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Fernando Sandoval Morales 5AV2

Operational plane speeds.

Decision speed. Is the max speed in which the pilot can still stop the
aircraft and abort the takeoff without leaving the track. Its also the minimum
speed that allows the pilot to continue in a safe way (towards V2) even if
occurred a critical failure in the engine.
Safe takeoff speed. Is >20% of Vsi. Example: Vsi=84 knots * 20%= 100.8
knots. Then, V2?100.8 knots for this example. Its the speed that must be
achieved, with an inoperative engine, to start the initial rise with safety and an
enough margin to dodge possible obstacles that may appear. It must be
reached when the aircraft is 35ft over the track. (This is a typical parameter but
can vary depending on the plane).

Minimum safe takeoff speed.


Flaps retraction speed.

Maneuver speed. (Stall speed to maximum legal G-force, therefore the
max speed in which abrupt changes in the attitude of the aircraft by the pilot
wont cause this to exceed its support limits of G-forces). The maneuver speed
its limited by the structural characteristics of the aircraft.

Approach speed.


Effective rise speed. Its the indicated by the aircraft manufacturer.


Cruise speed.

VEF Speed in which a critical failure in the engine is assumed during takeoff.
Used to calculate V1
Flaps speed. Maximum speed in which the aircraft can operate with the
extended flaps in a prewritten position
VFE Maximum speed with fully extended flaps. (Can be specified a different
speed for partially extended flaps.

Holding speed


Maximum speed with extended landing gear. VLE is always higher than

VLO Maximum speed with operating landing gear, i.e., while the landing gear
is going up or down.
VLoF Speed when the plane is suspended in the air while the principal gear is
up and its said that the plane is already flying with a positive lifting angle and
has taken off before TORA (Take-off Run Available)


Minimum control speed with inoperative critic engine.

Vmca Minimum air control speed. Minimum speed in which plane direction is
Vmcg Minimum control ground speed. When during the take of run an engine
fails, its produces a imbalance in the engine thrust which tend to get the plane
off of the track .

Maximum operating speed.


Minimum speed in which the plane rise the nose wheel.

VNE Never exceed speed. Is the maximum speed that the aircraft can stand
before incurring in structural damages, commonly by the deformation or total fail
of the tail or wings. This speed is showed with red color in most of the Air speed
indicators (ASI). This speed is specific for every aircraft and represent a critical
point in its performance.
VNO Normal operation speed. Is the maximum structural cruise speed. VNO is
specified as the upper green limit in most ASI.This speed is particular in every
aircraft. The range over this speed its marked in the ASI as a yellow arc.
Rotation Speed. Is the speed when the plane starts to lift the nose and
therefore increasing the attack angle.

Landing reference speed.

Stall speed or mnimum speed of stable flight in which the aircraft is still
controllable in wide configuration.

Loss speed or mnimum speed of flight in landing configuration.

VS1 Loss speed or mnimum speed of stable flight in which the aircraft is still
controllable in a specified configuration. Generally this loss is caused by over
rotation of the aircraft or a dirty take off configuration.

Initial loss speed.

VSo Loss speed in approach configuration. Generally the loss is produced by

flaps with an angle over 15 , wheels or down spoiler decrease the speed at a
high rate and therefore, sustain.

Reference loss speed.

Turbulence speed. Is given by the manufacturer, where the aircraft
stands turbulence.

Ground movement speed.


Speed where the best lift angle is achieved.


Speed where the best lift rate is achieved.