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16 Decorative Surface of Attachment & Functional Parts to the Exterior and Interior of Automobiles
16
Decorative Surface of
Attachment & Functional Parts to the
Exterior and Interior of Automobiles
Appendix to VDA Volume 16
2nd revised edition, 2008

Page

Type of characteristic

 

Page

Type of characteristic

 

No. 1:Offset

Offset

 

No. 28:Various polishing defects

Various polishing defects

2

No. 2:Burn marks

Burn marks

9

No. 28a: Stippling2 No. 2: Burn marks 9

No. 3:Dents

Dents

No. 28b: Dull areasNo. 3: Dents

No. 4a:Bubbles

Bubbles

No. 28c: HologramsNo. 4a: Bubbles

 

No. 4b:Pitting

Pitting

 

No. 28d: Polishing flecks  No. 4b: Pitting  

3

No. 5:Impression marks

Impression marks

10

No. 29:Polishing "fish" / "comet tails"

Polishing "fish" / "comet tails"

No. 6:Anodising splits

Anodising splits

No. 30:Polishing streaks

Polishing streaks

No. 7:Colour misting

Colour misting

No. 31:Pores

Pores

 

Colour differencesNo. 8:

No. 8:

 

No. 32:Indications of seams / seam-welds

Indications of seams / seam-welds

4

No. 9:Swollen edges

Swollen edges

11

No. 33:Scour marks

Scour marks

No. 10:Flecks

Flecks

No. 34:Step marks (linear traces of rolling)

Step marks (linear traces of rolling)

Flash on tool split lineNo. 11:

No. 11:

No. 35:Striations

Striations

 

Differences in sheenNo. 12:

No. 12:

 
No. 36: Graininess

No. 36:

Graininess

5

No. 13:Flash / burrs

Flash / burrs

12

No. 37:Corrugations

Corrugations

No. 14:Grittiness

Grittiness

No. 38a: Cloudiness/ fogging/ streaksNo. 14: Grittiness

No. 15:Hairline splits

Hairline splits

No. 38b: Streaks caused by moisture / airNo. 15: Hairline splits

 
No. 16: Contact / gripping points

No. 16:

Contact / gripping points

 

Differences in coating thicknessesNo. 39:

No. 39:

6

No. 17:Scratches; grooves

Scratches; grooves

13

Sink marksNo. 40:

No. 40:

No. 18:Paint runs

Paint runs

Converging flow marksNo. 41:

No. 41:

No. 19:Lens-like paint marks

Lens-like paint marks

No. 42:Sucker marks

Sucker marks

 

No. 20:Thin coating areas

Thin coating areas

 

No. 43:Seam welds

Seam welds

7

No. 21:Macro-splits

Macro-splits

14

Moisture inclusionsNo. 44:

No. 44:

No. 22:Pin-holes

Pin-holes

No. 45:

HolesNo. 45:

No. 23:Nickel patches

Nickel patches

Alignment gap / offsetNo. 46:

No. 46:

 

No. 24:"Orange-peel" effect

"Orange-peel" effect

 

Patch marksNo. 47:

No. 47:

8

No. 25:Oxide lines

Oxide lines

15

Jagged knife edgesNo. 48:

No. 48:

No. 26: No. 27: Source Legend: 1) Anodizing 2) Powder coating (EPS) 3) Wet painting

No. 26:

No. 27:

Source Legend:

1) Anodizing 2) Powder coating (EPS)

27: Source Legend: 1) Anodizing 2) Powder coating (EPS) 3) Wet painting 4) Extrusion Pimpling /

3) Wet painting 4) Extrusion

Pimpling / inclusions

Plasma process (evaporation, sputter, CVD, PVD)

7)

8) Over-moulding

Pigmentation problems

9) Polishing

10) Assembly / packaging / handling

 
No. 49: Differences in structure and texture 13) Refined wood surfaces 14) Application technology (gluing

No. 49: Differences in structure and texture

13) Refined wood surfaces 14) Application technology (gluing insert foils, embossing decorative foils)

Application technology (gluing insert foils, embossing decorative foils) 15) Metal die-casting No. 50: Compressed folds

15) Metal die-casting

No. 50:

Compressed folds

16) Mechanical processing (grinding, polishing, deburring, drilling, milling, insertion, etc.)

5) Injection moulding 6) Galvanizing

11) Incoming material 12) Plastic processing

17) Laser lettering

 
 

No. 51:

Paint residues

 

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16 Decorative Surface of Attachment & Functional Parts to the Exterior and Interior of Automobiles
16
Decorative Surface of
Attachment & Functional Parts to the
Exterior and Interior of Automobiles
Appendix to VDA Volume 16
2nd revised edition, 2008

No. 1: Offset

to VDA Volume 16 2nd revised edition, 2008 No. 1: Offset No. 2: Burn marks No.

No. 2: Burn marks

2nd revised edition, 2008 No. 1: Offset No. 2: Burn marks No. 3: Dents No. 4a:

No. 3: Dents

edition, 2008 No. 1: Offset No. 2: Burn marks No. 3: Dents No. 4a: Bubbles Data:

No. 4a: Bubbles

No. 1: Offset No. 2: Burn marks No. 3: Dents No. 4a: Bubbles Data: Definition: Misalignment

Data:

Definition:

Misalignment where parts are structured (for example, by vulcanisation or over-moulding).

Process allocation:

5, 8, 12, 13, 15

Examples of permissible characteristic features:

 

Zone A:

Visible and detectable by touch +/- 0.3 mm

Zone B:

+/- 0.7 mm

Data:

Definition:

Matt / crumbly appearance to surface, caused by dendritic separation in the limit current area (referred to as "buds" when they are large).

Process allocation:

1, 6

Examples of permissible characteristic features:

 

Zone A:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

Zone B:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

Data:

Definition:

Flat bubble-like depressions, caused by high pressure.

Process allocation:

6, 8 -16

Examples of permissible characteristic features:

 

Zone A:

Not acceptable if visible at a distance of >

800 mm

Zone B:

Not acceptable if visible at a distance of > 1200 mm

Data:

Definition:

Generally round, even protrusions (hollow inside).

Process allocation:

2, 3, 6, 7, 13

Examples of permissible characteristic features:

 

Zone A:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

Zone B:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

Source Legend:

1) Anodizing

7)

Plasma process (evaporation, sputter, CVD, PVD)

13) Refined wood surfaces

2) Powder coating (EPS) 3) Wet painting 4) Extrusion 5) Injection moulding 6) Galvanizing

8) Over-moulding 9) Polishing 10) Assembly / packaging / handling 11) Incoming material 12) Plastic processing

14) Application technology (gluing insert foils, embossing decorative foils) 15) Metal die-casting 16) Mechanical processing (grinding, polishing, deburring, drilling, milling, insertion, etc.) 17) Laser lettering

Page 2 of 17

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16 Decorative Surface of Attachment & Functional Parts to the Exterior and Interior of Automobiles
16
Decorative Surface of
Attachment & Functional Parts to the
Exterior and Interior of Automobiles
Appendix to VDA Volume 16
2nd revised edition, 2008

No. 4b: Pitting

to VDA Volume 16 2nd revised edition, 2008 No. 4b: Pitting No. 5: Impression marks No.

No. 5: Impression marks

edition, 2008 No. 4b: Pitting No. 5: Impression marks No. 6: Anodising splits No. 7: Colour

No. 6: Anodising splits

4b: Pitting No. 5: Impression marks No. 6: Anodising splits No. 7: Colour misting Data: Definition:

No. 7: Colour misting

marks No. 6: Anodising splits No. 7: Colour misting Data: Definition: Generally circular, crater-like

Data:

Definition:

Generally circular, crater-like depressions in the top coat or intermediate coats. Typified by raised edges.

Process allocation:

2, 3, 6, 7, 13

Examples of permissible characteristic features:

Zone A:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

Zone B:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

Data:

Definition:

Irregularly distributed, slight spots or depressions to the surface, over very limited areas, caused by the compression of foreign bodies.

Process allocation:

6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 16

Examples of permissible characteristic features:

Zone A:

D

= 0.7 mm max. 2 depressions within a spacing of 400 mm

Zone B:

D

= 1.0 mm max. 4 depressions within a spacing of 300 mm

Data:

Definition:

Micro-splits : small, linear features in the anodising coating, caused by excessive local deformation of the component or excessive coating build-up during anodizing.

Process allocation:

1

Examples of permissible characteristic features:

Zone A:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

Zone B:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

Data:

Definition:

Fine, dust-like paint particles on the surface, not distributed in a homogenous manner in the paint film; drop-like paint particles distributed over the paint film.

Process allocation:

 

3, 13

Examples of permissible characteristic features:

Zone A:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

Zone B:

Acceptable

Source Legend:

1) Anodizing

7)

Plasma process (evaporation, sputter, CVD, PVD)

13) Refined wood surfaces

2) Powder coating (EPS) 3) Wet painting 4) Extrusion 5) Injection moulding 6) Galvanizing

8) Over-moulding 9) Polishing 10) Assembly / packaging / handling 11) Incoming material 12) Plastic processing

14) Application technology (gluing insert foils, embossing decorative foils) 15) Metal die-casting 16) Mechanical processing (grinding, polishing, deburring, drilling, milling, insertion, etc.) 17) Laser lettering

Page 3 of 17

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16 Decorative Surface of Attachment & Functional Parts to the Exterior and Interior of Automobiles
16
Decorative Surface of
Attachment & Functional Parts to the
Exterior and Interior of Automobiles
Appendix to VDA Volume 16
2nd revised edition, 2008

No. 8: Colour differences

16 2nd revised edition, 2008 No. 8: Colour differences No. 9: Swollen edges No. 10: Flecks

No. 9: Swollen edges

edition, 2008 No. 8: Colour differences No. 9: Swollen edges No. 10: Flecks No. 11: Flash

No. 10: Flecks

8: Colour differences No. 9: Swollen edges No. 10: Flecks No. 11: Flash on tool split

No. 11: Flash on tool split line

edges No. 10: Flecks No. 11: Flash on tool split line Data: Definition: Colour deviation on

Data:

Definition:

Colour deviation on a surface by comparison with the neighbouring surface or reference sample. This results from :

 

(a)

materials

(b)

process

(c)

subjective impression : saturation; brightness; purity; level of sheen; depth; surface structure.

Process allocation:

2,

3, 6, 13

Examples of permissible characteristic features:

Zone A:

Deviation refer to MTP sample(s)

Zone B:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

Data:

Definition:

A

thickening of paint coatings (bulging) on edges of

components, such as are caused by surface tensions. The effect correlates primarily with the edge radius

and/or the position of the component during the process.

Process allocation:

2,

3, 6, 13

Examples of permissible characteristic features:

Zone A:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

Zone B:

Acceptable

Data:

Definition:

Sharply delineated, local dulling of the surface, caused for example, by dirt / corrosion in spots or larger areas,

or

drying flecks.

Process allocation:

1,

2, 3, 6, 7, 13

Examples of permissible characteristic features:

Zone A:

Not acceptable

Zone B:

Not acceptable

Data:

Definition:

Flash which can occur where there is a mismatch between parts of a tool or sliders (e.g., plastic residues on injection-moulded parts). Can also be caused by wear and overflows.

Process allocation:

5,

6, 13

Examples of permissible characteristic features:

Zone A:

Max. +0.3 mm

Zone B:

Max. +0.5 mm

Source Legend:

1) Anodizing

7)

Plasma process (evaporation, sputter, CVD, PVD)

13) Refined wood surfaces

2) Powder coating (EPS) 3) Wet painting 4) Extrusion 5) Injection moulding 6) Galvanizing

8) Over-moulding 9) Polishing 10) Assembly / packaging / handling 11) Incoming material 12) Plastic processing

14) Application technology (gluing insert foils, embossing decorative foils) 15) Metal die-casting 16) Mechanical processing (grinding, polishing, deburring, drilling, milling, insertion, etc.) 17) Laser lettering

Page 4 of 17

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16 Decorative Surface of Attachment & Functional Parts to the Exterior and Interior of Automobiles
16
Decorative Surface of
Attachment & Functional Parts to the
Exterior and Interior of Automobiles
Appendix to VDA Volume 16
2nd revised edition, 2008

No. 12: Differences in sheen

16 2nd revised edition, 2008 No. 12: Differences in sheen No. 13: Flash / burrs No.

No. 13: Flash / burrs

2008 No. 12: Differences in sheen No. 13: Flash / burrs No. 14: Grittiness No. 15:

No. 14: Grittiness

in sheen No. 13: Flash / burrs No. 14: Grittiness No. 15: Hairline splits Data: Definition:

No. 15: Hairline splits

13: Flash / burrs No. 14: Grittiness No. 15: Hairline splits Data: Definition: The sheen (or

Data:

Definition:

The sheen (or gloss) differs from that of the (master) sample or specification figure on some areas or over complete surfaces.

Process allocation:

1, 3, 6, 7, 13

Examples of permissible characteristic features:

Zone A:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

Zone B:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

Data:

Definition:

Sharp-edged projection of edge zones from earlier process (e.g., stamping burrs on cut edges; flash on plastic mouldings; paint grit).

Process allocation:

2, 3, 5, 8, 15

Examples of permissible characteristic features:

Zone A:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

Zone B:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

Data:

Definition:

Visual (optical) effect which can occur by diffuse reflection on interfaces between different structures (e.g., etched granularity).

Process allocation:

1, 3, 6

Examples of permissible characteristic features:

Zone A:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

Zone B:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

Data:

Definition:

Extremely fine lines of damage.

Process allocation:

3, 6, 10, 13

Examples of permissible characteristic features:

Zone A:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

Zone B:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

Source Legend:

1) Anodizing

7)

Plasma process (evaporation, sputter, CVD, PVD)

13) Refined wood surfaces

2) Powder coating (EPS) 3) Wet painting 4) Extrusion 5) Injection moulding 6) Galvanizing

8) Over-moulding 9) Polishing 10) Assembly / packaging / handling 11) Incoming material 12) Plastic processing

14) Application technology (gluing insert foils, embossing decorative foils) 15) Metal die-casting 16) Mechanical processing (grinding, polishing, deburring, drilling, milling, insertion, etc.) 17) Laser lettering

Page 5 of 17

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16 Decorative Surface of Attachment & Functional Parts to the Exterior and Interior of Automobiles
16
Decorative Surface of
Attachment & Functional Parts to the
Exterior and Interior of Automobiles
Appendix to VDA Volume 16
2nd revised edition, 2008

No. 16: Contact / gripping points

2nd revised edition, 2008 No. 16: Contact / gripping points No. 17: Scratches; grooves No. 18:

No. 17: Scratches; grooves

No. 16: Contact / gripping points No. 17: Scratches; grooves No. 18: Paint runs No. 19:

No. 18: Paint runs

points No. 17: Scratches; grooves No. 18: Paint runs No. 19: Lens-like paint marks Data: Definition:

No. 19: Lens-like paint marks

grooves No. 18: Paint runs No. 19: Lens-like paint marks Data: Definition: Small areas, usually as

Data:

Definition:

Small areas, usually as spots where paint / coating is missing (in an area not normally visible), caused by suspension clamps, contact with painting frames, etc.).

Process allocation:

1, 2, 6, 7

Examples of permissible characteristic features:

Zone A:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

Zone B:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

Data:

Definition:

Lines of damage, caused by inappropriate handling.(e.g., when removing parts from the tool).

Process allocation:

5, 6, 8, 10, 13, 16

Examples of permissible characteristic features (longitudinal):

Zone A:

L

< 4mm, W < 0,5mm

Max. 2 scratches within 300 mm

Zone B:

L

< 10mm, W < 0,7mm

Max. 4 scratches within 200 mm

Examples of permissible characteristic features (transverse):

Zone A:

Not acceptable

Zone B:

Not acceptable

Data:

Definition:

Tracks of paint in the top coat or in an undercoat, on vertical surfaces (generally in the vicinity of grooves, rounded sections, folds or piercings).

Process allocation:

 

2, 3, 13

Examples of permissible characteristic features:

Zone A:

Not acceptable

Zone B:

Acceptable

Data:

Definition:

Distortion in paint surface which can be seen but not felt: paint runs / streaks in the early stages.

Process allocation:

2, 3, 13

Examples of permissible characteristic features:

Zone A:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

Zone B:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

Source Legend:

1) Anodizing

7)

Plasma process (evaporation, sputter, CVD, PVD)

13) Refined wood surfaces

2) Powder coating (EPS) 3) Wet painting 4) Extrusion 5) Injection moulding 6) Galvanizing

8) Over-moulding 9) Polishing 10) Assembly / packaging / handling 11) Incoming material 12) Plastic processing

14) Application technology (gluing insert foils, embossing decorative foils) 15) Metal die-casting 16) Mechanical processing (grinding, polishing, deburring, drilling, milling, insertion, etc.) 17) Laser lettering

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16 Decorative Surface of Attachment & Functional Parts to the Exterior and Interior of Automobiles
16
Decorative Surface of
Attachment & Functional Parts to the
Exterior and Interior of Automobiles
Appendix to VDA Volume 16
2nd revised edition, 2008

No. 20: Thin coating areas

16 2nd revised edition, 2008 No. 20: Thin coating areas No. 21: Macro-splits No. 22: Pin-holes

No. 21: Macro-splits

2008 No. 20: Thin coating areas No. 21: Macro-splits No. 22: Pin-holes No. 23: Nickel patches

No. 22: Pin-holes

Thin coating areas No. 21: Macro-splits No. 22: Pin-holes No. 23: Nickel patches Data: Definition: Inadequate

No. 23: Nickel patches

21: Macro-splits No. 22: Pin-holes No. 23: Nickel patches Data: Definition: Inadequate top coating (the

Data:

Definition:

Inadequate top coating (the substrate can be seen through the surface coating)

Process allocation:

2,

3, 7, 13

Examples of permissible characteristic features:

Zone A:

Not acceptable

 

Zone B:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

Data:

Definition:

Splits in the galvanic coating, caused by deformation

or

stresses in the component.

Process allocation:

1,

6

Examples of permissible characteristic features:

Zone A:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

Zone B:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

Data:

Definition:

Very small cratering (see No. 4b); also micro-pores.

Process allocation:

2,

3, 6, 7, 13

 

Examples of permissible characteristic features:

Zone A:

A

frequency of max. 5 pin-holes

2

over 4 cm

 

permitted

Zone B:

Pin-holes permitted

Data:

Definition:

Yellowish places in the contact area and in areas where the current density is low.

Process allocation:

6

Examples of permissible characteristic features:

Zone A:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

Zone B:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

Source Legend:

1) Anodizing

7)

Plasma process (evaporation, sputter, CVD, PVD)

13) Refined wood surfaces

2) Powder coating (EPS) 3) Wet painting 4) Extrusion 5) Injection moulding 6) Galvanizing

8) Over-moulding 9) Polishing 10) Assembly / packaging / handling 11) Incoming material 12) Plastic processing

14) Application technology (gluing insert foils, embossing decorative foils) 15) Metal die-casting 16) Mechanical processing (grinding, polishing, deburring, drilling, milling, insertion, etc.) 17) Laser lettering

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16 Decorative Surface of Attachment & Functional Parts to the Exterior and Interior of Automobiles
16
Decorative Surface of
Attachment & Functional Parts to the
Exterior and Interior of Automobiles
Appendix to VDA Volume 16
2nd revised edition, 2008

No. 24: "Orange-peel" effect

revised edition, 2008 No. 24: "Orange-peel" effect No. 25: Oxide lines No. 26: Pimpling / inclusions

No. 25: Oxide lines

No. 24: "Orange-peel" effect No. 25: Oxide lines No. 26: Pimpling / inclusions No. 27: Pigmentation

No. 26: Pimpling / inclusions

effect No. 25: Oxide lines No. 26: Pimpling / inclusions No. 27: Pigmentation problems No illustration

No. 27: Pigmentation problems

No illustration available
No illustration available

Data:

Definition:

A

rough or wave-like appearance of a painted surface

which may contain a texture; a grained paint finish with the structure of an orange peel.

Process allocation:

2,

3, 6, 13

Examples of permissible characteristic features:

 

Zone A:

A

fine structure is permitted – refer to limit sample for

 

severity and surface area.

Zone B:

A

coarse structure is permitted – refer to limit sample

 

for severity and surface area.

Data:

Definition:

Identification :

 

Streaks caused by oxide inclusions and/or oxide lines.

Description & effects :

 

Pencil-like, white or grey lines in the direction in which the part was formed. The degree of visibility depends on the type and quantity of oxide inclusions.

Process allocation:

11

Examples of permissible characteristic features:

 

Zone A:

Not permitted if structures visible at a distance of >

800 mm.

 

Zone B:

Not permitted if structures visible at a distance of > 1200 mm.

 

Data:

Definition:

Contamination within the surface, such as dust or fluff, which protrudes in some areas through the coating or growths causing problems in the build-up of coats.

Process allocation:

1 -7, 15

 

Examples of permissible characteristic features:

 

Zone A:

See Section 10.2

 

Zone B:

See Section 10.2

 

Data:

Definition:

Disorientation of pigments (e.g., metal flakes).

Process allocation:

2,

3

Examples of permissible characteristic features:

Zone A:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

Zone B:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

Source Legend:

1) Anodizing

7)

Plasma process (evaporation, sputter, CVD, PVD)

13) Refined wood surfaces

2) Powder coating (EPS) 3) Wet painting 4) Extrusion 5) Injection moulding 6) Galvanizing

8) Over-moulding 9) Polishing 10) Assembly / packaging / handling 11) Incoming material 12) Plastic processing

14) Application technology (gluing insert foils, embossing decorative foils) 15) Metal die-casting 16) Mechanical processing (grinding, polishing, deburring, drilling, milling, insertion, etc.) 17) Laser lettering

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16 Decorative Surface of Attachment & Functional Parts to the Exterior and Interior of Automobiles
16
Decorative Surface of
Attachment & Functional Parts to the
Exterior and Interior of Automobiles
Appendix to VDA Volume 16
2nd revised edition, 2008

No. 28: Various polishing defects

2nd revised edition, 2008 No. 28: Various polishing defects No. 28a: Stippling No illustration available No.

No. 28a: Stippling

No illustration available
No illustration available

No. 28b: Dull areas

28a: Stippling No illustration available No. 28b: Dull areas No. 28c: Holograms No illustration available Data:

No. 28c: Holograms

No illustration available
No illustration available

Data:

Definition:

Collective category for defects not often encountered / which form a small percentage of defects

Stippling:

Polygonal, flecked areas caused by material residues which have been polished in.

Dull areas:

These occur following electrolytic sheening and are caused by excessive local heating; also surfaces areas which have not been sufficiently polished.

Holograms: Polishing defects with a 3-dimensional effect. These occur particularly with dark paint colours.

Polishing flecks: Restricted circular areas with a much smoother surface than the surroundings

 

Process allocation:

6, 9, 13, 16

Examples of permissible characteristic features:

 

Zone A:

Not permitted if visible at a distance of >

800 mm.

 

Zone B:

Not permitted if visible at a distance of > 1200 mm.

 

Data:

Definition:

Polygonal, flecked areas caused by material residues which have been polished in.

Process allocation:

 

Examples of permissible characteristic features:

Zone A:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

Zone B:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

Data:

Definition:

These occur following electrolytic sheening and are caused by excessive local heating; also surfaces areas which have not been sufficiently polished.

Process allocation:

 

Examples of permissible characteristic features:

 

Zone A:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

 

Zone B:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

 

Data:

Definition:

Polishing defects with a 3-dimensional effect. These occur particularly with dark paint colours.

Process allocation:

 

Examples of permissible characteristic features:

 

Zone A:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

 

Zone B:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

 

Source Legend:

1) Anodizing

7)

Plasma process (evaporation, sputter, CVD, PVD)

13) Refined wood surfaces

2) Powder coating (EPS) 3) Wet painting 4) Extrusion 5) Injection moulding 6) Galvanizing

8) Over-moulding 9) Polishing 10) Assembly / packaging / handling 11) Incoming material 12) Plastic processing

14) Application technology (gluing insert foils, embossing decorative foils) 15) Metal die-casting 16) Mechanical processing (grinding, polishing, deburring, drilling, milling, insertion, etc.) 17) Laser lettering

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16 Decorative Surface of Attachment & Functional Parts to the Exterior and Interior of Automobiles
16
Decorative Surface of
Attachment & Functional Parts to the
Exterior and Interior of Automobiles
Appendix to VDA Volume 16
2nd revised edition, 2008

No. 28d: Polishing flecks

16 2nd revised edition, 2008 No. 28d: Polishing flecks No. 29: Polishing "fish" / "comet tails"

No. 29: Polishing "fish" / "comet tails"

No. 29: Polishing "fish" / "comet tails" No. 30: Polishing streaks No. 31: Pores Data:

No. 30: Polishing streaks

/ "comet tails" No. 30: Polishing streaks No. 31: Pores Data: Definition: Restricted circular

No. 31: Pores

tails" No. 30: Polishing streaks No. 31: Pores Data: Definition: Restricted circular areas with a

Data:

Definition:

Restricted circular areas with a much smoother surface than the surroundings.

Process allocation:

 

Examples of permissible characteristic features:

Zone A:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

Zone B:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

Data:

Definition:

Depressions in a shape similar to that of a fish, caused during the polishing process by a foreign body, a pore

or

other pre-conditioning from earlier processes, such

as grinding.

Process allocation:

6,

9, 11, 13

Examples of permissible characteristic features:

Zone A:

D

< 0.3 mm, W < 2.5 mm, L <

5 mm

Max. 2 within a spacing of 400 mm

Zone B:

D

< 0.5 mm, W < 3 mm, L < 8 mm

Max. 4 within a spacing of 300 mm

Data:

Definition:

Very fine, localised raising of visible ribs, caused by the polishing process (incorrect polishing paste and /

or

disc was used).

Process allocation:

6,

9, 13, 16

Examples of permissible characteristic features:

Zone A:

L

< 60 mm, B < 0.5 mm,

Max.

6 within a spacing of 300 mm

Zone B:

L

< 80 mm, B < 3 mm,

Max. 10 within a spacing of 200 mm

Data:

Definition:

Small holes, visible with the naked eye, in the top coating, which may penetrate to the base material in places.

Process allocation:

2,

3, 6, 13, 15

Examples of permissible characteristic features:

Zone A:

See Section 10.2

Zone B:

See Section 10.2

Source Legend:

1) Anodizing

7)

Plasma process (evaporation, sputter, CVD, PVD)

13) Refined wood surfaces

2) Powder coating (EPS) 3) Wet painting 4) Extrusion 5) Injection moulding 6) Galvanizing

8) Over-moulding 9) Polishing 10) Assembly / packaging / handling 11) Incoming material 12) Plastic processing

14) Application technology (gluing insert foils, embossing decorative foils) 15) Metal die-casting 16) Mechanical processing (grinding, polishing, deburring, drilling, milling, insertion, etc.) 17) Laser lettering

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16 Decorative Surface of Attachment & Functional Parts to the Exterior and Interior of Automobiles
16
Decorative Surface of
Attachment & Functional Parts to the
Exterior and Interior of Automobiles
Appendix to VDA Volume 16
2nd revised edition, 2008

No. 32: Indications of seams / seam-welds

No illustration available
No illustration available

No. 33: Scour marks

/ seam-welds No illustration available No. 33: Scour marks No. 34: Step marks (linear traces of

No. 34: Step marks (linear traces of rolling)

No illustration available
No illustration available

No. 35: Striations

of rolling) No illustration available No. 35: Striations Data: Definition: Identification: Traces of

Data:

Definition:

Identification:

Traces of longitudinal seams (extrusion press marks) Traces of weld areas.

Description & effects:

Traces of (narrow) streaks, running in the direction in which the part was formed, where the area is seen as lighter or darker than the surrounding material, depending on lighting conditions. They can also occur in association with sink-marks or step-marks. Indications of longitudinal seam / seam-welds are caused by manufacturing processes and are unavoidable; however, the level of their appearance can be influenced.

Process allocation:

4, 8

Examples of permissible characteristic features:

 

Zone A:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

Zone B:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

Data:

Definition:

Flat, local roughing of the surface, generally seen as differences in levels of sheen.

Process allocation:

6, 10, 13, 15

Examples of permissible characteristic features:

 

Zone A:

Not acceptable

Zone B:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

Data:

Definition:

Stripes, running parallel to the direction of the pressing / extrusion, over the length of the profile, generally in the form of “steps“ , which are especially visible after a coating process.

Process allocation:

4, 6, 8, 15

Examples of permissible characteristic features:

 

Zone A:

Not acceptable if visible at >

800 mm.

Zone B:

Not acceptable if visible at > 1200 mm.

Data:

Definition:

Liquation streaks with an electro-potentiostatic effect, caused by pre-treatment for anodising and resulting from liquation in the incoming material

Process allocation:

8, 11

Examples of permissible characteristic features:

 

Zone A:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

Zone B:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

Source Legend:

1) Anodizing

7)

Plasma process (evaporation, sputter, CVD, PVD)

13) Refined wood surfaces

2) Powder coating (EPS) 3) Wet painting 4) Extrusion 5) Injection moulding 6) Galvanizing

8) Over-moulding 9) Polishing 10) Assembly / packaging / handling 11) Incoming material 12) Plastic processing

14) Application technology (gluing insert foils, embossing decorative foils) 15) Metal die-casting 16) Mechanical processing (grinding, polishing, deburring, drilling, milling, insertion, etc.) 17) Laser lettering

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16 Decorative Surface of Attachment & Functional Parts to the Exterior and Interior of Automobiles
16
Decorative Surface of
Attachment & Functional Parts to the
Exterior and Interior of Automobiles
Appendix to VDA Volume 16
2nd revised edition, 2008

No. 36: Graininess

No. 37: Corrugations

edition, 2008 No. 36: Graininess No. 37: Corrugations No. 38a: Cloudiness/ fogging/ streaks No. 38b: Streaks
edition, 2008 No. 36: Graininess No. 37: Corrugations No. 38a: Cloudiness/ fogging/ streaks No. 38b: Streaks

No. 38a: Cloudiness/ fogging/ streaks

No. 37: Corrugations No. 38a: Cloudiness/ fogging/ streaks No. 38b: Streaks caused by moisture / air

No. 38b: Streaks caused by moisture / air

fogging/ streaks No. 38b: Streaks caused by moisture / air Data: Definition: Slight graininess of a

Data:

Definition:

Slight graininess of a galvanised surface; comparable with the "orange peel" appearance on painted surfaces

Process allocation:

6

Examples of permissible characteristic features:

Zone A:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

Zone B:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

Data:

Definition:

Wave-like, parallel marks on the surface of the panel or profile, at an angle to the direction of rolling or compression, which can be seen in special observation positions (e.g., looking in the rear-view mirror, reflection in a longitudinal direction at a very shallow angle of observation).

Process allocation:

6, 8, 9, 11, 13, 16

Examples of permissible characteristic features:

Zone A:

Not permitted when checked under the following conditions :

component in its "installed" position

artificial light-source 1.2 m over the component

checked at 2.5 m ± 0.5 m from the component

direction of observation is at 20°-45° to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle with static observation

Zone B:

Not permitted if visible at > 4 m when evaluated as described for Zone A

Data:

Definition:

When polishing: local areas which are matt, dull, cloudy or streaky, with diffuse transfer between different areas (process allocation 9). When painting: noticeable, partially light or dark areas within a (metallic) paint finish with diffuse transfer from one area to the next (process allocation 3). Dull areas within the overall surface; with diffuse transfer from one area to the next Process allocation 6, 7)

Process allocation:

3, 6, 7, 9, 13

Examples of permissible characteristic features:

Zone A:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

Zone B:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

Data:

Definition:

These occur during plastic injection moulding and are caused by moisture in the plastic or air inclusions during the injection moulding process.

Process allocation:

9, 12

Examples of permissible characteristic features:

Zone A:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

Zone B:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

Source Legend:

1) Anodizing

7)

Plasma process (evaporation, sputter, CVD, PVD)

13) Refined wood surfaces

2) Powder coating (EPS) 3) Wet painting 4) Extrusion 5) Injection moulding 6) Galvanizing

8) Over-moulding 9) Polishing 10) Assembly / packaging / handling 11) Incoming material 12) Plastic processing

14) Application technology (gluing insert foils, embossing decorative foils) 15) Metal die-casting 16) Mechanical processing (grinding, polishing, deburring, drilling, milling, insertion, etc.) 17) Laser lettering

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16 Decorative Surface of Attachment & Functional Parts to the Exterior and Interior of Automobiles
16
Decorative Surface of
Attachment & Functional Parts to the
Exterior and Interior of Automobiles
Appendix to VDA Volume 16
2nd revised edition, 2008

No. 39: Differences in coating thicknesses

edition, 2008 No. 39: Differences in coating thicknesses No. 40: Sink marks No. 41: Converging flow

No. 40: Sink marks

39: Differences in coating thicknesses No. 40: Sink marks No. 41: Converging flow marks No. 42:

No. 41: Converging flow marks

thicknesses No. 40: Sink marks No. 41: Converging flow marks No. 42: Sucker marks Data: Definition:

No. 42: Sucker marks

marks No. 41: Converging flow marks No. 42: Sucker marks Data: Definition: These occur during galvanizing

Data:

Definition:

These occur during galvanizing as a result of inappropriate current density distribution (process allocation 6) or in other processes because of different particulate flows / flow angles or separation conditions.

Process allocation:

2, 3, 6

Examples of permissible characteristic features:

Zone A:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

Zone B:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

Data:

Definition:

Visible dents in the surface, caused by elements on the other side of the component, such as ribs, steps and domes (process allocation 6). Dents in the surface, caused by inappropriate component geometry and / or shrinkage (process allocation 12).

Process allocation:

6, 12, 13, 15

Examples of permissible characteristic features:

Zone A:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

Zone B:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

Data:

Definition:

Visible scratch-like flow-marks on plastic parts where flow fronts converge.

Process allocation:

6, 13, 15

Examples of permissible characteristic features:

Zone A:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

Zone B:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

Data:

Definition:

The result of contact between the surface and rubber suckers. They are visible marks, caused by sucker deposits when removing the part following the process.

Process allocation:

3, 6, 12, 15, 16

Examples of permissible characteristic features:

Zone A:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

Zone B:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

Source Legend:

1) Anodizing

7)

Plasma process (evaporation, sputter, CVD, PVD)

13) Refined wood surfaces

2) Powder coating (EPS) 3) Wet painting 4) Extrusion 5) Injection moulding 6) Galvanizing

8) Over-moulding 9) Polishing 10) Assembly / packaging / handling 11) Incoming material 12) Plastic processing

14) Application technology (gluing insert foils, embossing decorative foils) 15) Metal die-casting 16) Mechanical processing (grinding, polishing, deburring, drilling, milling, insertion, etc.) 17) Laser lettering

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16 Decorative Surface of Attachment & Functional Parts to the Exterior and Interior of Automobiles
16
Decorative Surface of
Attachment & Functional Parts to the
Exterior and Interior of Automobiles
Appendix to VDA Volume 16
2nd revised edition, 2008

No. 43: Seam welds

No illustration available
No illustration available

No. 44: Moisture inclusions

No illustration available
No illustration available

No. 45: Holes

Moisture inclusions No illustration available No. 45: Holes No. 46: Alignment gap / offset Data: Definition:

No. 46: Alignment gap / offset

available No. 45: Holes No. 46: Alignment gap / offset Data: Definition: These occur at the

Data:

Definition:

These occur at the convergence of two mass flows after piercings and domes (converging seam welds).

Process allocation:

12, 13, 15

Examples of permissible characteristic features:

Zone A:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

Zone B:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

Data:

Definition:

Damp material, caused by incorrect preparation of the material. Expanding moisture is deposited as streaks or bubbles on the surface of the article.

Process allocation:

2, 5, 12, 13

Examples of permissible characteristic features:

Zone A:

Not acceptable

Zone B:

Refer to MTP sample(s) Acceptable

Data:

Definition:

Holes in the surface coating, visible with the naked eye, penetrating to the base material.

Process allocation:

6

Examples of permissible characteristic features:

Zone A:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

Zone B:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

Data:

Definition:

Alignment gap :

Caused by inaccurate alignment of veneers / a line is visible.

Alignment offset :

Caused by inaccurate alignment of veneer / an offset in structural symmetry

Process allocation:

13

Examples of permissible characteristic features:

Zone A:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

Zone B:

Acceptable

Source Legend:

1) Anodizing

7)

Plasma process (evaporation, sputter, CVD, PVD)

13) Refined wood surfaces

2) Powder coating (EPS) 3) Wet painting 4) Extrusion 5) Injection moulding 6) Galvanizing

8) Over-moulding 9) Polishing 10) Assembly / packaging / handling 11) Incoming material 12) Plastic processing

14) Application technology (gluing insert foils, embossing decorative foils) 15) Metal die-casting 16) Mechanical processing (grinding, polishing, deburring, drilling, milling, insertion, etc.) 17) Laser lettering

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16 Decorative Surface of Attachment & Functional Parts to the Exterior and Interior of Automobiles
16
Decorative Surface of
Attachment & Functional Parts to the
Exterior and Interior of Automobiles
Appendix to VDA Volume 16
2nd revised edition, 2008

No. 47: Patch marks

VDA Volume 16 2nd revised edition, 2008 No. 47: Patch marks No. 48: Jagged knife edges

No. 48: Jagged knife edges

edition, 2008 No. 47: Patch marks No. 48: Jagged knife edges No. 49: Differences in structure

No. 49: Differences in structure and texture

knife edges No. 49: Differences in structure and texture No. 50: Compressed folds Data: Definition: Caused

No. 50: Compressed folds

in structure and texture No. 50: Compressed folds Data: Definition: Caused by voids, holes and splits.

Data:

Definition:

Caused by voids, holes and splits.

Process allocation:

13

Examples of permissible characteristic features:

Zone A:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

Zone B:

Acceptable

Data:

Definition:

Damage caused by a knife when peeling / deburring the component.

Process allocation:

13

Examples of permissible characteristic features:

Zone A:

Not acceptable

Zone B:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

Data:

Definition:

Uneven structure. Branches and bars not adequately formed. This occurs in nature.

Process allocation:

13

Examples of permissible characteristic features:

Zone A:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

Zone B:

Acceptable

Data:

Definition:

Visible lines; overlapping materials.

Process allocation:

13

Examples of permissible characteristic features:

Zone A:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

Zone B:

Acceptable

Source Legend:

1) Anodizing

7)

Plasma process (evaporation, sputter, CVD, PVD)

13) Refined wood surfaces

2) Powder coating (EPS) 3) Wet painting 4) Extrusion 5) Injection moulding 6) Galvanizing

8) Over-moulding 9) Polishing 10) Assembly / packaging / handling 11) Incoming material 12) Plastic processing

14) Application technology (gluing insert foils, embossing decorative foils) 15) Metal die-casting 16) Mechanical processing (grinding, polishing, deburring, drilling, milling, insertion, etc.) 17) Laser lettering

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16 Decorative Surface of Attachment & Functional Parts to the Exterior and Interior of Automobiles
16
Decorative Surface of
Attachment & Functional Parts to the
Exterior and Interior of Automobiles
Appendix to VDA Volume 16
2nd revised edition, 2008

No. 51: Paint residues

No illustration available
No illustration available

No. 52: Burn marks

No illustration available
No illustration available

Data:

Definition:

Parts of the surface have not been removed by the laser process.

Process allocation:

17

Examples of permissible characteristic features:

Zone A:

Not acceptable

Zone B:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

Data:

Definition:

Thermal changes in the plastic substrate (changes in colour).

Process allocation:

5, 17

Examples of permissible characteristic features:

Zone A:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

Zone B:

Refer to MTP sample(s)

Source Legend:

1) Anodizing

7)

Plasma process (evaporation, sputter, CVD, PVD)

13) Refined wood surfaces

2) Powder coating (EPS) 3) Wet painting 4) Extrusion 5) Injection moulding 6) Galvanizing

8) Over-moulding 9) Polishing 10) Assembly / packaging / handling 11) Incoming material 12) Plastic processing

14) Application technology (gluing insert foils, embossing decorative foils) 15) Metal die-casting 16) Mechanical processing (grinding, polishing, deburring, drilling, milling, insertion, etc.) 17) Laser lettering

Page 16 of 17

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16 Decorative Surface of Attachment & Functional Parts to the Exterior and Interior of Automobiles
16
Decorative Surface of
Attachment & Functional Parts to the
Exterior and Interior of Automobiles
Appendix to VDA Volume 16
2nd revised edition, 2008

Imprint

The entire contents of these pages are protected by copyright.

Responsible for contents:

VDA QMC Qualitäts Management Center im Verband der Automobilindustrie VDA QMC An den Drei Hasen 31 D-61440 Oberursel GERMANY

Phone: +49 (0)6171 / 9122-0

Fax:

E-Mail: info@vda-qmc.de

Web:

+49 (0)6171 / 9122-14

www.vda-qmc.de

info@vda-qmc.de Web: +49 (0)6171 / 9122-14 www.vda-qmc.de In spite of great care mistakes can not be

In spite of great care mistakes can not be completely ruled out. In the case of differing information please consider the printed VDA Volume 16 as correct.

Version 1.0

Source Legend:

1) Anodizing

7)

Plasma process (evaporation, sputter, CVD, PVD)

13) Refined wood surfaces

2) Powder coating (EPS) 3) Wet painting 4) Extrusion 5) Injection moulding 6) Galvanizing

8) Over-moulding 9) Polishing 10) Assembly / packaging / handling 11) Incoming material 12) Plastic processing

14) Application technology (gluing insert foils, embossing decorative foils) 15) Metal die-casting 16) Mechanical processing (grinding, polishing, deburring, drilling, milling, insertion, etc.) 17) Laser lettering

Page 17 of 17

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Attribute Gage R & R Effectiveness

Instructions:

1)

The following spreadsheet is used to calculate an Attribute GR&R Effectiveness, in which up to

2)

100 samples can be evaluated, using 2 or 3 operators. In the Data Entry worksheet fill in the appropriate information in the Scoring Report section and

3)

enter the type of Attributes you are evaluating in the Attribute Legend section. YOU MUST ENTER THE INFORMATION IN THE ATTRIBUTE LEGEND SECTION OR THE SPREADSHEET WILL NOT WORK. The attributes can be either alpha or numeric, e.g. Yes, No; pass, fail; go, stop; or 1, 2. You must be consistent throughout the form and spell properly. If you or an expert has selected samples to be evaluated and you know what attributes these

4)

samples are, enter this information in the Attribute sample column. This will enable you to determine how well each operator can evaluate a set of samples against a known standard. You do not need to enter information in this column for the spreadsheet to work although you will not be able to assess the operators against known standards. You do not have to specify how many operators or the # of samples that you will be evaluating

5)

during the test. Simply enter the data into the spreadsheet under the specific operator. Remember the attributes must be spelled properly or the spreadsheet will not analyze the data correctly. To print a copy of the report click on the Print Report icon.

6)

To delete the data in the spreadsheet, click on the Delete Data icon.

7)

To delete all and begin a new test, click on the Delete All icon

8)

To see a Demo of the Attribute GR&R Effectiveness spreadsheet, click on the Demo icon. Move around the spread sheet to see the data. When you are finished click the Delete All icon to delete all data to begin entering your own data.

The 95% UCL and 95% LCL represent the 95% upper and lower confidence limits on the

binomial distribution. The Calculated Score is the basic computation reported on the report

page for % Appraiser and % Score vs Attribute. The 95% confidence interval represents

the range within which the true Calculated Score lies given the uncertainty associated with

limited sample sizes. As sample size increases (in this case, Total Inspected) the

confidence interval will get smaller and smaller which indicates more reliable estimates of

the true percentages. In the case of the Demo data, the true Calculated score for Operator 1

could be as low as 76.8% given that only 14 samples inspected, even though there was a 100%

Appraiser value calculated. Also, even though Operator 2 had a lower score, Operators 1 and 3

cannot be distinguished from Operator 2 because the calculated score of #2 (78.6%) lies within

the confidence limits for Operators 1 and 3.

With a worksheet limitation of 100 samples, at best a lower 95% limit of 96.4% can be calculated.

Thus, we would have to say that an inspector could be as bad as 96% efficient, even though he/she missed no calls.

Sample Size

30

< Try out different combinations of number of samples and number of matches

# Matches

30

< to see the effects of sample size. In this case, a sample size of 30 with

95% UCL

100,0% < one non-match will yield a 17% confidence interval. In order to get reasonable

Calculated Score

100,0% < reliability in estimates of efficiency, large sample sizes will be required.

95% LCL

88,4%

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Data Entry

Attribute Gage R & R Effectiveness

SCORING REPORT

 

DATE:

04.01.2001

 

Attribute Legend 5 (used in computations)

NAME:

Acme Employee

1 Pass

PRODUCT:

Widgets

All operators

2 Fail

BUSINESS:

Earth Products

agree within and

All Operators

 

between each

agree with

Other

standard

Known Population

Operator #1

Operator #2

Operator #3

Y/N

Y/N

Sample #

Attribute

Try #1

Try #2

Try #1

Try #2

Try #1

Try #2

Agree

Agree

1

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Y

Y

2

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Y

Y

3

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Y

Y

4

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Fail

Pass

N

N

5

Fail

Fail

Fail

Fail

Fail

Pass

Fail

N

N

6

Fail

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Y

N

7

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Y

Y

8

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Y

Y

9

Fail

Fail

Fail

Fail

Fail

Fail

Fail

Y

Y

10

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Y

Y

11

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Y

Y

12

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Y

Y

13

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Y

Y

14

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Fail

Pass

N

N

15

Fail

Fail

Fail

Fail

Fail

Pass

Fail

N

N

16

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Y

Y

17

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Y

Y

18

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Y

Y

19

Fail

Fail

Fail

Fail

Fail

Fail

Fail

Y

Y

20

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Y

Y

21

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Y

Y

22

Pass

Fail

Fail

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

N

N

23

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Y

Y

24

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Fail

Pass

N

N

25

Fail

Fail

Fail

Fail

Fail

Fail

Fail

Y

Y

26

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Y

Y

27

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Pass

Y

Y