system using only the current state and its model of the
system. The controller does not receive a feedback signal from the process and it only has a
set-point and a fixed output signal. The output signal does not change regardless of the
system conditions and disturbances. Consequently, an open-loop system cannot engage in
machine learning and also cannot correct any error that it produces. It also may not
compensate for disturbances in the system.For example, an irrigation sprinkler system
programmed to turn on at fixed times is an example of an open loop system if it does not
measure soil moisture as a form of feedback. Even though it is raining, the sprinkler system
would still activate on schedule. An open-loop controller is often used in simple processes
because of its simplicity and low-cost, particularly in systems where feedback is not
critical. A typical example would be a conventional dryer, for which the length of machine
drying time is entirely based on the judgment and estimation of the human operator. To
obtain a more accurate or more adaptive control, it is necessary to feed the output of the
system back to the controller. This type of system is called a closed-loop system. In a
closed-loop system, also called a feedback system, the controller has a feedback signal
from the process. The controller has a set-point, a feedback input signal, and a varying
output signal. The output signal increases or decreases proportionally to the error of the
set-point compared to the input signal. The input signal varies proportionally to the system
disturbances and the gain of the measurement sensor. An example of a closed loop system
would be an automobile cruise control. When the car goes up a hill, the car will power up
to maintain the set-point speed set by the driver, the steeper the hill the more power will be
applied. The increase in slope is a system disturbance, but there can be more than one
disturbance on a system. A stronger head wind would add to the error of an increasing
slope, requiring the car even more power to keep up with the set-point













18



CHAPTER 4

4.1 HISTORY OF PID CONTROLLER:
The original technology for industrial PID (proportional, integral, and derivative)
controller was pneumatic, hydraulic, or mechanical and the controller usually had a simple
interface for manual tuning of the controller. The first theoretical analysis of PID controller
can be dated back to 1922 when Russian American engineer Nicolas Minorsky developed
an automatic ship steering system for the US Navy, based on observing the steersman
steering the ship using current error, past error, and rate of change. Later, controllers with
electric al systems were developed after World War II. PID control is used to control and
maintain processes. It can be used to control physical variables such as temperature,
pressure, flow rate, and tank level. The technique is widely used in todays process
industry to achieve accurate control under different process conditions. PID is simply an
equation that the controller uses to evaluate the controlled variables. A controlled variable
temperature, for example, is measured and feedback to the controller. The controller then
compares the feedback to the set-point and generates an error value. The value is examined
with one or more of the three proportional, integral, and derivative methodology. As a
result, the controller issues the necessary commands or alters process inputs to correct the
error. These procedures form an iterative process. Below is a common control loop
application.
4.2 THEORY:


Figure 4.1 PID controller block diagram
PID controllers typically use control loop feedback in industrial and control systems
applications. The controller first computes a value of error as the difference between a
19

measured process variable and preferred set-point. It then tries to minimize the error by
increasing or decreasing the control inputs to the process, so that process variable moves
closer to the set point. This method is most useful when a mathematical model of the
process or control is too complicated or unknown. To increase performance, for example to
increase the responsiveness of the system, PID parameters must be adjusted according to
the specific application.
The following figure is a typical step response curve after a controller responded to a set
point change. The curve rises from 10% to 90% of final steady state value within a period
known as the rise time. The curve rises from 0% to 63.2% of peak value within a period
known as the step response time. The rise time is equal to step response time minus the
dead time.

Figure 4.2 Step Response of Controller
One of the advantages of PID is that for many processes there are straightforward
correlations between the process responses and the use and tuning of the three terms (P, I,
and D) in the controller. There are two steps in designing a PID system. First, engineer
must choose the structure of the PID controller, for example P, PI, or PID. Second,
numerical values for the PID parameters must be chosen in order to tune the controller.
These three parameters for the PID algorithm are the proportional, integral, and derivative
constants. The proportional constant decides the reaction based on the current error, the
integral constant determines the reaction according to the total of recent errors, and the
derivative constant determines the reaction using the rate at which the errors have been
changing. These three actions are then used to adjust the process through control element
such as the position of a valve. In simple terms, P depends on the current error, I depends
20

on the sum of past errors, and D predicts future errors based on current rate of change of
errors

4.2.1. PROPORTIONAL CONTROL:
The proportional part of PID examines the magnitude of the error and it reacts
proportionally. A large error receives a large response. For example, if there is a large
temperature error, the fuel valve would be opened a lot. On the other hand, a small error
receives a small response. In mathematical term, the proportional term (Pout) is expressed
as:

P
out
= K
p
*e

Where:
P
out
: Proportional portion of controller output
K
p
: Proportional gain
e : Error signal,
e = Set-point Process Variable

The following figure illustrates a proportional control and shows that there is always a
steady state error in proportional control. The error will decrease with increasing gain, but
the tendency towards oscillation will also increase.


Figure 4.3 Proportional Controller
You may see that there are issues with proportional control only. One of them is that
proportional control cannot compensate very small errors (these errors are also known as
offset.) Another issue is that it cannot adjust its output based on the rate of change in the
measured variable. Proportional controllers only respond to the magnitude of the error, not
to its rate of change.
4.2.2. INTEGRAL CONTROL:

To address the first issue with the proportional control, integral control attempts to correct
small error (offset). Integral examines the error over time and increases the importance of
even a small error over time. Integral is equal to error multiplied by the time the error has
persisted. A small error at time zero has zero importance. A small error at time 10 has an
importance of 10 times error. In this manner, integral increases the response of the system
21

to a given error over time until it is corrected. Integral can also be adjusted and the
adjustment is called the reset rate. Reset rate is a time factor. The shorter the reset rate the
quicker the correction of an error. However, too short a reset rate can cause erratic
performance. In hardware-based systems, the adjustment can be done by a potentiometer
changing the time constant of a RC circuit. Most of todays applications use software based
control such as
PLC module in which the engineer changes the parameter of reset rate. The mathematical
expression of an integral-only controller ( I
out
) is:

Where:
I
out
: Integral portion of controller output
T
i
: Integral time, or reset time
K
i
: Integral gain
e : Error signal, e = Set-point Process Variable

4.2.3 DERIVATIVE CONTROL:

The derivative part of the control output attempts to look at the rate of change in the error
signal. Derivative will cause a greater system response to a rapid rate of change than to a
small rate of change. In other words, if a systems error continues to rise, the controller
must not be responding with sufficient correction. Derivative senses this rate of change in
the error and provides a greater response. Derivative is adjusted as a time fact or and
therefore is also called rate time. It is essential that too much derivative should not be
applied or it can cause overshoot or erratic control. In mathematical term, the derivative
term (D
out
) is expressed as:
Where:
D
out
: Derivative portion of controller output
T
d
: Derivative time
K
d
: Derivative gain

4.2.4 THE CHARACTERSTICS OF P, I AND D CONTROLLER
A proportional controller (K
p
) will have the effect of reducing the rise time and will reduce
but never eliminate the steady state error. An integral control (K
i
) will have the effect of
eliminating the steady-state error, but it may make the transient response worse. A
derivative control (K
d
) will have the effect of increasing the stability of the system,
22

reducing the overshoot, and improving the transient response. Effects of each of controllers
K
p
, K
d
, and K
i
on a closed-loop system are summarized in the table shown below.


CL RESPONSE RISE TIME OVERSHOOT SETTLING TIME S-S ERROR
K
p
Decrease Increase Small Change Decrease
K
i
Decrease Increase Increase Eliminate
K
d
Small Change Decrease Decrease Small Change
Table 1 Effects of K
p
, K
i
and K
d


Note that these correlations may not be exactly accurate, because K
p
, K
i
, and K
d
are
dependent on each other. In fact, changing one of these variable can change the effect of
the other two. For this reason, the table should only be used as a reference when you are
determining the values for K
i
, K
p
and K
d
.

4.2.5 CLOSED LOOP SYSTEM WITH PROPORTIONATE, INTEGRAL AND
DERIVATIVE CONTROL:

To summarize all three controls, proportional control causes an input signal to change as
a direct ratio of the error signal variation. It responds immediately to the current tracking
error but it cannot achieve the desired set-point accuracy without an unacceptably large
gain. Thus, proportional term usually needs the other terms. Integral control causes an
output signal to change as a function of the integral of the error signal over time duration.
Integral term yields zero steady-state error in tracking a constant set-point. It also rejects
constant disturbances. Derivative action reduces transient errors and causes an output
signal to change as a function of the rate of change of the error signal. The contributions of
the three terms will yield the control output, or the control variable:
Control Variable = P
out
+ I
out
+ D
out


Figure 4.4 Closed loop system with proportional, integral, and derivative control.
In practice, most PID controllers can be run in two modes: manual or automatic. In manual
mode, the controller output is manipulated directly by the operator, typically by pushing
buttons that increase or decrease the controller output. A controller may also operate in
23

combination with other controllers, such as in a cascade or ratio connection, or with
nonlinear elements, such as multipliers and selectors. In automatic mode, the PID
parameters can be adjusted during operation. When there are changes of modes and
parameters, it is important to avoid switching transients.

4.3 PID CONTROLLER FOR DC MOTOR:

In this the desired target speed of the motor is set by the user. This value is then fed into
the speed controller to change the motor speed. The loop is closed by a tachometer. The
controller constantly adjusts the value of the DC voltage applied to the motor to maintain
the desired speed. The control loop is shown in the following figure:

Figure 4.5 Closed Loop Control of DC Motor













24




CHAPTER 5
5.1 DC DRIVE
5.1.1 INTRODUCTION
The thyristor DC drive remains an important speed-controlled industrial drive, especially
where the higher maintenance cost associated with the DC motor brushes (c.f. induction
motor) is tolerable. The controlled (thyristor) rectifier provides a low-impedance adjustable
'DC' voltage for the motor armature, thereby providing speed control.
Until the 1960s, the only really satisfactory way of obtaining the variable-voltage DC
supply needed for speed control of an industrial DC motor was to generate it with a DC
generator. The generator was driven at fixed speed by an induction motor, and the field of
the generator was varied in order to vary the generated voltage.
The motor/generator (MG) set could be sited remote from the DC motor, and multi-drive
sites (e.g. steelworks) would have large rooms full of MG sets, one for each variable-speed
motor on the plant. Three machines (all of the same power rating) were required for each
of these 'Ward Leonard' drives, which was good business for the motor manufacturer. For a
brief period in the 1950s they were superseded by grid-controlled mercury arc rectifiers,
but these were soon replaced by thyristor converters which oVered cheaper first cost,
higher efficiency (typically over 95%), smaller size, reduced maintenance, and faster
response to changes in set speed.
The disadvantages of rectified supplies are that the waveforms are not pure DC, that the
overload capacity of the converter is very limited, and that a single converter is not capable
of regeneration. Though no longer pre-eminent, study of the DC drive is valuable for
several reasons:

1. The structure and operation of the DC drive are reflected in almost all other drives, and
lessons learned from the study of the DC drive therefore have close parallels to other types.
2. The DC drive tends to remain the yardstick by which other drives are judged.
3. Under constant-flux conditions the behaviour is governed by a relatively simple set of
linear equations, so predicting both steady-state and transient behaviour is not difficult.
When we turn to the successors of the DC drive, notably the induction motor drive, we will
find that things are much more complex, and that in order to overcome the poor transient
behaviour, the strategies adopted are based on emulating the DC drive.
The first and major part of this chapter is devoted to thyristor-fed drives, after which we
will look briefly at chopper-fed drives that are used mainly in medium and small sizes, and
finally turn attention to small servo-type drives
5.2 THYRISTOR DC DRIVES:
25

For motors up to a few kilowatts the armature converter can be supplied from either single-
phase or three-phase mains, but for larger motors three-phase is always used. A separate
thyristor or diode rectifier is used to supply the field of the motor: the power is much less
than the armature power, so the supply is often single-phase, as shown in Figure 5.1.

Figure 5.1 Schematic diagram of speed-controlled DC motor drive.
The main power circuit consists of a six thyristor bridge circuit, which rectifies the
incoming AC supply to produce a DC supply to the motor armature. The assembly of
thyristors, mounted on a heat sink, is usually referred to as the 'stack'. By altering the firing
angle of the thyristors the mean value of the rectified voltage can be varied, thereby
allowing the motor speed to be controlled.The controlled rectifier produces a crude form of
DC with a pronounced ripple in the output voltage. This ripple component gives rise to
pulsating currents and fluxes in the motor, and in order to avoid excessive eddy-current
losses and commutation problems, the poles and frame should be of laminated
construction.It is accepted practice for motors supplied for use with thyristor drives to have
laminated construction, but older motors often have solid poles and/or frames, and these
will not always work satisfactorily with a rectifier supply. It is also the norm for drive
motors to be supplied with an attached 'blower' motor as standard. This provides
continuous through ventilation and allows the motor to operate continuously at full torque
even down to the lowest speeds without overheating.Low power control circuits are used to
monitor the principal variables of interest (usually motor current and speed), and to
generate appropriate firing pulses so that the motor maintains constant speed despite
variations in the load. The 'speed reference' (Figure 5.1) is typically an analogue voltage
varying from 0 to 10 V, and obtained from a manual speed-setting potentiometer or from
elsewhere in the plant. The combination of power, control, and protective circuits
constitutes the converter. Standard modular converters are available as off-the-shelf items
in sizes from 0.5 kW up to several hundred kW, while larger drives will be tailored to
individual requirements. Individual converters may be mounted in enclosures with
isolators, fuses etc., or groups of converters may be mounted together to form a multi-
motor drive.





26



CHAPTER 6
6.1 SIMULATION MODEL OF DC MOTOR SPEED CONTROL
Below figure shows MATLAB/ Sim Power Systems model of a separately excited DC
motor which has been selected to control. It consists of a separately excited dc motor fed
by a DC source through a chopper circuit. A single GTO thyristor with its control circuit
and a free-wheeling diode form the chopper circuit. The motor drives a mechanical load
characterized by inertia J, friction coefficient B, and load torque TL. The control circuit
consists of a speed control loop and a current control loop. A proportional-integral (PI)
speed control loop senses the actual speed of the motor and compares it with the reference
speed to determine the reference armature current required by the motor. One may note
that any variation in the actual speed is a measure of the armature current required by the
motor. The current control loop consists of a hysteresis current controller (HCC). The
block diagram of a hysteresis current controller is shown in Figure 4. HCC is used to
generate switching patterns required for the chopper circuit by comparing the actual current
being drawn by the motor with the reference current. A positive pulse is generated if the
actual current is less than reference armature current, whereas a negative pulse is produced
if the actual current exceeds reference current

27


Figure 6.1 Simulation model of separately excited dc motor along with PID controller
6.2 COMPONENTS DESCRIPTION (BLOCKS USED IN THE SUMULATION)
The components ie blocks involved in modeling of dc motor for speed controlling purpose
are mainly DC Motor GTO ie Gate Turn Off, Descrete PID Controller,Adder or Summer
and Relay.The description of all the important components in the model is being described
here.

6.2.1 DC MOTORS
The working principle of dc motor have been described in the above chapter.In modeling
of speed controlling technique a separately excited dc motor is taken ie field winding of
such machines is excited separately.
6.2.2 DC MOTOR PARAMETER
Parameters Values
Armature resistance (Ra)

0.5
Armature inductance (La) 0.01H
28

Field resistance (Rf) 240
Field inductance (Lf) 0H
Field armature mutual inductance (Laf) 1.23H
Total inertia J (Kg.m^2) 0.05
Viscous friction coefficient Bm (Nms) 0.02
Coulomb friction torque Tf (Nm) 0
Initial speed (rad/s) 0

Table 2 Block parameter of dc motor


6.2.3 GATE TURN OFF (GTO)

The gate turnoff (GTO) thyristor is a semiconductor device that can be turned on and off
via a gate signal. Like a conventional thyristor, the GTO thyristor can be turned on by a
positive gate signal (g > 0). However, unlike the thyristor, which can be turned off only at
a zero crossing of current, the GTO can be turned off at any time by the application of a
gate signal equal to 0.
The GTO thyristor is simulated as a resistor Ron, an inductor Lon, and a DC voltage
source Vf connected in series with a switch. The switch is controlled by a logical signal
depending on the voltage Vak, the current Iak, and the gate signal g.

Figure 6.2 Symbol & circuit diagram of GTO
The Vf, Ron, and Lon parameters are the forward voltage drop while in conduction, the
forward conducting resistance, and the inductance of the device. The GTO block also
contains a series Rs-Cs snubber circuit that can be connected in parallel with the GTO
device (between terminal ports A and K).
29

The GTO thyristor turns on when the anode-cathode voltage is greater than Vf and a
positive pulse signal is present at the gate input (g > 0). When the gate signal is set to 0, the
GTO thyristor starts to block but its current does not stop instantaneously.
Because the current extinction process of a GTO thyristor contributes significantly to the
turnoff losses, the turnoff characteristic is built into the model. The current decrease is
approximated by two segments. When the gate signal becomes 0, the current Iak first
decreases from the value Imax (value of Iak when the GTO thyristor starts to open) to
Imax/10, during the fall time (Tf), and then from Imax/10 to 0 during the tail time (Tt). The
GTO thyristor turns off when the current Iak becomes 0. The latching and holding currents
are not considered

Figure 6.3 Turn off characteristics of GTO

6.2.4 GTO BLOCK PARAMETER
Parameters Values
Resistance Ron (ohms) 0.05
Inductance (Lon) 0
Forward voltage Vf (V) 1
Current 10% fall time Tf(s) 10^-6sec
Current tail time Tt (sec) 10^-6
Snubber resistance Rs() 10000
Table 3 Block parameter of GTO

30

6.2.5 PID CONTROLLER

The error is generated by comparing the actual speed of motor with the reference speed and
this error is fed to the PID Controller where the controlling action takes place and generate
a current. The internal structure of PID Controller is shown as

Figure 6.4 Internal structure of pid controller





6.2.6 PID PARAMETERS
Parameters Values
Proportional Gain(Kp) 1.6

Integral Gain(Ki)

16
Derivative Gain(Kd)

0.001
Table 4 Parameter block of descrete pid controller

6.2.7 RELAY
The Relay block allows its output to switch between two specified values. When the relay
is on, it remains on until the input drops below the value of the Switch off point parameter.
31

When the relay is off, it remains off until the input exceeds the value of the Switch on point
parameter. The block accepts one input and generates one output.
The Switch on point value must be greater than or equal to the Switch off point. Specifying
a Switch on point value greater than the Switch off point value models hysteresis, whereas
specifying equal values models a switch with a threshold at that value.
6.2.8 RELAY PARAMETERS
Parameters Value
Switch ON point 1
Switch Off point -1
Output when On 1
Output when Off 0
Table 5 Parameter block of relay





6.2.9 PARAMETERS FOR LOAD TORQUE

Parameters Values
Step time 1.7
Initial Value (Nm) 5
Final Value (Nm) 25
Sample Time 0
Table 6 Parameter for load torque as a step

32

As seen in the parameter the step time is taken as 1.7 sec before which the load torque is 5
Nm and after that the load torque increases to 25Nm.


6.2.10 PARAMETERS FOR SPEED REFERENCE
Parameters Values
Step time 1sec
Initial Value 100
Final Value 150
Sample Time 0sec
Table 7 Parameter for speed reference as a step
Initially the reference speed was 100rad/s but after a step time of 1 sec it exceeds upto 150
rad/s.






6.3 SIMULATION RESULT BY VARYING DIFFERENT PARAMETERS
CASE 1
When initial reference speed is 100rad/s upto 1s and it increases to 150rad/s beyond step
time. And the load torque is also in step form i.e . upto 1.7sec the load torque is 5N.m and
beyond the step time that is 1.7sec the load torque increases to 25 N.m. As we know that
when the load torque is increased the normal tendancy of dc motor is that its speed must be
reduced but as soon as it tries to reduce its speed the error is generated in the form of
difference between reference speed and motor speed. This error is fed to the PID controller
where the appropriate control action is taken to maintain the speed of dc motor according
to the reference speed.The simulation result for this process is shown in figure

33


Figure 6.5 Simulation result for case 1




CASE 2
Keeping the step time for load torque same ie 1.7s,when initial reference speed is kept at
50rad/s with a step time of 1s and the final reference speed is 80rad/s. Here the speed of
the motor tends to increase beyond 50 rad/s but as soon as it is above the reference speed
the error is generated and this error is fed to the PID controller which performs the control
action and maintain the speed of the dc motor. After 1sec when reference speed is 80
rad/s the similar action takes place but after 1.7 sec the load torque increase and this is
responsible for the reduction is the speed of the motor but as soon as the speed tends to
decrease the error is generated and similar to the above case this is fed to the PID controller
which controls the speed of the dc motor.

34



Figure 6.6 Simulation result for case 2



CASE 3
Similar to above cases when the initial reference speed is taken as 150rad/s with a step
time of 200rad/s and the final reference speed is taken as 200rad/s. The response is very
much similar.
35


Figure 6.7 Simulation result for case 3






CASE 4
When the step time of load torque is taken as 1.4sec keeping initial reference speed
100rad/sec and final reference speed at 150rad/sec with the step time of 1 sec
36

The similar output will be obtained. In fact the speed of the motor tries to reduce at 1.4 sec
because at this time the load torque is increased but as soon as the speed reduces below
reference speed the error is generated and this error is fed to the PID controller and the
speed is controlled due to the control action taken by the PID controller.

Figure 6.8 Simulation result for case 4

37

CASE 5
When the step time of load torque is kept at 0.8 sec and the initial reference speed is taken
as 100 rad/s with a step time of 1 sec and the final reference speed is 150rad/sec.
The response in such case is shown as


Figure 6.9 Simulation result for case 5
38

CONCLUSION
A proportional-integral-derivative controller (PID controller) is a generic control loop
feedback mechanism (controller) widely used in industrial control systems. A PID
controller calculates an "error" value as the difference between a measured process variable
and a desired set point. The controller attempts to minimize the error by adjusting the
process control inputs.
The actual speed obtained from the dc motor is compared with the reference speed and the
error is generated. This error is fed to the pid controller for appropriate control action.
The output of the pid controller is the descrete current which is compared with the descrete
armature current. The error obtained is used to operate the relay, the pulse generated from
the relay operates GTO which in turn control the armature voltage of dc motor.
Hence the speed of the dc motor is controlled irrespective of changes in load torque.




















39

REFERENCES
1 http:// www.library.cmu.edu/ctms/ctms/examples/motor/pid2.htm
2 http:// www.library.cmu.edu/ctms/simulink/examples/motor/motorsim.htm
3 I.J.Nagrath and M.Gopal, Control Systems Engineering, (Wiley Eastern Limited).
4 PS Bhimbra, Electrical Machinery
5 S. Hasan Saeed, Control System
6 U A Bakshi, Electromechanical Energy Conversion 1




















40

APPENDICES
Cumulative compound, 6
DC drive, 23
DC Motor, 3
Differential compound, 6
PID Controller, 17
Self Excited, 4
Seperately excited Machine, 4
field weakening