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COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN EXAMPLE FOR PRESTRESSED CONCRETE (PSC) GIRDER SUPERSTRUCTURE BRIDGE WITH COMMENTARY (Task order

COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN EXAMPLE FOR PRESTRESSED CONCRETE (PSC) GIRDER SUPERSTRUCTURE BRIDGE WITH COMMENTARY

(Task order DTFH61-02-T-63032)

US CUSTOMARY UNITS

Submitted to

THE FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION

Prepared By Modjeski and Masters, Inc.

November 2003

Technical Report Documentation Page

1.

Report No.

2.

Government Accession No.

 

3.

Recipient’s Catalog No.

 

FHWA NHI - 04-043

   

4.

Title and Subtitle

5.

Report Date

 

Comprehensive Design Example for Prestressed Concrete (PSC) Girder Superstructure Bridge with Commentary (in US Customary Units)

 

November 2003

 

6.

Performing Organization Code

7.

Author (s) Wagdy G. Wassef, Ph.D., P.E., Christopher Smith, E.I.T. Chad M. Clancy, P.E., Martin J. Smith, P.E.

 

8.

Performing Organization Report No.

9.

Performing Organization Name and Address

 

10.

Work Unit No. (TRAIS)

 

Modjeski and Masters, Inc. P.O.Box 2345 Harrisburg, Pennsylvania 17105

 

11.

Contract or Grant No.

 
 

DTFH61-02-D-63006

12.

Sponsoring Agency Name and Address

13.

Type of Report and Period Covered

Federal Highway Administration National Highway Institute (HNHI-10) 4600 N. Fairfax Drive, Suite 800 Arlington, Virginia 22203

   

Final Submission August 2002 – November 2003

14.

Sponsoring Agency Code

 

15.

Supplementary Notes

 

Modjeski and Masters Principle Investigator and Project Manager :

 

Wagdy G. Wassef , Ph.D., P.E. FHWA Contracting Officer’s Technical Representative: Thomas K. Saad, P.E. Team Leader, Technical Review Team: Jerry Potter, P.E.

16.

Abstract

This document consists of a comprehensive design example of a prestressed concrete girder bridge. The superstructure consists of two simple spans made continuous for live loads. The substructure consists of integral end abutments and a multi-column intermediate bent. The document also includes instructional commentary based on the AASHTO-LRFD Bridge Design Specifications (Second Edition, 1998, including interims for 1999 through 2002). The design example and commentary are intended to serve as a guide to aid bridge design engineers with the implementation of the AASHTO- LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. This document is offered in US Customary Units. An accompanying document in Standard International (SI) Units is offered under report No. FHWA NHI-04-044.

This document includes detailed flowcharts outlining the design steps for all components of the bridge. The flowcharts are cross-referenced to the relevant specification articles to allow easy navigation of the specifications. Detailed design computations for the following components are included: concrete deck, prestressed concrete I-girders, elastomeric bearing, integral abutments and wing walls, multi-column bent and pile and spread footing foundations.

In addition to explaining the design steps of the design example, the comprehensive commentary goes beyond the specifics of the design example to offer guidance on different situations that may be encountered in other bridges.

17.

Key Words

18.

Distribution Statement

 

Bridge Design, Prestressed Concrete, Load and Resistance Factor Design, LRFD, Concrete Deck, Intermediate Bent, Integral Abutment, Wingwall, Pile Foundation, Spread Footings

This report is available to the public from the National Technical Information Service in Springfield, Virginia 22161 and from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402.

19.

Security Classif. (of this report)

20.

Security Classif. (of this page)

 

21.

No. of Pages

22.

Price

Unclassified

Unclassified

381

 

Form DOT F 1700.7 (8-72)

Reproduction of completed page authorized

This page intentionally left blank

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors would like to express appreciation to the review teams from the Illinois Department of Transportation, Minnesota Department of Transportation and Washington State Department of Transportation for providing review and direction on the Technical Review Committee.

The authors would also like to acknowledge the contributions of Dr. John M. Kulicki, President/CEO and Chief Engineer of Modjeski and Masters, Inc., for his guidance throughout the project.

Table of Contents

Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

1. INTRODUCTION

1-1

2. EXAMPLE BRIDGE

2-1

2.1 Bridge geometry and materials

2-1

2.2 Girder geometry and section properties

2-4

2.3 Effective flange width

2-10

3. FLOWCHARTS

3-1

4. DESIGN OF DECK

4-1

5. DESIGN OF SUPERSTRUCTURE

5.1 Live load distribution factors

5-1

5.2 Dead load calculations 5-10

5.3 Unfactored and factored load effects 5-13

5-27

5.5 Stress in prestressing strands 5-36

5.6 Design for flexure

5.4 Loss of prestress

5.6.1 Flexural stress at transfer

5-46

5.6.2 Final flexural stress under Service I limit state

5-49

5.6.3 Longitudinal steel at top of girder

5-61

5.6.4 Flexural resistance at the strength limit state in positive

moment

region

5-63

5.6.5 Continuity correction at intermediate support

5-67

5.6.6 Fatigue in prestressed steel

5-75

5.6.7 Camber 5-75

5.6.8 Optional live load deflection check

5-80

5.7 Design for shear

5-82

5.7.1 Critical section for shear near the end support 5-84

5.7.2 Shear analysis for a section in the positive moment region

5-85

5.7.3 Shear analysis for sections in the negative moment region

5-93

5.7.4 Factored bursting resistance 5-101

5.7.5 Confinement reinforcement

5-102

5.7.6 Force in the longitudinal reinforcement including the effect of the applied shear

5-104

6. DESIGN OF BEARINGS

6-1

Table of Contents

Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example

7. DESIGN OF SUBSTRUCTURE

7-1

7.1. Design of Integral Abutments

7.1.1 Gravity loads 7-6

7.1.2 Pile cap design

7.1.3 Piles 7-12

7.1.4 Backwall design 7-16

7-30

7.1.6 Design of approach slab 7-34

7.1.5 Wingwall design

7-11

7.1.7 Sleeper slab

7-37

7.2. Design of Intermediate Pier

7.2.1 Substructure loads and application

7-38

7.2.2 Pier cap design

7-51

7.2.3 Column

design

7-66

7.2.4 Footing design 7-75

Appendix A - Comparisons of Computer Program Results (QConBridge and Opis) Section A1- QConBridge Input

A1

Section A2- QConBridge Output

A3

Section A3- Opis Input

A10

Section A4- Opis Output

A47

Section A5- Comparison Between the Hand Calculations and the Two Computer Programs

A55

Section A6- Flexural Resistance Sample Calculation from Opis to Compare with Hand Calculations

A58

Appendix B - General Guidelines for Refined Analysis of Deck Slabs

Appendix C - Example of Creep and Shrinkage Calculations

Design Step 1 - Introduction

Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example

1. INTRODUCTION

This example is part of a series of design examples sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration. The design specifications used in these examples is the AASHTO LRFD Bridge design Specifications. The intent of these examples is to assist bridge designers in interpreting the specifications, limit differences in interpretation between designers, and to guide the designers through the specifications to allow easier navigation through different provisions. For this example, the Second Edition of the AASHTO-LRFD Specifications with Interims up to and including the 2002 Interim is used.

This design example is intended to provide guidance on the application of the AASHTO-LRFD Bridge Design Specifications when applied to prestressed concrete superstructure bridges supported on intermediate multicolumn bents and integral end abutments. The example and commentary are intended for use by designers who have knowledge of the requirements of AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges or the AASHTO-LRFD Bridge Design Specifications and have designed at least one prestressed concrete girder bridge, including the bridge substructure. Designers who have not designed prestressed concrete bridges, but have used either AASHTO Specification to design other types of bridges may be able to follow the design example, however, they will first need to familiarize themselves with the basic concepts of prestressed concrete design.

This design example was not intended to follow the design and detailing practices of any particular agency. Rather, it is intended to follow common practices widely used and to adhere to the requirements of the specifications. It is expected that some users may find differences between the procedures used in the design compared to the procedures followed in the jurisdiction they practice in due to Agency-specific requirements that may deviate from the requirements of the specifications. This difference should not create the assumption that one procedure is superior to the other.

Design Step 1 - Introduction

Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example

Reference is made to AASHTO-LRFD specifications article numbers throughout the design example. To distinguish between references to articles of the AASHTO-LRFD specifications and references to sections of the design example, the references to specification articles are preceded by the letter “S”. For example, S5.2 refers to Article 5.2 of AASHTO-LRFD specifications while 5.2 refers to Section 5.2 of the design example.

Two different forms of fonts are used throughout the example.

Regular font is used for

calculations and for text directly related to the example. Italic font is used for text that represents commentary that is general in nature and is used to explain the intent of some specifications provisions, explain a different available method that is not used by the example, provide an overview of general acceptable practices and/or present difference in application between different jurisdictions.

Design Step 2 - Example Bridge

Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example

2. EXAMPLE BRIDGE

2.1 Bridge geometry and materials

Bridge superstructure geometry

Superstructure type:

Reinforced concrete deck supported on simple span prestressed girders made continuous for live load.

Spans:

Two spans at 110 ft. each

Width:

55-4 ½total 52-0gutter line-to-gutter line (Three lanes 12- 0wide each, 10 ft. right shoulder and 6 ft. left shoulder. For superstructure design, the location of the driving lanes can be anywhere on the structure. For substructure design, the maximum number of 12 ft. wide lanes, i.e., 4 lanes, is considered)

Railings:

Concrete Type F-Parapets, 1- 8 ¼wide at the base

Skew:

20 degrees, valid at each support location

Girder spacing:

9-8

Girder type:

AASHTO Type VI Girders, 72 in. deep, 42 in. wide top flange and 28 in. wide bottom flange (AASHTO 28/72 Girders)

Strand arrangement:

Straight strands with some strands debonded near the ends of the girders

Overhang:

3-6 ¼from the centerline of the fascia girder to the end of the overhang

Intermediate diaphragms: For load calculations, one intermediate diaphragm, 10 in. thick, 50 in. deep, is assumed at the middle of each span.

Figures 2-1 and 2-2 show an elevation and cross-section of the superstructure, respectively. Figure 2-3 through 2-6 show the girder dimensions, strand arrangement, support locations and strand debonding locations.

Typically, for a specific jurisdiction, a relatively small number of girder sizes are available to select from. The initial girder size is usually selected based on past experience. Many jurisdictions have a design aid in the form of a table that determines the most likely girder size for each combination of span length and girder spacing. Such tables developed using the HS-25 live loading of the AASHTO Standard Specifications are expected to be applicable to the bridges designed using the AASHTO-LRFD Specifications.

Design Step 2 - Example Bridge

Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example

The strand pattern and number of strands was initially determined based on past experience and subsequently refined using a computer design program. This design was refined using trial and error until a pattern produced stresses, at transfer and under service loads, that fell within the permissible stress limits and produced load resistances greater than the applied loads under the strength limit states. For debonded strands, S5.11.4.3 states that the number of partially debonded strands should not exceed 25 percent of the total number of strands. Also, the number of debonded strands in any horizontal row shall not exceed 40 percent of the strands in that row. The selected pattern has 27.2 percent of the total strands debonded. This is slightly higher than the 25 percent stated in the specifications, but is acceptable since the specifications require that this limit “should” be satisfied. Using the word “should” instead of “shall” signifies that the specifications allow some deviation from the limit of 25 percent.

Typically, the most economical strand arrangement calls for the strands to be located as close as possible to the bottom of the girders. However, in some cases, it may not be possible to satisfy all specification requirements while keeping the girder size to a minimum and keeping the strands near the bottom of the beam. This is more pronounced when debonded strands are used due to the limitation on the percentage of debonded strands. In such cases, the designer may consider the following two solutions:

Increase the size of the girder to reduce the range of stress, i.e., the difference between the stress at transfer and the stress at final stage. Increase the number of strands and shift the center of gravity of the strands upward.

Either solution results in some loss of economy.

(e.g., cost of the deeper girder, cost of the additional strands, the available under-clearance and cost of

raising the approach roadway to accommodate deeper girders) when determining which solution to adopt.

The designer should consider specific site conditions

Bridge substructure geometry

Intermediate pier: Multi-column bent (4 – columns spaced at 14-1) Spread footings founded on sandy soil See Figure 2-7 for the intermediate pier geometry

End abutments:

Integral abutments supported on one line of steel H-piles supported on bedrock.

wingwalls are cantilevered from the fill face of the abutment.

supported on the integral abutment at one end and a sleeper slab at the other end. See Figure 2-8 for the integral abutment geometry

U-

The approach slab is

Design Step 2 - Example Bridge

Materials

Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example

Concrete strength Prestressed girders:

Initial strength at transfer, f¢ ci = 4.8 ksi

Deck slab:

28-day strength, f¢ c = 6 ksi 4.0 ksi

Substructure:

3.0 ksi

Railings:

3.5 ksi

Concrete elastic modulus (calculated using S5.4.2.4)

Girder final elastic modulus, E c Girder elastic modulus at transfer, E ci Deck slab elastic modulus, E s

= 4,696 ksi = 4,200 ksi = 3,834 ksi

Reinforcing steel Yield strength,

f y = 60 ksi

Prestressing strands

0.5 inch diameter low relaxation strands Grade 270

Strand area, A ps Steel yield strength, f py Steel ultimate strength, f pu Prestressing steel modulus, E p

= 0.153 in 2 = 243 ksi = 270 ksi = 28,500 ksi

Other parameters affecting girder analysis

Time of Transfer Average Humidity

= 1 day = 70%

110'-0" 110'-0" Fixed H-Piles 22'-0" Integral Abutment
110'-0"
110'-0"
Fixed
H-Piles
22'-0"
Integral
Abutment

Figure 2-1 – Elevation View of the Example Bridge

Design Step 2 - Example Bridge

Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example

55' - 4 1/2" Total Width

52' Roadway Width 1'-8 1/4" 1'-10" 5 spa at 9' - 8" 8" Reinforced Concrete
52' Roadway Width
1'-8 1/4"
1'-10"
5 spa at 9' - 8"
8" Reinforced Concrete Deck
9"

Figure 2-2 – Bridge Cross-Section

2.2 Girder geometry and section properties

Basic beam section properties

Beam length, L

Depth Thickness of web

Area,

Moment of inertia, I g N.A. to top, y t N.A. to bottom, y b Section modulus, S TOP Section modulus, S BOT CGS from bottom, at 0 ft. CGS from bottom, at 11 ft. CGS from bottom, at 54.5 ft. P/S force eccentricity at 0 ft., e 0 P/S force eccentricity at 11 ft. , e 11

P/S force eccentricity at 54.5 ft, e 54.5 = 31.380 in.

= 110 ft. – 6 in. = 72 in. = 8 in. = 1,085 in 2 = 733,320 in 4 = 35.62 in. = 36.38 in. = 20,588 in 3 = 20,157 in 3 = 5.375 in. = 5.158 in. = 5.0 in. = 31.005 in. = 31.222 in.

A g

Interior beam composite section properties

Effective slab width

= 111 in. (see calculations in Section 2.3)

Deck slab thickness

= 8 in. (includes ½ in. integral wearing surface which is not included in the calculation of the composite section properties)

Design Step 2 - Example Bridge

Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example

Haunch depth = 4 in. (maximum value - notice that the haunch depth varies along the beam length and, hence, is ignored in calculating section properties but is considered when determining dead load)

Moment of inertia, I c N.A. to slab top, y sc N.A. to beam top, y tc N.A. to beam bottom, y bc Section modulus, S TOP SLAB Section modulus, S TOP BEAM Section modulus, S BOT BEAM

= 1,384,254 in 4 = 27.96 in. = 20.46 in. = 51.54 in. = 49,517 in 3 = 67,672 in 3 = 26,855 in 3

Exterior beam composite section properties

Effective Slab Width

Deck slab thickness

Haunch depth

Moment of inertia, I c N.A. to slab top, y sc N.A. to beam top, y tc N.A. to beam bottom, y bc Section modulus, S TOP SLAB Section modulus, S TOP BEAM Section modulus, S BOT BEAM

= 97.75 in. (see calculations in Section 2.3)

= 8 in. (includes ½ in. integral wearing surface which is not included in the calculation of the composite section properties)

= 4 in. (maximum value - notice that the haunch depth varies along the beam length and, hence, is ignored in calculating section properties but is considered when determining dead load)

= 1,334,042 in 4 = 29.12 in. = 21.62 in. = 50.38 in. = 45,809 in 3 = 61,699 in 3 = 26,481 in 3

Design Step 2 - Example Bridge

Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example

42"
42"
5" 4" 13" 3" 4" 8" 42" 72" 10" 10" 8" 3" 11 spa @
5"
4"
13"
3"
4"
8"
42"
72"
10"
10"
8"
3"
11 spa @ 2"
3"
28"
5 spa @ 2"

Figure 2-3 – Beam Cross-Section Showing 44 Strands

CL of End Abutment and CL of Bearing CL of Bearing CL Intermediate Pier
CL
of End Abutment
and CL of Bearing
CL of Bearing
CL
Intermediate Pier
109'-0" = Span for Noncomposite Loads 9" 9" 3" 110'-0" = Span for Composite Loads
109'-0" = Span for Noncomposite Loads
9"
9"
3"
110'-0" = Span for Composite Loads

Figure 2-4 – General Beam Elevation

Figure 2-5 – Elevation View of Prestressing Strands

Design Step 2 - Example Bridge

Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example

C L Bearing 54'-6" 2"@Spa5 A B C 10'-0" 12'-0" 32'-6" 9" Transfer
C
L Bearing
54'-6"
2"@Spa5
A
B
C
10'-0"
12'-0"
32'-6"
9"
Transfer Length
of 32 Strands
= 2'-6"
Transfer Length
of 6 Strands = 2'-6"
Point where
Point where
bonding begins
for 6 strands
bonding begins
for 6 strands
Point where
bonding begins
for 32 strands
Transfer Length
of 6 Strands = 2'-6"
No. of Bonded Strands = 32
No. of Bonded Strands = 38
No. of Bonded Strands = 44
BA
C
No. of Bonded Strands = 32
Symmetric
girderofMid-length

Design Step 2 - Example Bridge

Design Step 2 - Example Bridge 5.375" Location of P/S Force Section A-A Prestressed Concrete Bridge
Design Step 2 - Example Bridge 5.375" Location of P/S Force Section A-A Prestressed Concrete Bridge
Design Step 2 - Example Bridge 5.375" Location of P/S Force Section A-A Prestressed Concrete Bridge
5.375"
5.375"

Location of

P/S Force

Section A-A

Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example

Force Section A-A Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example 5.158" Location of P/S Force Section B-B Location
Force Section A-A Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example 5.158" Location of P/S Force Section B-B Location
Force Section A-A Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example 5.158" Location of P/S Force Section B-B Location
5.158"
5.158"

Location of

P/S Force

Section B-B

Location of P/S Force 5.0"
Location of
P/S Force
5.0"

Bonded Strandof P/S Force Section B-B Location of P/S Force 5.0" Debonded Strand - - Section C-C

Debonded StrandSection B-B Location of P/S Force 5.0" Bonded Strand - - Section C-C For location of

-

-

Section C-C

For location of Sections A-A, B-B and C-C, see Figure 2-5

Figure 2-6 – Beam at Sections A-A, B-B, and C-C

Design Step 2 - Example Bridge

Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example

5 spa @ 10'-7 7/16" along the skew Cap 4' x 4' 3'-6" Dia. (TYP)
5 spa @ 10'-7 7/16" along the skew
Cap 4' x 4'
3'-6" Dia.
(TYP)
12' x 12'
footing (TYP.)
4'-8 5/8"
3 spa @ 14'-1" along the skew
4'-8 5/8"
22'-0"
3'
18'-0"
2'
2'
CL
Exterior Girder
4'
CL
Exterior Girder

Figure 2-7 – Intermediate Bent

Girder Approach Expansion Slab Joint Highway End of Pavement girder Sleeper Slab H-Piles Construction Joint
Girder
Approach
Expansion
Slab
Joint
Highway
End of
Pavement
girder
Sleeper
Slab
H-Piles
Construction
Joint

Bedrock

Figure 2-8 – Integral Abutment

Design Step 2 - Example Bridge

2.3 Effective flange width (S4.6.2.6)

Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example

Longitudinal stresses in the flanges are distributed across the flange and the composite deck slab by in- plane shear stresses, therefore, the longitudinal stresses are not uniform. The effective flange width is a reduced width over which the longitudinal stresses are assumed to be uniformly distributed and yet result in the same force as the non-uniform stress distribution if integrated over the entire width.

The effective flange width is calculated using the provisions of S4.6.2.6. See the bulleted list at the end of this section for a few S4.6.2.6 requirements. According to S4.6.2.6.1, the effective flange width may be calculated as follows:

For interior girders :

The effective flange width is taken as the least of the following:

One-quarter of the effective span length

= 0.25(82.5)(12)

 

=

247.5 in.

12.0 times the average thickness of the slab,

plus the greater of the web thickness

= 12(7.5) + 8 = 104 in.

or one-half the width of the top flange of the girder

= 12(7.5) + 0.5(42)

 

=

111 in.

The average spacing of adjacent beams

= 9 ft.- 8 in. or 116 in.

The effective flange width for the interior beam is 111 in.

For exterior girders :

The effective flange width is taken as one- half the effective width of the adjacent interior girder plus the least of:

One-eighth of the effective span length

= 0.125(82.5)(12)

 

=

123.75 in.

6.0 times the average thickness of the slab, plus the greater of half the web thickness

= 6.0(7.5) + 0.5(8)

or one-quarter of the width of the top flange of the basic girder

= 49 in.

= 6.0(7.5) + 0.25(42) = 55.5 in.

Design Step 2 - Example Bridge

The width of the overhang

Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example

= 3 ft.- 6 ¼ in. or 42.25 in.

Therefore, the effective flange width for the exterior girder is:

(111/2) + 42.25 = 97.75 in.

Notice that:

The effective span length used in calculating the effective flange width may be taken as the actual span length for simply supported spans or as the distance between points of permanent dead load inflection for continuous spans, as specified in S4.6.2.6.1. For analysis of I-shaped girders, the effective flange width is typically calculated based on the effective span for positive moments and is used along the entire length of the beam.

The slab thickness used in the analysis is the effective slab thickness ignoring any sacrificial layers (i.e., integral wearing surfaces)

S4.5 allows the consideration of continuous barriers when analyzing for service and fatigue limit states. The commentary of S4.6.2.6.1 includes an approximate method of including the effect of the continuous barriers on the section by modifying the width of the overhang. Traditionally, the effect of the continuous barrier on the section is ignored in the design of new bridges and is ignored in this example. This effect may be considered when checking existing bridges with structurally sound continuous barriers.

Simple-span girders made continuous behave as continuous beams for all loads applied after the

deck slab hardens.

the distance from the center of the end support to the inflection point for composite dead loads (load is assumed to be distributed uniformly along the length of the girders), is 0.75 the length of the span.

For two-equal span girders, the effective length of each span, measured as

Design Step 3 – Design Flowcharts

Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example

3. FLOWCHARTS

Main Design Steps

Start
Start

Determine bridge materials, span arrangement, girder spacing, bearing types, substructure type and geometry, and foundation type

Assume deck slab thickness based on girder spacing and anticipated girder top flange Analyze interior
Assume deck slab
thickness based on girder
spacing and anticipated
girder top flange
Analyze interior and exterior
girders, determine which
girder controls
Revise deck
slab thickness
Is the assumed thickness of the slab adequate for the girder spacing and the girder
Is the assumed
thickness of the slab
adequate for the girder
spacing and the girder
top flange width?
YES Design the deck slab
YES
Design the
deck slab
Design the controlling girder for flexure and shear

Design the controlling girder for flexure and shear

Design the controlling girder for flexure and shear
Design the controlling girder for flexure and shear
Design bearings 1
Design
bearings
1

NO

Section in Example

Design Step 2.0

Design Step 4.2

Design Step 4.2

Design Step 4.0

Design Steps 5.6 and 5.7

Design Step 6.0

Design Step 3 – Design Flowcharts

Main Design Steps (cont.)

1 Design integral abutments
1
Design integral
abutments

Design intermediate pier and foundation

End
End

Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example

Section in Example

Design Step 7.1

Design Step 7.2

Design Step 3 – Design Flowcharts

Deck Slab Design

Start Assume a deck slab thickness based on girder spacing and width of girder top
Start
Assume a deck slab
thickness based on
girder spacing and width
of girder top flange
Determine the location of the
critical section for negative
moment based on the girder
top flange width (S4.6.2.1.6)
Determine live load
positive and negative
moments (A4)
Determine dead load
positive and negative
moment
Determine factored
moments (S3.4)
Design main
reinforcement for
flexure (S5.7.3)
Determine longitudinal
distribution reinforcement
(S9.7.3.2)
1

Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example

Section in Example

Design Step 4.2

Design Step 4.6

Design Step 4.7

Design Steps 4.8 and 4.9

Design Step 4.8

Design Step 4.12

Design Step 3 – Design Flowcharts

Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example

Deck Slab Design (cont.)

1
1
For Slabs on Continuous Beams:

For Slabs on Continuous Beams:

Steel beam - Determine area of longitudinal reinforcement in the deck in negative moment regions

Steel beam - Determine area of longitudinal reinforcement in the deck in negative moment regions of the girders (S6.10.3.7) Concrete Simple Spans Made Continuous for Live Load - Determine the longitudinal slab reinforcement at intermediate pier areas during the design of the girders (S5.14.1.2.7b)

- Determine the longitudinal slab reinforcement at intermediate pier areas during the design of the girders
- Determine the longitudinal slab reinforcement at intermediate pier areas during the design of the girders
pier areas during the design of the girders (S5.14.1.2.7b) Determine strip width for overhang (S4.6.2.1.3) or
Determine strip width for overhang (S4.6.2.1.3) or where applicable, use S3.6.1.3.4

Determine strip width for overhang (S4.6.2.1.3) or where applicable, use S3.6.1.3.4

Determine strip width for overhang (S4.6.2.1.3) or where applicable, use S3.6.1.3.4
Determine strip width for overhang (S4.6.2.1.3) or where applicable, use S3.6.1.3.4
overhang (S4.6.2.1.3) or where applicable, use S3.6.1.3.4 Determine railing load resistance and rail moment resistance
Determine railing load resistance and rail moment resistance at its base (S13.3)

Determine railing load resistance and rail moment resistance at its base (S13.3)

Determine railing load resistance and rail moment resistance at its base (S13.3)
Determine railing load resistance and rail moment resistance at its base (S13.3)
resistance and rail moment resistance at its base (S13.3) Design overhang reinforcement for vehicular collision with
Design overhang reinforcement for vehicular collision with railing + DL (Case 1 and Case 2

Design overhang reinforcement for vehicular collision with railing + DL (Case 1 and Case 2 of SA13.4.1)

Design overhang reinforcement for vehicular collision with railing + DL (Case 1 and Case 2 of
Design overhang reinforcement for vehicular collision with railing + DL (Case 1 and Case 2 of
collision with railing + DL (Case 1 and Case 2 of SA13.4.1) Determine factored moments from
Determine factored moments from DL + LL on the overhang (Case 3 of SA13.4.1)

Determine factored moments from DL + LL on the overhang (Case 3 of SA13.4.1)

Determine factored moments from DL + LL on the overhang (Case 3 of SA13.4.1)
Determine factored moments from DL + LL on the overhang (Case 3 of SA13.4.1)
moments from DL + LL on the overhang (Case 3 of SA13.4.1) Design overhang reinforcement for
Design overhang reinforcement for DL + LL

Design overhang reinforcement for DL + LL

Design overhang reinforcement for DL + LL
Design overhang reinforcement for DL + LL
3 of SA13.4.1) Design overhang reinforcement for DL + LL Determine the controlling case for overhang
Determine the controlling case for overhang reinforcement, Case 1, Case 2 or Case 3

Determine the controlling case for overhang reinforcement, Case 1, Case 2 or Case 3

Determine the controlling case for overhang reinforcement, Case 1, Case 2 or Case 3
Determine the controlling case for overhang reinforcement, Case 1, Case 2 or Case 3
Detail reinforcement End
Detail
reinforcement
End

Section in Example

Design Step 4.10

Design Step 4.11

Design Step 3 – Design Flowcharts

Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example

General Superstructure Design (Notice that only major steps are presented in this flowchart. More detailed flowcharts of the design steps follow this flowchart)

Start
Start
Assume girder size based on span and girder spacing

Assume girder size based on span and girder spacing

Assume girder size based on span and girder spacing
Assume girder size based on span and girder spacing
Assume girder size based on span and girder spacing
Assume girder size based on span and girder spacing
Assume girder size based on span and girder spacing
Assume girder size based on span and girder spacing
Assume girder size based on span and girder spacing
2
2
Start Assume girder size based on span and girder spacing 2 Determine noncomposite dead load (girder,
Determine noncomposite dead load (girder, haunch and deck slab) for the interior and exterior girders

Determine noncomposite dead load (girder, haunch and deck slab) for the interior and exterior girders

Determine noncomposite dead load (girder, haunch and deck slab) for the interior and exterior girders
Determine noncomposite dead load (girder, haunch and deck slab) for the interior and exterior girders
haunch and deck slab) for the interior and exterior girders Determine composite dead load (railings, utilities,
Determine composite dead load (railings, utilities, and future wearing surface) for the interior and exterior

Determine composite dead load (railings, utilities, and future wearing surface) for the interior and exterior girders

Determine composite dead load (railings, utilities, and future wearing surface) for the interior and exterior girders
Determine composite dead load (railings, utilities, and future wearing surface) for the interior and exterior girders
wearing surface) for the interior and exterior girders Determine LL distribution factors for the interior and
Determine LL distribution factors for the interior and exterior girders

Determine LL distribution factors for the interior and exterior girders

Determine LL distribution factors for the interior and exterior girders
Determine LL distribution factors for the interior and exterior girders
distribution factors for the interior and exterior girders Determine unfactored and factored force effects Determine
Determine unfactored and factored force effects

Determine unfactored and factored force effects

Determine unfactored and factored force effects
Determine unfactored and factored force effects
girders Determine unfactored and factored force effects Determine the controlling girder (interior or exterior) and
Determine the controlling girder (interior or exterior) and continue the design for this girder

Determine the controlling girder (interior or exterior) and continue the design for this girder

Determine the controlling girder (interior or exterior) and continue the design for this girder
Determine the controlling girder (interior or exterior) and continue the design for this girder
1
1

Section in Example

Design Step 2.0

Design Step 5.2

Design Step 5.2

Design Step 5.1

Design Step 5.3

Design Step 3 – Design Flowcharts

Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example

General Superstructure Design (cont.)

Section in Example

1
1
Determine long-term and short-term prestressing force losses

Determine long-term and short-term prestressing force losses

Determine long-term and short-term prestressing force losses
Determine long-term and short-term prestressing force losses
Determine long-term and short-term prestressing force losses Design for flexure under Service Limit State Design for
Design for flexure under Service Limit State

Design for flexure under Service Limit State

Design for flexure under Service Limit State
Design for flexure under Service Limit State
force losses Design for flexure under Service Limit State Design for flexure under Strength Limit State
Design for flexure under Strength Limit State

Design for flexure under Strength Limit State

Design for flexure under Strength Limit State
Design for flexure under Strength Limit State
Limit State Design for flexure under Strength Limit State Design for shear under Strength Limit State
Design for shear under Strength Limit State

Design for shear under Strength Limit State

Design for shear under Strength Limit State
Design for shear under Strength Limit State
Limit State Design for shear under Strength Limit State Check longitudinal reinforcement for additional forces from
Check longitudinal reinforcement for additional forces from shear

Check longitudinal reinforcement for additional forces from shear

Check longitudinal reinforcement for additional forces from shear
Check longitudinal reinforcement for additional forces from shear

Design Step 5.4

Design Step 5.6

Design Step 5.7

Did the girder pass all design checks and the calculations indicate the selected girder size
Did the girder
pass all design
checks and the calculations
indicate the selected girder size
leads to an economical
design?
NO
YES
End
2
2

Select a different girder size or change strand

arrangement

Design Step 3 – Design Flowcharts

Live LoadDistribution Factor Calculations

Start Determine the type of cross- section, Table S4.6.2.2.1-1 Determine the K factor (S4.6.2.2.1) g
Start
Determine the type of cross-
section, Table S4.6.2.2.1-1
Determine the K
factor (S4.6.2.2.1)
g
For skewed bridges, determine
the skew correction factor for
moment (if allowed by the
owner) (S4.6.2.2.2e) and for
shear (S4.6.2.2.3c)
Determine LL distribution factors
for moment for the interior girder
under single lane and multi-lane
loading (S4.6.2.2.2b)
Determine LL distribution factor
for shear for the interior girder
under single lane and multi-lane
loading (S4.6.2.2.3a)
Apply the skew
correction factor
1

Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example

Section in Example

Design Step 5.1

Design Step 5.1.3

Design Step 5.1.6

Design Step 5.1.5

Design Step 5.1.7

Design Step 5.1.8

Design Step 3 – Design Flowcharts

Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example

Live LoadDistribution Factor Calculations (cont.)

1
1
Determine the controlling (larger) distribution factors for moment and shear for the interior girder

Determine the controlling (larger) distribution factors for moment and shear for the interior girder

Determine the controlling (larger) distribution factors for moment and shear for the interior girder
Determine the controlling (larger) distribution factors for moment and shear for the interior girder
factors for moment and shear for the interior girder Divide the single lane distribution factors by
Divide the single lane distribution factors by the multiple presence factor for one lane loaded,1.2,

Divide the single lane distribution factors by the multiple presence factor for one lane loaded,1.2, to determine the fatigue distribution factors (Notice that fatigue is not an issue for conventional P/S girders. This step is provided here to have a complete general reference for distribution factor calculations.)

P/S girders. This step is provided here to have a complete general reference for distribution factor
P/S girders. This step is provided here to have a complete general reference for distribution factor
general reference for distribution factor calculations.) Repeat the calculations for the exterior girder using
Repeat the calculations for the exterior girder using S4.6.2.2.2d for moment and S4.6.2.2.3b for shear

Repeat the calculations for the exterior girder using S4.6.2.2.2d for moment and S4.6.2.2.3b for shear

Repeat the calculations for the exterior girder using S4.6.2.2.2d for moment and S4.6.2.2.3b for shear
Repeat the calculations for the exterior girder using S4.6.2.2.2d for moment and S4.6.2.2.3b for shear
using S4.6.2.2.2d for moment and S4.6.2.2.3b for shear Additional check for the exterior girder for bridges
Additional check for the exterior girder for bridges with rigidly connected girders

Additional check for the exterior girder for bridges with rigidly connected girders

Additional check for the exterior girder for bridges with rigidly connected girders
Additional check for the exterior girder for bridges with rigidly connected girders
End
End

Section in Example

Design Step 5.1.9

Design Step 5.1.10

Design Step 5.1.15

Design Step 3 – Design Flowcharts

Creep and Shrinkage Calculations

Start
Start
Calculate the creep coefficient, y (t, t i ), for the beam at infinite time

Calculate the creep coefficient, y(t, t i ), for the beam at infinite time according to S5.4.2.3.2.

Calculate the creep coefficient, y (t, t i ), for the beam at infinite time according
Calculate the creep coefficient, y (t, t i ), for the beam at infinite time according
), for the beam at infinite time according to S5.4.2.3.2. Calculate the creep coefficient, y (t,t
Calculate the creep coefficient, y (t,t i ), in the beam at the time the

Calculate the creep coefficient, y(t,t i ), in the beam at the time the slab is cast according to S5.4.2.3.2.

Calculate the creep coefficient, y (t,t i ), in the beam at the time the slab
Calculate the creep coefficient, y (t,t i ), in the beam at the time the slab
beam at the time the slab is cast according to S5.4.2.3.2. Calculate the prestressed end slope,
Calculate the prestressed end slope, q .

Calculate the prestressed end slope, q.

Calculate the prestressed end slope, q .
Calculate the prestressed end slope, q .
to S5.4.2.3.2. Calculate the prestressed end slope, q . Calculate the prestressed creep fixed end actions
Calculate the prestressed creep fixed end actions

Calculate the prestressed creep fixed end actions

Calculate the prestressed creep fixed end actions
Calculate the prestressed creep fixed end actions
q . Calculate the prestressed creep fixed end actions Calculate dead load creep fixed end actions
Calculate dead load creep fixed end actions

Calculate dead load creep fixed end actions

Calculate dead load creep fixed end actions
Calculate dead load creep fixed end actions
end actions Calculate dead load creep fixed end actions Determine creep final effects 1 Prestressed Concrete

Determine creep

final effects

1
1

Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example

Section in Example

Design Step C1.2

Design Step C1.3

Design Step C1.4

Design Step C1.5

Design Step C1.6

Design Step C1.7

Design Step 3 – Design Flowcharts

Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example

Creep and Shrinkage Calculations (cont.)

1
1
Calculate shrinkage strain in beam at infinite time according to S5.4.2.3.3.

Calculate shrinkage strain in beam at infinite time according to S5.4.2.3.3.

Calculate shrinkage strain in beam at infinite time according to S5.4.2.3.3.
Calculate shrinkage strain in beam at infinite time according to S5.4.2.3.3.
strain in beam at infinite time according to S5.4.2.3.3. Calculate shrinkage strain in the beam at
Calculate shrinkage strain in the beam at the time the slab is cast (S5.4.2.3.3).

Calculate shrinkage strain in the beam at the time the slab is cast (S5.4.2.3.3).

Calculate shrinkage strain in the beam at the time the slab is cast (S5.4.2.3.3).
Calculate shrinkage strain in the beam at the time the slab is cast (S5.4.2.3.3).
in the beam at the time the slab is cast (S5.4.2.3.3). Calculate the shrinkage strain in
Calculate the shrinkage strain in the slab at infinite time (S5.4.2.3.3).

Calculate the shrinkage strain in the slab at infinite time (S5.4.2.3.3).

Calculate the shrinkage strain in the slab at infinite time (S5.4.2.3.3).
Calculate the shrinkage strain in the slab at infinite time (S5.4.2.3.3).
shrinkage strain in the slab at infinite time (S5.4.2.3.3). Calculate the shrinkage driving end moment, M
Calculate the shrinkage driving end moment, M s

Calculate the shrinkage driving end moment, M s

Calculate the shrinkage driving end moment, M s
Calculate the shrinkage driving end moment, M s
Calculate the shrinkage driving end moment, M s Analyze the beam for the shrinkage fixed end
Analyze the beam for the shrinkage fixed end actions

Analyze the beam for the shrinkage fixed end actions

Analyze the beam for the shrinkage fixed end actions
Analyze the beam for the shrinkage fixed end actions
M s Analyze the beam for the shrinkage fixed end actions Calculate the correction factor for
Calculate the correction factor for shrinkage

Calculate the correction factor for shrinkage

Calculate the correction factor for shrinkage
Calculate the correction factor for shrinkage
end actions Calculate the correction factor for shrinkage Calculate the shrinkage final moments End Section in
Calculate the shrinkage final moments

Calculate the shrinkage final moments

Calculate the shrinkage final moments
Calculate the shrinkage final moments
End
End

Section in Example

Design Step C2.1

Design Step C2.2

Design Step C2.3

Design Step C2.5

Design Step C2.6

Design Step C2.7

Design Step C2.8

Design Step 3 – Design Flowcharts

Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example

Prestressing Losses Calculations

Start
Start
Determine the stress limit immediately prior to transfer in the prestressing strands for the prestressing

Determine the stress limit immediately prior to transfer in the prestressing strands for the prestressing steel used (S5.9.3)

the stress limit immediately prior to transfer in the prestressing strands for the prestressing steel used
the stress limit immediately prior to transfer in the prestressing strands for the prestressing steel used
strands for the prestressing steel used (S5.9.3) Determine Instantaneous Losses (S5.9.5.2) for pretensioned
Determine Instantaneous Losses (S5.9.5.2) for pretensioned members, only Elastic Shortening (S5.9.5.2.3a) is considered

Determine Instantaneous Losses (S5.9.5.2) for pretensioned members, only Elastic Shortening (S5.9.5.2.3a) is considered

Determine Instantaneous Losses (S5.9.5.2) for pretensioned members, only Elastic Shortening (S5.9.5.2.3a) is considered
Determine Instantaneous Losses (S5.9.5.2) for pretensioned members, only Elastic Shortening (S5.9.5.2.3a) is considered
Lump Sum Will the lump sum method or the refined method for time-dependent losses be
Lump Sum
Will the lump
sum method or the refined
method for time-dependent
losses be used?
Refined
Determine
shrinkage loss
(S5.9.5.4.2)
Determine
creep loss
(S5.9.5.4.3)
2
1
1

Determine the lump sum time- dependent losses

(S5.9.5.3)

Section in Example

Design Step 5.4.2

Design Step 5.4.3

Design Step 5.4.6.1

Design Step 5.4.6.2

Design Step 3 – Design Flowcharts

Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example

Prestressing Losses Calculations (cont.)

1
1

Determine relaxation loss at transfer

(S5.9.5.4.4b)

2
2
Determine losses due to relaxation after transfer (S5.9.5.4.4c)

Determine losses due to relaxation after transfer (S5.9.5.4.4c)

Determine losses due to relaxation after transfer (S5.9.5.4.4c)
Determine losses due to relaxation after transfer (S5.9.5.4.4c)
Determine time-dependent losses after transfer as the total time-dependent losses minus relaxation losses at transfer
Determine time-dependent
losses after transfer as the total
time-dependent losses minus
relaxation losses at transfer
Determine total time-dependent
losses after transfer by adding creep,
shrinkage and relaxation losses
Determine stress in strands immediately after transfer as the stress prior to transfer minus instantaneous

Determine stress in strands immediately after transfer as the stress prior to transfer minus instantaneous losses

Determine stress in strands immediately after transfer as the stress prior to transfer minus instantaneous losses
Determine stress in strands immediately after transfer as the stress prior to transfer minus instantaneous losses
as the stress prior to transfer minus instantaneous losses Determine final stress in strands as stress
Determine final stress in strands as stress immediately prior to transfer minus sum of instantaneous

Determine final stress in strands as stress immediately prior to transfer minus sum of instantaneous loss and time- dependent losses after transfer

strands as stress immediately prior to transfer minus sum of instantaneous loss and time- dependent losses
strands as stress immediately prior to transfer minus sum of instantaneous loss and time- dependent losses
End
End

Section in Example

Design Step 5.4.6.3

Design Step 5.4.7

Design Step 5.4.4

Design Step 5.4.8

Design Step 3 – Design Flowcharts

Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example

Flexural Design

Start
Start
Design controlling girder (interior)

Design controlling girder (interior)

Design controlling girder (interior)
Design controlling girder (interior)
Flexural Design Start Design controlling girder (interior) Detemine compression and tension stress limits at transfer
Detemine compression and tension stress limits at transfer

Detemine compression and tension stress limits at transfer

Detemine compression and tension stress limits at transfer
Detemine compression and tension stress limits at transfer
Detemine compression and tension stress limits at transfer Detemine final compression and tension stress limits
Detemine final compression and tension stress limits Calculate initial service moment stress in the top
Detemine final compression
and tension stress limits
Calculate initial service moment
stress in the top and bottom of
the prestressed girder
Calculate final service
moment stress in the top
and bottom of the
prestressed girder
NO
Select a different
girder size or change
strand arrangement
Are service
stresses within
stress limits?
YES
1
2

Section in Example

Design Step 5.6.1.1

Design Step 5.6.2.1

Design Step 5.6.1.2

Design Step 5.6.2.2

Design Step 3 – Design Flowcharts

Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example

Flexural Design (cont.)

1
1
Design the longitudnal steel at top of girder

Design the longitudnal steel at top of girder

Design the longitudnal steel at top of girder
Design the longitudnal steel at top of girder
(cont.) 1 Design the longitudnal steel at top of girder Calculate factored flexural resistance, M r
Calculate factored flexural resistance, M r , at points of maximum moment

Calculate factored flexural resistance, M r , at points of maximum moment

(S5.7.3.1)

(S5.7.3.1)
Calculate factored flexural resistance, M r , at points of maximum moment (S5.7.3.1)
Calculate factored flexural resistance, M r , at points of maximum moment (S5.7.3.1)
Check the nominal capacity versus the maximum applied factored moment NG OK Check the maximum
Check the nominal
capacity versus the
maximum applied
factored moment
NG
OK
Check the maximum
and minimum reinforcement
NG
(S5.7.3.3.2)
OK
Check negative moment connection at intermediate pier

Check negative moment connection at intermediate pier

Check negative moment connection at intermediate pier
Check negative moment connection at intermediate pier
3
3
2
2
Select a different girder size or change strand arrangement

Select a different girder size or change strand arrangement

Select a different girder size or change strand arrangement Select a different girder size or change
Select a different girder size or change strand arrangement
Select a different girder size or change strand arrangement
Select a different girder size or change strand arrangement

Select a different girder size or change strand arrangement

Section in Example

Design Step 5.6.3

Design Step 5.6.4

Design Step 5.6.4.1 and 5.6.4.2

Design Step 5.6.5.1

Design Step 3 – Design Flowcharts

Flexural Design (cont.)

3
3
Check moment capacity versus the maximum applied factored moment at the critical location for negative

Check moment capacity versus the maximum applied factored moment at the critical location for negative moment.

Check moment capacity versus the maximum applied factored moment at the critical location for negative moment.
Check moment capacity versus the maximum applied factored moment at the critical location for negative moment.
moment at the critical location for negative moment. Check service crack control in negative moment region
Check service crack control in negative moment region

Check service crack control in negative moment region

(S5.5.2)

(S5.5.2)
Check service crack control in negative moment region (S5.5.2)
Check service crack control in negative moment region (S5.5.2)
service crack control in negative moment region (S5.5.2) Check positive moment connection at intermediate pier Check
Check positive moment connection at intermediate pier

Check positive moment connection at intermediate pier

Check positive moment connection at intermediate pier
Check positive moment connection at intermediate pier
Check positive moment connection at intermediate pier Check fatigue in prestressed steel (S5.5.3) (Notice that for
Check fatigue in prestressed steel (S5.5.3) (Notice that for conventional prestressed beams, fatigue does not

Check fatigue in prestressed steel (S5.5.3) (Notice that for conventional prestressed beams, fatigue does not need to be checked)

in prestressed steel (S5.5.3) (Notice that for conventional prestressed beams, fatigue does not need to be
in prestressed steel (S5.5.3) (Notice that for conventional prestressed beams, fatigue does not need to be
prestressed beams, fatigue does not need to be checked) Calculate required camber in the beams to
Calculate required camber in the beams to determine bearing seat elevations

Calculate required camber in the beams to determine bearing seat elevations

Calculate required camber in the beams to determine bearing seat elevations
Calculate required camber in the beams to determine bearing seat elevations
camber in the beams to determine bearing seat elevations Determine the haunch thickness Calculate required camber

Determine the

haunch thickness

bearing seat elevations Determine the haunch thickness Calculate required camber in the beams to determine probable
Calculate required camber in the beams to determine probable sag in bridge

Calculate required camber in the beams to determine probable sag in bridge

Calculate required camber in the beams to determine probable sag in bridge
Calculate required camber in the beams to determine probable sag in bridge
4
4

Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example

Section in Example

Design Step 5.6.5.1

Design Step 5.6.5.1

Design Step 5.6.5.2

Design Step 5.6.6

Design Step 5.6.7.1

Design Step 5.6.7.2

Design Step 5.6.7.3

Design Step 3 – Design Flowcharts

Flexural Design (cont.)

4
4
Optional live load deflection check

Optional live load deflection check

(S2.5.2.6.2)

(S2.5.2.6.2)
Optional live load deflection check (S2.5.2.6.2)
Optional live load deflection check (S2.5.2.6.2)
End
End

Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example

Section in Example

Design Step 5.6.8

Design Step 3 – Design Flowcharts

Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example

Shear Design – Alternative 1, Assumed Angle ?

Start
Start
Determine b v and d v Eq. S5.8.2.9

Determine b v and d v Eq. S5.8.2.9

Determine b v and d v Eq. S5.8.2.9
Determine b v and d v Eq. S5.8.2.9
Calculate V p
Calculate V p
Calculate shear stress ratio, v u /f' c

Calculate shear stress ratio, v u /f' c

Calculate shear stress ratio, v u /f' c
Calculate shear stress ratio, v u /f' c
V p Calculate shear stress ratio, v u /f' c If the section is within the
If the section is within the transfer length of any strands, calculate the average effective

If the section is within the transfer length of any strands, calculate the average effective value of f po

If the section is within the transfer length of any strands, calculate the average effective value
If the section is within the transfer length of any strands, calculate the average effective value
strands, calculate the average effective value of f p o If the section is within the
If the section is within the development length of any reinforcing bars, calculate the effective

If the section is within the development length of any reinforcing bars, calculate the effective value of A s

If the section is within the development length of any reinforcing bars, calculate the effective value
If the section is within the development length of any reinforcing bars, calculate the effective value
any reinforcing bars, calculate the effective value of A s Section in Example Design Step 5.7.2.1

Section in Example

Design Step 5.7.2.1

Design Step 5.7.2.2

Design Step 5.7.2.5

Design Step 5.7.2.5

Assume value of shear crack inclination angle q Calculate e x using Eq. S5.8.3.4.2-1 1
Assume value of shear
crack inclination angle q
Calculate e x using Eq.
S5.8.3.4.2-1
1
2
2

Design Step 5.7.2.5

Design Step 3 – Design Flowcharts

Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example

Shear Design – Alternative 1, Assumed Angle ? (cont.)

1 2 Is assumed value of q greater than the value determined based on calculated
1
2
Is assumed value of
q greater than the value
determined based on
calculated e x ?
NO
Use the value last
determined for q
YES
Is assumed value of
q too conservative, i.e.,
too high?
YES
NO
Determine transverse
reinforcement to ensure
V u <= fV n Eq. S5.8.3.3
Check minimum and
maximum transverse
reinforcement requirements
S5.8.2.5 and S5.8.2.7
Can longitudinal
reinforcement resist
NO
required tension?
Eq. S5.8.3.5
YES
3
4
5
6

Section in Example

Design Step 5.7.2.5

Design Step 5.7.2.3 and 5.7.2.4

Design Step 5.7.6

Design Step 3 – Design Flowcharts

Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example

Shear Design – Alternative 1, Assumed Angle ? (cont.)

3 4 Check bursting resistance (S5.10.10.1) Can you use excess shear capacity to reduce the
3
4
Check bursting resistance
(S5.10.10.1)
Can you use excess
shear capacity to reduce
the longitudinal steel
requirements in
Eq. S5.8.3.5-1?
Choose values of q and b
corresponding to larger e x ,
Table S5.8.3.4.2-1
NO
5
Provide additional
6
longitudinal reinforcement
NO 5 Provide additional 6 longitudinal reinforcement Check confinement reinforcement (S5.10.10.2) Check
Check confinement reinforcement (S5.10.10.2)

Check confinement reinforcement (S5.10.10.2)

Check confinement reinforcement (S5.10.10.2)
Check confinement reinforcement (S5.10.10.2)
reinforcement Check confinement reinforcement (S5.10.10.2) Check horizontal shear at interface between beam and deck
Check horizontal shear at interface between beam and deck (S5.8.4)

Check horizontal shear at interface between beam and deck (S5.8.4)

Check horizontal shear at interface between beam and deck (S5.8.4)
Check horizontal shear at interface between beam and deck (S5.8.4)
End
End

Section in Example

Design Step 5.7.4

Design Step 5.7.5

Design Step 5.7.7

Design Step 3 – Design Flowcharts

Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example

Shear Design – Alternative 2, Assumed Strain e x

Start Example Shear Design – Alternative 2, Assumed Strain e x Determine b v and d v

Determine b v and d v Eq. S5.8.2.9

Determine b v and d v Eq. S5.8.2.9

Determine b v and d v Eq. S5.8.2.9
Determine b v and d v Eq. S5.8.2.9

Calculate V p p

Calculate shear stress ratio, v u /f' c

Calculate shear stress ratio, v u /f' c

Calculate shear stress ratio, v u /f' c
Calculate shear stress ratio, v u /f' c
V p Calculate shear stress ratio, v u /f' c If the section is within the
If the section is within the transfer length of any strands, calculate the average effective

If the section is within the transfer length of any strands, calculate the average effective value of f po

If the section is within the transfer length of any strands, calculate the average effective value
If the section is within the transfer length of any strands, calculate the average effective value
strands, calculate the average effective value of f p o If the section is within the
If the section is within the development length of any reinforcing bars, calculate the effective

If the section is within the development length of any reinforcing bars, calculate the effective value of A s

If the section is within the development length of any reinforcing bars, calculate the effective value
If the section is within the development length of any reinforcing bars, calculate the effective value
any reinforcing bars, calculate the effective value of A s Assume value of e x and
Assume value of e x and take q and b from corresponding cell of Table

Assume value of e x and take q and b from corresponding cell of Table S5.8.3.4.2-1

Assume value of e x and take q and b from corresponding cell of Table S5.8.3.4.2-1
Assume value of e x and take q and b from corresponding cell of Table S5.8.3.4.2-1
q and b from corresponding cell of Table S5.8.3.4.2-1 Calculate e x using Eq. S5.8.3.4.2-1 1
q and b from corresponding cell of Table S5.8.3.4.2-1 Calculate e x using Eq. S5.8.3.4.2-1 1
Calculate e x using Eq.

Calculate e x using Eq.

S5.8.3.4.2-1

S5.8.3.4.2-1
Calculate e x using Eq. S5.8.3.4.2-1
Calculate e x using Eq. S5.8.3.4.2-1
1
1
S5.8.3.4.2-1 Calculate e x using Eq. S5.8.3.4.2-1 1 2 3 Section in Example Design Step 5.7.2.1
S5.8.3.4.2-1 Calculate e x using Eq. S5.8.3.4.2-1 1 2 3 Section in Example Design Step 5.7.2.1
2
2
Calculate e x using Eq. S5.8.3.4.2-1 1 2 3 Section in Example Design Step 5.7.2.1 Design
3
3

Section in Example

Design Step 5.7.2.1

Design Step 5.7.2.2

Design Step 5.7.2.5

Design Step 5.7.2.5

Design Step 5.7.2.5

Design Step 3 – Design Flowcharts

Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example

Shear Design – Alternative 2, Assumed Strain e x (cont.)

2 1 3 Is calculated e x less than assumed value? YES Is assumed value
2
1
3
Is calculated e x less than
assumed value?
YES
Is assumed value of
q too conservative, i.e.,
too high?
YES
NO
Determine transverse
reinforcement to ensure
V u <= fV n Eq. S5.8.3.3
Check minimum and
maximum transverse
reinforcement requirements
S5.8.2.5 and S5.8.2.7
Can longitudinal
reinforcement resist
NO
required tension?
Eq. S5.8.3.5
YES
4
5
6
7

Section in Example

Design Step 5.7.2.5

Design Step 5.7.2.3 and 5.7.2.4

Design Step 5.7.6

Design Step 3 – Design Flowcharts

Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example

Shear Design – Alternative 2, Assumed Strain e x (cont.)

4 5 Check bursting resistance (S5.10.10.1) YES Can you use excess shear capacity to reduce
4
5
Check bursting resistance
(S5.10.10.1)
YES
Can you use excess
shear capacity to reduce
the longitudinal steel
requirements in
Eq. S5.8.3.5-1?
Choose values of q and b
corresponding to larger e x ,
Table S5.8.3.4.2-1
NO
6
Provide additional
7
longitudinal reinforcement
NO 6 Provide additional 7 longitudinal reinforcement Check confinement reinforcement (S5.10.10.2) Check
Check confinement reinforcement (S5.10.10.2)

Check confinement reinforcement (S5.10.10.2)

Check confinement reinforcement (S5.10.10.2)
Check confinement reinforcement (S5.10.10.2)
reinforcement Check confinement reinforcement (S5.10.10.2) Check horizontal shear at interface between beam and deck
Check horizontal shear at interface between beam and deck (S5.8.4)

Check horizontal shear at interface between beam and deck (S5.8.4)

Check horizontal shear at interface between beam and deck (S5.8.4)
Check horizontal shear at interface between beam and deck (S5.8.4)
End
End

Section in Example

Design Step 5.7.4

Design Step 5.7.5

Design Step 5.7.7

Design Step 3 – Design Flowcharts

Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example

Steel-Reinforced Elastomeric Bearing Design – Method A (Reference Only)

Start
Start
Determine movements and loads at pier support (S14.4)

Determine movements and loads at pier support (S14.4)

Determine movements and loads at pier support (S14.4)
Determine movements and loads at pier support (S14.4)
Start Determine movements and loads at pier support (S14.4) Calculate required plan area based on compressive
Calculate required plan area based on compressive stress limit (S14.7.6.3.2)

Calculate required plan area based on compressive stress limit (S14.7.6.3.2)

Calculate required plan area based on compressive stress limit (S14.7.6.3.2)
Calculate required plan area based on compressive stress limit (S14.7.6.3.2)
plan area based on compressive stress limit (S14.7.6.3.2) Determine dimensions L and W of the bearing,
Determine dimensions L and W of the bearing, W is taken to be slightly less

Determine dimensions L and W of the bearing, W is taken to be slightly less than the width of the girder bottom flange

(S14.7.5.1)

(S14.7.5.1)
dimensions L and W of the bearing, W is taken to be slightly less than the
dimensions L and W of the bearing, W is taken to be slightly less than the
than the width of the girder bottom flange (S14.7.5.1) Determine the shape factor for steel- reinforced
Determine the shape factor for steel- reinforced elastomeric bearings according to S14.7.5.1

Determine the shape factor for steel- reinforced elastomeric bearings according to S14.7.5.1

Determine the shape factor for steel- reinforced elastomeric bearings according to S14.7.5.1
Determine the shape factor for steel- reinforced elastomeric bearings according to S14.7.5.1
reinforced elastomeric bearings according to S14.7.5.1 Determine material properties (S14.7.6.2) Check compressive
Determine material properties (S14.7.6.2)

Determine material properties (S14.7.6.2)

Determine material properties (S14.7.6.2)
Determine material properties (S14.7.6.2)
to S14.7.5.1 Determine material properties (S14.7.6.2) Check compressive stress. Determine the maximum allowed
Check compressive stress. Determine the maximum allowed shape factor using total load and live load

Check compressive stress. Determine the maximum allowed shape factor using total load and live load stresses for the assumed plan area

(S14.7.6.3.2)

(S14.7.6.3.2)
Determine the maximum allowed shape factor using total load and live load stresses for the assumed
Determine the maximum allowed shape factor using total load and live load stresses for the assumed
load stresses for the assumed plan area (S14.7.6.3.2) Assume elastomer layer maximum thickness and number of
Assume elastomer layer maximum thickness and number of layers

Assume elastomer layer maximum thickness and number of layers

Assume elastomer layer maximum thickness and number of layers
Assume elastomer layer maximum thickness and number of layers
1
1

Section in Example

Design Step 3 – Design Flowcharts

Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example

Steel-Reinforced Elastomeric Bearing Design – Method A (Reference Only) (cont.)

1
1
Recalculate the shape factor Determine maximum stress associated with the load conditions inducing the maximum
Recalculate the
shape factor
Determine maximum stress associated
with the load conditions inducing the
maximum rotation (S14.7.6.3.5)
Check stability of the
elastomeric bearing
(S14.7.6.3.6)
Reinforcement for steel-reinforced
elastomeric bearings is designed
according to S14.7.5.3.7
Did bearing pass all
checks?
NO
Change plan
dimensions, number
of layers, and/or
thickness of layers
YES

Check if the bearing needs to be secured against horizontal movement (S14.7.6.4)

Check if the bearing needs to be secured against horizontal movement (S14.7.6.4)
End
End

Section in Example

Design Step 3 – Design Flowcharts

Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example

Steel-Reinforced Elastomeric Bearing Design – Method B

Start
Start
Determine movements and loads at pier support (S14.4)

Determine movements and loads at pier support (S14.4)

Determine movements and loads at pier support (S14.4)
Determine movements and loads at pier support (S14.4)
Start Determine movements and loads at pier support (S14.4) Calculate required plan area of the elastomeric
Calculate required plan area of the elastomeric pad based on compressive stress limit

Calculate required plan area of the elastomeric pad based on compressive stress limit

(S14.7.5.3.2)

(S14.7.5.3.2)
Calculate required plan area of the elastomeric pad based on compressive stress limit (S14.7.5.3.2)
Calculate required plan area of the elastomeric pad based on compressive stress limit (S14.7.5.3.2)
pad based on compressive stress limit (S14.7.5.3.2) Determine dimensions L and W of the bearing, W
Determine dimensions L and W of the bearing, W is taken to be slightly less

Determine dimensions L and W of the bearing, W is taken to be slightly less than the width of the girder bottom flange

(S14.7.5.1)

(S14.7.5.1)
dimensions L and W of the bearing, W is taken to be slightly less than the
dimensions L and W of the bearing, W is taken to be slightly less than the
than the width of the girder bottom flange (S14.7.5.1) Determine material properties (S14.7.5.2) Check compressive
Determine material properties (S14.7.5.2)

Determine material properties (S14.7.5.2)

Determine material properties (S14.7.5.2)
Determine material properties (S14.7.5.2)
(S14.7.5.1) Determine material properties (S14.7.5.2) Check compressive stress. Determine the maximum allowed
Check compressive stress. Determine the maximum allowed shape factor using total load and live load

Check compressive stress. Determine the maximum allowed shape factor using total load and live load stresses for the assumed plan area (S14.7.5.3.2)

Determine the maximum allowed shape factor using total load and live load stresses for the assumed
Determine the maximum allowed shape factor using total load and live load stresses for the assumed
live load stresses for the assumed plan area (S14.7.5.3.2) Calculate maximum elastomer interior layer thickness, h
Calculate maximum elastomer interior layer thickness, h r i . (S14.7.5.1)

Calculate maximum elastomer interior layer thickness, h ri . (S14.7.5.1)

Calculate maximum elastomer interior layer thickness, h r i . (S14.7.5.1)
Calculate maximum elastomer interior layer thickness, h r i . (S14.7.5.1)
1
1

Section in Example

Design Step 6.1

Design Step 6.1.1

Design Step 6.1.1

Design Step 6.1.2.1

Design Step 6.1.2.1

Design Step 3 – Design Flowcharts

Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example

Steel-Reinforced Elastomeric Bearing Design – Method B (cont.)

1
1
Recalculate the shape factor (S14.7.5.1) Check compressive deflection if there is a deck joint at
Recalculate the shape factor
(S14.7.5.1)
Check compressive deflection
if there is a deck joint at the
bearing location (S14.7.5.3.3)
Check shear deformation
(S14.7.5.3.4)
Check combined compression
and rotation (S14.7.5.3.5)
Check stability of elastomeric
bearings (S14.7.5.3.6)
Did bearing pass
all checks?
NO
Change plan
dimensions, number
of layers, and/or
thickness of layers
YES

Determine steel reinforcement thickness, h s (S14.7.5.3.7)

Determine steel reinforcement thickness, h s (S14.7.5.3.7)
End
End

Section in Example

Design Step 6.1.2.1

Design Step 6.1.2.2

Design Step 6.1.2.3

Design Step 6.1.2.4

Design Step 6.1.2.5

Design Step 6.1.2.6

Design Step 3 – Design Flowcharts

SUBSTRUCTURE

Integral Abutment Design

Start Generate applied dead load and live load for the abutment components. Determine controlling limit
Start
Generate applied dead
load and live load for the
abutment components.
Determine controlling limit state.
Factor the loads according to Table
S3.4.1-1 to be applied for pile design
Check pile compressive resistance
(S6.15 and S6.9.2). Determine number
of piles and corresponding spacing.
Design pile cap reinforcement.
Check flexure and shear.
Check the flexure and shear
resistance of the backwall.
Design wingwall
Design approach
slab for flexure
End

Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example

Section in Example

Design Step 7.1.1

Design Step 7.1.2

Design Step 7.1.3.1

Design Step 7.1.4

Design Step 7.1.4.1

Design Step 7.1.5

Design Step 7.1.6

Design Step 3 – Design Flowcharts

Intermediate Bent Design

Start
Start
Generate the loads applied to the intermediate bent components.

Generate the loads applied to the intermediate bent components.

Generate the loads applied to the intermediate bent components.
Generate the loads applied to the intermediate bent components.
the loads applied to the intermediate bent components. Determine maximum loads transferred from the superstructure
Determine maximum loads transferred from the superstructure

Determine maximum loads transferred from the superstructure

Determine maximum loads transferred from the superstructure
Determine maximum loads transferred from the superstructure
Determine maximum loads transferred from the superstructure Analyze the pier cap. Determine the locations of maximum
Analyze the pier cap. Determine the locations of maximum positive moment, negative moment and shear

Analyze the pier cap. Determine the locations of maximum positive moment, negative moment and shear

Analyze the pier cap. Determine the locations of maximum positive moment, negative moment and shear
Analyze the pier cap. Determine the locations of maximum positive moment, negative moment and shear
of maximum positive moment, negative moment and shear Design flexural and shear reinforcement in the pier
Design flexural and shear reinforcement in the pier cap

Design flexural and shear reinforcement in the pier cap

Design flexural and shear reinforcement in the pier cap
Design flexural and shear reinforcement in the pier cap
Design flexural and shear reinforcement in the pier cap Check limits of reinforcement (S5.7.3.3) Check flexural
Check limits of reinforcement

Check limits of reinforcement

(S5.7.3.3)

(S5.7.3.3)
Check limits of reinforcement (S5.7.3.3)
Check limits of reinforcement (S5.7.3.3)
in the pier cap Check limits of reinforcement (S5.7.3.3) Check flexural reinforcement distribution (S5.7.3.4) Check
Check flexural reinforcement distribution (S5.7.3.4)

Check flexural reinforcement distribution (S5.7.3.4)

Check flexural reinforcement distribution (S5.7.3.4)
Check flexural reinforcement distribution (S5.7.3.4)
Check flexural reinforcement distribution (S5.7.3.4) Check minimum temperature and shrinkage steel (S5.10.8) 1

Check minimum temperature and shrinkage steel (S5.10.8)

Check minimum temperature and shrinkage steel (S5.10.8)
1
1

Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example

Section in Example

Design Step 7.2.1

Design Step 7.2.2

Design Step 7.2.2.4

Design Step 3 – Design Flowcharts

Intermediate Bent Design (cont.)

1
1
Check skin reinforcement in components where d e exceeds 3.0 ft. (S5.7.3.4)

Check skin reinforcement in components where d e exceeds 3.0 ft. (S5.7.3.4)

Check skin reinforcement in components where d e exceeds 3.0 ft. (S5.7.3.4)
Check skin reinforcement in components where d e exceeds 3.0 ft. (S5.7.3.4)
in components where d e exceeds 3.0 ft. (S5.7.3.4) Design the columns. Determine the maximum moments
Design the columns. Determine the maximum moments and shears in the column

Design the columns. Determine the maximum moments and shears in the column

Design the columns. Determine the maximum moments and shears in the column
Design the columns. Determine the maximum moments and shears in the column
Determine the maximum moments and shears in the column Check limits for reinforcement in compression members
Check limits for reinforcement in compression members (S5.7.4.2)

Check limits for reinforcement in compression members (S5.7.4.2)

Check limits for reinforcement in compression members (S5.7.4.2)
Check limits for reinforcement in compression members (S5.7.4.2)
limits for reinforcement in compression members (S5.7.4.2) Develop the column interaction curve Check slenderness
Develop the column interaction curve

Develop the column interaction curve

Develop the column interaction curve
Develop the column interaction curve
members (S5.7.4.2) Develop the column interaction curve Check slenderness provisions for concrete columns (S5.7.4.3)
Check slenderness provisions for concrete columns (S5.7.4.3)

Check slenderness provisions for concrete columns (S5.7.4.3)

Check slenderness provisions for concrete columns (S5.7.4.3)
Check slenderness provisions for concrete columns (S5.7.4.3)
Check slenderness provisions for concrete columns (S5.7.4.3) Determine transverse reinforcement for a compressive member
Determine transverse reinforcement for a compressive member (S5.10.6)

Determine transverse reinforcement for a compressive member (S5.10.6)

Determine transverse reinforcement for a compressive member (S5.10.6)
Determine transverse reinforcement for a compressive member (S5.10.6)
transverse reinforcement for a compressive member (S5.10.6) Design the footing. Determine applied moments and shears
Design the footing. Determine applied moments and shears transmitted from the columns

Design the footing. Determine applied moments and shears transmitted from the columns

Design the footing. Determine applied moments and shears transmitted from the columns
Design the footing. Determine applied moments and shears transmitted from the columns
2
2

Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example

Section in Example

Design Step 7.2.2.5

Design Step 7.2.3

Design Step 7.2.3.1

Design Step 7.2.3.2

Design Step 7.2.4

Design Step 3 – Design Flowcharts

Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example

Intermediate Bent Design (cont.)

2
2
Check flexural resistance

Check flexural resistance

(S5.7.3.2)

(S5.7.3.2)
Check flexural resistance (S5.7.3.2)
Check flexural resistance (S5.7.3.2)
Design (cont.) 2 Check flexural resistance (S5.7.3.2) Check maximum and minimum reinforcement (S5.7.3.3) Check
Check maximum and minimum reinforcement (S5.7.3.3)

Check maximum and minimum reinforcement (S5.7.3.3)

Check maximum and minimum reinforcement (S5.7.3.3)
Check maximum and minimum reinforcement (S5.7.3.3)
Check maximum and minimum reinforcement (S5.7.3.3) Check distribution of reinforcement for cracking in the
Check distribution of reinforcement for cracking in the concrete (S5.7.3.4)

Check distribution of reinforcement for cracking in the concrete (S5.7.3.4)

Check distribution of reinforcement for cracking in the concrete (S5.7.3.4)
Check distribution of reinforcement for cracking in the concrete (S5.7.3.4)
of reinforcement for cracking in the concrete (S5.7.3.4) Design footing for maximum shear in the longitudinal
Design footing for maximum shear in the longitudinal and transverse directions (one-way shear and punching

Design footing for maximum shear in the longitudinal and transverse directions (one-way shear and punching (two-way) shear)

Design footing for maximum shear in the longitudinal and transverse directions (one-way shear and punching (two-way)
Design footing for maximum shear in the longitudinal and transverse directions (one-way shear and punching (two-way)
directions (one-way shear and punching (two-way) shear) Foundation soil resistance at the Strength Limit State
Foundation soil resistance at the Strength Limit State (S10.6.3)

Foundation soil resistance at the Strength Limit State (S10.6.3)

Foundation soil resistance at the Strength Limit State (S10.6.3)
Foundation soil resistance at the Strength Limit State (S10.6.3)
End
End

Section in Example

Design Step 7.2.4.1

Design Step 7.2.4.2

Design Step 7.2.4.3

Design Step 7.2.4.4

Design Step 7.2.4.5

Design Step 4 – Design of Deck

Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example

Design Step

DECK SLAB DESIGN

4

Design Step

In addition to designing the deck for dead and live loads at the strength limit state, the

4.1

AASHTO-LRFD specifications require checking the deck for vehicular collision with the railing system at the extreme event limit state. The resistance factor at the extreme event limit state is taken as 1.0. This signifies that, at this level of loading, damage to the structural components is allowed and the goal is to prevent the collapse of any structural components.

The AASHTO-LRFD Specifications include two methods of deck design. The first method is called the approximate method of deck design (S4.6.2.1) and is typically referred to as the equivalent strip method. The second is called the Empirical Design Method (S9.7.2).

The equivalent strip method is based on the following:

A transverse strip of the deck is assumed to support the truck axle loads.

The strip is assumed to be supported on rigid supports at the center of the girders. The width of the strip for different load effects is determined using the equations in S4.6.2.1.

The truck axle loads are moved laterally to produce the moment envelopes. Multiple presence factors and the dynamic load allowance are included. The total moment is divided by the strip distribution width to determine the live load per unit width.

The loads transmitted to the bridge deck during vehicular collision with the railing system are determined.

Design factored moments are then determined using the appropriate load factors for different limit states.

The reinforcement is designed to resist the applied loads using conventional principles of reinforced concrete design.

Shear and fatigue of the reinforcement need not be investigated.

The Empirical Design Method is based on laboratory testing of deck slabs. This testing indicates that the loads on the deck are transmitted to the supporting components mainly through arching action in the deck, not through shears and moments as assumed by traditional design. Certain limitations on the geometry of the deck are listed in S9.7.2. Once these limitations are satisfied, the specifications give reinforcement ratios for both the longitudinal and transverse reinforcement for both layers of deck reinforcement. No other design calculations are required for the interior portions of the deck. The overhang region is then designed for vehicular collision with the railing system and for

Design Step 4 – Design of Deck

Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example

Design Step

4.2

dead and live loads acting on the deck. The Empirical Design Method requires less reinforcement in the interior portions of the deck than the Approximate Method.

For this example, the Approximate Method (Strip Width Method) is used.

9"

55' - 4 1/2"

52' Roadway Width 1'-8 1/4" 1'-10" 5 spa at 9' - 8" 8" Reinforced Concrete
52' Roadway Width
1'-8 1/4"
1'-10"
5 spa at 9' - 8"
8" Reinforced Concrete Deck

Figure 4-1 – Bridge Cross-Section

Required information:

Girder spacing

= 9 ft.- 8 in.

Top cover

= 2 ½ in. (S5.12.3)

Bottom cover Steel yield strength Slab conc. compressive strength Concrete density Future wearing surface density

(includes ½ in. integral wearing surface) = 1 in. (S5.12.3) = 60 ksi = 4 ksi = 150 pcf = 30 psf

DECK THICKNESS

The specifications require that the minimum thickness of a concrete deck, excluding any provisions for grinding, grooving and sacrificial surface, should not be less than 7 in. (S9.7.1.1). Thinner decks are acceptable if approved by the bridge owner. For slabs with depths less than 1/20 of the design span, consideration should be given to prestressing in the direction of that span in order to control cracking.

Most jurisdictions require a minimum deck thickness of 8 in., including the ½ inch integral wearing surface.

In addition to the minimum deck thickness requirements of S9.7.1.1, some jurisdictions check the slab thickness using the provisions of S2.5.2.6.3. The provisions in this article are meant for slab-type bridges and their purpose is to limit deflections under live loads. Applying these provisions to the design of deck slabs rarely controls deck slab design.

Design Step 4 – Design of Deck

Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example

 

For this example, a slab thickness of 8 in., including the ½ inch integral wearing surface, is assumed. The integral wearing surface is considered in the weight calculations. However, for resistance calculations, the integral wearing surface is assumed to not contribute to the section resistance, i.e., the section thickness for resistance calculations is assumed to be 7.5 in.

Design Step

OVERHANG THICKNESS

4.3

For decks supporting concrete parapets, the minimum overhang thickness is 8 in. (S13.7.3.1.2), unless a lesser thickness is proven satisfactory through crash testing of the railing system. Using a deck overhang thickness of approximately ¾” to 1” thicker than the deck thickness has proven to be beneficial in past designs.

For this example, an overhang thickness of 9 in., including the ½ in. sacrificial layer is assumed in the design.

Design Step

CONCRETE PARAPET

4.4

A Type-F concrete parapet is assumed. The dimensions of the parapet are shown in Figure 4-2. The railing crash resistance was determined using the provisions of

SA13.3.1.

The characteristics of the parapet and its crash resistance are summarized

below.

Concrete Parapet General Values and Dimensions:

Mass per unit length Width at base Moment capacity at the base calculated assuming the parapet acts as a vertical cantilever, M c /length Parapet height, H Length of parapet failure mechanism, L c Collision load capacity, R w

= 650 lb/ft = 1 ft.- 8 ¼ in.

17.83 k- ft/ft = 42 in. = 235.2 in. = 137.22 k

=

Notice that each jurisdiction typically uses a limited number of railings. The properties

of each parapet may be calculated once and used for all deck slabs.

For a complete

railing design example, see Lecture 16 of the participant notebook of the National Highway Institute Course No. 13061.

Design Step 4 – Design of Deck

Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example

Design Step

4.5

Design Step

4.5.1

1'-8 1/4" 3 3/8" 12" 4 7/8" 7.61" 2'-8" 3'-6" C.G. of parapet 7"
1'-8 1/4"
3 3/8"
12"
4 7/8"
7.61"
2'-8"
3'-6"
C.G.
of
parapet
7"
3"

Figure 4-2 – Parapet Cross-Section

The load capacity of this parapet exceeds the minimum required by the Specifications. The deck overhang region is required to be designed to have a resistance larger than the actual resistance of the concrete parapet (SA13.4.2).

EQUIVALENT STRIP METHOD (S4.6.2)

Moments are calculated for a deck transverse strip assuming rigid supports at web centerlines. The reinforcement is the same in all deck bays. The overhang is designed for cases of DL + LL at the strength limit state and for collision with the railing system at the extreme event limit state.

Design dead load moments:

Load factors (S3.4.1):

Slab and parapet:

Minimum = 0.9 Maximum = 1.25

Design Step 4 – Design of Deck

Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example

 

Future wearing surface:

 

Minimum = 0.65 Maximum = 1.5

It is not intended to maximize the load effects by applying the maximum load factors to some bays of the deck and the minimum load factors to others. Therefore, for deck slabs the maximum load factor controls the design and the minimum load factor may be ignored.

Dead loads represent a small fraction of the deck loads. Using a simplified approach to determine the deck dead load effects will result in a negligible difference in the total (DL + LL) load effects. Traditionally, dead load positive and negative moments in the deck, except for the overhang, for a unit width strip of the deck are calculated using the following approach:

M

= wl 2 /c

where:

 
 

M

= dead load positive or negative moment in the deck for a unit width strip (k-ft/ft)

w

= dead load per unit area of the deck (ksf)

l

= girder spacing (ft.)

c

= constant, typically taken as 10 or 12

 

For this example, the dead load moments due to the self weight and future wearing surface are calculated assuming c = 10.

Self weight of the deck = 8(150)/12 = 100 psf Unfactored self weight positive or negative moment = (100/1000)(9.66) 2 /10

 

=

0.93 k-ft/ft

Future wearing surface = 30 psf Unfactored FWS positive or negative moment

=

(30/1000)(9.66) 2 /10

=

0.28 k-ft/ft

Design Step

DISTANCE FROM THE CENTER OF THE GIRDER TO THE DESIGN

4.6

SECTION FOR NEGATIVE MOMENT

 

For precast I-shaped and T-shaped concrete beams, the distance from the centerline of girder to the design section for negative moment in the deck should be taken equal to one-third of the flange width from the centerline of the support (S4.6.2.1.6), but not to exceed 15 in.

Design Step 4 – Design of Deck

Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example

 

Girder top flange width = 42 in. One-third of the girder top flange width = 14 in. < 15 in. OK

Design Step

DETERMINING LIVE LOAD EFFECTS

4.7

Using the approximate method of deck analysis (S4.6.2), live load effects may be determined by modeling the deck as a beam supported on the girders. One or more axles may be placed side by side on the deck (representing axles from trucks in different traffic lanes) and move them transversely across the deck to maximize the moments (S4.6.2.1.6). To determine the live load moment per unit width of the bridge, the calculated total live load moment is divided by a strip width determined using the appropriate equation from Table S4.6.2.1.3-1. The following conditions have to be satisfied when determining live load effects on the deck:

Minimum distance from center of wheel to the inside face of parapet = 1 ft. (S3.6.1.3)

Minimum distance between the wheels of two adjacent trucks = 4 ft.

Dynamic load allowance = 33% (S3.6.2.1)

Load factor (Strength I) = 1.75 (S3.4.1)

Multiple presence factor (S3.6.1.1.2):

Single lane

= 1.20

Two lanes

= 1.00

Three lanes

= 0.85

(Note: the “three lanes” situation never controls for girder spacings up to 16 ft.)

Trucks were moved laterally to determine extreme moments (S4.6.2.1.6)

Fatigue need not be investigated for concrete slabs in multi-girder bridges (S9.5.3 and

S5.5.3.1)

Resistance factors, j, for moment:

0.9 for strength limit state (S5.5.4.2) 1.0 for extreme event limit state (S1.3.2.1)

In lieu of this procedure, the specifications allow the live load moment per unit width of the deck to be determined using Table SA4.1-1. This table lists the positive and negative moment per unit width of decks with various girder spacings and with various distances from the design section to the centerline of the girders for negative moment. This table is based on the analysis procedure outlined above and will be used for this example.

Design Step 4 – Design of Deck

Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example

 

Table SA4.1-1 does not include the girder spacing of 9-8. It does include girder spacings of 9-6and 9-9. Interpolation between the two girder spacings is allowed. However, due to the small difference between the values, the moments corresponding to the girder spacing of 9-9are used which gives slightly more conservative answers than

interpolating. Furthermore, the table lists results for the design section for negative moment at 12 in. and 18 in. from the center of the girder. For this example, the distance from the design section for negative moment to the centerline of the girders is 14 in.

Interpolation for the values listed for 12 in. and 18 in. is allowed.

However, the value

corresponding to the 12 in. distance may be used without interpolation resulting in a

more conservative value. The latter approach is used for this example.

Design Step

DESIGN FOR POSITIVE MOMENT IN THE DECK

4.8

The reinforcement determined in this section is based on the maximum positive moment in the deck. For interior bays of the deck, the maximum positive moment typically takes place at approximately the center of each bay. For the first deck bay, the bay adjacent to the overhang, the location of the maximum design positive moment varies depending on the overhang length and the value and distribution of the dead load. The same reinforcement is typically used for all deck bays.

Factored loads

Live load

From Table SA4.1-1, for the girder spacing of 9-9(conservative):

Unfactored live load positive moment per unit width = 6.74 k-ft/ft

Maximum factored positive moment per unit width = 1.75(6.74) = 11.80 k-ft/ft

This moment is applicable to all positive moment regions in all bays of the deck

(S4.6.2.1.1).

Deck weight

1.25(0.93) = 1.16 k-ft/ft

Future wearing surface

1.5(0.28) = 0.42 k-ft/ft

Dead load + live load design factored positive moment (Strength I limit state)

M DL+LL = 11.8 + 1.16 + 0.42 = 13.38 k-ft/ft

Design Step 4 – Design of Deck

Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example

Notice that the total moment is dominated by the live load.

Resistance factor for flexure at the strength limit state, j = 0.90 (S5.5.4.2.1)

The flexural resistance equations in the AASHTO-LRFD Bridge Design Specifications are applicable to reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete sections. Depending on the provided reinforcement, the terms related to prestressing, tension reinforcing steel and/or compression reinforcing steel, are set to zero. The following text is further explanation on applying these provisions to reinforced concrete sections and the possible simplifications to the equations for this case.

For rectangular section behavior, the depth of the section in compression, c, is determined using Eq. S5.7.3.1.1-4:

c

=

A

ps

f

pu

+

A

s

f

y

-

¢

A f

s

¢

y

   

b + k

 

f

pu

0.85 f

¢ b

c

1

A

ps

 

d

p

where:

(S5.7.3.1.1-4)

A ps = area of prestressing steel (in 2 )

f pu = specified tensile strength of prestressing steel (ksi)

f py = yield strength of prestressing steel (ksi)

A s = area of mild steel tension reinforcement (in 2 )

A¢ s = area of compression reinforcement (in 2 )

f y

= yield strength of tension reinforcement (ksi)

f¢ y = yield strength of compression reinforcement (ksi)

b = width of rectangular section (in.)

d p

= distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the prestressing tendons (in.)

c = distance between the neutral axis and the compressive face (in.)

ß 1

= stress block factor specified in S5.7.2.2

Design Step 4 – Design of Deck

Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example

For reinforced concrete sections (no prestressing) without reinforcement on the compression side of the section, the above equation is reduced to:

c

A

s

f

y

= 0.85 f

c

¢ b

1

b

The depth of the compression block, a, may be calculates as:

a = cb 1

These equations for “a” and “c” are identical to those traditionally used in reinforced concrete design. Many text books use the following equation to determine the reinforcement ratio, r, and area of reinforcement, A s :

k' = M u /(jbd 2 )

r

=

0.85

Á Ê

Á Ë

A s = rd e

f ¢

c

f y

ˆ ˜ È

˜

¯ Î

Í 1.0

Í

-

˘ 2 k ¢ 1.0 - ˙ 0.85 f ¢ ˙ c ˚
˘
2 k ¢
1.0
-