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composition using max

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composition using max

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Duarte, Jose*, Hsiao, Shu-Chin**, Huang, Chih-Fang***, and Winsor, Phil****

Music Institute of

National Chiao Tung University

1001 Ta Hsueh Road, Hsin Chu, Taiwan 300, ROC

* joseduarte777@yahoo.com, **violin52@ms47.hinet.net,

***jeffh@faculty.nctu.edu.tw, ****pgwinsor@aol.com

ABSTRACT

The following paper compares tools used at the

Music Institute of National Chiao Tung University to

generate Sieves based on Xenakis Theory. Also reveals

the importance of continuous research in the area of

algorithmic composition. The comparison between

BASIC language and MAX (cycling 74) will show how

the development of the research and teaching techniques

of the institute. Also at the end remarks the necessity of

the use of new platforms using a different approach like

the case of athenaCL developed at the New York

University.

1. INTRODUCTION

Since 1989 Music Institute of National Chiao Tung

University has been developing applications and

methodology to compose music algorithmically. In this

paper we will discuss the Sieve Theory and two examples

of its application utilizing MAX and BASIC. The

importance of this comparison is part of an effort to define

the direction of the Algorithmic composition education in

the Institute and part of an evaluation of the software

applications available.

The use of Sieve Theory represent a very important

exercise in algorithmic composition at a very basic level,

allowing the user to start dealing with mathematical

concepts like number set theory and Boolean operands.

Music Sculptor application based on BASIC

programming language is a powerful tool to input musical

events based on mathematical operations, results can be

saved in a MIDI file to visualize a score. On the other side,

MAX also can deal with a number of mathematical

expressions to output music as well.

2. BASIC APPLICATIONS IN ALGORITHMIC

COMPOSITION

BASIC is a programming language ideal for first

level Algorithmic composition courses. It provides a

friendly environment to work with, and resources of

information are all spread out in libraries and in the

Internet. As a composition tool, it is also useful in the

generation of Sieves. Xenakis even used BASIC to

compile the first Sieve generator. BASIC is applied to

deal with musical concepts like pitch classes,

transposition, inversions, rhythmic values and so on. For

more information see Winsors Automated Music

Composition [1], where many topics can be found like

examples of programs dealing from simple transposition

of pitch classes to the generation of Fibonacci series and

fractal patterns.

3. XENAKIS SIEVE THEORY

Proposed originally in 1964, During Xenakis staying

at Berlin from the fall of 1963 to the spring of 1964.

During this time, he developed Sieve Theory further [2].

Sieves output numerical sequences that can be translated

to musical and sound events such as pitches, time points,

dynamics, densities, degrees of order, local timbres, etc.

[3]. In the search of symmetry in musical figures, Xenakis

used sieves in his early compositions such as Zyia (1952)

and Sacrific [4]. In which the Fibonacci Series were

represented. In music the question of symmetries (spatial

identities) or of periodicities (identifies in time) plays a

fundamental role at all levels: from a sample in sound

synthesis by computers, to the architecture of a piece. It is

thus necessarily to formulate a theory permitting the

construction of symmetries, which are as complex as one

2006 International Workshop on Computer Music and Audio Technology

96

might want, and inversely, to retrieve from a given series

of events or objects in space or time the symmetries that

constitute the series. We shall call these series Sieves

[3].

FIGURE 1: Mycenae Alpha(UPIC Graphic/Computer)

composing By Xenakis

Sieve is analogous to scale in music, and Xenakis

makes emphasis that it is not a mode. The idea of this

theory is to generate scales (if we are dealing with pitch),

generate rhythmic patterns (if we are working with

rhythm) and so on.

Sieves are composed by a sequence of integers (in

the case of scales) and the interval between each value.

This interval is called the modulo. A Sieve can be defined

as M

RC

, in which RC stands for the residual class, or the

starting point of the scale and M will be the modulo. To

be more detailed RC is where the pitch class begins, RC=

0 starts from C, then RC=1 will start from C#, etc. The

modulo determines the constant interval between the

elements of the class. For example, RC=0 and M=1 or 1

0

= {-2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5} will output a Chromatic

scale starting from C like this: C, C#, D, D#, E, F, F# and

so on. For modulo 2, Whole-tone scale is generated: 2

0

= C,

D, E, F#, G#, A# (Or 2

0

= {0, 2, 4, 6, 8, } Other

combinations are possible. We only need to follow these

restrictions: modulus can be any positive integer greater

than 0 (M>0); RC, for a given modulus M, can be any

integer between 0 and M-1 (0<RC<M-1) [5].

The combinations will get more interesting as soon

as we start to apply the Logic of Classes to these sieves

and be able to create more complex sequences. First logic

is Union (or represented by ), intersection (and

represented by ) and complementation (not).

In the case of Union we can have the values of two Sieves

added as showing. Lets observe the union of Sieve 2

0

=

{ -2, -1, 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12}and 5

0

={-10, -5, 0, 5,

10, 15}, the result will be: {-10, -5, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 4,

6, 8, 10}. The next table will show more examples of

the operands:

M

RC1

M

RC2

RESULT

{0, 1, 2, 3} AND {-2,0, 2,4} {-2,0,1,2,3,4 }

{0, 1, 2, 3} OR {-2,0, 2,4} {0,2}

{0, 1, 2, 3} NOT {-2,0, 2,4} {-2, 1, 3}

The operand Or will display all the values that both

sets have in common. In the case of

{0, 1, 2, 3}OR {-2,0, 2,4}={0,2}

On the other side, operand Not will output the

values that both sets do not have in common:

{0, 1, 2, 3}NOT{-2,0, 2,4}={-2, 1, 3}

The generation of Sieves allows the composer to

create musical pieces based on new rules and also

represents a great tool for developers to program

automated composition software.

4. APPLICATIONS OF SIEVE THEORY

Going back to BASIC, an example to generate music

scales will be shown, as well for MAX examples of

patches for scales and rhythmic patterns.

Different software is available to generate sounds

from BASIC programs one example is Music Sculptor

(Winsor & Kuo-Lung Chang). To accomplish this task

Sculptor will out a MIDI file and provide a music score.

But first let see the code to generate a Sieves for different

known scales:

FIGURE 2: QBASIC Interface

2000REM*************************************

2010 REM Major Scale Logical Sieve Routine

2020REM*************************************

2030 FOR X = LOWP TO LOWP+ELEMENTS-1

2040 IF X MOD 3 <> 2 AND X MOD 4 = 0 OR X

MOD 3 <> 1 AND X MOD 4 = 1

OR X MOD 3 = 2 AND X MOD 4 = 2 OR X MOD 3

<> 0 AND X MOD 4 = 3

2006 International Workshop on Computer Music and Audio Technology

97

THEN PRINT P$(X);" "; ELSE 2050

2045 PRINT #1,

NOTEON;X;VELOCITY;ARTDUR;CHANNEL

2046 NOTEON=NOTEON+DURATION

2050 NEXT X

2060 RETURN

Previous example shows how to calculate the Major

Scale Sieve. Line 2040 can be read as if x mod 3 is not

equal to 2 and X mod 4 is equal to 0, or if X mod 3 is not

equal to 1 and X mod 4 is equal to 1, or if X mod 3 is

equal to 2 and X mod 4 is equal to 2, or if X mod 3 is not

equal to 0 and X mod 4 is equal to 3 then X passes the

test.[1]

Then the execution of the program will show the

major scale:

Enter number of background scale elements:

12

Enter scale type: (1=major, 2=harm. Minor,

3=pentatonic)

? 1

C1 D1 E1 F1 G1 A1 B1

Now, after the generation of any Sieve (in this case

the Sieve corresponding to a Major Scale) we can

transport the file to Music Sculptor. See Figure 2 and

then if needed save a MIDI file to display a music Score,

to be imported by Music Sculptor as shown in Figure 3.

Figure 4 shows that the program generated pitch data,

saved as pitch.dat, can be loaded from Music Sculptor,

to compose the music piece automatically by the sieve

algorithm. Many other sieves can be generated using the

same procedure; there are many combinations yet to be

discovered.

FIGURE 3: Music Sculptor (Winsor & Kuo-Lung

Chang) Interface.

FIGURE 4: Music Sculptor (Phil Winsor & Kuo-Lung

Chang) Interface.

Regarding Max software (Cycling 74), there are

several ways to implement a Sieve analysis. The Max

predefined objects allow users in different ways to

produce several sequences. In Figure 5 we can visualize

one example to generate sieves using Max Objects. The

real time capabilities of this platform permit the user to

modify the parameters of the modulo and the residual

class

FIGURE 5: Sieve Implementation Using MAXMSP

while playing the sequence. In addition, predefined

presets may change several parameters at the same time.

On the other side, different variables can be added to

form part of the patch, for example: Metro and Random

objects, influencing the sound event by changing the

distance between the noteon and noteoff or by

modifying the order of the attacks respectively.

Max, apart of being a great tool to design patches, it

is also a good platform to deal with The Sieve Theory.

Figure 6 shows the twelve tone matrix for

composing the serial music, with four operations

including prime, inversion, retrograde, and retrograde-

inversion. Based on the twelve tone 12 x 12 Matrix [6],

the MAX/MSP program can be used for composing the

2006 International Workshop on Computer Music and Audio Technology

98

serial music based on the sieve theory using the MAX

internal objects, as shown in Figure 7.

FIGURE 6: Twelve Tone Matrix for Sieve Theory

Serial Music Composition Using MAX/MSP

FIGURE 7: Sieve Theory for Twelve Tone Serial

Music Composition Using MAX/MSP

5. CONCLUSION

After showing two examples of Sieve Applications a

wider panorama appeared. The ways of experimentation

in the topic vary in time, and others remain because of

their success. This is the example of BASIC language,

which provides ways to implement many musical-based

concepts; in this case the Sieve Theory can be studied and

analyzed.

On the other side, Max software (Cycling 74), shows

a different perspective. The comparison of different set of

sieves is done thanks to its capabilities of real time

parameter settings. In other words, this characteristic

illustrates sieves in a faster way, so users can compare the

results at the moment.

Also, many other software programs have been

develop on the way. Firstly, there is a translation of the

first BASIC to C language made by Grard Marino [3] a

programmer from CEMAMu Centre d'Etudes de

Mathematiques et Automatiques Musicales/Center for

Studies in Mathematics and Automated Music) to know

more about this implementation see Xenakis, Formalized

Music [3]. Another more recent application is the one

developed by Christopher Ariza (Graduate School of Arts

and Sciences, New York University), which is an object-

oriented model and Python implementation [5]. This

model is executed using a bigger platform called

athenaCL, which is an open-source, interactive

command-line environment for algorithmic composition

in Csound and MIDI [5]. The work of Ariza will represent

a great deal of new and easier ways to deal with Sieve

theory and other Algorithmic composition areas. For more

information see athenaCL Users guide. [7]

6 . REFERENCES

[1] Winsor, Phil, Automated music composition,

University of North Texas. 1989.

[2] Barthel-Calvet, A. S., Chronologie. In F. B. Mache,

ed. Portrait(s) de Iannis Xenakis. Paris: Bibliotheque

Nationale de France, pp. 133142, 2001.

[3] Xenakis, Iannis, Formalized Music Tutorial,

Pendragon revised revision, 1990.

[4] Solomos, M., Xenakis Early Works: From

Bartokian Project' to 'Abstraction'," Contemporary

Music Review 21(2-3): pp. 21-34., 2002.

[5] Ariza, Christopher. The Xenakis Sieve as Object: A

New Model and a Complete Implementation. New

York University. Computer Music Journal.

[6] Joseph N. Straus, Introduction to Post-Tonal

Theory, Prentice-Hall International UK Limited,

pp. 118-146, 1990.

[7] Ariza, Christopher, AthenaCL User Guide, Second

Edition, Version 1.4.3.

2006 International Workshop on Computer Music and Audio Technology

99

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