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IMOC 2009 - INTERNATIONAL MICROWAVE AND OPTOELECTRONICS CONFERENCE

The Hi Monopole

Naylton O. Cunha, Maria E. Ferreira, Rodrigo M. S. de Oliveira 1 , José F. Almeida 2 , Carlos L.S.S Sobrinho 1 ,

1 Federal University of Pará (UFPA) / Institute of Technology (ITEC) 2 Rural Federal University of Amazon (UFRA)

naylton@gmail.com, elizia.w@ig.com.br, rmso@ufpa.br,

felipe.almeida@ufra.edu.br,

leonidas@ufpa.br

Abstract — A known Ultra Wideband (UWB) planar monopole antenna was modified and analyzed by implementing the FDTD methodology and by experiments. The modification is based on the current characteristics related to the skin effect. Then, it is verified that by introducing some modifications, it is possible to operate at different bands. Such bands are around 2.4 GHz, in the 5 - 6 GHz range, and at the UWB range (3.1– 10.6 GHz).

Index Terms — Monopole antenna, skin effect, Hi Monopole.

I. INTRODUCTION

F or charge movement in antennas under normal operation, special attention should be spent to the voltage-current

ratio [1]. It is the electrical potential difference between two points in space that promotes charge movement. Once in movement, such charges must face up obstacles, such as atomic network resistances, what limits their velocity, dissipating part of the their energy. Such behavior is described by Ohm's law. However, the propagation in good conductors is described by a uniform plane wave. This way, in metals, we can think on a electromagnetic wave and not on effective voltages [2]. Considering high frequency electrical current in metals, the charge movement tends to occur in the conducting surface. The analysis of this behavior indicates that as the surface area increases, the antennas' bandwidth tends to increase [3]. However, it should be noticed that under some circumstances it is not verified, such as in microstrip antennas, in which energy is stored due surface waves, producing narrow bands in the fundamental mode of operation of such devices [4]. In other cases, such as in monopole antennas, good results can be obtained concerning the increasing of the bandwidth. In this work, it os proposed a modification on the planar monopole presented in [5-6]. This way, this the new radiator consists on the borders of the original metallic plane. This analysis is, this way, based on the skin effect [1]. In order preserve the antenna efficiency, a central vertical conductor was inserted. It is also verified that rectangular parasite elements can be used for increasing the bandwidth of the modified radiator. The modified antennas were initially analyzed via the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) [7-8] method, using a home made software called LANE SAGS [9], and some of the obtained results were compared to measurements performed with the built antennas.

II. THE ANTENNAS' GEOMETRY

The original antenna (planar monopole) is represented by Fig. 1a for comparison proposes. This antennas has the same characteristics of its single-wire version [5]. The main electrical difference is its extended bandwidth, as previously

shown by [5-6]. As it was detailed in [1], similar effects over the current due the metallic plane of Fig.1a can be observed in a border-based geometry (Fig. 1b). The antenna shown by Fig. 1a was designed to operate in the UWB range

[10].

by Fig. 1a was designed to operate in the UWB range [10]. (a) y z x
by Fig. 1a was designed to operate in the UWB range [10]. (a) y z x

(a)

y

z x
z
x

x

was designed to operate in the UWB range [10]. (a) y z x x (b) Fig.
was designed to operate in the UWB range [10]. (a) y z x x (b) Fig.

(b)

Fig. 1. (a) the planar monopole [5] and (b) the “rectangular wire loop

monopole”.

Numerical techniques in general, such as the FDTD, are powerful tools for designing antennas, as far as it is possible to optimize parameters at minimal expenses. Such parameters can be controlled by modifying the antenna's geometry, for example, which is a simple operation in FDTD methodology. By using this numerical technique, it was observed that the simple use of a “rectangular wire loop” monopole (Fig. 1b), produced a similar profile for return loss curve, but with reduced efficiency. This way, the geometry shown by Fig. 2 (the Hi monopole) is proposed. The suggested name (Hi) is due the similarity of the geometry of the antenna (Fig. 2) to the Japanese character

(Hi, pronounced as “he”). The geometry consists on introducing an additional wire to the antenna represented by Fig. 1b, in order to improve its the efficiency, as can be verified by inspecting Fig. 3 (which includes an experimental confirmation).

to improve its the efficiency, as can be verified by inspecting Fig. 3 (which includes an

IMOC 2009 - INTERNATIONAL MICROWAVE AND OPTOELECTRONICS CONFERENCE

12mm

2mm 0.5mm 1mm 23.5mm20 mm 1mm
2mm
0.5mm
1mm
23.5mm20 mm
1mm

Fig. 2. The Hi Monopole

The idea of including this central conductor can be understood by observing Fig. 4. The main role played by this wire is to reduce the magnetic field's component which is normal to the antenna's plane (y-direction), as it occurs in the geometry of Fig. 1a (metal's boundary condition: it is zero).

Monopolo Planar (experimento) 0 Planar Monopole (measurement) Monopolo HI (FDTD) Hi Monopole (FDTD) Monopolo Planar
Monopolo Planar (experimento)
0
Planar Monopole (measurement)
Monopolo HI (FDTD)
Hi Monopole (FDTD)
Monopolo Planar (FDTD)
Planar Monopole (FDTD)
-5
-10
-15
-20
0
2
4
6
8
Freqüência (GHz)
Frequency (GHz)
|S11| (dB)

Fig. 3. Comparison of the return loss profiles for the planar monopole (FDTD and experimental) to the return loss for the Hi monopole (FDTD).

H H Magnetic Field Hi Antenna Ground Plane
H
H
Magnetic
Field
Hi Antenna
Ground Plane

Fig. 4 Representation of the normal magnetic field behaviour due current circulation for the Hi antenna.

III. RESULTS

All the built antennas were made of copper. The dimensions

used were identical to that published in [5-6] (height: 20 mm

and width: 12 mm) for the planar monopole (Fig. 1a). The

lines of the antennas were constructed with cylindrical wires

with 2 mm of diameter (borders) and 0.5 mm for the central conductor diameter. The ground plane is separated from the radiator by 1 mm. The transmission line and its connector are both designed for 50 Ohms impedance matching. For simulating the antenna via the FDTD method, the Yee's cells dimensions were set to Δx = Δy = 1 mm and Δz = 0.5 mm. The time step Δt was set to 2.043×10 -11 seconds (satisfying the Courant's condition) and a Gaussian pulse with 10 GHz of bandwidth was used as the excitation source. As previously mentioned, Fig. 3 shows a comparison of the return loss profiles of the antenna Hi (Fig. 2), obtained via FDTD simulation, to the profile of the planar monopole simulated via FDTD and measured. This shows the functionality and efficiency of the proposed geometry. In next section, the Hi geometry (Fig. 2), is used as a main radiator for other antennas, which bandwdths are improved by introducing parasite elements.

IV. MODIFICATIONS ON THE GEOMETRY AND EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

As it is well known, the electrical length of antennas are related to their operation frequency range. In this section,

parasite elements are introduced in order to extend the bandwidth of the Hi antenna. This way, in order to deal with equipment limitations, lower operation frequencies were required and the new antennas' heights were built with 24

mm and their widths remained unchanged. This way, the new

established dimensions are 12×24 mm (the distance from the radiator to the ground plane is maintained (1 mm) for all cases). Figs. 5 and 6 show the built Hi antenna with the new dimensions and its return loss curve, respectively. Fig. 5 also illustrates the measurement setup available for performing the experiments (unfortunately, an anechoic chamber was not available). The experimental results are compared to those obtained via numerical simulation. It can be observed that the frequency range of operation was shifted to lower frequencies when compared to the curves of Fig. 3, as expected. Fig.7 shows that if the height of the antenna is set to 25 mm, the device operates exactly at WLAN range (around 2.4 GHz). Fig. 8 shows how the bandwidth of the antenna is affected by the reduction of the size of the ground plane (which should be an infinite surface).

IV. ADDITIONAL RESULTS

The following results were obtained via FDTD simulations, using the software LANE SAGS. The objective here is to extend the bandwidth of the Hi antenna by using square parasite elements around the active radiator, as it was developed in [6] (see Figs. 10 and 11), The main radiator has the following dimensions: 12 mm × 20 mm. All the parasite (passive) elements are square metallic rings, which sides are

IMOC 2009 - INTERNATIONAL MICROWAVE AND OPTOELECTRONICS CONFERENCE

10 mm long. Those elements are placed one millimeter from the active radiator. The obtained results, for two and three parasites compared to the Hi antenna, are shown by Fig. 9, in which it is possible to observe that the operation band of the antenna is extended, specially considering three passive rings.

is extended, specially considering three passive rings. Fig. 5. Measurement setup for the elementar Hi Monopole

Fig. 5. Measurement setup for the elementar Hi Monopole (12×24 mm).

0 Monopolo HI (experimento) Hi Monopole (measurement) -5 Monopolo HI (FDTD) Hi Monopole (FDTD) -10
0
Monopolo HI (experimento)
Hi Monopole (measurement)
-5
Monopolo HI (FDTD)
Hi Monopole (FDTD)
-10
-15
-20
-25
-30
2,2
2,4
2,6
2,8
3,0
3,2
3,4
3,6
Frequency (GHz)
Frequência (GHz)
|S11| (dB)

Fig. 6. Return loss for the antenna shown by Fig. 5 (FDTD simulation and the measurement).

0 -5 Antena HI - WLAN Hi - WLAN -10 -15 -20 2,1 2,4 2,7
0
-5
Antena HI - WLAN
Hi - WLAN
-10
-15
-20
2,1
2,4
2,7
3,0
Freqüência (GHz)
Frequency (GHz)
|S11| (dB)

Fig. 7. Return Loss for a Hi antena designed to operate at the WLAN range.

0 -5    -10 -15 -20 -25 2,1 2,4 2,7 3,0 3,3 3,6
0
-5

-10
-15
-20
-25
2,1
2,4
2,7
3,0
3,3
3,6
Frequência (GHz)
Frequency (GHz)
|S11| (dB)

Fig. 8. Influence of the square ground plane side length on the return loss curve (λ and λ/2, f = 2.73 GHz).

0 -5 -10 -15 -20 B Sem Parasitas No Parasites -25 02 B Com 2
0
-5
-10
-15
-20
B
Sem Parasitas
No Parasites
-25
02
B
Com 2 Parasitas
Parasites
03
B
Com 3 Parasitas
Parasites
-30
0
2
4
6
8
10
Frequency (GHz)
Freqüência (GHz)
|S11| (dB)

Fig. 9. Return loss obtained via FDTD simulations of the Hi antenna with two and three parasites, compared to the original Hi radiator.

V. FINAL REMARKS

This work presents a new antenna model, called Hi antenna. It has been shown that the behavior of a metallic plane (planar monopole) can be approximated by a wired rectangular loop monopole (idea based on skin effect), with a central vertical wire for improving its return loss curve. This happens because of the reduction of the component of the magnetic field normal to the antenna's plane, as it has been shown by Fig. 4. The response of this antenna was obtained via numerical simulations and it has been measured (reasonable agreement was found, although an anechoic chamber was not used). From this antenna (Hi), other models were developed. In particular, parameters were optimized though numerical simulation before the antennas were built. During the optimization process, an antenna suitable for operating at the WLAN range was obtained. Finally, rectangular rings were used as parasite elements for extending the bandwidth of the antenna. It was observed that by using three of them, the obtained bandwidth was 91% around the UWB frequency of 6GHz. This way, this work shows an antenna model that can be further explored in new

IMOC 2009 - INTERNATIONAL MICROWAVE AND OPTOELECTRONICS CONFERENCE

works, and applications can be diversified. It should be mentioned that this antenna can be built on a circuit board as well.

12mm

10 mm 1mm 20 mm 1 mm
10 mm
1mm
20 mm
1 mm

(a)

on a circuit board as well. 12mm 10 mm 1mm 20 mm 1 mm (a) 12mm

12mm

10 mm 1mm 20 mm 1 mm
10 mm
1mm
20 mm
1 mm

(b)

Fig.10. The Hi antenna with (a) two and (b) three parasite elements.

Hi antenna with (a) two and (b) three parasite elements. Fig.11. The Hi antenna (made manually)

Fig.11. The Hi antenna (made manually) with three parasite elements.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Authors would like to acknowledge UFPA, IESAM, ELETRONORTE and EMBRATEL for the physical, financial and technical support to this work.

REFERENCES

[1] T. H. Otani, K. R. Auad, A. Amorim Jr e J. F. Almeida, Estudo do Efeito Pelicular em Antenas Dipolo, SBrT, Recife-PE, 2007. [2] J.D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, New York: Wiley, 1999. [3] R. Garg, P. Bahrtia, I. Bahl, and A. Ittipiboon, Microstrip Antenna Design Handbook, Boston: Artech House, 2001. [4] E. S. Neves, R. Schildberg, J. C. Lacava, and L. B. T. Cividanes, Antena de Microfita Multibanda, SBMO, Recife-PE, 2002. [5] Y. Rikuta and R. Kohno, “Planar Monopole Antenna with Dual Frequency for UWB System,” IEEE Antennas and Porpag. Magazine, 2003. [6] T. C. Martins, “Controle de Banda e Sintonia de Antenas Monopolo Planar para Sistemas UWB”, tese de Mestrado, Universidade Federal do Pará / PPGEE, 2006. [7] K. Yee, “Numerical Solution of Initial Boundary Value Problems Involving Maxwell’s Equations in Isotropic Media,” IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propagation, vol. 14, pp.302–307, 1966. [8] S. D. Gedney, “An Anisotropic Perfectly Matched Layer Absorbing Media for the Truncation of FDTD Latices,” IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propagation, vol. 44, pp. 1630–1639, 1996. [9] R. M. S. de Oliveira, “Nova Metodologia para Análise e Síntese de Sistemas de Aterramento Complexos Utilizando o Método LN-FDTD, Computação Paralela Automática e Redes Neurais Artificiais”, Ph.D. thesis, Universidade Federal do Pará, 2008. [10] M. Ghavami, L. B. Michael, S. Haruyama, and R. Kohno, Ultra- Wideband Signals and Systems in Communication Engineering. N.Y:

Wiley, 2004.