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CLIENT:-

Client:

Mundra Port & SEZ.

Project:-

220/66/11kV Electrical Distribution.


Date
Prep.
Chkd.

Rev

Remarks

Date

Name

Busbar Current Rating and BPI Cantilever Calculation

Sales Ref.: IS/WR/


15.04.2009
SGP
SO
Siemens Ltd
KG Office

Description:
Amapacity Calculation of 2" IPS AL Tube.
(Schedule 40)
Drawing No.:
G71000-X0009-ED07

1/45

1 Introduction
A. A rigid bus is supported on bus post insulators in an out-door substation. These bus post insulators are
subjected to all types of stresses due to electrical and mechanical forces acting on bus bar.
The principal forces on the bus post insulators supporting a rigid conductor are as follows:
a. Short circuit force on bus conductor
b. Wind force on the bus conductor
c. Wind force on the bus post insulator
d. Weight of the bus conductor span supported by the bus post insulators
The resultant of these forces, correlated to the type of 'end Connection' of the rigid conductor at the bus
post insulator terminal, gives the values of the net Electromagnetic Force on the bus post insulator. The
values of forces obtained herewith forms valuable input for the design of bus post insulator support structure
and its foundation design.
In this report along with the force on bus post insulators, the maximum permissible unsupported span length
of the rigid bus conductor connecting the bus post insulators is also determined. The maximum permissible
span is calculated within the limits of 'Vertical Deflection' and permissible 'Fiber Stress' corresponding to the
type of 'End Connection' to the supporting bus post insulator terminals at each end of the span. The
calculation is performed on the method stipulated by IEEE 605 and the minimum of the span length obtained
from the calculation is conservatively considered as the maximum allowable unsupported span for all
influencing conditions.

Busbar Current Rating and BPI Cantilever Calculation

2/45

1 Continuous Current Carrying Capacity


Bus bar continuous rating required

875

Amps.

1440

Amps.

As per INDAL handbook current rating (nominal for outdoor) are as below:IPS Aluminum Tube
Schedule 40 2.00

Inches

As per INDAL handbook for the maximum operating temperature of the bus to 75 Deg. C, the derating
factor to be adopted is 0.88; hence the derated current rating (nominal for outdoor) are as below:2

Inches IPS Al Tube -

Schedule 40

0.88 x

1440

1267

Amps.

From the above it is summrised that, for the required current carrying capacity of 875 Amps.,
2
Inches IPS Al Tube Schedule 40 is sufficient.
2 Thermal Effects on IPS Aluminium Tube as per IEEE 605
Bus Bar Selected
Ambient temperature in deg. C
Final temperature in deg. C

2.00
50.0
90.0

(T2)
(T1)

Inch

2.1 Radiation Loss (Qr)


From Stefan-Boltzman law,
Qr

36.9 x 10-12 x e x ( T14-T24 ) x A

A
T1
T2
E

=
=
=
=

Surface area = 12 x d x =
Temperature of the bar, oK
Ambient temperature, oK
Emissivity factor =
0.6

Qr

36.9 x 10-12 x 0.6 x (

(Clause No. 3.2.4, IEEE 605)

12 x x
2.38
=
=
50.0
+ 273 =
=
90.0
+ 273 =

363.0

323.0

)x

89.54
323.0
363.0

In2/Ft
0
K
0
K

89.54

12.8435

Watts/Ft

2.2 Convective Loss (Qc)


Heat is dissipated from a tubular bus bar by forced convection
Heat transfer is considered at wind speed 2 fps and 1 atmospheric pressure.
Qc

A
d

=
=
=
=

Qc

0.010 x x A
(Clause No. 3.2.2, IEEE 605)
d0.4
2
Surface area = 12 x d x = 12 x x
2.38
=
89.54 In /Ft
outside diameter of bus bar in inch =
2.38 Inch
Temperature difference between conductor surface & ambient air in deg C = T1 - T2 =
90.0
50.0
=
40.0 deg. C

0.010 x
2.375

40.0
)0.4

89.54

25.340

Watts/Ft

2.3 Heat Gain Due To Solar Radiation (Qs)


Qs

h x s x d x 12

h
s

=
=

co-efficient of absorption of conductor surface =


0.5
intensity of solar radiation in Watts/Inch2 =
0.5479
Assumed - 849.27 Watts/Mtr.2
outside diameter of bus bar in inch =
2.38 Inch

Qs

0.5 x 0.5479 x 2.3751968503937


= 7.81x 12 Watts/Ft

Busbar Current Rating and BPI Cantilever Calculation

Watts/In2

3/45

2.4 Conductor Resistance


Rt2

8.145 x 10-4 x

1 + 0.00403 x C' x (T1 - 20)

C' x A2

(Clause No. 3.2.9, IEEE 605)

61

Rt2
C'
A2

=
=
=

Direct current resistance at maximum operating temperature


Conductivity as % IACS =
55.0
Cross sectional area in In2

d1
t
d2

=
=
=

A2
T1

=
=

outside diameter of bus bar in inch =


2.38 Inch
Thickness of tube =
0.154 Inch
inside diameter of bus bar in inch = d1 - 2t =
2.38
- 2 x 0.154
2
2
2
)
=
(/4) x (d12-d22) = (/4) x (
2.38
2.067
1.07422 In
Final temperature in deg. C =
90.0 deg. C

Rt2

8.145 x 10-4 x

- 20 )

55.0
x
1.72924E-05

Rt2

1 + 0.00403 x

55.0

1.07422
/Ft

x(

90.0

2.067

Inch

61

2.5 Skin Effect Ratio


0.5
f

0.0636 x
r

f
r
F
Rt2

=
=
=
=

Skin Effect Ratio


outer diameter / 2 =
2.38
/2 =
1.187598 Inch
Frequency In Hz = 50 Hz
Direct current resistance at maximum operating temperature =

0.0636
1.1876
1.25

F
5280 x Rt2

50
5280 x

(Clause No. 6, IEEE 605)

1.72924E-05 / Ft

0.5
1.72924E-05

2.6 Current Rating / Current Carrying Capability


0.5
I
= Qc + Qr - Qs
Rt2 x f

(Clause No. 3.2, IEEE 605)


0.5

25.340 +
12.8435
1.72924E-05 x

7.81
1.25

Busbar Current Rating and BPI Cantilever Calculation

1183.91 Amps.

4/45

3 Bus Span Calculations For -

Inch IPS Aluminium Tube

Short circuit forces maximum span calculation are as per IEEE 605
Bus Bar Selected
Bus Bar outer Diameter in Inches
Bus Bar Cross Section Moment of inertia in cm4
Bus Bar Section modulus in cm3
Bus Bar ultimate tensile strength in Kg/mm2
Modulus of Elasticity of Busbar in Kg/mm2
Bus bar Unit Self weight in Kgf/mtr
Maximum allowable stress in Kg/mm2
Clamping material unit weight in Kgf/mtr

(J)
(S)
(UT)
(E)
(Fc)
(Fa)
(Fd)

Bus Phase to Phase Spacing in Mtrs


Short Circuit Fault Level in kA
Duration of the short-circuit current in seconds

(D)
(Isc)
Tk

Rated short time in seconds


Wind Speed In Mtr/sec
Allowable deflection in inches:

Tkr
(V)

2.00
Inches Al Tube
2.375
27.709
9.186
20.5
7030.67
1.871
20.5
7
Kg x 1 Nos. = 0.88
8.0 mtrs
2
31.5
1
1
55
1 time dia of tube

3.1 Force Due to Wind (Fw)


Unit force due to wind on conductor is given by
Fw = C Cd Kz Gf V2 I (Dia + 2xrI) in Lbf/Ft
C
Cd
Kz
Gf
V

=
=
=
=
=
=
Dia =
I
=
rI
=
Fw =
=

(Equation No. 9, IEEE 605)

2.132 x 10-4 for English units


Drag coefficient for smooth tubular conductor =
1 (Table 1, IEEE 605)
Height & Exposure factor = 1.16
(Clause No. 9.2, for category D, IEEE 605)
Gust factor =
0.85 (Clause No. 9.3, for category C&D, IEEE 605)
Wind speed in Miles/hr
55 x ( 1/ 0.44704) =
123.03 Miles/hr
Outer Dia of Conductor in inches =
2.375 Inch
Importance factor = 1.15
(Clause No. 9.4, IEEE 605)
radial ice thickness in Inches =
0 Inch
2.132 x 10-4 x 1 x 1.16 x 0.85 x
123.03 x
123.03 x 1.15 x (2.3751968503937 + 2x0)
8.69
Lbf/Ft
=
8.69
x 1.488 = 12.93294 Kgf/mtr

3.2 Short Circuit Force (Fsc)


Short Circuit Force is given by
Fsc =
C
Isc
D

=
=
=
=

Kf

Kf x C x x (Df x 2 x Isc)2
D
5.4 x 10-7
for English units
RMS short circuit current in A
31.5 kA
Phase to Phase Spacing of Busbars in Inch
=
2
Constant based on type of short circuit & conductor location =
(Table 2, for 3 phase short circuit on Y phase, IEEE 605)
Mounting structure flexibility factor =
1
(Figure 4, IEEE 605)

Busbar Current Rating and BPI Cantilever Calculation

(Equation No. 12, IEEE 605)

x 39.37
0.866

78.74

Inch

5/45

Df

Decrement factor

Ta

X
R
f
X
R
Ta

=
=
=
=

X
1
R
2xxf
System Reactance
System Resistance
System Frequency =
15

tf

Df

Fsc =
=

15

1+

2t
- f
Ta
1 exp Ta
t f

(Equation No. 11a, IEEE 605)

50 Hz

1
=
2 x x 50
Fault current duration
=

0.0477
1 sec.

1.02
1 x 5.4 x 10-7 x 0.866 x (
1.02
x 2 x
78.74
12.35 x 1.488 = 18.37
Kgf/mtr

)2

31500

12.35

Lbf/Ft

3.3 Gravitational Forces (Fg)


Fg

Fc + Fi + Fd

(Equation No. 13, IEEE 605)

Fg
Fc
Fi
Fd

=
=
=
=

Total bus unit weight in kgf/mtr


Conductor unit weight in kgf/mtr =
1.871
Ice unit weight in kgf/mtr
=
0
Clamping material unit weight I kgf/mtr =
0.875

Fg

1.871 + 0 + 0.875
= 2.746

kgf/mtr

2.746

/ 1.488 =

1.85

Lbf/Ft

3.4 Total Force (Ft)


Total force on conductor in Horizontal configuration is given by
Ft

=
=

FW FSC

FG

( 12.9329 +

(Equation No. 22, IEEE 605)


18.37

)2 +(

2.746

)2

31.43

Kgf/mtr

4 Calculation Of Allowable Spans


4.1 For continuous bus, the maximum allowable span length based on vertical deflection is (Ld)
Ld

1/4
C x (185 x E x J x Ya)
Fg

C
E

Ya
Fg

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

1.86 for English units


2
Modulus of Elasticity in Lbf/In2 =
7031 Kgf/mm
2
7031 x 1422.34 =
1E+07 Lbf/in
Cross sectional moment of inertia in In4
=
27.709
4
27.709 x (1 / 41.623) =
0.67 In
Allowable Deflection as vertical dimension of tube = 1D =
Total bus unit weight in kgf/mtr
=
2.746 Kgf/mtr

Ld

1.86 x (

Ld

185 x 10000000.038652
0.67
x
x2
1.845
355.52 / 39.37 =
9.03 Mtrs.

(Equation No. 20, IEEE 605)

)1/4

Hence, maximum allowable span due to vertical deflection is

Busbar Current Rating and BPI Cantilever Calculation

9.03

cm4
1x
=
=

2.000
2.746
1.85

=
2.00
x (1/1.488)
Lbf/Ft

Inch

355.52 In

mtrs.

6/45

4.2 Allowable Span For Fibre Stress (Ls)


Ls

C
Fa

=
=
=
=

Cx (

Ft

=
=

(28/3) x Fa x S )
(Equation No. 29c, IEEE 605)
Ft
3.46 for English units
Maximum allowable stress in Lbf/In2
2
2
20.5 Kg/mm =
20.5 x 1422.33 =
29157.8 Lbf/In
3
Section modulus in In
3
3
For
2.0
Inch Al Tube, S =
9.186 cm =
9.186 / 16.3871 =
0.56 In
Total Force in Lbf/Ft
31.43 Kgf/mtr =
31.43 / 1.488 =
21.12 Lbf/ft

Ls

3.46 x

294.1

(28/3) x

29157.8 x
21.12
7.47 Mtrs.

/ 39.37 =

0.56

)=

294.1

Inch

5 Conclusion
As per IEEE 605, page number 25, Clause No. 11.3, the maximum allowable span is the lower of the spans
as calculated for Ld and Ls.
The maximum allowable bus span is
7.47 Mtrs. for
2.00
Inches Aluminium tube.
6.1 Natural Frequency of Conductor Span (fb)
fb

x k2
C x L2

C
L
E

m
k

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

24 for English units


Span length in Feet =
7.47 Mtrs. =
7.47
/ 0.305 = 24.49 Feet
2
Modulus of Elasticity in Lbf/In2 =
7031 Kgf/mm
2
7031 x 1422.34 =
1E+07 Lbf/In
4
4
Cross sectional moment of inertia in In
=
27.709 cm
4
27.709 x (1 / 41.623) =
0.67 In
Mass per unit length = Fc =
1.871 Kgf/mtr =
1.871 / 1.488 =
1.51 for two fixed ends

fb

2
x ( 1.51 )
24 x (
24.49

E xJ )
m

(
)2

(Equation No. 5, IEEE 605)

1E+07
1.26

Twice the calculated natural frequency of the bus span =

0.67

2x

)=

1.15

1.15

1.26

Lbf/Ft

Hz

2.29

Hz

6.2 Wind Induced Vibration or Aeolian Force Frequency (f a )


fa

CxV
d

C
V
d

=
=
=
=

3.26 for English units


Wind speed in Miles/hr
55 x ( 1/ 0.44704) =
123.03 Miles/hr
Conductor diameter in inches =
2
Inches =

fa

3.26

(Equation No. 6, IEEE 605)

x
5.08

123.03

79.0

x 2.54 =

5.08

cm

Hz

As per IEEE 605, page number 10, clause number 7.2.2, if twice the calculated natural frequency of the
bus span is greater than the Aeolian force frequency, then the bus span should be changed or bus should
be damped.
Since, twice the calculated natural frequency of the bus span is
2.29 Hz, which is less than the
Aeolian force frequency of
79.0 Hz, the selected bus span of
7.47 meters is safe from
Aeolian vibrations.

Busbar Current Rating and BPI Cantilever Calculation

7/45

7 Insulator Cantilever Strength Calculation As per IEEE 605


Effective Bus Span Length in Mtrs

(Le)

6 +

Height of Insulator Stack in mm


Height of Centre Line of Bus over Insulator Height in mm

(Hi)
(Hf)

Effective Insulator Diameter in mm

=
=
(Di) =

6
770
80
80
3.15
160

6
2
Mtrs.

/ 25.4
Inch

7.1 Force Due To Wind On Bus (Fwb)


Fwb =

Fw x Le

Fw
Le

Unit Wind Force On Bus in Lbf/Ft =


Effective Bus Span Length in Feet

=
=

Fwb =

8.69

(Equation No. 31, IEEE 605)

19.7

8.69
=

Lbf/Ft
6
x (39.37/12) =

19.7

Feet

171.09 Lbf

7.2 Bus Short Circuit Force (Fsb)


Fsb =

Fsc x Le

Fsc =
Le =

Unit short circuit force on Bus in Lbf/Ft =


Effective Bus Span Length in Feet
=

Fsb =

12.35

(Equation No. 30, IEEE 605)

19.7

12.35
6

Lbf/Ft
x (39.37/12) =

19.7

Feet

243.09 Lbf

7.3 Force Due To Wind On Insulator (Fwi)


Fwi =

C x Cd x Kz x Gf x V2 x (Di + 2rI) x Hi

C
Cd
Kz
Gf
V

1.776 x 10-5 for English units


Formula as per IEEE 605, 1987
Drag coefficient = 1 (Table 1, IEEE 605)
Height & Exposure factor =
1.16 (Clause No. 9.2, for category D, IEEE 605)
Gust Factor =
0.85 (Clause No. 9.3, for category C&D, IEEE 605)
Wind speed in Miles/hr
55 x ( 1/ 0.44704) =
123.03 Miles/hr
Effective Dia of Insulator in Inch =
160
=
160
/ 25.4 =
6.30 Inch
Height of insulator in Feet =
770
/ (0.305 x 1000) =
2.52
Feet
Radial ice thickness in Inch =
0 Inch

Di
Hi
rI

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

Fwi =
Fwi =

1.776 x 10-5 x 1 x 1.16 x 0.85x (


0.00001776 x
237349

(Equation No. 32, IEEE 605)

123.03 ) x(
6.30
=
4.21531 Lbf

+ 2x0 ) x

2.52

7.4 Gravitation Force ( Fgb)


Fgb =

Fg x Le

Fg
Le

Total bus unit weight in Lbf/ Ft =


Effective Bus Span Length in feet

=
=

Fgb =

1.85

(Equation No. 34, IEEE 605)

19.7

1.85
=

36.33

Busbar Current Rating and BPI Cantilever Calculation

Lbf/Ft
6

x (39.37/12) =

19.7

Feet

Lbf

8/45

7.5 Insulator Cantilever Load (Fis)


(Equation No. 35, IEEE 605)
Fis

K1 x

K1
K2

=
=

Overload factor applied to wind forces =


1
Overload factor applied to short-circuit current forces
1x

Fwi +
2

4.22
2
(

+(

( Hi + Hf ) x Fwb
Hi

30.31

30.31

3.15
30.31

K2 x

)x

( Hi + Hf ) x Fsb
Hi

171.09

+
3.15 ) x
243.09
=
30.31
Hence, Insulators with 4kN cantilever strength is selected.

Busbar Current Rating and BPI Cantilever Calculation

1
)

459.316 Lbf

1x

=
=

459.316 x 4.44822
2043.14 Newton

9/45

CLIENT:-

Client:

Mundra Port & SEZ.

Project:-

220/66/11kV Electrical Distribution.


Date
Prep.
Chkd.

Rev

Remarks

Date

Name

Busbar Current Rating and BPI Cantilever Calculation

Sales Ref.: IS/WR/


15.04.2009
SGP
SO
Siemens Ltd
KG Office

Description:
Amapacity Calculation of 3" IPS AL Tube.
(Schedule 40)
Drawing No.:
G71000-X0009-ED07

10/45

1 Introduction
A. A rigid bus is supported on bus post insulators in an out-door substation. These bus post insulators are
subjected to all types of stresses due to electrical and mechanical forces acting on bus bar.
The principal forces on the bus post insulators supporting a rigid conductor are as follows:
a. Short circuit force on bus conductor
b. Wind force on the bus conductor
c. Wind force on the bus post insulator
d. Weight of the bus conductor span supported by the bus post insulators
The resultant of these forces, correlated to the type of 'end Connection' of the rigid conductor at the bus
post insulator terminal, gives the values of the net Electromagnetic Force on the bus post insulator. The
values of forces obtained herewith forms valuable input for the design of bus post insulator support structure
and its foundation design.
In this report along with the force on bus post insulators, the maximum permissible unsupported span length
of the rigid bus conductor connecting the bus post insulators is also determined. The maximum permissible
span is calculated within the limits of 'Vertical Deflection' and permissible 'Fiber Stress' corresponding to the
type of 'End Connection' to the supporting bus post insulator terminals at each end of the span. The
calculation is performed on the method stipulated by IEEE 605 and the minimum of the span length obtained
from the calculation is conservatively considered as the maximum allowable unsupported span for all
influencing conditions.

Busbar Current Rating and BPI Cantilever Calculation

11/45

1 Continuous Current Carrying Capacity


Bus bar continuous rating required

875

Amps.

1440

Amps.

As per INDAL handbook current rating (nominal for outdoor) are as below:IPS Aluminum Tube
Schedule 40 2.00

Inches

As per INDAL handbook for the maximum operating temperature of the bus to 75 Deg. C, the derating
factor to be adopted is 0.88; hence the derated current rating (nominal for outdoor) are as below:2

Inches IPS Al Tube -

Schedule 40

0.88 x

1440

1267

Amps.

From the above it is summrised that, for the required current carrying capacity of 875 Amps.,
2
Inches IPS Al Tube Schedule 40 is sufficient.
2 Thermal Effects on IPS Aluminium Tube as per IEEE 605
Bus Bar Selected
Ambient temperature in deg. C
Final temperature in deg. C

2.00
50.0
90.0

(T2)
(T1)

Inch

2.1 Radiation Loss (Qr)


From Stefan-Boltzman law,
Qr

36.9 x 10-12 x e x ( T14-T24 ) x A

A
T1
T2
E

=
=
=
=

Surface area = 12 x d x =
Temperature of the bar, oK
Ambient temperature, oK
Emissivity factor =
0.6

Qr

36.9 x 10-12 x 0.6 x (

(Clause No. 3.2.4, IEEE 605)

12 x x
2.38
=
=
50.0
+ 273 =
=
90.0
+ 273 =

363.0

323.0

)x

89.54
323.0
363.0

In2/Ft
0
K
0
K

89.54

12.8435

Watts/Ft

2.2 Convective Loss (Qc)


Heat is dissipated from a tubular bus bar by forced convection
Heat transfer is considered at wind speed 2 fps and 1 atmospheric pressure.
Qc

A
d

=
=
=
=

Qc

0.010 x x A
(Clause No. 3.2.2, IEEE 605)
d0.4
2
Surface area = 12 x d x = 12 x x
2.38
=
89.54 In /Ft
outside diameter of bus bar in inch =
2.38 Inch
Temperature difference between conductor surface & ambient air in deg C = T1 - T2 =
90.0
50.0
=
40.0 deg. C

0.010 x
2.375

40.0
)0.4

89.54

25.340

Watts/Ft

2.3 Heat Gain Due To Solar Radiation (Qs)


Qs

h x s x d x 12

h
s

=
=

co-efficient of absorption of conductor surface =


0.5
intensity of solar radiation in Watts/Inch2 =
0.5479
Assumed - 849.27 Watts/Mtr.2
outside diameter of bus bar in inch =
2.38 Inch

Qs

0.5 x 0.5479 x 2.3751968503937


= 7.81x 12 Watts/Ft

Busbar Current Rating and BPI Cantilever Calculation

Watts/In2

12/45

2.4 Conductor Resistance


Rt2

8.145 x 10-4 x

1 + 0.00403 x C' x (T1 - 20)

C' x A2

(Clause No. 3.2.9, IEEE 605)

61

Rt2
C'
A2

=
=
=

Direct current resistance at maximum operating temperature


Conductivity as % IACS =
55.0
Cross sectional area in In2

d1
t
d2

=
=
=

A2
T1

=
=

outside diameter of bus bar in inch =


2.38 Inch
Thickness of tube =
0.154 Inch
inside diameter of bus bar in inch = d1 - 2t =
2.38
- 2 x 0.154
2
2
2
)
=
(/4) x (d12-d22) = (/4) x (
2.38
2.067
1.07422 In
Final temperature in deg. C =
90.0 deg. C

Rt2

8.145 x 10-4 x

- 20 )

55.0
x
1.72924E-05

Rt2

1 + 0.00403 x

55.0

1.07422
/Ft

x(

90.0

2.067

Inch

61

2.5 Skin Effect Ratio


0.5
f

0.0636 x
r

f
r
F
Rt2

=
=
=
=

Skin Effect Ratio


outer diameter / 2 =
2.38
/2 =
1.187598 Inch
Frequency In Hz = 50 Hz
Direct current resistance at maximum operating temperature =

0.0636
1.1876
1.25

F
5280 x Rt2

50
5280 x

(Clause No. 6, IEEE 605)

1.72924E-05 / Ft

0.5
1.72924E-05

2.6 Current Rating / Current Carrying Capability


0.5
I
= Qc + Qr - Qs
Rt2 x f

(Clause No. 3.2, IEEE 605)


0.5

25.340 +
12.8435
1.72924E-05 x

7.81
1.25

Busbar Current Rating and BPI Cantilever Calculation

1183.91 Amps.

13/45

3 Bus Span Calculations For -

Inch IPS Aluminium Tube

Short circuit forces maximum span calculation are as per IEEE 605
Bus Bar Selected
Bus Bar outer Diameter in Inches
Bus Bar Cross Section Moment of inertia in cm4
Bus Bar Section modulus in cm3
Bus Bar ultimate tensile strength in Kg/mm2
Modulus of Elasticity of Busbar in Kg/mm2
Bus bar Unit Self weight in Kgf/mtr
Maximum allowable stress in Kg/mm2
Clamping material unit weight in Kgf/mtr

(J)
(S)
(UT)
(E)
(Fc)
(Fa)
(Fd)

Bus Phase to Phase Spacing in Mtrs


Short Circuit Fault Level in kA
Duration of the short-circuit current in seconds

(D)
(Isc)
Tk

Rated short time in seconds


Wind Speed In Mtr/sec
Allowable deflection in inches:

Tkr
(V)

2.00
Inches Al Tube
2.375
27.709
9.186
20.5
7030.67
1.871
20.5
7
Kg x 1 Nos. = 0.88
8.0 mtrs
2
31.5
1
1
55
1 time dia of tube

3.1 Force Due to Wind (Fw)


Unit force due to wind on conductor is given by
Fw = C Cd Kz Gf V2 I (Dia + 2xrI) in Lbf/Ft
C
Cd
Kz
Gf
V

=
=
=
=
=
=
Dia =
I
=
rI
=
Fw =
=

(Equation No. 9, IEEE 605)

2.132 x 10-4 for English units


Drag coefficient for smooth tubular conductor =
1 (Table 1, IEEE 605)
Height & Exposure factor = 1.16
(Clause No. 9.2, for category D, IEEE 605)
Gust factor =
0.85 (Clause No. 9.3, for category C&D, IEEE 605)
Wind speed in Miles/hr
55 x ( 1/ 0.44704) =
123.03 Miles/hr
Outer Dia of Conductor in inches =
2.375 Inch
Importance factor = 1.15
(Clause No. 9.4, IEEE 605)
radial ice thickness in Inches =
0 Inch
2.132 x 10-4 x 1 x 1.16 x 0.85 x
123.03 x
123.03 x 1.15 x (2.3751968503937 + 2x0)
8.69
Lbf/Ft
=
8.69
x 1.488 = 12.93294 Kgf/mtr

3.2 Short Circuit Force (Fsc)


Short Circuit Force is given by
Fsc =
C
Isc
D

=
=
=
=

Kf

Kf x C x x (Df x 2 x Isc)2
D
5.4 x 10-7
for English units
RMS short circuit current in A
31.5 kA
Phase to Phase Spacing of Busbars in Inch
=
2
Constant based on type of short circuit & conductor location =
(Table 2, for 3 phase short circuit on Y phase, IEEE 605)
Mounting structure flexibility factor =
1
(Figure 4, IEEE 605)

Busbar Current Rating and BPI Cantilever Calculation

(Equation No. 12, IEEE 605)

x 39.37
0.866

78.74

Inch

14/45

Df

Decrement factor

Ta

X
R
f
X
R
Ta

=
=
=
=

X
1
R
2xxf
System Reactance
System Resistance
System Frequency =
15

tf

Df

Fsc =
=

15

2t
- f
Ta
1+
1 exp Ta
t f

(Equation No. 11a, IEEE 605)

50 Hz

1
=
2 x x 50
Fault current duration
=

0.0477
1 sec.

1.02
1 x 5.4 x 10-7 x 0.866 x (
1.02
x 2 x
78.74
12.35 x 1.488 = 18.37
Kgf/mtr

)2

31500

12.35

Lbf/Ft

3.3 Gravitational Forces (Fg)


Fg

Fc + Fi + Fd

(Equation No. 13, IEEE 605)

Fg
Fc
Fi
Fd

=
=
=
=

Total bus unit weight in kgf/mtr


Conductor unit weight in kgf/mtr =
1.871
Ice unit weight in kgf/mtr
=
0
Clamping material unit weight I kgf/mtr =
0.875

Fg

1.871 + 0 + 0.875
= 2.746

kgf/mtr

2.746

/ 1.488 =

1.85

Lbf/Ft

3.4 Total Force (Ft)


Total force on conductor in Horizontal configuration is given by
Ft

=
=

FW FSC

FG

( 12.9329 +

(Equation No. 22, IEEE 605)


18.37

)2 +(

2.746

)2

31.43

Kgf/mtr

4 Calculation Of Allowable Spans


4.1 For continuous bus, the maximum allowable span length based on vertical deflection is (Ld)
Ld

1/4
C x (185 x E x J x Ya)
Fg

C
E

Ya
Fg

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

1.86 for English units


2
Modulus of Elasticity in Lbf/In2 =
7031 Kgf/mm
2
7031 x 1422.34 =
1E+07 Lbf/in
Cross sectional moment of inertia in In4
=
27.709
4
27.709 x (1 / 41.623) =
0.67 In
Allowable Deflection as vertical dimension of tube = 1D =
Total bus unit weight in kgf/mtr
=
2.746 Kgf/mtr

Ld

1.86 x (

Ld

185 x 10000000.038652
0.67
x
x2
1.845
355.52 / 39.37 =
9.03 Mtrs.

(Equation No. 20, IEEE 605)

)1/4

Hence, maximum allowable span due to vertical deflection is

Busbar Current Rating and BPI Cantilever Calculation

9.03

cm4
1x
=
=

2.000
2.746
1.85

=
2.00
x (1/1.488)
Lbf/Ft

Inch

355.52 In

mtrs.

15/45

4.2 Allowable Span For Fibre Stress (Ls)


Ls

C
Fa

=
=
=
=

Cx (

Ft

=
=

(28/3) x Fa x S )
(Equation No. 29c, IEEE 605)
Ft
3.46 for English units
Maximum allowable stress in Lbf/In2
2
2
20.5 Kg/mm =
20.5 x 1422.33 =
29157.8 Lbf/In
3
Section modulus in In
3
3
For
2.0
Inch Al Tube, S =
9.186 cm =
9.186 / 16.3871 =
0.56 In
Total Force in Lbf/Ft
31.43 Kgf/mtr =
31.43 / 1.488 =
21.12 Lbf/ft

Ls

3.46 x

294.1

(28/3) x

29157.8 x
21.12
7.47 Mtrs.

/ 39.37 =

0.56

)=

294.1

Inch

5 Conclusion
As per IEEE 605, page number 25, Clause No. 11.3, the maximum allowable span is the lower of the spans
as calculated for Ld and Ls.
The maximum allowable bus span is
7.47 Mtrs. for
2.00
Inches Aluminium tube.
6.1 Natural Frequency of Conductor Span (fb)
fb

x k2
C x L2

C
L
E

m
k

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

24 for English units


Span length in Feet =
7.47 Mtrs. =
7.47
/ 0.305 = 24.49 Feet
2
Modulus of Elasticity in Lbf/In2 =
7031 Kgf/mm
2
7031 x 1422.34 =
1E+07 Lbf/In
4
4
Cross sectional moment of inertia in In
=
27.709 cm
4
27.709 x (1 / 41.623) =
0.67 In
Mass per unit length = Fc =
1.871 Kgf/mtr =
1.871 / 1.488 =
1.51 for two fixed ends

fb

2
x ( 1.51 )
24 x (
24.49

E xJ )
m

(
)2

(Equation No. 5, IEEE 605)

1E+07
1.26

Twice the calculated natural frequency of the bus span =

0.67

2x

)=

1.15

1.15

1.26

Lbf/Ft

Hz

2.29

Hz

6.2 Wind Induced Vibration or Aeolian Force Frequency (f a )


fa

CxV
d

C
V
d

=
=
=
=

3.26 for English units


Wind speed in Miles/hr
55 x ( 1/ 0.44704) =
123.03 Miles/hr
Conductor diameter in inches =
2
Inches =

fa

3.26

(Equation No. 6, IEEE 605)

x
5.08

123.03

79.0

x 2.54 =

5.08

cm

Hz

As per IEEE 605, page number 10, clause number 7.2.2, if twice the calculated natural frequency of the
bus span is greater than the Aeolian force frequency, then the bus span should be changed or bus should
be damped.
Since, twice the calculated natural frequency of the bus span is
2.29 Hz, which is less than the
Aeolian force frequency of
79.0 Hz, the selected bus span of
7.47 meters is safe from
Aeolian vibrations.

Busbar Current Rating and BPI Cantilever Calculation

16/45

7 Insulator Cantilever Strength Calculation As per IEEE 605


Effective Bus Span Length in Mtrs

(Le)

6 +

Height of Insulator Stack in mm


Height of Centre Line of Bus over Insulator Height in mm

(Hi)
(Hf)

Effective Insulator Diameter in mm

=
=
(Di) =

6
770
80
80
3.15
160

6
2
Mtrs.

/ 25.4
Inch

7.1 Force Due To Wind On Bus (Fwb)


Fwb =

Fw x Le

Fw
Le

Unit Wind Force On Bus in Lbf/Ft =


Effective Bus Span Length in Feet

=
=

Fwb =

8.69

(Equation No. 31, IEEE 605)

19.7

8.69
=

Lbf/Ft
6
x (39.37/12) =

19.7

Feet

171.09 Lbf

7.2 Bus Short Circuit Force (Fsb)


Fsb =

Fsc x Le

Fsc =
Le =

Unit short circuit force on Bus in Lbf/Ft =


Effective Bus Span Length in Feet
=

Fsb =

12.35

(Equation No. 30, IEEE 605)

19.7

12.35
6

Lbf/Ft
x (39.37/12) =

19.7

Feet

243.09 Lbf

7.3 Force Due To Wind On Insulator (Fwi)


Fwi =

C x Cd x Kz x Gf x V2 x (Di + 2rI) x Hi

C
Cd
Kz
Gf
V

1.776 x 10-5 for English units


Formula as per IEEE 605, 1987
Drag coefficient = 1 (Table 1, IEEE 605)
Height & Exposure factor =
1.16 (Clause No. 9.2, for category D, IEEE 605)
Gust Factor =
0.85 (Clause No. 9.3, for category C&D, IEEE 605)
Wind speed in Miles/hr
55 x ( 1/ 0.44704) =
123.03 Miles/hr
Effective Dia of Insulator in Inch =
160
=
160
/ 25.4 =
6.30 Inch
Height of insulator in Feet =
770
/ (0.305 x 1000) =
2.52
Feet
Radial ice thickness in Inch =
0 Inch

Di
Hi
rI

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

Fwi =
Fwi =

1.776 x 10-5 x 1 x 1.16 x 0.85x (


0.00001776 x
237349

(Equation No. 32, IEEE 605)

123.03 ) x(
6.30
=
4.21531 Lbf

+ 2x0 ) x

2.52

7.4 Gravitation Force ( Fgb)


Fgb =

Fg x Le

Fg
Le

Total bus unit weight in Lbf/ Ft =


Effective Bus Span Length in feet

=
=

Fgb =

1.85

(Equation No. 34, IEEE 605)

19.7

1.85
=

36.33

Busbar Current Rating and BPI Cantilever Calculation

Lbf/Ft
6

x (39.37/12) =

19.7

Feet

Lbf

17/45

7.5 Insulator Cantilever Load (Fis)


(Equation No. 35, IEEE 605)
Fis

K1 x

K1
K2

=
=

Overload factor applied to wind forces =


1
Overload factor applied to short-circuit current forces
1x

Fwi +
2

4.22
2
(

+(

( Hi + Hf ) x Fwb
Hi

30.31

30.31

3.15
30.31

K2 x

)x

( Hi + Hf ) x Fsb
Hi

171.09

+
3.15 ) x
243.09
=
30.31
Hence, Insulators with 4kN cantilever strength is selected.

Busbar Current Rating and BPI Cantilever Calculation

1
)

459.316 Lbf

1x

=
=

459.316 x 4.44822
2043.14 Newton

18/45

CLIENT:-

Client:
Project:-

Mundra Port & SEZ.


220/66/11kV Electrical Distribution.
Date
Prep.
Chkd.

Rev

Remarks

Date

Name

Busbar Current Rating and BPI Cantilever Calculation

Sales Ref.: IS/


15.04.2009
SGP
SO
Siemens Ltd
KG Office

Description:
Amapacity Calculation of 3" IPS AL Tube.
(Schedule 40)
Drawing No.:
G71000-X0009-ED07

19/45

1 Introduction
A. A rigid bus is supported on bus post insulators in an out-door substation. These bus post insulators are
subjected to all types of stresses due to electrical and mechanical forces acting on bus bar.
The principal forces on the bus post insulators supporting a rigid conductor are as follows:
a. Short circuit force on bus conductor
b. Wind force on the bus conductor
c. Wind force on the bus post insulator
d. Weight of the bus conductor span supported by the bus post insulators
The resultant of these forces, correlated to the type of 'end Connection' of the rigid conductor at the bus
post insulator terminal, gives the values of the net Electromagnetic Force on the bus post insulator. The
values of forces obtained herewith forms valuable input for the design of bus post insulator support structure
and its foundation design.
In this report along with the force on bus post insulators, the maximum permissible unsupported span length
of the rigid bus conductor connecting the bus post insulators is also determined. The maximum permissible
span is calculated within the limits of 'Vertical Deflection' and permissible 'Fiber Stress' corresponding to the
type of 'End Connection' to the supporting bus post insulator terminals at each end of the span. The
calculation is performed on the method stipulated by IEEE 605 and the minimum of the span length obtained
from the calculation is conservatively considered as the maximum allowable unsupported span for all
influencing conditions.

Busbar Current Rating and BPI Cantilever Calculation

20/45

2 Continuous Current Carrying Capacity


Bus bar continuous rating required

263

Amps.

2350

Amps.

As per INDAL handbook current rating (nominal for outdoor) are as below:IPS Aluminum Tube
Schedule 40 3.00

Inches

As per INDAL handbook for the maximum operating temperature of the bus to 75 Deg. C, the derating
factor to be adopted is 0.88; hence the derated current rating (nominal for outdoor) are as below:3

Inches IPS Al Tube -

Schedule 40

0.88 x

2350

2068

Amps.

From the above it is summrised that, for the required current carrying capacity of 263 Amps.,
3
Inches IPS Al Tube Schedule 40 is sufficient.
3 Thermal Effects on IPS Aluminium Tube as per IEEE 605
Bus Bar Selected
Ambient temperature in deg. C
Final temperature in deg. C

3.00
50.0
90.0

(T2)
(T1)

Inch

3.1 Radiation Loss (Qr)


From Stefan-Boltzman law,
Qr

36.9 x 10-12 x e x ( T14-T24 ) x A

A
T1
T2
E

=
=
=
=

Surface area = 12 x d x =
Temperature of the bar, oK
Ambient temperature, oK
Emissivity factor =
0.6

Qr

36.9 x 10-12 x 0.6 x (

(Clause No. 3.2.4, IEEE 605)

12 x x
3.50
=
=
50.0
+ 273 =
=
90.0
+ 273 =

363.0

323.0

)x

2
131.95 In /Ft
0
323.0 K
0
363.0 K

131.95

18.9258

Watts/Ft

3.2 Convective Loss (Qc)


Heat is dissipated from a tubular bus bar by forced convection
Heat transfer is considered at wind speed 2 fps and 1 atmospheric pressure.
Qc

A
d

=
=
=
=

Qc

0.010 x x A
(Clause No. 3.2.2, IEEE 605)
d0.4
2
Surface area = 12 x d x = 12 x x
3.50
=
131.95 In /Ft
outside diameter of bus bar in inch =
3.50 Inch
Temperature difference between conductor surface & ambient air in deg C = T1 - T2 =
90.0
50.0
=
40.0 deg. C

0.010 x
3.500

40.0
)0.4

131.95

31.977

Watts/Ft

3.3 Heat Gain Due To Solar Radiation (Qs)


Qs

h x s x d x 12

h
s

=
=

co-efficient of absorption of conductor surface =


0.5
intensity of solar radiation in Watts/Inch2 =
0.5479
Assumed - 849.27 Watts/Mtr.2
outside diameter of bus bar in inch =
3.50 Inch

Qs

0.5 x 0.5479 x 3.5 x 12

11.51

Busbar Current Rating and BPI Cantilever Calculation

Watts/In2

Watts/Ft

21/45

3.4 Conductor Resistance


Rt2

8.145 x 10-4 x

1 + 0.00403 x C' x (T1 - 20)

C' x A2

(Clause No. 3.2.9, IEEE 605)

61

Rt2
C'
A2

=
=
=

Direct current resistance at maximum operating temperature


Conductivity as % IACS =
55.0
Cross sectional area in In2

d1
t
d2

=
=
=

A2
T1

=
=

outside diameter of bus bar in inch =


3.50 Inch
Thickness of tube =
0.216 Inch
inside diameter of bus bar in inch = d1 - 2t =
3.50
- 2 x 0.216
2
2
2
)
=
(/4) x (d12-d22) = (/4) x (
3.50
3.068
2.22984 In
Final temperature in deg. C =
90.0 deg. C

Rt2

8.145 x 10-4 x

- 20 )

55.0
x
8.33058E-06

Rt2

1 + 0.00403 x

55.0

2.22984
/Ft

x(

90.0

3.068

Inch

61

3.5 Skin Effect Ratio


0.5
f

0.0636 x
r

f
r
F
Rt2

=
=
=
=

Skin Effect Ratio


outer diameter / 2 =
3.50
/2 =
1.75
Inch
Frequency In Hz = 50 Hz
Direct current resistance at maximum operating temperature =

0.0636
1.75
1.23

F
5280 x Rt2

50
5280 x

(Clause No. 6, IEEE 605)

8.33058E-06 / Ft

0.5
8.33058E-06

3.6 Current Rating / Current Carrying Capability


0.5
I
= Qc + Qr - Qs
Rt2 x f

(Clause No. 3.2, IEEE 605)


0.5

31.977 +
18.9258
8.33058E-06 x

11.51
1.23

Busbar Current Rating and BPI Cantilever Calculation

1964.56 Amps.

22/45

4 Bus Span Calculations For -

Inch IPS Aluminium Tube

Short circuit forces maximum span calculation are as per IEEE 605
Bus Bar Selected
Bus Bar outer Diameter in Inches
Bus Bar Cross Section Moment of inertia in cm4
Bus Bar Section modulus in cm3
Bus Bar ultimate tensile strength in Kg/mm2
Modulus of Elasticity of Busbar in Kg/mm2
Bus bar Unit Self weight in Kgf/mtr
Maximum allowable stress in Kg/mm2
Clamping material unit weight in Kgf/mtr

(J)
(S)
(UT)
(E)
(Fc)
(Fa)
(Fd)

Bus Phase to Phase Spacing in Mtrs


Short Circuit Fault Level in kA
Duration of the short-circuit current in seconds

(D)
(Isc)
Tk

Rated short time in seconds


Wind Speed In Mtr/sec
Allowable deflection in inches:

Tkr
(V)

3.00
Inches Al Tube
3.500
125.606
28.258
20.5
7030.67
3.884
20.5
7
Kg x 1 Nos. = 0.58
12.0 mtrs
4.25
40
1
1
55
1 time dia of tube

4.1 Force Due to Wind (Fw)


Unit force due to wind on conductor is given by
Fw = C Cd Kz Gf V2 I (Dia + 2xrI) in Lbf/Ft
C
Cd
Kz
Gf
V

=
=
=
=
=
=
Dia =
I
=
rI
=
Fw =
=

(Equation No. 9, IEEE 605)

2.132 x 10-4 for English units


Drag coefficient for smooth tubular conductor =
1 (Table 1, IEEE 605)
Height & Exposure factor = 1.16
(Clause No. 9.2, for category D, IEEE 605)
Gust factor =
0.85 (Clause No. 9.3, for category C&D, IEEE 605)
Wind speed in Miles/hr
55 x ( 1/ 0.44704) =
123.03 Miles/hr
Outer Dia of Conductor in inches =
3.500 Inch
Importance factor = 1.15
(Clause No. 9.4, IEEE 605)
radial ice thickness in Inches =
0 Inch
2.132 x 10-4 x 1 x 1.16 x 0.85 x
123.03 x
123.03 x 1.15 x (3.5 + 2x0)
12.81
Lbf/Ft
=
12.81 x 1.488 = 19.05748 Kgf/mtr

4.2 Short Circuit Force (Fsc)


Short Circuit Force is given by
Fsc =
C
Isc
D

=
=
=
=

Kf

Kf x C x x (Df x 2 x Isc)2
D
5.4 x 10-7
for English units
RMS short circuit current in A
40
kA
Phase to Phase Spacing of Busbars in Inch
=
4.25
Constant based on type of short circuit & conductor location =
(Table 2, for 3 phase short circuit on Y phase, IEEE 605)
Mounting structure flexibility factor =
1
(Figure 4, IEEE 605)

Busbar Current Rating and BPI Cantilever Calculation

(Equation No. 12, IEEE 605)

x 39.37
0.866

167.32

Inch

23/45

Df

Decrement factor

Ta

X
R
f
X
R
Ta

=
=
=
=

X
1
R
2xxf
System Reactance
System Resistance
System Frequency =
15

tf

Df

Fsc =
=

15

1+

2t
- f
Ta
1 exp Ta
t f

(Equation No. 11a, IEEE 605)

50 Hz

1
=
2 x x 50
Fault current duration
=

0.0477
1 sec.

1.02
1 x 5.4 x 10-7 x 0.866 x (
1.02
x 2 x
167.32
9.37
x 1.488 = 13.94
Kgf/mtr

)2

40000

9.37

Lbf/Ft

4.3 Gravitational Forces (Fg)


Fg

Fc + Fi + Fd

(Equation No. 13, IEEE 605)

Fg
Fc
Fi
Fd

=
=
=
=

Total bus unit weight in kgf/mtr


Conductor unit weight in kgf/mtr =
3.884
Ice unit weight in kgf/mtr
=
0
Clamping material unit weight I kgf/mtr =
0.583333

Fg

3.884 + 0 + 0.583333333333333
= 4.467
kgf/mtr

4.467

/ 1.488 =

3.00

Lbf/Ft

4.4 Total Force (Ft)


Total force on conductor in Horizontal configuration is given by
Ft

=
=

FW FSC

FG

( 19.0575 +

(Equation No. 22, IEEE 605)


13.94

)2 +(

4.467

)2

33.30

Kgf/mtr

5 Calculation Of Allowable Spans


5.1 For continuous bus, the maximum allowable span length based on vertical deflection is (Ld)
Ld

1/4
C x (185 x E x J x Ya)
Fg

C
E

Ya
Fg

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

1.86 for English units


2
Modulus of Elasticity in Lbf/In2 =
7031 Kgf/mm
2
7031 x 1422.34 =
1E+07 Lbf/in
4
Cross sectional moment of inertia in In4
=
125.606 cm
4
125.606 x (1 / 41.623) =
3.02 In
Allowable Deflection as vertical dimension of tube = 1D =
1x
Total bus unit weight in kgf/mtr
=
4.467 Kgf/mtr
=
=

Ld

1.86 x (

Ld

185 x 10000000.038652
3.02
x
x3
3.002
508.33 / 39.37 =
12.91 Mtrs.

(Equation No. 20, IEEE 605)

)1/4

Hence, maximum allowable span due to vertical deflection is

Busbar Current Rating and BPI Cantilever Calculation

12.91

3.000
4.467
3.00

=
3.00
x (1/1.488)
Lbf/Ft

Inch

508.33 In

mtrs.

24/45

5.2 Allowable Span For Fibre Stress (Ls)


Ls

C
Fa

=
=
=
=

Cx (

Ft

=
=

(28/3) x Fa x S )
(Equation No. 29c, IEEE 605)
Ft
3.46 for English units
Maximum allowable stress in Lbf/In2
2
2
20.5 Kg/mm =
20.5 x 1422.33 =
29157.8 Lbf/In
3
Section modulus in In
3
3
For
3.0
Inch Al Tube, S =
28.258 cm =
28.258 / 16.3871 =
1.72 In
Total Force in Lbf/Ft
33.30 Kgf/mtr =
33.30 / 1.488 =
22.38 Lbf/ft

Ls

3.46 x

501.0

(28/3) x

29157.8 x
22.38
12.73 Mtrs.

/ 39.37 =

1.72

)=

501.0

Inch

6 Conclusion
As per IEEE 605, page number 25, Clause No. 11.3, the maximum allowable span is the lower of the spans
as calculated for Ld and Ls.
The maximum allowable bus span is
12.73 Mtrs. for
3.00
Inches Aluminium tube.
7.1 Natural Frequency of Conductor Span (fb)
fb

x k2
C x L2

C
L
E

m
k

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

24 for English units


Span length in Feet =
12.73 Mtrs. =
12.73 / 0.305 = 41.72 Feet
2
Modulus of Elasticity in Lbf/In2 =
7031 Kgf/mm
2
7031 x 1422.34 =
1E+07 Lbf/In
4
Cross sectional moment of inertia in In4
=
125.606 cm
4
125.606 x (1 / 41.623) =
3.02 In
Mass per unit length = Fc =
3.884 Kgf/mtr =
3.884 / 1.488 =
1.51 for two fixed ends

fb

2
x ( 1.51 )
24 x (
41.72

E xJ )
m

(
)2

(Equation No. 5, IEEE 605)

1E+07
2.61

Twice the calculated natural frequency of the bus span =

3.02

2x

)=

0.58

0.58

2.61

Lbf/Ft

Hz

1.17

Hz

7.2 Wind Induced Vibration or Aeolian Force Frequency (f a )


fa

CxV
d

C
V
d

=
=
=
=

3.26 for English units


Wind speed in Miles/hr
55 x ( 1/ 0.44704) =
123.03 Miles/hr
Conductor diameter in inches =
3
Inches =

fa

3.26

(Equation No. 6, IEEE 605)

x
7.62

123.03

52.6

x 2.54 =

7.62

cm

Hz

As per IEEE 605, page number 10, clause number 7.2.2, if twice the calculated natural frequency of the
bus span is greater than the Aeolian force frequency, then the bus span should be changed or bus should
be damped.
Since, twice the calculated natural frequency of the bus span is
1.17 Hz, which is less than the
Aeolian force frequency of
52.6 Hz, the selected bus span of
12.73 meters is safe from
Aeolian vibrations.

Busbar Current Rating and BPI Cantilever Calculation

25/45

8 Insulator Cantilever Strength Calculation As per IEEE 605


Effective Bus Span Length in Mtrs

(Le)

11.5 +

Height of Insulator Stack in mm


Height of Centre Line of Bus over Insulator Height in mm

(Hi)
(Hf)

Effective Insulator Diameter in mm

=
=
(Di) =

11.5
2300
130
130
5.12
295

11.5
2
Mtrs.

/ 25.4
Inch

8.1 Force Due To Wind On Bus (Fwb)


Fwb =

Fw x Le

Fw
Le

Unit Wind Force On Bus in Lbf/Ft =


Effective Bus Span Length in Feet

=
=

Fwb =

12.81

(Equation No. 31, IEEE 605)

37.7

12.81 Lbf/Ft
=
11.5
x (39.37/12) =

37.7

Feet

483.22 Lbf

8.2 Bus Short Circuit Force (Fsb)


Fsb =

Fsc x Le

Fsc =
Le =

Unit short circuit force on Bus in Lbf/Ft =


Effective Bus Span Length in Feet
=

Fsb =

9.37

(Equation No. 30, IEEE 605)

37.7

9.37
11.5

Lbf/Ft
x (39.37/12) =

37.7

Feet

353.55 Lbf

8.3 Force Due To Wind On Insulator (Fwi)


Fwi =

C x Cd x Kz x Gf x V2 x (Di + 2rI) x Hi

C
Cd
Kz
Gf
V

1.776 x 10-5 for English units


Formula as per IEEE 605, 1987
Drag coefficient = 1 (Table 1, IEEE 605)
Height & Exposure factor =
1.16 (Clause No. 9.2, for category D, IEEE 605)
Gust Factor =
0.85 (Clause No. 9.3, for category C&D, IEEE 605)
Wind speed in Miles/hr
55 x ( 1/ 0.44704) =
123.03 Miles/hr
Effective Dia of Insulator in Inch =
295
=
295
/ 25.4 =
11.61 Inch
Height of insulator in Feet =
2300 / (0.305 x 1000) =
7.54
Feet
Radial ice thickness in Inch =
0 Inch

Di
Hi
rI

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

Fwi =
Fwi =

1.776 x 10-5 x 1 x 1.16 x 0.85x (


0.00001776 x
1307151

(Equation No. 32, IEEE 605)

123.03 ) x(
11.61
=
23.215 Lbf

+ 2x0 ) x

7.54

8.4 Gravitation Force ( Fgb)


Fgb =

Fg x Le

Fg
Le

Total bus unit weight in Lbf/ Ft =


Effective Bus Span Length in feet

=
=

Fgb =

3.00

(Equation No. 34, IEEE 605)

37.7

3.00
=

Lbf/Ft
11.5

x (39.37/12) =

37.7

Feet

113.27 Lbf

Busbar Current Rating and BPI Cantilever Calculation

26/45

8.5 Insulator Cantilever Load (Fis)


(Equation No. 35, IEEE 605)
Fis

K1 x

K1
K2

=
=

Overload factor applied to wind forces =


1
Overload factor applied to short-circuit current forces
1x

Fwi +
2

23.22
2
(

+(

( Hi + Hf ) x Fwb
Hi

90.55

90.55

5.12
90.55

K2 x

)x

( Hi + Hf ) x Fsb
Hi

483.22

+
5.12 ) x
353.55
=
90.55
Hence, Insulators with 4kN cantilever strength is selected.

Busbar Current Rating and BPI Cantilever Calculation

1
)

895.668 Lbf

1x

=
=

895.668 x 4.44822
3984.13 Newton

27/45

CLIENT:-

Client:
Project:-

Mundra Port & SEZ.


220/66/11kV Electrical Distribution.
Date
Prep.
Chkd.

Rev

Remarks

Date

Name

Busbar Current Rating and BPI Cantilever Calculation

Sales Ref.: IS/


15.04.2009
SGP
SO
Siemens Ltd
KG Office

Description:
Amapacity Calculation of 4" IPS AL Tube.
(Schedule 40)
Drawing No.:
G71000-X0009-ED07

28/45

1 Introduction
A. A rigid bus is supported on bus post insulators in an out-door substation. These bus post insulators are
subjected to all types of stresses due to electrical and mechanical forces acting on bus bar.
The principal forces on the bus post insulators supporting a rigid conductor are as follows:
a. Short circuit force on bus conductor
b. Wind force on the bus conductor
c. Wind force on the bus post insulator
d. Weight of the bus conductor span supported by the bus post insulators
The resultant of these forces, correlated to the type of 'end Connection' of the rigid conductor at the bus
post insulator terminal, gives the values of the net Electromagnetic Force on the bus post insulator. The
values of forces obtained herewith forms valuable input for the design of bus post insulator support structure
and its foundation design.
In this report along with the force on bus post insulators, the maximum permissible unsupported span length
of the rigid bus conductor connecting the bus post insulators is also determined. The maximum permissible
span is calculated within the limits of 'Vertical Deflection' and permissible 'Fiber Stress' corresponding to the
type of 'End Connection' to the supporting bus post insulator terminals at each end of the span. The
calculation is performed on the method stipulated by IEEE 605 and the minimum of the span length obtained
from the calculation is conservatively considered as the maximum allowable unsupported span for all
influencing conditions.

Busbar Current Rating and BPI Cantilever Calculation

29/45

2 Continuous Current Carrying Capacity


Bus bar continuous rating required

1250

Amps.

3050

Amps.

As per INDAL handbook current rating (nominal for outdoor) are as below:IPS Aluminum Tube
Schedule 40 4.00

Inches

As per INDAL handbook for the maximum operating temperature of the bus to 75 Deg. C, the derating
factor to be adopted is 0.88; hence the derated current rating (nominal for outdoor) are as below:4

Inches IPS Al Tube -

Schedule 40

0.88 x

3050

2684

Amps.

From the above it is summrised that, for the required current carrying capacity of 1250 Amps.,
4
Inches IPS Al Tube Schedule 40 is sufficient.
3 Thermal Effects on IPS Aluminium Tube as per IEEE 605
Bus Bar Selected
Ambient temperature in deg. C
Final temperature in deg. C

4.00
45.0
95.0

(T2)
(T1)

Inch

3.1 Radiation Loss (Qr)


From Stefan-Boltzman law,
Qr

36.9 x 10-12 x e x ( T14-T24 ) x A

A
T1
T2
E

=
=
=
=

Surface area = 12 x d x =
Temperature of the bar, oK
Ambient temperature, oK
Emissivity factor =
0.6

Qr

36.9 x 10-12 x 0.6 x (

(Clause No. 3.2.4, IEEE 605)

12 x x
4.50
=
=
45.0
+ 273 =
=
95.0
+ 273 =

368.0

318.0

)x

2
169.65 In /Ft
0
318.0 K
0
368.0 K

169.65

30.4744

Watts/Ft

3.2 Convective Loss (Qc)


Heat is dissipated from a tubular bus bar by forced convection
Heat transfer is considered at wind speed 2 fps and 1 atmospheric pressure.
Qc

A
d

=
=
=
=

Qc

0.010 x x A
(Clause No. 3.2.2, IEEE 605)
d0.4
2
Surface area = 12 x d x = 12 x x
4.50
=
169.65 In /Ft
outside diameter of bus bar in inch =
4.50 Inch
Temperature difference between conductor surface & ambient air in deg C = T1 - T2 =
95.0
45.0
=
50.0 deg. C

0.010 x
4.500

50.0
)0.4

169.65

46.476

Watts/Ft

3.3 Heat Gain Due To Solar Radiation (Qs)


Qs

h x s x d x 12

h
s

=
=

co-efficient of absorption of conductor surface =


0.5
intensity of solar radiation in Watts/Inch2 =
0.5479
Assumed - 849.27 Watts/Mtr.2
outside diameter of bus bar in inch =
4.50 Inch

Qs

0.5 x 0.5479 x 4.5 x 12

14.79

Busbar Current Rating and BPI Cantilever Calculation

Watts/In2

Watts/Ft

30/45

3.4 Conductor Resistance


Rt2

8.145 x 10-4 x

1 + 0.00403 x C' x (T1 - 20)

C' x A2

(Clause No. 3.2.9, IEEE 605)

61

Rt2
C'
A2

=
=
=

Direct current resistance at maximum operating temperature


Conductivity as % IACS =
55.0
Cross sectional area in In2

d1
t
d2

=
=
=

A2
T1

=
=

outside diameter of bus bar in inch =


4.50 Inch
Thickness of tube =
0.237 Inch
inside diameter of bus bar in inch = d1 - 2t =
4.50
- 2 x 0.237
2
2
2
)
=
(/4) x (d12-d22) = (/4) x (
4.50
4.026
3.17415 In
Final temperature in deg. C =
95.0 deg. C

Rt2

8.145 x 10-4 x

- 20 )

55.0
x
5.93699E-06

Rt2

1 + 0.00403 x

55.0

3.17415
/Ft

x(

95.0

4.026

Inch

61

3.5 Skin Effect Ratio


0.5
f

0.0636 x
r

f
r
F
Rt2

=
=
=
=

Skin Effect Ratio


outer diameter / 2 =
4.50
/2 =
2.25
Inch
Frequency In Hz = 50 Hz
Direct current resistance at maximum operating temperature =

0.0636
2.25
1.13

F
5280 x Rt2

50
5280 x

(Clause No. 6, IEEE 605)

5.93699E-06 / Ft

0.5
5.93699E-06

3.6 Current Rating / Current Carrying Capability


0.5
I
= Qc + Qr - Qs
Rt2 x f

(Clause No. 3.2, IEEE 605)


0.5

46.476 +
30.4744
5.93699E-06 x

14.79
1.13

Busbar Current Rating and BPI Cantilever Calculation

3045.32 Amps.

31/45

4 Bus Span Calculations For -

Inch IPS Aluminium Tube

Short circuit forces maximum span calculation are as per IEEE 605
Bus Bar Selected
Bus Bar outer Diameter in Inches
Bus Bar Cross Section Moment of inertia in cm4
Bus Bar Section modulus in cm3
Bus Bar ultimate tensile strength in Kg/mm2
Modulus of Elasticity of Busbar in Kg/mm2
Bus bar Unit Self weight in Kgf/mtr
Maximum allowable stress in Kg/mm2
Clamping material unit weight in Kgf/mtr

(J)
(S)
(UT)
(E)
(Fc)
(Fa)
(Fd)

Bus Phase to Phase Spacing in Mtrs


Short Circuit Fault Level in kA
Duration of the short-circuit current in seconds

(D)
(Isc)
Tk

Rated short time in seconds


Wind Speed In Mtr/sec
Allowable deflection in inches:

Tkr
(V)

4.00
Inches Al Tube
4.500
301.039
52.675
20.5
7030.67
5.529
20.5
7
Kg x 1 Nos. = 0.58
12.0 mtrs
3
40
3
3
55
1 time dia of tube

4.1 Force Due to Wind (Fw)


Unit force due to wind on conductor is given by
Fw = C Cd Kz Gf V2 I (Dia + 2xrI) in Lbf/Ft
C
Cd
Kz
Gf
V

=
=
=
=
=
=
Dia =
I
=
rI
=
Fw =
=

(Equation No. 9, IEEE 605)

2.132 x 10-4 for English units


Drag coefficient for smooth tubular conductor =
1 (Table 1, IEEE 605)
Height & Exposure factor = 1.16
(Clause No. 9.2, for category D, IEEE 605)
Gust factor =
0.85 (Clause No. 9.3, for category C&D, IEEE 605)
Wind speed in Miles/hr
55 x ( 1/ 0.44704) =
123.03 Miles/hr
Outer Dia of Conductor in inches =
4.500 Inch
Importance factor = 1.15
(Clause No. 9.4, IEEE 605)
radial ice thickness in Inches =
0 Inch
2.132 x 10-4 x 1 x 1.16 x 0.85 x
123.03 x
123.03 x 1.15 x (4.5 + 2x0)
16.47
Lbf/Ft
=
16.47 x 1.488 = 24.50248 Kgf/mtr

4.2 Short Circuit Force (Fsc)


Short Circuit Force is given by
Fsc =
C
Isc
D

=
=
=
=

Kf

Kf x C x x (Df x 2 x Isc)2
D
5.4 x 10-7
for English units
RMS short circuit current in A
40
kA
Phase to Phase Spacing of Busbars in Inch
=
3
Constant based on type of short circuit & conductor location =
(Table 2, for 3 phase short circuit on Y phase, IEEE 605)
Mounting structure flexibility factor =
1
(Figure 4, IEEE 605)

Busbar Current Rating and BPI Cantilever Calculation

(Equation No. 12, IEEE 605)

x 39.37
0.866

118.11

Inch

32/45

Df

Decrement factor

Ta

X
R
f
X
R
Ta

=
=
=
=

X
1
R
2xxf
System Reactance
System Resistance
System Frequency =
15

tf

Df

Fsc =
=

15

2t
- f
Ta
1+
1 exp Ta
t f

(Equation No. 11a, IEEE 605)

50 Hz

1
=
2 x x 50
Fault current duration
=

0.0477
3 sec.

1.01
1 x 5.4 x 10-7 x 0.866 x (
1.01
x 2 x
118.11
12.87 x 1.488 = 19.15
Kgf/mtr

)2

40000

12.87

Lbf/Ft

4.3 Gravitational Forces (Fg)


Fg

Fc + Fi + Fd

(Equation No. 13, IEEE 605)

Fg
Fc
Fi
Fd

=
=
=
=

Total bus unit weight in kgf/mtr


Conductor unit weight in kgf/mtr =
5.529
Ice unit weight in kgf/mtr
=
0
Clamping material unit weight I kgf/mtr =
0.583333

Fg

5.529 + 0 + 0.583333333333333
= 6.112
kgf/mtr

6.112

/ 1.488 =

4.11

Lbf/Ft

4.4 Total Force (Ft)


Total force on conductor in Horizontal configuration is given by
Ft

=
=

FW FSC

FG

( 24.5025 +

(Equation No. 22, IEEE 605)


19.15

)2 +(

6.112

)2

44.08

Kgf/mtr

5 Calculation Of Allowable Spans


5.1 For continuous bus, the maximum allowable span length based on vertical deflection is (Ld)
Ld

1/4
C x (185 x E x J x Ya)
Fg

C
E

Ya
Fg

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

1.86 for English units


2
Modulus of Elasticity in Lbf/In2 =
7031 Kgf/mm
2
7031 x 1422.34 =
1E+07 Lbf/in
4
Cross sectional moment of inertia in In4
=
301.039 cm
4
301.039 x (1 / 41.623) =
7.23 In
Allowable Deflection as vertical dimension of tube = 1D =
1x
Total bus unit weight in kgf/mtr
=
6.112 Kgf/mtr
=
=

Ld

1.86 x (

Ld

185 x 10000000.038652
7.23
x
x4
4.108
628.41 / 39.37 =
15.96 Mtrs.

(Equation No. 20, IEEE 605)

)1/4

Hence, maximum allowable span due to vertical deflection is

Busbar Current Rating and BPI Cantilever Calculation

15.96

4.000
6.112
4.11

=
4.00
x (1/1.488)
Lbf/Ft

Inch

628.41 In

mtrs.

33/45

5.2 Allowable Span For Fibre Stress (Ls)


Ls

C
Fa

=
=
=
=

Cx (

Ft

=
=

(28/3) x Fa x S )
(Equation No. 29c, IEEE 605)
Ft
3.46 for English units
Maximum allowable stress in Lbf/In2
2
2
20.5 Kg/mm =
20.5 x 1422.33 =
29157.8 Lbf/In
3
Section modulus in In
3
3
For
4.0
Inch Al Tube, S =
52.675 cm =
52.675 / 16.3871 =
3.21 In
Total Force in Lbf/Ft
44.08 Kgf/mtr =
44.08 / 1.488 =
29.62 Lbf/ft

Ls

3.46 x

594.6

(28/3) x

29157.8 x
29.62
15.10 Mtrs.

/ 39.37 =

3.21

)=

594.6

Inch

6 Conclusion
As per IEEE 605, page number 25, Clause No. 11.3, the maximum allowable span is the lower of the spans
as calculated for Ld and Ls.
The maximum allowable bus span is
15.10 Mtrs. for
4.00
Inches Aluminium tube.
7.1 Natural Frequency of Conductor Span (fb)
fb

x k2
C x L2

C
L
E

m
k

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

24 for English units


Span length in Feet =
15.10 Mtrs. =
15.10 / 0.305 = 49.51 Feet
2
Modulus of Elasticity in Lbf/In2 =
7031 Kgf/mm
2
7031 x 1422.34 =
1E+07 Lbf/In
4
Cross sectional moment of inertia in In4
=
301.039 cm
4
301.039 x (1 / 41.623) =
7.23 In
Mass per unit length = Fc =
5.529 Kgf/mtr =
5.529 / 1.488 =
1.51 for two fixed ends

fb

2
x ( 1.51 )
24 x (
49.51

E xJ )
m

(
)2

(Equation No. 5, IEEE 605)

1E+07
3.72

Twice the calculated natural frequency of the bus span =

7.23

2x

)=

0.54

0.54

3.72

Lbf/Ft

Hz

1.07

Hz

7.2 Wind Induced Vibration or Aeolian Force Frequency (f a )


fa

CxV
d

C
V
d

=
=
=
=

3.26 for English units


Wind speed in Miles/hr
55 x ( 1/ 0.44704) =
123.03 Miles/hr
Conductor diameter in inches =
4
Inches =

fa

3.26
x
10.16

(Equation No. 6, IEEE 605)

123.03

39.5

x 2.54 =

10.16

cm

Hz

As per IEEE 605, page number 10, clause number 7.2.2, if twice the calculated natural frequency of the
bus span is greater than the Aeolian force frequency, then the bus span should be changed or bus should
be damped.
Since, twice the calculated natural frequency of the bus span is
1.07 Hz, which is less than the
Aeolian force frequency of
39.5 Hz, the selected bus span of
15.10 meters is safe from
Aeolian vibrations.

Busbar Current Rating and BPI Cantilever Calculation

34/45

8 Insulator Cantilever Strength Calculation As per IEEE 605


Effective Bus Span Length in Mtrs

(Le)

12 +

Height of Insulator Stack in mm


Height of Centre Line of Bus over Insulator Height in mm

(Hi)
(Hf)

Effective Insulator Diameter in mm

=
=
(Di) =

12
1472
172
172
6.77
182

12
2
Mtrs.

/ 25.4
Inch

8.1 Force Due To Wind On Bus (Fwb)


Fwb =

Fw x Le

Fw
Le

Unit Wind Force On Bus in Lbf/Ft =


Effective Bus Span Length in Feet

=
=

Fwb =

16.47

(Equation No. 31, IEEE 605)

39.4

16.47 Lbf/Ft
=
12
x (39.37/12) =

39.4

Feet

648.29 Lbf

8.2 Bus Short Circuit Force (Fsb)


Fsb =

Fsc x Le

Fsc =
Le =

Unit short circuit force on Bus in Lbf/Ft =


Effective Bus Span Length in Feet
=

Fsb =

12.87

(Equation No. 30, IEEE 605)

39.4

12.87
12

Lbf/Ft
x (39.37/12) =

39.4

Feet

506.75 Lbf

8.3 Force Due To Wind On Insulator (Fwi)


Fwi =

C x Cd x Kz x Gf x V2 x (Di + 2rI) x Hi

C
Cd
Kz
Gf
V

1.776 x 10-5 for English units


Formula as per IEEE 605, 1987
Drag coefficient = 1 (Table 1, IEEE 605)
Height & Exposure factor =
1.16 (Clause No. 9.2, for category D, IEEE 605)
Gust Factor =
0.85 (Clause No. 9.3, for category C&D, IEEE 605)
Wind speed in Miles/hr
55 x ( 1/ 0.44704) =
123.03 Miles/hr
Effective Dia of Insulator in Inch =
182
=
182
/ 25.4 =
7.17 Inch
Height of insulator in Feet =
1472 / (0.305 x 1000) =
4.83
Feet
Radial ice thickness in Inch =
0 Inch

Di
Hi
rI

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

Fwi =
Fwi =

1.776 x 10-5 x 1 x 1.16 x 0.85x (


0.00001776 x
516125

(Equation No. 32, IEEE 605)

123.03 ) x(
7.17
=
9.16639 Lbf

+ 2x0 ) x

4.83

8.4 Gravitation Force ( Fgb)


Fgb =

Fg x Le

Fg
Le

Total bus unit weight in Lbf/ Ft =


Effective Bus Span Length in feet

=
=

Fgb =

4.11

(Equation No. 34, IEEE 605)

39.4

4.11
=

Lbf/Ft
12

x (39.37/12) =

39.4

Feet

161.72 Lbf

Busbar Current Rating and BPI Cantilever Calculation

35/45

8.5 Insulator Cantilever Load (Fis)


(Equation No. 35, IEEE 605)
Fis

K1 x

K1
K2

=
=

Overload factor applied to wind forces =


1
Overload factor applied to short-circuit current forces
1x

Fwi +
2

9.17
2
(

+(

( Hi + Hf ) x Fwb
Hi

57.95

57.95

6.77
57.95

K2 x

)x

( Hi + Hf ) x Fsb
Hi

648.29

+
6.77 ) x
506.75
=
57.95
Hence, Insulators with 4kN cantilever strength is selected.

Busbar Current Rating and BPI Cantilever Calculation

1
)

1294.6 Lbf

1x

=
=

1294.6 x 4.44822
5758.66 Newton

36/45

CLIENT:-

Client:

Mundra Port & SEZ.

Project:-

220/66/11kV Electrical Distribution.


Date
Prep.
Chkd.

Rev

Remarks

Date

Name

Busbar Current Rating and BPI Cantilever Calculation

Sales Ref.: IS/WR


15.04.2009
SGP
SO
Siemens Ltd
KG Office

Description:
Amapacity Calculation of 4.5" IPS AL Tube.
(Schedule 40)
Drawing No.:
G71000-X0009-ED07

37/45

1 Introduction
A. A rigid bus is supported on bus post insulators in an out-door substation. These bus post insulators are
subjected to all types of stresses due to electrical and mechanical forces acting on bus bar.
The principal forces on the bus post insulators supporting a rigid conductor are as follows:
a. Short circuit force on bus conductor
b. Wind force on the bus conductor
c. Wind force on the bus post insulator
d. Weight of the bus conductor span supported by the bus post insulators
The resultant of these forces, correlated to the type of 'end Connection' of the rigid conductor at the bus
post insulator terminal, gives the values of the net Electromagnetic Force on the bus post insulator. The
values of forces obtained herewith forms valuable input for the design of bus post insulator support structure
and its foundation design.
In this report along with the force on bus post insulators, the maximum permissible unsupported span length
of the rigid bus conductor connecting the bus post insulators is also determined. The maximum permissible
span is calculated within the limits of 'Vertical Deflection' and permissible 'Fiber Stress' corresponding to the
type of 'End Connection' to the supporting bus post insulator terminals at each end of the span. The
calculation is performed on the method stipulated by IEEE 605 and the minimum of the span length obtained
from the calculation is conservatively considered as the maximum allowable unsupported span for all
influencing conditions.

Busbar Current Rating and BPI Cantilever Calculation

38/45

2 Continuous Current Carrying Capacity


Bus bar continuous rating required

1250

Amps.

3420

Amps.

As per INDAL handbook current rating (nominal for outdoor) are as below:IPS Aluminum Tube
Schedule 40 4.50

Inches

As per INDAL handbook for the maximum operating temperature of the bus to 75 Deg. C, the derating
factor to be adopted is 0.88; hence the derated current rating (nominal for outdoor) are as below:4.5 Inches IPS Al Tube -

Schedule 40

0.88 x

3420

3010

Amps.

From the above it is summrised that, for the required current carrying capacity of 1250 Amps.,
4.5 Inches IPS Al Tube Schedule 40 is sufficient.
3 Thermal Effects on IPS Aluminium Tube as per IEEE 605
Bus Bar Selected
Ambient temperature in deg. C
Final temperature in deg. C

4.50
50.0
90.0

(T2)
(T1)

Inch

3.1 Radiation Loss (Qr)


From Stefan-Boltzman law,
Qr

36.9 x 10-12 x e x ( T14-T24 ) x A

A
T1
T2
E

=
=
=
=

Surface area = 12 x d x =
Temperature of the bar, oK
Ambient temperature, oK
Emissivity factor =
0.6

Qr

36.9 x 10-12 x 0.6 x (

(Clause No. 3.2.4, IEEE 605)

12 x x
5.00
=
=
50.0
+ 273 =
=
90.0
+ 273 =

363.0

323.0

)x

2
188.50 In /Ft
0
323.0 K
0
363.0 K

188.50

27.0368

Watts/Ft

3.2 Convective Loss (Qc)


Heat is dissipated from a tubular bus bar by forced convection
Heat transfer is considered at wind speed 2 fps and 1 atmospheric pressure.
Qc

A
d

=
=
=
=

Qc

0.010 x x A
(Clause No. 3.2.2, IEEE 605)
d0.4
2
Surface area = 12 x d x = 12 x x
5.00
=
188.50 In /Ft
outside diameter of bus bar in inch =
5.00 Inch
Temperature difference between conductor surface & ambient air in deg C = T1 - T2 =
90.0
50.0
=
40.0 deg. C

0.010 x
5.000

40.0
)0.4

188.50

39.607

Watts/Ft

3.3 Heat Gain Due To Solar Radiation (Qs)


Qs

h x s x d x 12

h
s

=
=

co-efficient of absorption of conductor surface =


0.5
intensity of solar radiation in Watts/Inch2 =
0.5479
Assumed - 849.27 Watts/Mtr.2
outside diameter of bus bar in inch =
5.00 Inch

Qs

0.5 x 0.5479 x 5 x 12

16.44

Busbar Current Rating and BPI Cantilever Calculation

Watts/In2

Watts/Ft

39/45

3.4 Conductor Resistance


Rt2

8.145 x 10-4 x

1 + 0.00403 x C' x (T1 - 20)

C' x A2

(Clause No. 3.2.9, IEEE 605)

61

Rt2
C'
A2

=
=
=

Direct current resistance at maximum operating temperature


Conductivity as % IACS =
55.0
Cross sectional area in In2

d1
t
d2

=
=
=

A2
T1

=
=

outside diameter of bus bar in inch =


5.00 Inch
Thickness of tube =
0.247 Inch
inside diameter of bus bar in inch = d1 - 2t =
5.00
- 2 x 0.247
2
2
2
)
=
(/4) x (d12-d22) = (/4) x (
5.00
4.506
3.68608 In
Final temperature in deg. C =
90.0 deg. C

Rt2

8.145 x 10-4 x

- 20 )

55.0
x
5.03945E-06

Rt2

1 + 0.00403 x

55.0

3.68608
/Ft

x(

90.0

4.506

Inch

61

3.5 Skin Effect Ratio


0.5
f

0.0636 x
r

f
r
F
Rt2

=
=
=
=

Skin Effect Ratio


outer diameter / 2 =
5.00
/2 =
2.5
Inch
Frequency In Hz = 50 Hz
Direct current resistance at maximum operating temperature =

0.0636
2.5
1.10

F
5280 x Rt2

50
5280 x

(Clause No. 6, IEEE 605)

5.03945E-06 / Ft

0.5
5.03945E-06

3.6 Current Rating / Current Carrying Capability


0.5
I
= Qc + Qr - Qs
Rt2 x f

(Clause No. 3.2, IEEE 605)


0.5

39.607 +
27.0368
5.03945E-06 x

16.44
1.10

Busbar Current Rating and BPI Cantilever Calculation

3005.68 Amps.

40/45

4 Bus Span Calculations For -

4.5 Inch IPS Aluminium Tube

Short circuit forces maximum span calculation are as per IEEE 605
Bus Bar Selected
Bus Bar outer Diameter in Inches
Bus Bar Cross Section Moment of inertia in cm4
Bus Bar Section modulus in cm3
Bus Bar ultimate tensile strength in Kg/mm2
Modulus of Elasticity of Busbar in Kg/mm2
Bus bar Unit Self weight in Kgf/mtr
Maximum allowable stress in Kg/mm2
Clamping material unit weight in Kgf/mtr

(J)
(S)
(UT)
(E)
(Fc)
(Fa)
(Fd)

Bus Phase to Phase Spacing in Mtrs


Short Circuit Fault Level in kA
Duration of the short-circuit current in seconds

(D)
(Isc)
Tk

Rated short time in seconds


Wind Speed In Mtr/sec
Allowable deflection in inches:

Tkr
(V)

4.50
Inches Al Tube
5.000
434.683
68.454
20.5
7030.67
6.423
20.5
7
Kg x 2 Nos. = 0.85
16.5 mtrs
4.25
40
1
1
55
1 time dia of tube

4.1 Force Due to Wind (Fw)


Unit force due to wind on conductor is given by
Fw = C Cd Kz Gf V2 I (Dia + 2xrI) in Lbf/Ft
C
Cd
Kz
Gf
V

=
=
=
=
=
=
Dia =
I
=
rI
=
Fw =
=

(Equation No. 9, IEEE 605)

2.132 x 10-4 for English units


Drag coefficient for smooth tubular conductor =
1 (Table 1, IEEE 605)
Height & Exposure factor = 1.16
(Clause No. 9.2, for category D, IEEE 605)
Gust factor =
0.85 (Clause No. 9.3, for category C&D, IEEE 605)
Wind speed in Miles/hr
55 x ( 1/ 0.44704) =
123.03 Miles/hr
Outer Dia of Conductor in inches =
5.000 Inch
Importance factor = 1.15
(Clause No. 9.4, IEEE 605)
radial ice thickness in Inches =
0 Inch
2.132 x 10-4 x 1 x 1.16 x 0.85 x
123.03 x
123.03 x 1.15 x (5 + 2x0)
18.30
Lbf/Ft
=
18.30 x 1.488 = 27.22498 Kgf/mtr

4.2 Short Circuit Force (Fsc)


Short Circuit Force is given by
Fsc =
C
Isc
D

=
=
=
=

Kf

Kf x C x x (Df x 2 x Isc)2
D
5.4 x 10-7
for English units
RMS short circuit current in A
40
kA
Phase to Phase Spacing of Busbars in Inch
=
4.25
Constant based on type of short circuit & conductor location =
(Table 2, for 3 phase short circuit on Y phase, IEEE 605)
Mounting structure flexibility factor =
1
(Figure 4, IEEE 605)

Busbar Current Rating and BPI Cantilever Calculation

(Equation No. 12, IEEE 605)

x 39.37
0.866

167.32

Inch

41/45

Df

Decrement factor

Ta

X
R
f
X
R
Ta

=
=
=
=

X
1
R
2xxf
System Reactance
System Resistance
System Frequency =
15

tf

Df

Fsc =
=

15

2t
- f
Ta
1+
1 exp Ta
t f

(Equation No. 11a, IEEE 605)

50 Hz

1
=
2 x x 50
Fault current duration
=

0.0477
1 sec.

1.02
1 x 5.4 x 10-7 x 0.866 x (
1.02
x 2 x
167.32
9.37
x 1.488 = 13.94
Kgf/mtr

)2

40000

9.37

Lbf/Ft

4.3 Gravitational Forces (Fg)


Fg

Fc + Fi + Fd

(Equation No. 13, IEEE 605)

Fg
Fc
Fi
Fd

=
=
=
=

Total bus unit weight in kgf/mtr


Conductor unit weight in kgf/mtr =
6.423
Ice unit weight in kgf/mtr
=
0
Clamping material unit weight I kgf/mtr =
0.848485

Fg

6.423 + 0 + 0.848484848484849
= 7.271
kgf/mtr

7.271

/ 1.488 =

4.89

Lbf/Ft

4.4 Total Force (Ft)


Total force on conductor in Horizontal configuration is given by
Ft

=
=

FW FSC

FG

( 27.225

(Equation No. 22, IEEE 605)


13.94

)2 +(

7.271

)2

41.81

Kgf/mtr

5 Calculation Of Allowable Spans


5.1 For continuous bus, the maximum allowable span length based on vertical deflection is (Ld)
Ld

1/4
C x (185 x E x J x Ya)
Fg

C
E

Ya
Fg

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

1.86 for English units


2
Modulus of Elasticity in Lbf/In2 =
7031 Kgf/mm
2
7031 x 1422.34 =
1E+07 Lbf/in
4
Cross sectional moment of inertia in In4
=
434.683 cm
4
434.683 x (1 / 41.623) =
10.44 In
Allowable Deflection as vertical dimension of tube = 1D =
1x
Total bus unit weight in kgf/mtr
=
7.271 Kgf/mtr
=
=

Ld

1.86 x (

Ld

185 x 10000000.038652
10.44
x
x 4.5
4.887
679.30 / 39.37 =
17.25 Mtrs.

(Equation No. 20, IEEE 605)

)1/4

Hence, maximum allowable span due to vertical deflection is

Busbar Current Rating and BPI Cantilever Calculation

17.25

4.500
7.271
4.89

=
4.50
x (1/1.488)
Lbf/Ft

Inch

679.30 In

mtrs.

42/45

5.2 Allowable Span For Fibre Stress (Ls)


Ls

C
Fa

=
=
=
=

Cx (

Ft

=
=

(28/3) x Fa x S )
(Equation No. 29c, IEEE 605)
Ft
3.46 for English units
Maximum allowable stress in Lbf/In2
2
2
20.5 Kg/mm =
20.5 x 1422.33 =
29157.8 Lbf/In
3
Section modulus in In
3
3
For
4.5
Inch Al Tube, S =
68.454 cm =
68.454 / 16.3871 =
4.18 In
Total Force in Lbf/Ft
41.81 Kgf/mtr =
41.81 / 1.488 =
28.10 Lbf/ft

Ls

3.46 x

696.0

(28/3) x

29157.8 x
28.10
17.68 Mtrs.

/ 39.37 =

4.18

)=

696.0

Inch

6 Conclusion
As per IEEE 605, page number 25, Clause No. 11.3, the maximum allowable span is the lower of the spans
as calculated for Ld and Ls.
The maximum allowable bus span is
17.25 Mtrs. for
4.50
Inches Aluminium tube.
7.1 Natural Frequency of Conductor Span (fb)
fb

x k2
C x L2

C
L
E

m
k

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

24 for English units


Span length in Feet =
17.25 Mtrs. =
17.25 / 0.305 = 56.57 Feet
2
Modulus of Elasticity in Lbf/In2 =
7031 Kgf/mm
2
7031 x 1422.34 =
1E+07 Lbf/In
4
Cross sectional moment of inertia in In4
=
434.683 cm
4
434.683 x (1 / 41.623) =
10.44 In
Mass per unit length = Fc =
6.423 Kgf/mtr =
6.423 / 1.488 =
1.51 for two fixed ends

fb

2
x ( 1.51 )
24 x (
56.57

E xJ )
m

(
)2

(Equation No. 5, IEEE 605)

1E+07
4.32

Twice the calculated natural frequency of the bus span =

10.44

2x

)=

0.46

0.46

4.32

Lbf/Ft

Hz

0.92

Hz

7.2 Wind Induced Vibration or Aeolian Force Frequency (f a )


fa

CxV
d

C
V
d

=
=
=
=

3.26 for English units


Wind speed in Miles/hr
55 x ( 1/ 0.44704) =
123.03 Miles/hr
Conductor diameter in inches =
4.5
Inches =

fa

3.26
x
11.43

(Equation No. 6, IEEE 605)

123.03

35.1

4.5

x 2.54 =

11.43

cm

Hz

As per IEEE 605, page number 10, clause number 7.2.2, if twice the calculated natural frequency of the
bus span is greater than the Aeolian force frequency, then the bus span should be changed or bus should
be damped.
Since, twice the calculated natural frequency of the bus span is
0.92 Hz, which is less than the
Aeolian force frequency of
35.1 Hz, the selected bus span of
17.25 meters is safe from
Aeolian vibrations.

Busbar Current Rating and BPI Cantilever Calculation

43/45

8 Insulator Cantilever Strength Calculation As per IEEE 605


Effective Bus Span Length in Mtrs

(Le)

16.5 +

Height of Insulator Stack in mm


Height of Centre Line of Bus over Insulator Height in mm

(Hi)
(Hf)

Effective Insulator Diameter in mm

=
=
(Di) =

16.5
2300
130
130
5.12
295

16.5
2
Mtrs.

/ 25.4
Inch

8.1 Force Due To Wind On Bus (Fwb)


Fwb =

Fw x Le

Fw
Le

Unit Wind Force On Bus in Lbf/Ft =


Effective Bus Span Length in Feet

=
=

Fwb =

18.30

(Equation No. 31, IEEE 605)

54.1

18.30 Lbf/Ft
=
16.5
x (39.37/12) =

54.1

Feet

990.45 Lbf

8.2 Bus Short Circuit Force (Fsb)


Fsb =

Fsc x Le

Fsc =
Le =

Unit short circuit force on Bus in Lbf/Ft =


Effective Bus Span Length in Feet
=

Fsb =

9.37

(Equation No. 30, IEEE 605)

54.1

9.37
16.5

Lbf/Ft
x (39.37/12) =

54.1

Feet

507.26 Lbf

8.3 Force Due To Wind On Insulator (Fwi)


Fwi =

C x Cd x Kz x Gf x V2 x (Di + 2rI) x Hi

C
Cd
Kz
Gf
V

1.776 x 10-5 for English units


Formula as per IEEE 605, 1987
Drag coefficient = 1 (Table 1, IEEE 605)
Height & Exposure factor =
1.16 (Clause No. 9.2, for category D, IEEE 605)
Gust Factor =
0.85 (Clause No. 9.3, for category C&D, IEEE 605)
Wind speed in Miles/hr
55 x ( 1/ 0.44704) =
123.03 Miles/hr
Effective Dia of Insulator in Inch =
295
=
295
/ 25.4 =
11.61 Inch
Height of insulator in Feet =
2300 / (0.305 x 1000) =
7.54
Feet
Radial ice thickness in Inch =
0 Inch

Di
Hi
rI

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

Fwi =
Fwi =

1.776 x 10-5 x 1 x 1.16 x 0.85x (


0.00001776 x
1307151

(Equation No. 32, IEEE 605)

123.03 ) x(
11.61
=
23.215 Lbf

+ 2x0 ) x

7.54

8.4 Gravitation Force ( Fgb)


Fgb =

Fg x Le

Fg
Le

Total bus unit weight in Lbf/ Ft =


Effective Bus Span Length in feet

=
=

Fgb =

4.89

(Equation No. 34, IEEE 605)

54.1

4.89
=

Lbf/Ft
16.5

x (39.37/12) =

54.1

Feet

264.54 Lbf

Busbar Current Rating and BPI Cantilever Calculation

44/45

8.5 Insulator Cantilever Load (Fis)


(Equation No. 35, IEEE 605)
Fis

K1 x

K1
K2

=
=

Overload factor applied to wind forces =


1
Overload factor applied to short-circuit current forces
1x

Fwi +
2

23.22
2
(

+(

( Hi + Hf ) x Fwb
Hi

90.55

5.12
90.55

90.55

K2 x

)x

( Hi + Hf ) x Fsb
Hi

990.45

+
5.12 ) x
507.26
=
90.55
Hence, Insulators with 8kN cantilever strength is selected.

Busbar Current Rating and BPI Cantilever Calculation

1
)

1593.97 Lbf

1x

=
=

1593.97 x 4.44822
7090.34 Newton

45/45