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Asterisks(*)denoteseminalbooksonthesesubjects

GeneralNotation:
Cope,David.NewMusicNotation.Dubuque,Iowa:Kendall/HuntPub.Co.,c1976.122p.Bibliography:p.115122.
Thismajorworkrepresentsoneofthebestattemptsatcollectingandpresentingsymbolsforthenotationofnewmusic.Itisintwo
parts:PartIexplainstheconcepts.PartII.consistsoftablesofsymbolslistingthemeaning,recommendedsymbol,composersusing
thissymbol(mostoftenCope!)andfinallyothers.Publishedin1976,thisbookcouldusearevisionandupdating,butstillcoversthe
basesprettywell.Doesnotcontaineffectsforspecificinstruments,however.

Heussenstamm,George.TheNortonManualofMusicNotation,1sted.NewYork:W.W.Norton,c1987.168p.Includesindex&Bibliography:p.
163164.
Agoodcollectionoftipsforstandardcalligraphy,tools,etc.butitisbecomingquiteoutdatedascomputergeneratedscoresare
takingover.Verylittleattentionisgiventoextendedtechniquesofanyspecialnotation,andthemanuscriptisclear,butnotofthe
finestquality.currentlyoutofprint.

Karkoschka,Erhard.NotationinNewMusic;aCriticalGuidetoInterpretationandRealization.TranslatedfromtheGermanbyRuthKoenig.New
York,Praeger[1972]183p.
TranslationofDasSchriftbildderNeuenMusik.Thiscollectionanddiscoursecontainsmuchofusetosearchingcomposers.itis
organizedasfollows:PartOne:TheEssentials(discussion)PartTwo:PresentPracticeThissectioncontainsacatalogueofsymbols
usedin20thcenturypracticeandcategorizesthemquitewellinto1.Exactnotation2.Framenotation3.Indicativenotation.Part
Three:NotationExampleswithExplanationsThissectioncontainsactualmusicalexcerptsinwhichthesymbolsareused,including
pagelayouts,graphicscores,etc.Unfortunately,theindexislacking.

*Read,Gardner:MusicNotation:AManualofModernPractice
CrescendoPublishing,1964;revised1972
TaplingerPublishingCompany,1979(2ndedition)
ISBN0800854535

Read,Gardner.20thCenturyMicrotonalNotation.NewYork:GreenwoodPress,1990.198p.Includesbibliographicalreferences(p.[171]186)
andindex.
Amajorworkforanyoneattemptingtonotatemicrotones.Thenumberofexamplescanbeoverwhelming,andthecomposewill
needtowadethroughalotofstufftofindwhathe/sheneeds,(over60pagesarededicatedtothenotationofQuarterandThree
Quartertonesalone!)Notmanyjudgmentaremade,butitiscomprehensivenotselective.Layoutisalittleawkwardanddifficult.

Risatti,Howard,NewMusicVocabulary:aGuidetoNotationalSignsforContemporaryMusic.Urbana,UniversityofIllinoisPress[1975]219p.
Bibliography:p.[189]190.
Thisworkcatalogsmanystandardandmoreobscuresymbols.Itisorganizedaccordingtofirstgeneralthenspecificforallofthe
standardinstrumentsandvoice!!!Agoodmanyofhe"standard"symbolslistedarefoundonlyintheexamplecited,andthusthe
workismorecomprehensivethanselective.

*Stone,Kurt.MusicNotationintheTwentiethCentury:aPracticalGuidebook,1sted.NewYork:W.W.Norton,c1980.357p.Includesindex.
Writtenforcomposers,thismajorworkdealswithspecificmethodsofnotatingvariousmusicalexpressions.Thefirstpartofthe
bookdealswithgeneralprocedurespertainingtoalltypesofmusicandissubdividedbypitch,duration&rhythm,.Thesecondpart
definesvariousnotationaldevicesforspecificinstruments,voiceandelectronics.Itcontainsexcellenttypesetexampleswhichwill
provideabasisforclearnotationinmanuscript.Thebibliographyisweak,butthatisnotenoughtokeepthisfrombeinga"first
stop"referencesource.

Orchestration/Instrumentation:

*Adler,Samuel.TheStudyofOrchestration,1sted.NewYork:Norton,c1982.560p.
Accompaniedbysupplement"EnlargedmusicexamplesfromThestudyoforchestrationbySamuelAdler"(64p.)&"Workbookfor
Thestudyoforchestration"(100p.)Amajorworkcoveringthefundamentalsofeachorchestralinstrumentinaclear,wellorganized
manner.Althoughitdoesn'tcontainindividualfingeringchartsforthevariousinstrumentsitcontainsmuchinthewayof
suggestionsforidiomaticwritingaswellasmanygoodexamplesfromtheliterature.Thistextusedinconjunctionwithsomeofthe
otherspecifictextsforvariousinstrumentsshouldcreateawellbalancedbackgroundforthecompositionofmostworks.Organized
intotwoparts,thefirstdealswiththeindividualinstrumentsandtheircapabilities.Thesecondpartdealswithtechniquesfor
scoringandtranscribingfororchestra.Thetextalsohasaaccompanyingworkbook,enlargementofmusicalexamplesand5CDset
ofrecordings.

Berlioz,Hector,TreatiseonInstrumentation,enl.andrev.byRichardStrauss,includingBerlioz'essayOnconducting.Tr.byTheodoreFront.New
York,E.F.Kalmus,c1948.424p.
Althoughover100yearsold,thistimelessworkisanexcellentstartingpointforcomposersoforchestralmusic.Itisfullofexamples
bytheauthorsandothergreatcomposersofthe19thcenturyandprovidesmanyinsightsintothecreationofagoodblend,color
andcontrastwithininstrumentalgroups.

Blatter,Alfred,Instrumentation/Orchestration.NewYork:Longman,c1980.427p.Longmanmusicseries
Anothergoodsourceofgeneralorchestrationinformation.

Read,Gardner.ContemporaryInstrumentalTechniques.NewYork:SchirmerBooks,c1976.259p.Includesindexes&Bibliography:p.232233.
Thisgeneralreferenceworkcontainslistsofexamplesofextendedtechniquesorganizedintotwosections,oneforgeneral
techniquesandonerelatingtospecificinstruments.Althoughitdoesnotincludethecitedexamples,itisagood"wheretolook"
source.Itcontainsagoodindex.

Stiller,Andrew.HandbookofInstrumentation;illustrationsbyJamesStamos.Berkeley:UniversityofCaliforniaPress,c1985.533p.
Thismajorworkcontainsagoodbriefoverview,lotsoffingeringchartsandismosteffectiveasaquickresourcetolookupspecifics
abouteachinstrument.However,itdoesn'tcontainmuchinthewayofhelpsforextendedtechniquesorguidelinesforidiomatic
writing.

SpecificInstruments
Woodwinds:

*Bartolozzi,Bruno.NewSoundsforWoodwinds;translatedandeditedbyReginaldSmithBrindle,2ded.London;NewYork:OxfordUniversity
Press,1980.113,[1]p.&phonodisc(2s.:8in.;45rpm.microgroove)inpocket.
Thisisaworkconcerningflute,oboe,clarinetandbassoon,listingthetechniquesforproducingmultiphonics,harmonicsandother
nontraditionaltones.Itcontainsmanyfingeringchartsanddiagramsaswellasstandardizednotationforthesetechniques.Agreat
sourceforrealizingthefullpotentialoftheseinstruments.

Timm,EverettL.TheWoodwinds;PerformanceandInstructionalTechniques.Boston:AllynandBacon,1964.Thisworkcontainsperhapsthe
bestsetoffingeringchartsfortheflute,oboe,clarinetandbassoon.
Anexcellentsinglesourceforcomposerswritingfortheseinstruments.

Flute:

*Dick,Robert.TheOtherFlute:aPerformanceManualofContemporaryTechniques.NewYork:OxfordUniversityPress,MusicDept.,1975.154
p.phonodisc(2s.:7in.;331/3rpm.)inpocket."Afterlight"byRobertDick,ademonstrationpieceforflutealone:1fold.sheetinpocket.
Thishasbecomeoneofthedefinitivebooksonextendedflutetechnique.Itisorganizedintosectionsdealingwithtraditional
techniques,singlesounds(color,microtones,glissandi,etc.),multiplesounds,otherresources(voice,percussivesounds,whisper
andjettones)andelectronicmodifications.Thefactthattheauthorisbothacomposerandaperformermakesthisworkespecially
usefulforunderstandingthefullpotentialofthisinstrument..

Howell,Thomas.TheAvantGardeFlute;ahandbookforcomposersandflutists.Berkeley,UniversityofCaliforniaPress,1974.290p.and
phonodisc(2s.7in.331/3rpm.)SERIES:Thenewinstrumentation,v.2
Intendedtohelpcomposersrealizetheflute'sfullpotential,thisworkcontainsextensivecoverageofmicrotones,andextendedas
wellasstandardtechniques.Perhapsitsgreatestassetistheappendiceswhichcontainannotatedfingeringchartsforharmonics,
multiphonics,etc.,describingtheresultingsoundanddegreeofdifficultyinperformance.Thisalongwith"TheOtherFlute"givesa
fullcoverageoftheflute'scapabilities.

Oboe:

Belinsky,Isai.VisualFingeringandTrillsChartsforOboe:PlateauConservatorysystemwithalternate&auxiliaryfingering.I.Belinsky,c1971.13
p.
Thislittleselfpublishedbookletisahandyquickreferencetodeterminetrillfingeringsonthisoftenconfusinginstrument.Thehuge
diagramsshowexactkeychoice.

ProMusicaNova:StudienzumSpielenneuerMusik:furOboe/Hautbois/herausgegebenvonHeinzHolliger.Koln:MusikverlagH.Gerig,
[c1980]51p.ofmusic.IncludesworksbyWyttenbach,Shinohara,Berioetal.ForewordinGerman,EnglishandFrench.
Thisisacollectionofetudesandsoloworksforoboeutilizingmanyextendedtechniques.Theworksareofveryhighqualityand
usefulforstudybycomposers,notonlyforthetechniquesbutalsofortheclean,typesetnotation.

Goossens,LeonandEdwinRoxburgh.Oboe,1stAmericaned.NewYork:SchirmerBooks,1977.238p.,SERIES:YehudiMenuhinmusicguides
Thisbookcontainsmuchthatwillnotbeofinteresttothecomposer,butthefinalchaptersonMultiphonicsandModernmusicare
someofthebest(andonly)treatisesonthissubjectaround.

Post,Nora.TheDevelopmentofContemporaryOboeTechnique.Thesis:NewYorkUniversity,Ph.D.,1979.AnnArbor:UniversityMicrofilms
International,1979.
Thiscomprehensiveworkcoversthedevelopmentofcontemporaryoboetechnique,withlotsoffingeringcharts,methodsoftone
productionandmanyexcellentexamplesfromtheliterature.Bothagoodsourceofnewideasandestablished
notational/performancepractices.

Singer,Lawrence.MetodoperOboe;EnglishtranslationbyReginaldSmithBrindle.Milano:EdizioniSuviniZerboni,1969.67p.TextinItalian
andEnglish.
Thiscomprehensiveworkexplainstonevariationsduetolipplacement,embouchure,andairpressure,multiphonicsanothermeans
ofsoundproduction.Itiswrittenbyacomposer/performerandshouldbeofgreatusetocomposerswishingtowriteidiomatically
fortheoboe.Anexcellentresource.

Clarinet:

*Rehfeldt,Phillip.NewDirectionsforClarinet.Berkeley:UniversityofCaliforniaPress,c1977.135p.&disc(331/3rpm.stereo.7in.).SERIES:
Thenewinstrumentation,v.4.Bibliography:p.124135.
Theworkoutlinesperformancetechniquesfortheclarinetafter1950.ItisorganizedintotheusualgroupingsofBasics,Single
sounds,multiphonics,additionaleffectsandelectroniceffects.Itisagoodsourcebookwithlotsofexplanation.

Sigel,Allen.TheTwentiethCenturyClarinetist:AdvancedStudiesinContemporaryMusicfortheClarinet.Melville,N.Y.:BelwinMills,c1966.49
p.
Thisolderworkdoesn'tcovermanyofthepossibilitiesforthemodernclarinetbutdoescontainagoodtableoffingerings,auxiliary
fingeringsandtrillfingeringsthatwillbeofusetocomposers.

Bassoon:

Cooper,LewisHughandHowardToplansky.EssentialsofBassoonTechnique,Germansystem.Union,N.J.,H.Toplansky[c1968]
Consideredthe"bible"ofbassoonfingerings.Coveragefrombasicstoadvancedtechniques.Averygoodbasicmethodforstandard
writingforthebassoon.

*Penazzi,Sergio.Ilfagotto:altretechniche:nuovefontidiespressionemusicale(TheBassoon:OtherTechniques:NewSourcesofMusical
Expression).Milano:Ricordi,c1982.9p.,p.10130ofmusic,2sounddiscs(36min.:analog,331/3rpm;7in.)TextinItalianandEnglish.
Thisworkisacompletecollectionofalmost,ifnot,everysoundofwhichthebassooniscapableofproducing.Itcoversnormal
tones,quartertonesandmicrotones,tremolos,multiphonicsandchord/aleatoricfingerings.Itcontainsfullspectralanalysisof
multiphonicsaswellasanaccompanyingrecordingofalloftheexamples.Itdoesnotclaimtobea"notation"book,butservesasa
"soundpalette"ofwhatthebassooncando.Soundswillvaryfrominstrumenttoinstrument,butoverallthisworkcanbetakenas
thereferenceforbassoon.

Saxophone:

Teal,Larry.TheArtofSaxophonePlaying.Evanston,Ill.:SummyBirchard,c1963.112p.
Ageneralmethodforthesaxophoneincludingbasicsandfingerings.

Horn:

Gregory,Robin.TheHorn;aComprehensiveGuidetotheModernInstrument&ItsMusic,Rev.andenl.ed..NewYork,F.A.Praeger[1969]410
p.
Asthetitlestates,thisisacomprehensiveguide.PartIcoverstheinstrument,mutes,valves,etc.partII,ThePlayer,isprimarilyfor
theperformer.ThemostusefulsectiontocomposerswillbePartIII:TheInstrumentandThePlayer.Thereareaboutthirtypagesof
guidelinesontheexecutionoftrills,tremolos,articulationand"chords"(voicemultiphonics).Thisworkhasahugebibliographyof
musicforhorn.seealsotextsforTrumpet

Trumpet:

Arban,J.B.(JeanBaptiste).Arban'sCompleteConservatoryMethod:fortrumpet(cornet)orEbalto,Bbtenor,baritone,euphoniumandBb
bassintrebleclef,editedbyEdwinFrankoGoldmanandWalterM.Smith;annotatedbyClaudeGordon.NewYork,N.Y.:C.Fischer,c1982.
WithatextinEnglish,German,French,Spanish,Chinese,andJapanese,anyoneshouldbeabletounderstandthemechanicsand
techniquesofthetrumpet.Thisworkdoesnotcontainmuchinthemeansofextendedtechniques,butisthetrumpeter'sbiblefor
performingtheentirefacetofcommontrumpetliterature.AlsoappliestomostFrenchHorntechniquesexceptformuting.

Blatter,AlfredandPaulZonn.ContemporaryTrumpetStudies,annotatedandeditedbyDavidHickman.Denver,Colo.:TrombaPublications,
c1976.48p.ofmusic.
Averygoodcollectionofnotationandexecutionofextendedtechniquesfortrumpet.Itiswellorganized,neat,clearandtheetudes
areofafairlyhighquality,showingidiomaticuseofthetechniques.

Nagel,Robert.TrumpetStudiesinContemporaryMusic.Melville,N.Y.,:EdwardBMarksMusicCorp.,1975.24p.ofmusic
Althoughtheetudesarestereotypicalandoftennothingmorethananexcusetoplayextendedtechniques(ratherthanamusical
applicationofthem)thisworkcoversmanyoftheestablished,triedandtruespecialtechniquesandnotatestheminaclear,precise
manner.

Trombone:

Dempster,Stuart.TheModernTrombone:aDefinitionofItsIdioms.Berkeley:UniversityofCaliforniaPress,c1979.110p.&2phonodiscs.
SERIES:TheNewinstrumentationVOL.3.Includesindex,Bibliography:p.103104&Discography:p.104105.
Writtenbyoneoftheleadingperformer/composerexpertsonthetrombone,thisworkisamustforthosecomposingfortrombone.
Itisacollectiondefiningthenotationandexecutionofstandardandextendedtechniquesincluding:voiceandmultiphonics,vowel
sounds,glissandi,microtones,vibratoandtrills,slideandbelldisassembly,mutes,percussiveeffects,andtheatricalimplications.It
alsohasasectiondevotedto"otherbodysounds"...somethingwewouldonlyexpectinatrombonebook!

Wick,Denis.TromboneTechnique,2nded.Oxford:OxfordUniversityPress,1984.
Thissmallbutintenseworkcontainsthebasicsoftromboneperformancepractices.Althoughitofferslittleinthewayofnotationor
extendedtechniques,itisawonderfulquickreferenceofslidepositions,overtoneseries,andgeneralinformationneededtowrite
idiomaticallyforthetrombone.

EuphoniumandOtherLowBrass:

Griffiths,JohnR.TheLowBrassGuide.Hackensack,N.J.:JeronaMusicCorp.,c1980.75p.Includesbibliographiesanddiscography.
CoverstheTrombone,Baritone,EuphoniumandTuba.Abasicmethodoutliningtoneproduction,embouchureandfingerings.When
usedasastartingpointtheotherrelatedtextsonthespecificinstrumentswillbemoreunderstandable.

Tuba:

Beauregard,CherryN.TheTuba:aDescriptionoftheFiveOrchestralTubasandGuidelinesforOrchestralTubaWriting.microform:Thesis
(D.M.A.)EastmanSchoolofMusic,UniversityofRochester,1970.Rochester,N.Y.:SibleyMusicLibrary,EastmanSchoolofMusic,Universityof
Rochester,1974.127leaves
ThisisthebestworkI'veseeninpresentingaconciseoutlineofthetubafamilywithalloftheinformationacomposermightneedto
writeeffectivelyforit.Sadly,themicroficheformatisveryhardtoread,.OfgreatestinterestwillbechapterIV:WritingfortheTuba.
Thiscoverseachoftheregisters,citingthetimbreandcharacteristicsofeach.Theapendixcontainsfullfingeringchartsforeachof
thefivetubas,aswellasabibliography.Definitelyreadthisbeforewritingfortuba!

Percussion:

Bajzek,Dieter.Percussion:anAnnotatedBibliographywithSpecialEmphasisonContemporaryNotationandPerformance.Metuchen,N.J.:
ScarecrowPress,c1988.185p.
Asthetitlesummarizes,thisiswhereyoumightlooktofindliteratureusingspecificnotationaldevices.

StandardizationofPercussionNotation.SubmittedbythePercussiveArtsSociety,Inc.[n.p.]c1973.[6]p.illus.
Thisshortbookletwaswrittentostandardizethemultitudeofpictogramsusedinpercussionmusic.Italsocontainsguidelineson
scorelayoutinthebardororchestrascore.Agoodcomplementtothestandardorchestrationandnotationtexts.Strings(General):
see:Orchestration/Instrumentation

*Solomon,Samuel:HowtoWriteforPercussion.Publisher:SamuelSolomon(March2004).Anexcellentbookforreferenceonthemultitudeof
percussioninstrumentsandtechniques,andhowtowriteforthem.

Violin:

ProMusicaNova:StudienzumspielenneuerMusik:furVioline(studiesforplayingcontemporarymusic:forviolin)/mitWerkenvonEdison
Denissow...[etal.];herausgegebenvonIgorOzim.Wiesbaden:Breitkopf&Hartel,c1986.38p.ofmusicaccompaniedby:Remarksand
explanationofsignsinEnglishandGerman(7p.).
Thiscollectionofcontemporaryetudesandsolosutilizesmanycontemporaryperformancetechniquesnotcoveredinthestandard
orchestrationtexts.Thenotationisclearandthewritinggenerallyverygood,servingasafineexampleforcomposerswritingfor
violin.

StringBass:

Turetzky,Bertram.TheContemporaryContrabass,Newandrev.ed.Berkeley:UniversityofCaliforniaPress,1989.178p.SERIES:TheNew
instrumentationVol.1
ThisuserfriendlyguidetothedoubleBassisclear,simple,andeasytounderstand.Itcoverstopicslikebasics,pizzicato,bowing,the
Bassasadrum,vocalandspeecheffects,harmonicsandothermeansofsoundproduction.Theprefaceisgreat!

Harp:

Inglefield,RuthK.WritingforthePedalHarp:astandardizedmanualforcomposersandharpistswithanintroductionbyStanleyChaloupka;
musicalexamplesbyVinceCole.Berkeley:UniversityofCaliforniaPress,c1985.133p.SERIES:Thenewinstrumentation,v.6Includesindex&
Bibliography:p.[125]130.
Partofthenewinstrumentationseries,thisworktakesmuchofthemysteryoutofwritingfortheharp.Designedasacomplete,
concisemanualforcomposersandperformers,itisanindispensabletoolforanyonewritingfortheharp.Itisorganizedaccordingto
thevariousmeansofsoundproduction(i.e.plucking,strikingthestrings,slidingsounds,etc.)However,overhalfoftheworkis
devotedtoaverywellorganizedApendixcatalogingthenotationofthesetechniques.Theexamplesareinneatmanuscriptandare
veryclearlyorganized.Thisisanexcellentquickreferencetoolforthecomposer.

Guitar:

Schneider,John.TheContemporaryGuitar.Berkeley:UniversityofCaliforniaPress,c1985.237p.2sounddiscs:analog,331/3rpm,mono.;7
in.SERIES:Thenewinstrumentation,v.5Partialchronologyofrepertoiresince1900:p.[211]214.Includesindex&bibliography:p.[217]229.
Anotherexcellentadditiontothenewinstrumentationseries.ItisorganizedintothreepartsdealingwiththeHistoricalbackground,
theconstructionandacousticpropertiesoftheinstrumentsandtheactualtimbreandnotationofmusicfortheguitar.PartsOne
andTwoareofatechnicalnaturewithextensivedescriptionofthedevelopmentandconstructionoftheguitar,scientificanalysisof
soundproduction,spectralanalysisofthetimbre,etc.Thethirdsection,however,isofamorepracticalnatureandwillbeof
greatestinteresttocomposers.Thisworkcontainsmoretextthattheotherbooksinthisseriesbutcontainslotsofgoodideasand
examplesfromtheliteratureforthisoftenneglectedinstrument.

Piano:

Bunger,Richard.TheWellPreparedPiano.ColoradoSprings:TheColoradoCollegeMusicPress,1973.45p.ForewordbyJohnCage.
Oneofthefewtextsdealingwithextendingthebasictechniqueofpianoperformancethroughmodificationoftheinstrument.
Containsmanyideasforpreparingthepianoalongwithmanysuggestionsfordevelopingyourownmethods.
Organ:

Irwin,Stevens.DictionaryofPipeOrganStops,2nded.NewYork:SchirmerBooks;London:CollierMacmillanPublishers,1983.Anexcellent
bookdescribingthenames,constructionandtimbreofnearlyeveryorganstopyouwillbelikelytoencounter.Thisworkisamustforclear,
preciseorganresgistration.Extensiveappendixescoversuchareasasharmonicfactorsaffectingtonequality,constructionandmechanical
elementsandtheireffectonmusicalsounds,etc.

Donahue,Thomas.TheModernClassicalOrgan.Jefferson,NorthCarolina:McFarland&Company,Inc.1991.
Averygood,concisetextonorgandesignanditsperformanceimplications.Itcontainsmethodsforbeatcalculationwithinvarious
tuningsandregistrations,harmoniccontentsofvariousreeds,andvarioustuningsystems.Partsarequitetechnical,butthereis
muchusableinformationforthecomposer.

ElectronicMusic:

ADescriptivenotationforelectronicmusic.
Thismanuscriptcontainsgoodexamplesfromthelate60's(pub.1969)andthephilosophiesandrationalbehindthenotationisvery
good.Greatbackgroundforallwhowanttodevisetheirownelectronicmusicnotation.

ChoralMusic:

Fleming,LarryLee.ContemporaryChoralNotation.AnnArbor,Mich.:UniversityMicrofilmsInternational,1982.273p.Bibliography:p.263
273.
Thisdissertationcontainshundredsofexamplesofmodernnotation.Althoughfromthetitleitwouldseemtofocusonthe
choral/vocalfield,theprinciplesapplytoallmusic.Theexamplesarenotasselectiveascouldbehopedfor,andsothereisalotof
extrastufftowadethrough...

Hicks,ValJ.,InnovativeChoralMusicNotation:theSemantics,SyntacticsandPragmaticsofSymbology.AnnArbor,Mich.:University
MicrofilmsInternational,1982.160leaves.Bibliography:leaves[144]158.Thesis(Ph.D.)UniversityofUtah,1971.