COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN EXAMPLE FOR PRESTRESSED CONCRETE (PSC) GIRDER SUPERSTRUCTURE BRIDGE WITH COMMENTARY
(Task order DTFH6102T63032)
US CUSTOMARY UNITS
Submitted to
THE FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION
Prepared By Modjeski and Masters, Inc.
November 2003
Technical Report Documentation Page
1. 
Report No. 
2. 
Government Accession No. 
3. 
Recipient’s Catalog No. 

FHWA NHI  04043 

4. 
Title and Subtitle 
5. 
Report Date 

Comprehensive Design Example for Prestressed Concrete (PSC) Girder Superstructure Bridge with Commentary (in US Customary Units) 
November 2003 

6. 
Performing Organization Code 

7. 
Author (s) Wagdy G. Wassef, Ph.D., P.E., Christopher Smith, E.I.T. Chad M. Clancy, P.E., Martin J. Smith, P.E. 
8. 
Performing Organization Report No. 

9. 
Performing Organization Name and Address 
10. Work Unit No. (TRAIS) 

Modjeski and Masters, Inc. P.O.Box 2345 Harrisburg, Pennsylvania 17105 
11. Contract or Grant No. 

DTFH6102D63006 

12. 
Sponsoring Agency Name and Address 
13. Type of Report and Period Covered 

Federal Highway Administration National Highway Institute (HNHI10) 4600 N. Fairfax Drive, Suite 800 Arlington, Virginia 22203 
Final Submission August 2002 – November 2003 

14. Sponsoring Agency Code 

15. 
Supplementary Notes 

Modjeski and Masters Principle Investigator and Project Manager : 

Wagdy G. Wassef , Ph.D., P.E. FHWA Contracting Officer’s Technical Representative: Thomas K. Saad, P.E. Team Leader, Technical Review Team: Jerry Potter, P.E. 

16. 
Abstract 

This document consists of a comprehensive design example of a prestressed concrete girder bridge. The superstructure consists of two simple spans made continuous for live loads. The substructure consists of integral end abutments and a multicolumn intermediate bent. The document also includes instructional commentary based on the AASHTOLRFD Bridge Design Specifications (Second Edition, 1998, including interims for 1999 through 2002). The design example and commentary are intended to serve as a guide to aid bridge design engineers with the implementation of the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. This document is offered in US Customary Units. An accompanying document in Standard International (SI) Units is offered under report No. FHWA NHI04044. 

This document includes detailed flowcharts outlining the design steps for all components of the bridge. The flowcharts are crossreferenced to the relevant specification articles to allow easy navigation of the specifications. Detailed design computations for the following components are included: concrete deck, prestressed concrete Igirders, elastomeric bearing, integral abutments and wing walls, multicolumn bent and pile and spread footing foundations. 

In addition to explaining the design steps of the design example, the comprehensive commentary goes beyond the specifics of the design example to offer guidance on different situations that may be encountered in other bridges. 

17. 
Key Words 
18. 
Distribution Statement 

Bridge Design, Prestressed Concrete, Load and Resistance Factor Design, LRFD, Concrete Deck, Intermediate Bent, Integral Abutment, Wingwall, Pile Foundation, Spread Footings 
This report is available to the public from the National Technical Information Service in Springfield, Virginia 22161 and from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. 

19. 
Security Classif. (of this report) 
20. 
Security Classif. (of this page) 
21. 
No. of Pages 
22. 
Price 

Unclassified 
Unclassified 
381 
Form DOT F 1700.7 (872)
Reproduction of completed page authorized
This page intentionally left blank
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors would like to express appreciation to the review teams from the Illinois Department of Transportation, Minnesota Department of Transportation and Washington State Department of Transportation for providing review and direction on the Technical Review Committee.
The authors would also like to acknowledge the contributions of Dr. John M. Kulicki, President/CEO and Chief Engineer of Modjeski and Masters, Inc., for his guidance throughout the project.
Table of Contents
Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
1. INTRODUCTION 
11 
2. EXAMPLE BRIDGE 
21 
2.1 Bridge geometry and materials 
21 
2.2 Girder geometry and section properties 
24 
2.3 Effective flange width 
210 
3. FLOWCHARTS 
31 
4. DESIGN OF DECK 
41 
5. DESIGN OF SUPERSTRUCTURE 

5.1 Live load distribution factors 
51 
5.2 Dead load calculations 510
5.3 Unfactored and factored load effects 513
527
5.5 Stress in prestressing strands 536
5.6 Design for flexure
5.4 Loss of prestress
5.6.1 Flexural stress at transfer 
546 

5.6.2 Final flexural stress under Service I limit state 
549 

5.6.3 Longitudinal steel at top of girder 
561 

5.6.4 Flexural resistance at the strength limit state in positive 

moment 
region 
563 
5.6.5 Continuity correction at intermediate support 
567 

5.6.6 Fatigue in prestressed steel 
575 
5.6.7 Camber 575
5.6.8 Optional live load deflection check 
580 
5.7 Design for shear 
582 
5.7.1 Critical section for shear near the end support 584
5.7.2 Shear analysis for a section in the positive moment region 
585 
5.7.3 Shear analysis for sections in the negative moment region 
593 
5.7.4 Factored bursting resistance 5101
5.7.5 Confinement reinforcement 
5102 
5.7.6 Force in the longitudinal reinforcement including the effect of the applied shear 
5104 
6. DESIGN OF BEARINGS 
61 
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Table of Contents
Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example
7. DESIGN OF SUBSTRUCTURE
71
7.1. Design of Integral Abutments
7.1.1 Gravity loads 76
7.1.2 Pile cap design
7.1.3 Piles 712
7.1.4 Backwall design 716
730
7.1.6 Design of approach slab 734
7.1.5 Wingwall design
711
7.1.7 Sleeper slab 
737 

7.2. Design of Intermediate Pier 

7.2.1 Substructure loads and application 
738 

7.2.2 Pier cap design 
751 

7.2.3 Column 
design 
766 
7.2.4 Footing design 775
Appendix A  Comparisons of Computer Program Results (QConBridge and Opis) Section A1 QConBridge Input 
A1 
Section A2 QConBridge Output 
A3 
Section A3 Opis Input 
A10 
Section A4 Opis Output 
A47 
Section A5 Comparison Between the Hand Calculations and the Two Computer Programs 
A55 
Section A6 Flexural Resistance Sample Calculation from Opis to Compare with Hand Calculations 
A58 
Appendix B  General Guidelines for Refined Analysis of Deck Slabs
Appendix C  Example of Creep and Shrinkage Calculations
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Design Step 1  Introduction
Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example
1. INTRODUCTION
This example is part of a series of design examples sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration. The design specifications used in these examples is the AASHTO LRFD Bridge design Specifications. The intent of these examples is to assist bridge designers in interpreting the specifications, limit differences in interpretation between designers, and to guide the designers through the specifications to allow easier navigation through different provisions. For this example, the Second Edition of the AASHTOLRFD Specifications with Interims up to and including the 2002 Interim is used.
This design example is intended to provide guidance on the application of the AASHTOLRFD Bridge Design Specifications when applied to prestressed concrete superstructure bridges supported on intermediate multicolumn bents and integral end abutments. The example and commentary are intended for use by designers who have knowledge of the requirements of AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges or the AASHTOLRFD Bridge Design Specifications and have designed at least one prestressed concrete girder bridge, including the bridge substructure. Designers who have not designed prestressed concrete bridges, but have used either AASHTO Specification to design other types of bridges may be able to follow the design example, however, they will first need to familiarize themselves with the basic concepts of prestressed concrete design.
This design example was not intended to follow the design and detailing practices of any particular agency. Rather, it is intended to follow common practices widely used and to adhere to the requirements of the specifications. It is expected that some users may find differences between the procedures used in the design compared to the procedures followed in the jurisdiction they practice in due to Agencyspecific requirements that may deviate from the requirements of the specifications. This difference should not create the assumption that one procedure is superior to the other.
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Design Step 1  Introduction
Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example
Reference is made to AASHTOLRFD specifications article numbers throughout the design example. To distinguish between references to articles of the AASHTOLRFD specifications and references to sections of the design example, the references to specification articles are preceded by the letter “S”. For example, S5.2 refers to Article 5.2 of AASHTOLRFD specifications while 5.2 refers to Section 5.2 of the design example.
Two different forms of fonts are used throughout the example.
Regular font is used for
calculations and for text directly related to the example. Italic font is used for text that represents commentary that is general in nature and is used to explain the intent of some specifications provisions, explain a different available method that is not used by the example, provide an overview of general acceptable practices and/or present difference in application between different jurisdictions.
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Design Step 2  Example Bridge
Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example
2. EXAMPLE BRIDGE
2.1 Bridge geometry and materials
Bridge superstructure geometry
Superstructure type: 
Reinforced concrete deck supported on simple span prestressed girders made continuous for live load. 
Spans: 
Two spans at 110 ft. each 
Width: 
55’4 ½” total 52’0” gutter linetogutter line (Three lanes 12’ 0” wide each, 10 ft. right shoulder and 6 ft. left shoulder. For superstructure design, the location of the driving lanes can be anywhere on the structure. For substructure design, the maximum number of 12 ft. wide lanes, i.e., 4 lanes, is considered) 
Railings: 
Concrete Type FParapets, 1’ 8 ¼” wide at the base 
Skew: 
20 degrees, valid at each support location 
Girder spacing: 
9’8” 
Girder type: 
AASHTO Type VI Girders, 72 in. deep, 42 in. wide top flange and 28 in. wide bottom flange (AASHTO 28/72 Girders) 
Strand arrangement: 
Straight strands with some strands debonded near the ends of the girders 
Overhang: 
3’6 ¼” from the centerline of the fascia girder to the end of the overhang 
Intermediate diaphragms: For load calculations, one intermediate diaphragm, 10 in. thick, 50 in. deep, is assumed at the middle of each span.
Figures 21 and 22 show an elevation and crosssection of the superstructure, respectively. Figure 23 through 26 show the girder dimensions, strand arrangement, support locations and strand debonding locations.
Typically, for a specific jurisdiction, a relatively small number of girder sizes are available to select from. The initial girder size is usually selected based on past experience. Many jurisdictions have a design aid in the form of a table that determines the most likely girder size for each combination of span length and girder spacing. Such tables developed using the HS25 live loading of the AASHTO Standard Specifications are expected to be applicable to the bridges designed using the AASHTOLRFD Specifications.
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Design Step 2  Example Bridge
Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example
The strand pattern and number of strands was initially determined based on past experience and subsequently refined using a computer design program. This design was refined using trial and error until a pattern produced stresses, at transfer and under service loads, that fell within the permissible stress limits and produced load resistances greater than the applied loads under the strength limit states. For debonded strands, S5.11.4.3 states that the number of partially debonded strands should not exceed 25 percent of the total number of strands. Also, the number of debonded strands in any horizontal row shall not exceed 40 percent of the strands in that row. The selected pattern has 27.2 percent of the total strands debonded. This is slightly higher than the 25 percent stated in the specifications, but is acceptable since the specifications require that this limit “should” be satisfied. Using the word “should” instead of “shall” signifies that the specifications allow some deviation from the limit of 25 percent.
Typically, the most economical strand arrangement calls for the strands to be located as close as possible to the bottom of the girders. However, in some cases, it may not be possible to satisfy all specification requirements while keeping the girder size to a minimum and keeping the strands near the bottom of the beam. This is more pronounced when debonded strands are used due to the limitation on the percentage of debonded strands. In such cases, the designer may consider the following two solutions:
Increase the size of the girder to reduce the range of stress, i.e., the difference between the stress at transfer and the stress at final stage. Increase the number of strands and shift the center of gravity of the strands upward.
Either solution results in some loss of economy.
(e.g., cost of the deeper girder, cost of the additional strands, the available underclearance and cost of
raising the approach roadway to accommodate deeper girders) when determining which solution to adopt.
The designer should consider specific site conditions
Bridge substructure geometry
Intermediate pier: Multicolumn bent (4 – columns spaced at 14’1”) Spread footings founded on sandy soil See Figure 27 for the intermediate pier geometry
End abutments:
Integral abutments supported on one line of steel Hpiles supported on bedrock.
wingwalls are cantilevered from the fill face of the abutment.
supported on the integral abutment at one end and a sleeper slab at the other end. See Figure 28 for the integral abutment geometry
U
The approach slab is
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Design Step 2  Example Bridge
Materials
Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example
Concrete strength Prestressed girders: 
Initial strength at transfer, f¢ _{c}_{i} = 4.8 ksi 
Deck slab: 
28day strength, f¢ _{c} = 6 ksi 4.0 ksi 
Substructure: 
3.0 ksi 
Railings: 
3.5 ksi 
Concrete elastic modulus (calculated using S5.4.2.4)
Girder final elastic modulus, E _{c} Girder elastic modulus at transfer, E _{c}_{i} Deck slab elastic modulus, E _{s}
= 4,696 ksi = 4,200 ksi = 3,834 ksi
Reinforcing steel Yield strength,
f _{y} = 60 ksi
Prestressing strands
0.5 inch diameter low relaxation strands Grade 270
Strand area, A _{p}_{s} Steel yield strength, f _{p}_{y} Steel ultimate strength, f _{p}_{u} Prestressing steel modulus, E _{p}
= 0.153 in ^{2} = 243 ksi = 270 ksi = 28,500 ksi
Other parameters affecting girder analysis
Time of Transfer Average Humidity
= 1 day = 70%
Figure 21 – Elevation View of the Example Bridge
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Design Step 2  Example Bridge
Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example
55'  4 1/2" Total Width
Figure 22 – Bridge CrossSection
2.2 Girder geometry and section properties
Basic beam section properties
Beam length, L
Depth Thickness of web
Area,
Moment of inertia, I _{g} N.A. to top, y _{t} N.A. to bottom, y _{b} Section modulus, S _{T}_{O}_{P} Section modulus, S _{B}_{O}_{T} CGS from bottom, at 0 ft. CGS from bottom, at 11 ft. CGS from bottom, at 54.5 ft. P/S force eccentricity at 0 ft., e _{0}_{’} P/S force eccentricity at 11 ft. , e _{1}_{1}_{’}
P/S force eccentricity at 54.5 ft, e _{5}_{4}_{.}_{5}_{’} = 31.380 in.
= 110 ft. – 6 in. = 72 in. = 8 in. = 1,085 in ^{2} = 733,320 in ^{4} = 35.62 in. = 36.38 in. = 20,588 in ^{3} = 20,157 in ^{3} = 5.375 in. = 5.158 in. = 5.0 in. = 31.005 in. = 31.222 in.
A g
Interior beam composite section properties
Effective slab width
= 111 in. (see calculations in Section 2.3)
Deck slab thickness
= 8 in. (includes ½ in. integral wearing surface which is not included in the calculation of the composite section properties)
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Design Step 2  Example Bridge
Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example
Haunch depth = 4 in. (maximum value  notice that the haunch depth varies along the beam length and, hence, is ignored in calculating section properties but is considered when determining dead load)
Moment of inertia, I _{c} N.A. to slab top, y _{s}_{c} N.A. to beam top, y _{t}_{c} N.A. to beam bottom, y _{b}_{c} Section modulus, S _{T}_{O}_{P} _{S}_{L}_{A}_{B} Section modulus, S _{T}_{O}_{P} _{B}_{E}_{A}_{M} Section modulus, S _{B}_{O}_{T} _{B}_{E}_{A}_{M}
= 1,384,254 in ^{4} = 27.96 in. = 20.46 in. = 51.54 in. = 49,517 in ^{3} = 67,672 in ^{3} = 26,855 in ^{3}
Exterior beam composite section properties
Effective Slab Width
Deck slab thickness
Haunch depth
Moment of inertia, I _{c} N.A. to slab top, y _{s}_{c} N.A. to beam top, y _{t}_{c} N.A. to beam bottom, y _{b}_{c} Section modulus, S _{T}_{O}_{P} _{S}_{L}_{A}_{B} Section modulus, S _{T}_{O}_{P} _{B}_{E}_{A}_{M} Section modulus, S _{B}_{O}_{T} _{B}_{E}_{A}_{M}
= 97.75 in. (see calculations in Section 2.3)
= 8 in. (includes ½ in. integral wearing surface which is not included in the calculation of the composite section properties)
= 4 in. (maximum value  notice that the haunch depth varies along the beam length and, hence, is ignored in calculating section properties but is considered when determining dead load)
= 1,334,042 in ^{4} = 29.12 in. = 21.62 in. = 50.38 in. = 45,809 in ^{3} = 61,699 in ^{3} = 26,481 in ^{3}
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Design Step 2  Example Bridge
Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example
Figure 23 – Beam CrossSection Showing 44 Strands
Figure 24 – General Beam Elevation
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Figure 25 – Elevation View of Prestressing Strands
Design Step 2  Example Bridge
Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example
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Design Step 2  Example Bridge
Location of
P/S Force
Section AA
Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example
Location of
P/S Force
Section BB
Bonded Strand
Debonded Strand


Section CC
For location of Sections AA, BB and CC, see Figure 25
Figure 26 – Beam at Sections AA, BB, and CC
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Design Step 2  Example Bridge
Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example
Figure 27 – Intermediate Bent
Bedrock
Figure 28 – Integral Abutment
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Design Step 2  Example Bridge
2.3 Effective flange width (S4.6.2.6)
Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example
Longitudinal stresses in the flanges are distributed across the flange and the composite deck slab by in plane shear stresses, therefore, the longitudinal stresses are not uniform. The effective flange width is a reduced width over which the longitudinal stresses are assumed to be uniformly distributed and yet result in the same force as the nonuniform stress distribution if integrated over the entire width.
The effective flange width is calculated using the provisions of S4.6.2.6. See the bulleted list at the end of this section for a few S4.6.2.6 requirements. According to S4.6.2.6.1, the effective flange width may be calculated as follows:
For interior girders :
The effective flange width is taken as the least of the following:

Onequarter of the effective span length 
= 0.25(82.5)(12) 

= 
247.5 in. 


12.0 times the average thickness of the slab, 

plus the greater of the web thickness 
= 12(7.5) + 8 = 104 in. 

or onehalf the width of the top flange of the girder 
= 12(7.5) + 0.5(42) 

= 
111 in. 


The average spacing of adjacent beams 
= 9 ft. 8 in. or 116 in. 
The effective flange width for the interior beam is 111 in.
For exterior girders :
The effective flange width is taken as one half the effective width of the adjacent interior girder plus the least of:

Oneeighth of the effective span length 
= 0.125(82.5)(12) 

= 
123.75 in. 


6.0 times the average thickness of the slab, plus the greater of half the web thickness 
= 6.0(7.5) + 0.5(8) 
or onequarter of the width of the top flange of the basic girder
= 49 in.
= 6.0(7.5) + 0.25(42) = 55.5 in.
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Design Step 2  Example Bridge
The width of the overhang
Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example
= 3 ft. 6 ¼ in. or 42.25 in.
Therefore, the effective flange width for the exterior girder is:
(111/2) + 42.25 = 97.75 in.
Notice that:

The effective span length used in calculating the effective flange width may be taken as the actual span length for simply supported spans or as the distance between points of permanent dead load inflection for continuous spans, as specified in S4.6.2.6.1. For analysis of Ishaped girders, the effective flange width is typically calculated based on the effective span for positive moments and is used along the entire length of the beam. 

The slab thickness used in the analysis is the effective slab thickness ignoring any sacrificial layers (i.e., integral wearing surfaces) 
S4.5 allows the consideration of continuous barriers when analyzing for service and fatigue limit states. The commentary of S4.6.2.6.1 includes an approximate method of including the effect of the continuous barriers on the section by modifying the width of the overhang. Traditionally, the effect of the continuous barrier on the section is ignored in the design of new bridges and is ignored in this example. This effect may be considered when checking existing bridges with structurally sound continuous barriers.
Simplespan girders made continuous behave as continuous beams for all loads applied after the
deck slab hardens.
the distance from the center of the end support to the inflection point for composite dead loads (load is assumed to be distributed uniformly along the length of the girders), is 0.75 the length of the span.
For twoequal span girders, the effective length of each span, measured as
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Design Step 3 – Design Flowcharts
Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example
3. FLOWCHARTS
Main Design Steps
Determine bridge materials, span arrangement, girder spacing, bearing types, substructure type and geometry, and foundation type
Design the controlling girder for flexure and shear
NO
Section in Example
Design Step 2.0
Design Step 4.2
Design Step 4.2
Design Step 4.0
Design Steps 5.6 and 5.7
Design Step 6.0
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Design Step 3 – Design Flowcharts
Main Design Steps (cont.)
Design intermediate pier and foundation
Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example
Section in Example
Design Step 7.1
Design Step 7.2
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Design Step 3 – Design Flowcharts
Deck Slab Design
Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example
Section in Example
Design Step 4.2
Design Step 4.6
Design Step 4.7
Design Steps 4.8 and 4.9
Design Step 4.8
Design Step 4.12
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Design Step 3 – Design Flowcharts
Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example
Deck Slab Design (cont.)
For Slabs on Continuous Beams:
Steel beam  Determine area of longitudinal reinforcement in the deck in negative moment regions of the girders (S6.10.3.7) Concrete Simple Spans Made Continuous for Live Load  Determine the longitudinal slab reinforcement at intermediate pier areas during the design of the girders (S5.14.1.2.7b)
Determine strip width for overhang (S4.6.2.1.3) or where applicable, use S3.6.1.3.4
Determine railing load resistance and rail moment resistance at its base (S13.3)
Design overhang reinforcement for vehicular collision with railing + DL (Case 1 and Case 2 of SA13.4.1)
Determine factored moments from DL + LL on the overhang (Case 3 of SA13.4.1)
Design overhang reinforcement for DL + LL
Determine the controlling case for overhang reinforcement, Case 1, Case 2 or Case 3
Section in Example
Design Step 4.10
Design Step 4.11
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Design Step 3 – Design Flowcharts
Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example
General Superstructure Design (Notice that only major steps are presented in this flowchart. More detailed flowcharts of the design steps follow this flowchart)
Assume girder size based on span and girder spacing
Determine noncomposite dead load (girder, haunch and deck slab) for the interior and exterior girders
Determine composite dead load (railings, utilities, and future wearing surface) for the interior and exterior girders
Determine LL distribution factors for the interior and exterior girders
Determine unfactored and factored force effects
Determine the controlling girder (interior or exterior) and continue the design for this girder
Section in Example
Design Step 2.0
Design Step 5.2
Design Step 5.2
Design Step 5.1
Design Step 5.3
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Design Step 3 – Design Flowcharts
Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example
General Superstructure Design (cont.)
Section in Example
Determine longterm and shortterm prestressing force losses
Design for flexure under Service Limit State
Design for flexure under Strength Limit State
Design for shear under Strength Limit State
Check longitudinal reinforcement for additional forces from shear
Design Step 5.4
Design Step 5.6
Design Step 5.7
Select a different girder size or change strand
arrangement
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Design Step 3 – Design Flowcharts
Live LoadDistribution Factor Calculations
Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example
Section in Example
Design Step 5.1
Design Step 5.1.3
Design Step 5.1.6
Design Step 5.1.5
Design Step 5.1.7
Design Step 5.1.8
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Design Step 3 – Design Flowcharts
Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example
Live LoadDistribution Factor Calculations (cont.)
Determine the controlling (larger) distribution factors for moment and shear for the interior girder
Divide the single lane distribution factors by the multiple presence factor for one lane loaded,1.2, to determine the fatigue distribution factors (Notice that fatigue is not an issue for conventional P/S girders. This step is provided here to have a complete general reference for distribution factor calculations.)
Repeat the calculations for the exterior girder using S4.6.2.2.2d for moment and S4.6.2.2.3b for shear
Additional check for the exterior girder for bridges with rigidly connected girders
Section in Example
Design Step 5.1.9
Design Step 5.1.10
Design Step 5.1.15
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Design Step 3 – Design Flowcharts
Creep and Shrinkage Calculations
Calculate the creep coefficient, y(t, t _{i} ), for the beam at infinite time according to S5.4.2.3.2.
Calculate the creep coefficient, y(t,t _{i} ), in the beam at the time the slab is cast according to S5.4.2.3.2.
Calculate the prestressed end slope, q.
Calculate the prestressed creep fixed end actions
Calculate dead load creep fixed end actions
Determine creep
final effects
Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example
Section in Example
Design Step C1.2
Design Step C1.3
Design Step C1.4
Design Step C1.5
Design Step C1.6
Design Step C1.7
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Design Step 3 – Design Flowcharts
Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example
Creep and Shrinkage Calculations (cont.)
Calculate shrinkage strain in beam at infinite time according to S5.4.2.3.3.
Calculate shrinkage strain in the beam at the time the slab is cast (S5.4.2.3.3).
Calculate the shrinkage strain in the slab at infinite time (S5.4.2.3.3).
Calculate the shrinkage driving end moment, M _{s}
Analyze the beam for the shrinkage fixed end actions
Calculate the correction factor for shrinkage
Calculate the shrinkage final moments
Section in Example
Design Step C2.1
Design Step C2.2
Design Step C2.3
Design Step C2.5
Design Step C2.6
Design Step C2.7
Design Step C2.8
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Design Step 3 – Design Flowcharts
Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example
Prestressing Losses Calculations
Determine the stress limit immediately prior to transfer in the prestressing strands for the prestressing steel used (S5.9.3)
Determine Instantaneous Losses (S5.9.5.2) for pretensioned members, only Elastic Shortening (S5.9.5.2.3a) is considered
Determine the lump sum time dependent losses
(S5.9.5.3)
Section in Example
Design Step 5.4.2
Design Step 5.4.3
Design Step 5.4.6.1
Design Step 5.4.6.2
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Design Step 3 – Design Flowcharts
Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example
Prestressing Losses Calculations (cont.)
Determine relaxation loss at transfer
(S5.9.5.4.4b)
Determine losses due to relaxation after transfer (S5.9.5.4.4c)
Determine stress in strands immediately after transfer as the stress prior to transfer minus instantaneous losses
Determine final stress in strands as stress immediately prior to transfer minus sum of instantaneous loss and time dependent losses after transfer
Section in Example
Design Step 5.4.6.3
Design Step 5.4.7
Design Step 5.4.4
Design Step 5.4.8
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Design Step 3 – Design Flowcharts
Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example
Flexural Design
Design controlling girder (interior)
Detemine compression and tension stress limits at transfer
Section in Example
Design Step 5.6.1.1
Design Step 5.6.2.1
Design Step 5.6.1.2
Design Step 5.6.2.2
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Design Step 3 – Design Flowcharts
Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example
Flexural Design (cont.)
Design the longitudnal steel at top of girder
Calculate factored flexural resistance, M _{r} , at points of maximum moment
(S5.7.3.1)
Check negative moment connection at intermediate pier
Select a different girder size or change strand arrangement
Select a different girder size or change strand arrangement
Section in Example
Design Step 5.6.3
Design Step 5.6.4
Design Step 5.6.4.1 and 5.6.4.2
Design Step 5.6.5.1
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Flexural Design (cont.)
Check moment capacity versus the maximum applied factored moment at the critical location for negative moment.
Check service crack control in negative moment region
(S5.5.2)
Check positive moment connection at intermediate pier
Check fatigue in prestressed steel (S5.5.3) (Notice that for conventional prestressed beams, fatigue does not need to be checked)
Calculate required camber in the beams to determine bearing seat elevations
Determine the
haunch thickness
Calculate required camber in the beams to determine probable sag in bridge
Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example
Section in Example
Design Step 5.6.5.1
Design Step 5.6.5.1
Design Step 5.6.5.2
Design Step 5.6.6
Design Step 5.6.7.1
Design Step 5.6.7.2
Design Step 5.6.7.3
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Design Step 3 – Design Flowcharts
Flexural Design (cont.)
Optional live load deflection check
(S2.5.2.6.2)
Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example
Section in Example
Design Step 5.6.8
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Design Step 3 – Design Flowcharts
Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example
Shear Design – Alternative 1, Assumed Angle ?
Determine b _{v} and d _{v} Eq. S5.8.2.9
Calculate shear stress ratio, v _{u} /f' _{c}
If the section is within the transfer length of any strands, calculate the average effective value of f _{p}_{o}
If the section is within the development length of any reinforcing bars, calculate the effective value of A _{s}
Section in Example
Design Step 5.7.2.1
Design Step 5.7.2.2
Design Step 5.7.2.5
Design Step 5.7.2.5
Design Step 5.7.2.5
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Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example
Shear Design – Alternative 1, Assumed Angle ? (cont.)
Section in Example
Design Step 5.7.2.5
Design Step 5.7.2.3 and 5.7.2.4
Design Step 5.7.6
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Design Step 3 – Design Flowcharts
Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example
Shear Design – Alternative 1, Assumed Angle ? (cont.)
Check confinement reinforcement (S5.10.10.2)
Check horizontal shear at interface between beam and deck (S5.8.4)
Section in Example
Design Step 5.7.4
Design Step 5.7.5
Design Step 5.7.7
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Design Step 3 – Design Flowcharts
Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example
Shear Design – Alternative 2, Assumed Strain e _{x}
Start
Determine b _{v} and d _{v} Eq. S5.8.2.9
Calculate V _{p}
Calculate shear stress ratio, v _{u} /f' _{c}
If the section is within the transfer length of any strands, calculate the average effective value of f _{p}_{o}
If the section is within the development length of any reinforcing bars, calculate the effective value of A _{s}
Assume value of e _{x} and take q and b from corresponding cell of Table S5.8.3.4.21
Calculate e _{x} using Eq.
S5.8.3.4.21
Section in Example
Design Step 5.7.2.1
Design Step 5.7.2.2
Design Step 5.7.2.5
Design Step 5.7.2.5
Design Step 5.7.2.5
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Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example
Shear Design – Alternative 2, Assumed Strain e _{x} (cont.)
Section in Example
Design Step 5.7.2.5
Design Step 5.7.2.3 and 5.7.2.4
Design Step 5.7.6
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Design Step 3 – Design Flowcharts
Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example
Shear Design – Alternative 2, Assumed Strain e _{x} (cont.)
Check confinement reinforcement (S5.10.10.2)
Check horizontal shear at interface between beam and deck (S5.8.4)
Section in Example
Design Step 5.7.4
Design Step 5.7.5
Design Step 5.7.7
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Design Step 3 – Design Flowcharts
Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example
SteelReinforced Elastomeric Bearing Design – Method A (Reference Only)
Determine movements and loads at pier support (S14.4)
Calculate required plan area based on compressive stress limit (S14.7.6.3.2)
Determine dimensions L and W of the bearing, W is taken to be slightly less than the width of the girder bottom flange
(S14.7.5.1)
Determine the shape factor for steel reinforced elastomeric bearings according to S14.7.5.1
Determine material properties (S14.7.6.2)
Check compressive stress. Determine the maximum allowed shape factor using total load and live load stresses for the assumed plan area
(S14.7.6.3.2)
Assume elastomer layer maximum thickness and number of layers
Section in Example
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Design Step 3 – Design Flowcharts
Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example
SteelReinforced Elastomeric Bearing Design – Method A (Reference Only) (cont.)
Check if the bearing needs to be secured against horizontal movement (S14.7.6.4)
Section in Example
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Design Step 3 – Design Flowcharts
Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example
SteelReinforced Elastomeric Bearing Design – Method B
Determine movements and loads at pier support (S14.4)
Calculate required plan area of the elastomeric pad based on compressive stress limit
(S14.7.5.3.2)
Determine dimensions L and W of the bearing, W is taken to be slightly less than the width of the girder bottom flange
(S14.7.5.1)
Determine material properties (S14.7.5.2)
Check compressive stress. Determine the maximum allowed shape factor using total load and live load stresses for the assumed plan area (S14.7.5.3.2)
Calculate maximum elastomer interior layer thickness, h _{r}_{i} . (S14.7.5.1)
Section in Example
Design Step 6.1
Design Step 6.1.1
Design Step 6.1.1
Design Step 6.1.2.1
Design Step 6.1.2.1
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Design Step 3 – Design Flowcharts
Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example
SteelReinforced Elastomeric Bearing Design – Method B (cont.)
Determine steel reinforcement thickness, h _{s} (S14.7.5.3.7)
Section in Example
Design Step 6.1.2.1
Design Step 6.1.2.2
Design Step 6.1.2.3
Design Step 6.1.2.4
Design Step 6.1.2.5
Design Step 6.1.2.6
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Design Step 3 – Design Flowcharts
SUBSTRUCTURE
Integral Abutment Design
Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example
Section in Example
Design Step 7.1.1
Design Step 7.1.2
Design Step 7.1.3.1
Design Step 7.1.4
Design Step 7.1.4.1
Design Step 7.1.5
Design Step 7.1.6
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Design Step 3 – Design Flowcharts
Intermediate Bent Design
Generate the loads applied to the intermediate bent components.
Determine maximum loads transferred from the superstructure
Analyze the pier cap. Determine the locations of maximum positive moment, negative moment and shear
Design flexural and shear reinforcement in the pier cap
Check limits of reinforcement
(S5.7.3.3)
Check flexural reinforcement distribution (S5.7.3.4)
Check minimum temperature and shrinkage steel (S5.10.8)
Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example
Section in Example
Design Step 7.2.1
Design Step 7.2.2
Design Step 7.2.2.4
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Design Step 3 – Design Flowcharts
Intermediate Bent Design (cont.)
Check skin reinforcement in components where d _{e} exceeds 3.0 ft. (S5.7.3.4)
Design the columns. Determine the maximum moments and shears in the column
Check limits for reinforcement in compression members (S5.7.4.2)
Develop the column interaction curve
Check slenderness provisions for concrete columns (S5.7.4.3)
Determine transverse reinforcement for a compressive member (S5.10.6)
Design the footing. Determine applied moments and shears transmitted from the columns
Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example
Section in Example
Design Step 7.2.2.5
Design Step 7.2.3
Design Step 7.2.3.1
Design Step 7.2.3.2
Design Step 7.2.4
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Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example
Intermediate Bent Design (cont.)
Check flexural resistance
(S5.7.3.2)
Check maximum and minimum reinforcement (S5.7.3.3)
Check distribution of reinforcement for cracking in the concrete (S5.7.3.4)
Design footing for maximum shear in the longitudinal and transverse directions (oneway shear and punching (twoway) shear)
Foundation soil resistance at the Strength Limit State (S10.6.3)
Section in Example
Design Step 7.2.4.1
Design Step 7.2.4.2
Design Step 7.2.4.3
Design Step 7.2.4.4
Design Step 7.2.4.5
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Design Step 4 – Design of Deck
Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example
Design Step 
DECK SLAB DESIGN 

4 

Design Step 
In addition to designing the deck for dead and live loads at the strength limit state, the 

4.1 
AASHTOLRFD specifications require checking the deck for vehicular collision with the railing system at the extreme event limit state. The resistance factor at the extreme event limit state is taken as 1.0. This signifies that, at this level of loading, damage to the structural components is allowed and the goal is to prevent the collapse of any structural components. 

The AASHTOLRFD Specifications include two methods of deck design. The first method is called the approximate method of deck design (S4.6.2.1) and is typically referred to as the equivalent strip method. The second is called the Empirical Design Method (S9.7.2). 

The equivalent strip method is based on the following: 


A transverse strip of the deck is assumed to support the truck axle loads. 

The strip is assumed to be supported on rigid supports at the center of the girders. The width of the strip for different load effects is determined using the equations in S4.6.2.1. 


The truck axle loads are moved laterally to produce the moment envelopes. Multiple presence factors and the dynamic load allowance are included. The total moment is divided by the strip distribution width to determine the live load per unit width. 


The loads transmitted to the bridge deck during vehicular collision with the railing system are determined. 


Design factored moments are then determined using the appropriate load factors for different limit states. 


The reinforcement is designed to resist the applied loads using conventional principles of reinforced concrete design. 


Shear and fatigue of the reinforcement need not be investigated. 

The Empirical Design Method is based on laboratory testing of deck slabs. This testing indicates that the loads on the deck are transmitted to the supporting components mainly through arching action in the deck, not through shears and moments as assumed by traditional design. Certain limitations on the geometry of the deck are listed in S9.7.2. Once these limitations are satisfied, the specifications give reinforcement ratios for both the longitudinal and transverse reinforcement for both layers of deck reinforcement. No other design calculations are required for the interior portions of the deck. The overhang region is then designed for vehicular collision with the railing system and for 
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Design Step 4 – Design of Deck
Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example
Design Step
4.2
dead and live loads acting on the deck. The Empirical Design Method requires less reinforcement in the interior portions of the deck than the Approximate Method.
For this example, the Approximate Method (Strip Width Method) is used.
9"
55'  4 1/2"
Figure 41 – Bridge CrossSection
Required information:
Girder spacing 
= 9 ft. 8 in. 
Top cover 
= 2 ½ in. (S5.12.3) 
Bottom cover Steel yield strength Slab conc. compressive strength Concrete density Future wearing surface density 
(includes ½ in. integral wearing surface) = 1 in. (S5.12.3) = 60 ksi = 4 ksi = 150 pcf = 30 psf 
DECK THICKNESS
The specifications require that the minimum thickness of a concrete deck, excluding any provisions for grinding, grooving and sacrificial surface, should not be less than 7 in. (S9.7.1.1). Thinner decks are acceptable if approved by the bridge owner. For slabs with depths less than 1/20 of the design span, consideration should be given to prestressing in the direction of that span in order to control cracking.
Most jurisdictions require a minimum deck thickness of 8 in., including the ½ inch integral wearing surface.
In addition to the minimum deck thickness requirements of S9.7.1.1, some jurisdictions check the slab thickness using the provisions of S2.5.2.6.3. The provisions in this article are meant for slabtype bridges and their purpose is to limit deflections under live loads. Applying these provisions to the design of deck slabs rarely controls deck slab design.
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Design Step 4 – Design of Deck
Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example
For this example, a slab thickness of 8 in., including the ½ inch integral wearing surface, is assumed. The integral wearing surface is considered in the weight calculations. However, for resistance calculations, the integral wearing surface is assumed to not contribute to the section resistance, i.e., the section thickness for resistance calculations is assumed to be 7.5 in. 

Design Step 
OVERHANG THICKNESS 

4.3 

For decks supporting concrete parapets, the minimum overhang thickness is 8 in. (S13.7.3.1.2), unless a lesser thickness is proven satisfactory through crash testing of the railing system. Using a deck overhang thickness of approximately ¾” to 1” thicker than the deck thickness has proven to be beneficial in past designs. 

For this example, an overhang thickness of 9 in., including the ½ in. sacrificial layer is assumed in the design. 

Design Step 
CONCRETE PARAPET 

4.4 

A TypeF concrete parapet is assumed. The dimensions of the parapet are shown in Figure 42. The railing crash resistance was determined using the provisions of 

SA13.3.1. The characteristics of the parapet and its crash resistance are summarized 

below. 

Concrete Parapet General Values and Dimensions: 

Mass per unit length Width at base Moment capacity at the base calculated assuming the parapet acts as a vertical cantilever, M _{c} /length Parapet height, H Length of parapet failure mechanism, L _{c} Collision load capacity, R _{w} 
= 650 lb/ft = 1 ft. 8 ¼ in. 

17.83 k ft/ft = 42 in. = 235.2 in. = 137.22 k = 

Notice that each jurisdiction typically uses a limited number of railings. The properties 

of each parapet may be calculated once and used for all deck slabs. For a complete 

railing design example, see Lecture 16 of the participant notebook of the National Highway Institute Course No. 13061. 
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Design Step 4 – Design of Deck
Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example
Design Step
4.5
Design Step
4.5.1
Figure 42 – Parapet CrossSection
The load capacity of this parapet exceeds the minimum required by the Specifications. The deck overhang region is required to be designed to have a resistance larger than the actual resistance of the concrete parapet (SA13.4.2).
EQUIVALENT STRIP METHOD (S4.6.2)
Moments are calculated for a deck transverse strip assuming rigid supports at web centerlines. The reinforcement is the same in all deck bays. The overhang is designed for cases of DL + LL at the strength limit state and for collision with the railing system at the extreme event limit state.
Design dead load moments:
Load factors (S3.4.1):
Slab and parapet:
Minimum = 0.9 Maximum = 1.25
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Design Step 4 – Design of Deck
Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example
Future wearing surface: 

Minimum = 0.65 Maximum = 1.5 

It is not intended to maximize the load effects by applying the maximum load factors to some bays of the deck and the minimum load factors to others. Therefore, for deck slabs the maximum load factor controls the design and the minimum load factor may be ignored. 

Dead loads represent a small fraction of the deck loads. Using a simplified approach to determine the deck dead load effects will result in a negligible difference in the total (DL + LL) load effects. Traditionally, dead load positive and negative moments in the deck, except for the overhang, for a unit width strip of the deck are calculated using the following approach: 

M 
= wl ^{2} /c 

where: 

M 
= dead load positive or negative moment in the deck for a unit width strip (kft/ft) 

w 
= dead load per unit area of the deck (ksf) 

l 
= girder spacing (ft.) 

c 
= constant, typically taken as 10 or 12 

For this example, the dead load moments due to the self weight and future wearing surface are calculated assuming c = 10. 

Self weight of the deck = 8(150)/12 = 100 psf Unfactored self weight positive or negative moment = (100/1000)(9.66) ^{2} /10 

= 
0.93 kft/ft 

Future wearing surface = 30 psf Unfactored FWS positive or negative moment 
= 
(30/1000)(9.66) ^{2} /10 

= 
0.28 kft/ft 

Design Step 
DISTANCE FROM THE CENTER OF THE GIRDER TO THE DESIGN 

4.6 
SECTION FOR NEGATIVE MOMENT 

For precast Ishaped and Tshaped concrete beams, the distance from the centerline of girder to the design section for negative moment in the deck should be taken equal to onethird of the flange width from the centerline of the support (S4.6.2.1.6), but not to exceed 15 in. 
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Design Step 4 – Design of Deck
Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example
Girder top flange width = 42 in. Onethird of the girder top flange width = 14 in. < 15 in. OK 

Design Step 
DETERMINING LIVE LOAD EFFECTS 

4.7 

Using the approximate method of deck analysis (S4.6.2), live load effects may be determined by modeling the deck as a beam supported on the girders. One or more axles may be placed side by side on the deck (representing axles from trucks in different traffic lanes) and move them transversely across the deck to maximize the moments (S4.6.2.1.6). To determine the live load moment per unit width of the bridge, the calculated total live load moment is divided by a strip width determined using the appropriate equation from Table S4.6.2.1.31. The following conditions have to be satisfied when determining live load effects on the deck: 

Minimum distance from center of wheel to the inside face of parapet = 1 ft. (S3.6.1.3) 

Minimum distance between the wheels of two adjacent trucks = 4 ft. 

Dynamic load allowance = 33% (S3.6.2.1) 

Load factor (Strength I) = 1.75 (S3.4.1) 

Multiple presence factor (S3.6.1.1.2): 

Single lane 
= 1.20 

Two lanes 
= 1.00 

Three lanes 
= 0.85 

(Note: the “three lanes” situation never controls for girder spacings up to 16 ft.) 

Trucks were moved laterally to determine extreme moments (S4.6.2.1.6) 

Fatigue need not be investigated for concrete slabs in multigirder bridges (S9.5.3 and 

S5.5.3.1) 

Resistance factors, j, for moment: 
0.9 for strength limit state (S5.5.4.2) 1.0 for extreme event limit state (S1.3.2.1) 

In lieu of this procedure, the specifications allow the live load moment per unit width of the deck to be determined using Table SA4.11. This table lists the positive and negative moment per unit width of decks with various girder spacings and with various distances from the design section to the centerline of the girders for negative moment. This table is based on the analysis procedure outlined above and will be used for this example. 
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Design Step 4 – Design of Deck
Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example
Table SA4.11 does not include the girder spacing of 9’8”. It does include girder spacings of 9’6” and 9’9”. Interpolation between the two girder spacings is allowed. However, due to the small difference between the values, the moments corresponding to the girder spacing of 9’9” are used which gives slightly more conservative answers than 

interpolating. Furthermore, the table lists results for the design section for negative moment at 12 in. and 18 in. from the center of the girder. For this example, the distance from the design section for negative moment to the centerline of the girders is 14 in. 

Interpolation for the values listed for 12 in. and 18 in. is allowed. 
However, the value 

corresponding to the 12 in. distance may be used without interpolation resulting in a 

more conservative value. The latter approach is used for this example. 

Design Step 
DESIGN FOR POSITIVE MOMENT IN THE DECK 

4.8 

The reinforcement determined in this section is based on the maximum positive moment in the deck. For interior bays of the deck, the maximum positive moment typically takes place at approximately the center of each bay. For the first deck bay, the bay adjacent to the overhang, the location of the maximum design positive moment varies depending on the overhang length and the value and distribution of the dead load. The same reinforcement is typically used for all deck bays. 

Factored loads 

Live load 

From Table SA4.11, for the girder spacing of 9’9” (conservative): 

Unfactored live load positive moment per unit width = 6.74 kft/ft 

Maximum factored positive moment per unit width = 1.75(6.74) = 11.80 kft/ft 

This moment is applicable to all positive moment regions in all bays of the deck 

(S4.6.2.1.1). 

Deck weight 

1.25(0.93) = 1.16 kft/ft 

Future wearing surface 

1.5(0.28) = 0.42 kft/ft 

Dead load + live load design factored positive moment (Strength I limit state) 

M _{D}_{L}_{+}_{L}_{L} = 11.8 + 1.16 + 0.42 = 13.38 kft/ft 
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Notice that the total moment is dominated by the live load.
Resistance factor for flexure at the strength limit state, j = 0.90 (S5.5.4.2.1)
The flexural resistance equations in the AASHTOLRFD Bridge Design Specifications are applicable to reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete sections. Depending on the provided reinforcement, the terms related to prestressing, tension reinforcing steel and/or compression reinforcing steel, are set to zero. The following text is further explanation on applying these provisions to reinforced concrete sections and the possible simplifications to the equations for this case.
For rectangular section behavior, the depth of the section in compression, c, is determined using Eq. S5.7.3.1.14:
c
=
A 
ps 
f pu 
+ 
A 
s 
f 
y 
 
¢ A f s 
^{¢} y 

b + k 
f pu 

0.85 f ¢ b c 
1 
A 
ps 

d p 
where:
(S5.7.3.1.14)
A _{p}_{s} = area of prestressing steel (in ^{2} )
f _{p}_{u} = specified tensile strength of prestressing steel (ksi)
f _{p}_{y} = yield strength of prestressing steel (ksi)
A _{s} = area of mild steel tension reinforcement (in ^{2} )
A¢ _{s} = area of compression reinforcement (in ^{2} )
f _{y}
= yield strength of tension reinforcement (ksi)
f¢ _{y} = yield strength of compression reinforcement (ksi)
b = width of rectangular section (in.)
d _{p}
= distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the prestressing tendons (in.)
c = distance between the neutral axis and the compressive face (in.)
ß _{1}
= stress block factor specified in S5.7.2.2
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Design Step 4 – Design of Deck
Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example
For reinforced concrete sections (no prestressing) without reinforcement on the compression side of the section, the above equation is reduced to:
^{c}
A
s
f
y
^{=} 0.85 f
c
¢ b
1
b
The depth of the compression block, a, may be calculates as:
a = cb _{1}
These equations for “a” and “c” are identical to those traditionally used in reinforced concrete design. Many text books use the following equation to determine the reinforcement ratio, r, and area of reinforcement, A _{s} :
k' = M _{u} /(jbd ^{2} )
r
=
0.85
Á Ê
Á Ë
A _{s} = rd _{e}
f ¢
c
f y
ˆ ˜ È
˜
¯ Î
Í 1.0
Í

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