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Client:

Project:-

Date

Prep.

Chkd.

Rev

Remarks

Date

Name

15.04.2009

SGP

SO

Siemens Ltd

KG Office

Description:

Amapacity Calculation of 2" IPS AL Tube.

(Schedule 40)

Drawing No.:

G71000-X0009-ED07

1/45

1 Introduction

A. A rigid bus is supported on bus post insulators in an out-door substation. These bus post insulators are

subjected to all types of stresses due to electrical and mechanical forces acting on bus bar.

The principal forces on the bus post insulators supporting a rigid conductor are as follows:

a. Short circuit force on bus conductor

b. Wind force on the bus conductor

c. Wind force on the bus post insulator

d. Weight of the bus conductor span supported by the bus post insulators

The resultant of these forces, correlated to the type of 'end Connection' of the rigid conductor at the bus

post insulator terminal, gives the values of the net Electromagnetic Force on the bus post insulator. The

values of forces obtained herewith forms valuable input for the design of bus post insulator support structure

and its foundation design.

In this report along with the force on bus post insulators, the maximum permissible unsupported span length

of the rigid bus conductor connecting the bus post insulators is also determined. The maximum permissible

span is calculated within the limits of 'Vertical Deflection' and permissible 'Fiber Stress' corresponding to the

type of 'End Connection' to the supporting bus post insulator terminals at each end of the span. The

calculation is performed on the method stipulated by IEEE 605 and the minimum of the span length obtained

from the calculation is conservatively considered as the maximum allowable unsupported span for all

influencing conditions.

2/45

Bus bar continuous rating required

875

Amps.

1440

Amps.

As per INDAL handbook current rating (nominal for outdoor) are as below:IPS Aluminum Tube

Schedule 40 2.00

Inches

As per INDAL handbook for the maximum operating temperature of the bus to 75 Deg. C, the derating

factor to be adopted is 0.88; hence the derated current rating (nominal for outdoor) are as below:2

Schedule 40

0.88 x

1440

1267

Amps.

From the above it is summrised that, for the required current carrying capacity of 875 Amps.,

2

Inches IPS Al Tube Schedule 40 is sufficient.

2 Thermal Effects on IPS Aluminium Tube as per IEEE 605

Bus Bar Selected

Ambient temperature in deg. C

Final temperature in deg. C

2.00

50.0

90.0

(T2)

(T1)

Inch

From Stefan-Boltzman law,

Qr

A

T1

T2

E

=

=

=

=

Surface area = 12 x d x =

Temperature of the bar, oK

Ambient temperature, oK

Emissivity factor =

0.6

Qr

12 x x

2.38

=

=

50.0

+ 273 =

=

90.0

+ 273 =

363.0

323.0

)x

89.54

323.0

363.0

In2/Ft

0

K

0

K

89.54

12.8435

Watts/Ft

Heat is dissipated from a tubular bus bar by forced convection

Heat transfer is considered at wind speed 2 fps and 1 atmospheric pressure.

Qc

A

d

=

=

=

=

Qc

0.010 x x A

(Clause No. 3.2.2, IEEE 605)

d0.4

2

Surface area = 12 x d x = 12 x x

2.38

=

89.54 In /Ft

outside diameter of bus bar in inch =

2.38 Inch

Temperature difference between conductor surface & ambient air in deg C = T1 - T2 =

90.0

50.0

=

40.0 deg. C

0.010 x

2.375

40.0

)0.4

89.54

25.340

Watts/Ft

Qs

h x s x d x 12

h

s

=

=

0.5

intensity of solar radiation in Watts/Inch2 =

0.5479

Assumed - 849.27 Watts/Mtr.2

outside diameter of bus bar in inch =

2.38 Inch

Qs

= 7.81x 12 Watts/Ft

Watts/In2

3/45

Rt2

8.145 x 10-4 x

C' x A2

61

Rt2

C'

A2

=

=

=

Conductivity as % IACS =

55.0

Cross sectional area in In2

d1

t

d2

=

=

=

A2

T1

=

=

2.38 Inch

Thickness of tube =

0.154 Inch

inside diameter of bus bar in inch = d1 - 2t =

2.38

- 2 x 0.154

2

2

2

)

=

(/4) x (d12-d22) = (/4) x (

2.38

2.067

1.07422 In

Final temperature in deg. C =

90.0 deg. C

Rt2

8.145 x 10-4 x

- 20 )

55.0

x

1.72924E-05

Rt2

1 + 0.00403 x

55.0

1.07422

/Ft

x(

90.0

2.067

Inch

61

0.5

f

0.0636 x

r

f

r

F

Rt2

=

=

=

=

outer diameter / 2 =

2.38

/2 =

1.187598 Inch

Frequency In Hz = 50 Hz

Direct current resistance at maximum operating temperature =

0.0636

1.1876

1.25

F

5280 x Rt2

50

5280 x

1.72924E-05 / Ft

0.5

1.72924E-05

0.5

I

= Qc + Qr - Qs

Rt2 x f

0.5

25.340 +

12.8435

1.72924E-05 x

7.81

1.25

1183.91 Amps.

4/45

Short circuit forces maximum span calculation are as per IEEE 605

Bus Bar Selected

Bus Bar outer Diameter in Inches

Bus Bar Cross Section Moment of inertia in cm4

Bus Bar Section modulus in cm3

Bus Bar ultimate tensile strength in Kg/mm2

Modulus of Elasticity of Busbar in Kg/mm2

Bus bar Unit Self weight in Kgf/mtr

Maximum allowable stress in Kg/mm2

Clamping material unit weight in Kgf/mtr

(J)

(S)

(UT)

(E)

(Fc)

(Fa)

(Fd)

Short Circuit Fault Level in kA

Duration of the short-circuit current in seconds

(D)

(Isc)

Tk

Wind Speed In Mtr/sec

Allowable deflection in inches:

Tkr

(V)

2.00

Inches Al Tube

2.375

27.709

9.186

20.5

7030.67

1.871

20.5

7

Kg x 1 Nos. = 0.88

8.0 mtrs

2

31.5

1

1

55

1 time dia of tube

Unit force due to wind on conductor is given by

Fw = C Cd Kz Gf V2 I (Dia + 2xrI) in Lbf/Ft

C

Cd

Kz

Gf

V

=

=

=

=

=

=

Dia =

I

=

rI

=

Fw =

=

Drag coefficient for smooth tubular conductor =

1 (Table 1, IEEE 605)

Height & Exposure factor = 1.16

(Clause No. 9.2, for category D, IEEE 605)

Gust factor =

0.85 (Clause No. 9.3, for category C&D, IEEE 605)

Wind speed in Miles/hr

55 x ( 1/ 0.44704) =

123.03 Miles/hr

Outer Dia of Conductor in inches =

2.375 Inch

Importance factor = 1.15

(Clause No. 9.4, IEEE 605)

radial ice thickness in Inches =

0 Inch

2.132 x 10-4 x 1 x 1.16 x 0.85 x

123.03 x

123.03 x 1.15 x (2.3751968503937 + 2x0)

8.69

Lbf/Ft

=

8.69

x 1.488 = 12.93294 Kgf/mtr

Short Circuit Force is given by

Fsc =

C

Isc

D

=

=

=

=

Kf

Kf x C x x (Df x 2 x Isc)2

D

5.4 x 10-7

for English units

RMS short circuit current in A

31.5 kA

Phase to Phase Spacing of Busbars in Inch

=

2

Constant based on type of short circuit & conductor location =

(Table 2, for 3 phase short circuit on Y phase, IEEE 605)

Mounting structure flexibility factor =

1

(Figure 4, IEEE 605)

x 39.37

0.866

78.74

Inch

5/45

Df

Decrement factor

Ta

X

R

f

X

R

Ta

=

=

=

=

X

1

R

2xxf

System Reactance

System Resistance

System Frequency =

15

tf

Df

Fsc =

=

15

1+

2t

- f

Ta

1 exp Ta

t f

50 Hz

1

=

2 x x 50

Fault current duration

=

0.0477

1 sec.

1.02

1 x 5.4 x 10-7 x 0.866 x (

1.02

x 2 x

78.74

12.35 x 1.488 = 18.37

Kgf/mtr

)2

31500

12.35

Lbf/Ft

Fg

Fc + Fi + Fd

Fg

Fc

Fi

Fd

=

=

=

=

Conductor unit weight in kgf/mtr =

1.871

Ice unit weight in kgf/mtr

=

0

Clamping material unit weight I kgf/mtr =

0.875

Fg

1.871 + 0 + 0.875

= 2.746

kgf/mtr

2.746

/ 1.488 =

1.85

Lbf/Ft

Total force on conductor in Horizontal configuration is given by

Ft

=

=

FW FSC

FG

( 12.9329 +

18.37

)2 +(

2.746

)2

31.43

Kgf/mtr

4.1 For continuous bus, the maximum allowable span length based on vertical deflection is (Ld)

Ld

1/4

C x (185 x E x J x Ya)

Fg

C

E

Ya

Fg

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

2

Modulus of Elasticity in Lbf/In2 =

7031 Kgf/mm

2

7031 x 1422.34 =

1E+07 Lbf/in

Cross sectional moment of inertia in In4

=

27.709

4

27.709 x (1 / 41.623) =

0.67 In

Allowable Deflection as vertical dimension of tube = 1D =

Total bus unit weight in kgf/mtr

=

2.746 Kgf/mtr

Ld

1.86 x (

Ld

185 x 10000000.038652

0.67

x

x2

1.845

355.52 / 39.37 =

9.03 Mtrs.

)1/4

9.03

cm4

1x

=

=

2.000

2.746

1.85

=

2.00

x (1/1.488)

Lbf/Ft

Inch

355.52 In

mtrs.

6/45

Ls

C

Fa

=

=

=

=

Cx (

Ft

=

=

(28/3) x Fa x S )

(Equation No. 29c, IEEE 605)

Ft

3.46 for English units

Maximum allowable stress in Lbf/In2

2

2

20.5 Kg/mm =

20.5 x 1422.33 =

29157.8 Lbf/In

3

Section modulus in In

3

3

For

2.0

Inch Al Tube, S =

9.186 cm =

9.186 / 16.3871 =

0.56 In

Total Force in Lbf/Ft

31.43 Kgf/mtr =

31.43 / 1.488 =

21.12 Lbf/ft

Ls

3.46 x

294.1

(28/3) x

29157.8 x

21.12

7.47 Mtrs.

/ 39.37 =

0.56

)=

294.1

Inch

5 Conclusion

As per IEEE 605, page number 25, Clause No. 11.3, the maximum allowable span is the lower of the spans

as calculated for Ld and Ls.

The maximum allowable bus span is

7.47 Mtrs. for

2.00

Inches Aluminium tube.

6.1 Natural Frequency of Conductor Span (fb)

fb

x k2

C x L2

C

L

E

m

k

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

Span length in Feet =

7.47 Mtrs. =

7.47

/ 0.305 = 24.49 Feet

2

Modulus of Elasticity in Lbf/In2 =

7031 Kgf/mm

2

7031 x 1422.34 =

1E+07 Lbf/In

4

4

Cross sectional moment of inertia in In

=

27.709 cm

4

27.709 x (1 / 41.623) =

0.67 In

Mass per unit length = Fc =

1.871 Kgf/mtr =

1.871 / 1.488 =

1.51 for two fixed ends

fb

2

x ( 1.51 )

24 x (

24.49

E xJ )

m

(

)2

1E+07

1.26

0.67

2x

)=

1.15

1.15

1.26

Lbf/Ft

Hz

2.29

Hz

fa

CxV

d

C

V

d

=

=

=

=

Wind speed in Miles/hr

55 x ( 1/ 0.44704) =

123.03 Miles/hr

Conductor diameter in inches =

2

Inches =

fa

3.26

x

5.08

123.03

79.0

x 2.54 =

5.08

cm

Hz

As per IEEE 605, page number 10, clause number 7.2.2, if twice the calculated natural frequency of the

bus span is greater than the Aeolian force frequency, then the bus span should be changed or bus should

be damped.

Since, twice the calculated natural frequency of the bus span is

2.29 Hz, which is less than the

Aeolian force frequency of

79.0 Hz, the selected bus span of

7.47 meters is safe from

Aeolian vibrations.

7/45

Effective Bus Span Length in Mtrs

(Le)

6 +

Height of Centre Line of Bus over Insulator Height in mm

(Hi)

(Hf)

=

=

(Di) =

6

770

80

80

3.15

160

6

2

Mtrs.

/ 25.4

Inch

Fwb =

Fw x Le

Fw

Le

Effective Bus Span Length in Feet

=

=

Fwb =

8.69

19.7

8.69

=

Lbf/Ft

6

x (39.37/12) =

19.7

Feet

171.09 Lbf

Fsb =

Fsc x Le

Fsc =

Le =

Effective Bus Span Length in Feet

=

Fsb =

12.35

19.7

12.35

6

Lbf/Ft

x (39.37/12) =

19.7

Feet

243.09 Lbf

Fwi =

C x Cd x Kz x Gf x V2 x (Di + 2rI) x Hi

C

Cd

Kz

Gf

V

Formula as per IEEE 605, 1987

Drag coefficient = 1 (Table 1, IEEE 605)

Height & Exposure factor =

1.16 (Clause No. 9.2, for category D, IEEE 605)

Gust Factor =

0.85 (Clause No. 9.3, for category C&D, IEEE 605)

Wind speed in Miles/hr

55 x ( 1/ 0.44704) =

123.03 Miles/hr

Effective Dia of Insulator in Inch =

160

=

160

/ 25.4 =

6.30 Inch

Height of insulator in Feet =

770

/ (0.305 x 1000) =

2.52

Feet

Radial ice thickness in Inch =

0 Inch

Di

Hi

rI

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

Fwi =

Fwi =

0.00001776 x

237349

123.03 ) x(

6.30

=

4.21531 Lbf

+ 2x0 ) x

2.52

Fgb =

Fg x Le

Fg

Le

Effective Bus Span Length in feet

=

=

Fgb =

1.85

19.7

1.85

=

36.33

Lbf/Ft

6

x (39.37/12) =

19.7

Feet

Lbf

8/45

(Equation No. 35, IEEE 605)

Fis

K1 x

K1

K2

=

=

1

Overload factor applied to short-circuit current forces

1x

Fwi +

2

4.22

2

(

+(

( Hi + Hf ) x Fwb

Hi

30.31

30.31

3.15

30.31

K2 x

)x

( Hi + Hf ) x Fsb

Hi

171.09

+

3.15 ) x

243.09

=

30.31

Hence, Insulators with 4kN cantilever strength is selected.

1

)

459.316 Lbf

1x

=

=

459.316 x 4.44822

2043.14 Newton

9/45

CLIENT:-

Client:

Project:-

Date

Prep.

Chkd.

Rev

Remarks

Date

Name

15.04.2009

SGP

SO

Siemens Ltd

KG Office

Description:

Amapacity Calculation of 3" IPS AL Tube.

(Schedule 40)

Drawing No.:

G71000-X0009-ED07

10/45

1 Introduction

A. A rigid bus is supported on bus post insulators in an out-door substation. These bus post insulators are

subjected to all types of stresses due to electrical and mechanical forces acting on bus bar.

The principal forces on the bus post insulators supporting a rigid conductor are as follows:

a. Short circuit force on bus conductor

b. Wind force on the bus conductor

c. Wind force on the bus post insulator

d. Weight of the bus conductor span supported by the bus post insulators

The resultant of these forces, correlated to the type of 'end Connection' of the rigid conductor at the bus

post insulator terminal, gives the values of the net Electromagnetic Force on the bus post insulator. The

values of forces obtained herewith forms valuable input for the design of bus post insulator support structure

and its foundation design.

In this report along with the force on bus post insulators, the maximum permissible unsupported span length

of the rigid bus conductor connecting the bus post insulators is also determined. The maximum permissible

span is calculated within the limits of 'Vertical Deflection' and permissible 'Fiber Stress' corresponding to the

type of 'End Connection' to the supporting bus post insulator terminals at each end of the span. The

calculation is performed on the method stipulated by IEEE 605 and the minimum of the span length obtained

from the calculation is conservatively considered as the maximum allowable unsupported span for all

influencing conditions.

11/45

Bus bar continuous rating required

875

Amps.

1440

Amps.

As per INDAL handbook current rating (nominal for outdoor) are as below:IPS Aluminum Tube

Schedule 40 2.00

Inches

As per INDAL handbook for the maximum operating temperature of the bus to 75 Deg. C, the derating

factor to be adopted is 0.88; hence the derated current rating (nominal for outdoor) are as below:2

Schedule 40

0.88 x

1440

1267

Amps.

From the above it is summrised that, for the required current carrying capacity of 875 Amps.,

2

Inches IPS Al Tube Schedule 40 is sufficient.

2 Thermal Effects on IPS Aluminium Tube as per IEEE 605

Bus Bar Selected

Ambient temperature in deg. C

Final temperature in deg. C

2.00

50.0

90.0

(T2)

(T1)

Inch

From Stefan-Boltzman law,

Qr

A

T1

T2

E

=

=

=

=

Surface area = 12 x d x =

Temperature of the bar, oK

Ambient temperature, oK

Emissivity factor =

0.6

Qr

12 x x

2.38

=

=

50.0

+ 273 =

=

90.0

+ 273 =

363.0

323.0

)x

89.54

323.0

363.0

In2/Ft

0

K

0

K

89.54

12.8435

Watts/Ft

Heat is dissipated from a tubular bus bar by forced convection

Heat transfer is considered at wind speed 2 fps and 1 atmospheric pressure.

Qc

A

d

=

=

=

=

Qc

0.010 x x A

(Clause No. 3.2.2, IEEE 605)

d0.4

2

Surface area = 12 x d x = 12 x x

2.38

=

89.54 In /Ft

outside diameter of bus bar in inch =

2.38 Inch

Temperature difference between conductor surface & ambient air in deg C = T1 - T2 =

90.0

50.0

=

40.0 deg. C

0.010 x

2.375

40.0

)0.4

89.54

25.340

Watts/Ft

Qs

h x s x d x 12

h

s

=

=

0.5

intensity of solar radiation in Watts/Inch2 =

0.5479

Assumed - 849.27 Watts/Mtr.2

outside diameter of bus bar in inch =

2.38 Inch

Qs

= 7.81x 12 Watts/Ft

Watts/In2

12/45

Rt2

8.145 x 10-4 x

C' x A2

61

Rt2

C'

A2

=

=

=

Conductivity as % IACS =

55.0

Cross sectional area in In2

d1

t

d2

=

=

=

A2

T1

=

=

2.38 Inch

Thickness of tube =

0.154 Inch

inside diameter of bus bar in inch = d1 - 2t =

2.38

- 2 x 0.154

2

2

2

)

=

(/4) x (d12-d22) = (/4) x (

2.38

2.067

1.07422 In

Final temperature in deg. C =

90.0 deg. C

Rt2

8.145 x 10-4 x

- 20 )

55.0

x

1.72924E-05

Rt2

1 + 0.00403 x

55.0

1.07422

/Ft

x(

90.0

2.067

Inch

61

0.5

f

0.0636 x

r

f

r

F

Rt2

=

=

=

=

outer diameter / 2 =

2.38

/2 =

1.187598 Inch

Frequency In Hz = 50 Hz

Direct current resistance at maximum operating temperature =

0.0636

1.1876

1.25

F

5280 x Rt2

50

5280 x

1.72924E-05 / Ft

0.5

1.72924E-05

0.5

I

= Qc + Qr - Qs

Rt2 x f

0.5

25.340 +

12.8435

1.72924E-05 x

7.81

1.25

1183.91 Amps.

13/45

Short circuit forces maximum span calculation are as per IEEE 605

Bus Bar Selected

Bus Bar outer Diameter in Inches

Bus Bar Cross Section Moment of inertia in cm4

Bus Bar Section modulus in cm3

Bus Bar ultimate tensile strength in Kg/mm2

Modulus of Elasticity of Busbar in Kg/mm2

Bus bar Unit Self weight in Kgf/mtr

Maximum allowable stress in Kg/mm2

Clamping material unit weight in Kgf/mtr

(J)

(S)

(UT)

(E)

(Fc)

(Fa)

(Fd)

Short Circuit Fault Level in kA

Duration of the short-circuit current in seconds

(D)

(Isc)

Tk

Wind Speed In Mtr/sec

Allowable deflection in inches:

Tkr

(V)

2.00

Inches Al Tube

2.375

27.709

9.186

20.5

7030.67

1.871

20.5

7

Kg x 1 Nos. = 0.88

8.0 mtrs

2

31.5

1

1

55

1 time dia of tube

Unit force due to wind on conductor is given by

Fw = C Cd Kz Gf V2 I (Dia + 2xrI) in Lbf/Ft

C

Cd

Kz

Gf

V

=

=

=

=

=

=

Dia =

I

=

rI

=

Fw =

=

Drag coefficient for smooth tubular conductor =

1 (Table 1, IEEE 605)

Height & Exposure factor = 1.16

(Clause No. 9.2, for category D, IEEE 605)

Gust factor =

0.85 (Clause No. 9.3, for category C&D, IEEE 605)

Wind speed in Miles/hr

55 x ( 1/ 0.44704) =

123.03 Miles/hr

Outer Dia of Conductor in inches =

2.375 Inch

Importance factor = 1.15

(Clause No. 9.4, IEEE 605)

radial ice thickness in Inches =

0 Inch

2.132 x 10-4 x 1 x 1.16 x 0.85 x

123.03 x

123.03 x 1.15 x (2.3751968503937 + 2x0)

8.69

Lbf/Ft

=

8.69

x 1.488 = 12.93294 Kgf/mtr

Short Circuit Force is given by

Fsc =

C

Isc

D

=

=

=

=

Kf

Kf x C x x (Df x 2 x Isc)2

D

5.4 x 10-7

for English units

RMS short circuit current in A

31.5 kA

Phase to Phase Spacing of Busbars in Inch

=

2

Constant based on type of short circuit & conductor location =

(Table 2, for 3 phase short circuit on Y phase, IEEE 605)

Mounting structure flexibility factor =

1

(Figure 4, IEEE 605)

x 39.37

0.866

78.74

Inch

14/45

Df

Decrement factor

Ta

X

R

f

X

R

Ta

=

=

=

=

X

1

R

2xxf

System Reactance

System Resistance

System Frequency =

15

tf

Df

Fsc =

=

15

2t

- f

Ta

1+

1 exp Ta

t f

50 Hz

1

=

2 x x 50

Fault current duration

=

0.0477

1 sec.

1.02

1 x 5.4 x 10-7 x 0.866 x (

1.02

x 2 x

78.74

12.35 x 1.488 = 18.37

Kgf/mtr

)2

31500

12.35

Lbf/Ft

Fg

Fc + Fi + Fd

Fg

Fc

Fi

Fd

=

=

=

=

Conductor unit weight in kgf/mtr =

1.871

Ice unit weight in kgf/mtr

=

0

Clamping material unit weight I kgf/mtr =

0.875

Fg

1.871 + 0 + 0.875

= 2.746

kgf/mtr

2.746

/ 1.488 =

1.85

Lbf/Ft

Total force on conductor in Horizontal configuration is given by

Ft

=

=

FW FSC

FG

( 12.9329 +

18.37

)2 +(

2.746

)2

31.43

Kgf/mtr

4.1 For continuous bus, the maximum allowable span length based on vertical deflection is (Ld)

Ld

1/4

C x (185 x E x J x Ya)

Fg

C

E

Ya

Fg

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

2

Modulus of Elasticity in Lbf/In2 =

7031 Kgf/mm

2

7031 x 1422.34 =

1E+07 Lbf/in

Cross sectional moment of inertia in In4

=

27.709

4

27.709 x (1 / 41.623) =

0.67 In

Allowable Deflection as vertical dimension of tube = 1D =

Total bus unit weight in kgf/mtr

=

2.746 Kgf/mtr

Ld

1.86 x (

Ld

185 x 10000000.038652

0.67

x

x2

1.845

355.52 / 39.37 =

9.03 Mtrs.

)1/4

9.03

cm4

1x

=

=

2.000

2.746

1.85

=

2.00

x (1/1.488)

Lbf/Ft

Inch

355.52 In

mtrs.

15/45

Ls

C

Fa

=

=

=

=

Cx (

Ft

=

=

(28/3) x Fa x S )

(Equation No. 29c, IEEE 605)

Ft

3.46 for English units

Maximum allowable stress in Lbf/In2

2

2

20.5 Kg/mm =

20.5 x 1422.33 =

29157.8 Lbf/In

3

Section modulus in In

3

3

For

2.0

Inch Al Tube, S =

9.186 cm =

9.186 / 16.3871 =

0.56 In

Total Force in Lbf/Ft

31.43 Kgf/mtr =

31.43 / 1.488 =

21.12 Lbf/ft

Ls

3.46 x

294.1

(28/3) x

29157.8 x

21.12

7.47 Mtrs.

/ 39.37 =

0.56

)=

294.1

Inch

5 Conclusion

As per IEEE 605, page number 25, Clause No. 11.3, the maximum allowable span is the lower of the spans

as calculated for Ld and Ls.

The maximum allowable bus span is

7.47 Mtrs. for

2.00

Inches Aluminium tube.

6.1 Natural Frequency of Conductor Span (fb)

fb

x k2

C x L2

C

L

E

m

k

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

Span length in Feet =

7.47 Mtrs. =

7.47

/ 0.305 = 24.49 Feet

2

Modulus of Elasticity in Lbf/In2 =

7031 Kgf/mm

2

7031 x 1422.34 =

1E+07 Lbf/In

4

4

Cross sectional moment of inertia in In

=

27.709 cm

4

27.709 x (1 / 41.623) =

0.67 In

Mass per unit length = Fc =

1.871 Kgf/mtr =

1.871 / 1.488 =

1.51 for two fixed ends

fb

2

x ( 1.51 )

24 x (

24.49

E xJ )

m

(

)2

1E+07

1.26

0.67

2x

)=

1.15

1.15

1.26

Lbf/Ft

Hz

2.29

Hz

fa

CxV

d

C

V

d

=

=

=

=

Wind speed in Miles/hr

55 x ( 1/ 0.44704) =

123.03 Miles/hr

Conductor diameter in inches =

2

Inches =

fa

3.26

x

5.08

123.03

79.0

x 2.54 =

5.08

cm

Hz

As per IEEE 605, page number 10, clause number 7.2.2, if twice the calculated natural frequency of the

bus span is greater than the Aeolian force frequency, then the bus span should be changed or bus should

be damped.

Since, twice the calculated natural frequency of the bus span is

2.29 Hz, which is less than the

Aeolian force frequency of

79.0 Hz, the selected bus span of

7.47 meters is safe from

Aeolian vibrations.

16/45

Effective Bus Span Length in Mtrs

(Le)

6 +

Height of Centre Line of Bus over Insulator Height in mm

(Hi)

(Hf)

=

=

(Di) =

6

770

80

80

3.15

160

6

2

Mtrs.

/ 25.4

Inch

Fwb =

Fw x Le

Fw

Le

Effective Bus Span Length in Feet

=

=

Fwb =

8.69

19.7

8.69

=

Lbf/Ft

6

x (39.37/12) =

19.7

Feet

171.09 Lbf

Fsb =

Fsc x Le

Fsc =

Le =

Effective Bus Span Length in Feet

=

Fsb =

12.35

19.7

12.35

6

Lbf/Ft

x (39.37/12) =

19.7

Feet

243.09 Lbf

Fwi =

C x Cd x Kz x Gf x V2 x (Di + 2rI) x Hi

C

Cd

Kz

Gf

V

Formula as per IEEE 605, 1987

Drag coefficient = 1 (Table 1, IEEE 605)

Height & Exposure factor =

1.16 (Clause No. 9.2, for category D, IEEE 605)

Gust Factor =

0.85 (Clause No. 9.3, for category C&D, IEEE 605)

Wind speed in Miles/hr

55 x ( 1/ 0.44704) =

123.03 Miles/hr

Effective Dia of Insulator in Inch =

160

=

160

/ 25.4 =

6.30 Inch

Height of insulator in Feet =

770

/ (0.305 x 1000) =

2.52

Feet

Radial ice thickness in Inch =

0 Inch

Di

Hi

rI

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

Fwi =

Fwi =

0.00001776 x

237349

123.03 ) x(

6.30

=

4.21531 Lbf

+ 2x0 ) x

2.52

Fgb =

Fg x Le

Fg

Le

Effective Bus Span Length in feet

=

=

Fgb =

1.85

19.7

1.85

=

36.33

Lbf/Ft

6

x (39.37/12) =

19.7

Feet

Lbf

17/45

(Equation No. 35, IEEE 605)

Fis

K1 x

K1

K2

=

=

1

Overload factor applied to short-circuit current forces

1x

Fwi +

2

4.22

2

(

+(

( Hi + Hf ) x Fwb

Hi

30.31

30.31

3.15

30.31

K2 x

)x

( Hi + Hf ) x Fsb

Hi

171.09

+

3.15 ) x

243.09

=

30.31

Hence, Insulators with 4kN cantilever strength is selected.

1

)

459.316 Lbf

1x

=

=

459.316 x 4.44822

2043.14 Newton

18/45

CLIENT:-

Client:

Project:-

220/66/11kV Electrical Distribution.

Date

Prep.

Chkd.

Rev

Remarks

Date

Name

15.04.2009

SGP

SO

Siemens Ltd

KG Office

Description:

Amapacity Calculation of 3" IPS AL Tube.

(Schedule 40)

Drawing No.:

G71000-X0009-ED07

19/45

1 Introduction

A. A rigid bus is supported on bus post insulators in an out-door substation. These bus post insulators are

subjected to all types of stresses due to electrical and mechanical forces acting on bus bar.

The principal forces on the bus post insulators supporting a rigid conductor are as follows:

a. Short circuit force on bus conductor

b. Wind force on the bus conductor

c. Wind force on the bus post insulator

d. Weight of the bus conductor span supported by the bus post insulators

The resultant of these forces, correlated to the type of 'end Connection' of the rigid conductor at the bus

post insulator terminal, gives the values of the net Electromagnetic Force on the bus post insulator. The

values of forces obtained herewith forms valuable input for the design of bus post insulator support structure

and its foundation design.

In this report along with the force on bus post insulators, the maximum permissible unsupported span length

of the rigid bus conductor connecting the bus post insulators is also determined. The maximum permissible

span is calculated within the limits of 'Vertical Deflection' and permissible 'Fiber Stress' corresponding to the

type of 'End Connection' to the supporting bus post insulator terminals at each end of the span. The

calculation is performed on the method stipulated by IEEE 605 and the minimum of the span length obtained

from the calculation is conservatively considered as the maximum allowable unsupported span for all

influencing conditions.

20/45

Bus bar continuous rating required

263

Amps.

2350

Amps.

As per INDAL handbook current rating (nominal for outdoor) are as below:IPS Aluminum Tube

Schedule 40 3.00

Inches

As per INDAL handbook for the maximum operating temperature of the bus to 75 Deg. C, the derating

factor to be adopted is 0.88; hence the derated current rating (nominal for outdoor) are as below:3

Schedule 40

0.88 x

2350

2068

Amps.

From the above it is summrised that, for the required current carrying capacity of 263 Amps.,

3

Inches IPS Al Tube Schedule 40 is sufficient.

3 Thermal Effects on IPS Aluminium Tube as per IEEE 605

Bus Bar Selected

Ambient temperature in deg. C

Final temperature in deg. C

3.00

50.0

90.0

(T2)

(T1)

Inch

From Stefan-Boltzman law,

Qr

A

T1

T2

E

=

=

=

=

Surface area = 12 x d x =

Temperature of the bar, oK

Ambient temperature, oK

Emissivity factor =

0.6

Qr

12 x x

3.50

=

=

50.0

+ 273 =

=

90.0

+ 273 =

363.0

323.0

)x

2

131.95 In /Ft

0

323.0 K

0

363.0 K

131.95

18.9258

Watts/Ft

Heat is dissipated from a tubular bus bar by forced convection

Heat transfer is considered at wind speed 2 fps and 1 atmospheric pressure.

Qc

A

d

=

=

=

=

Qc

0.010 x x A

(Clause No. 3.2.2, IEEE 605)

d0.4

2

Surface area = 12 x d x = 12 x x

3.50

=

131.95 In /Ft

outside diameter of bus bar in inch =

3.50 Inch

Temperature difference between conductor surface & ambient air in deg C = T1 - T2 =

90.0

50.0

=

40.0 deg. C

0.010 x

3.500

40.0

)0.4

131.95

31.977

Watts/Ft

Qs

h x s x d x 12

h

s

=

=

0.5

intensity of solar radiation in Watts/Inch2 =

0.5479

Assumed - 849.27 Watts/Mtr.2

outside diameter of bus bar in inch =

3.50 Inch

Qs

11.51

Watts/In2

Watts/Ft

21/45

Rt2

8.145 x 10-4 x

C' x A2

61

Rt2

C'

A2

=

=

=

Conductivity as % IACS =

55.0

Cross sectional area in In2

d1

t

d2

=

=

=

A2

T1

=

=

3.50 Inch

Thickness of tube =

0.216 Inch

inside diameter of bus bar in inch = d1 - 2t =

3.50

- 2 x 0.216

2

2

2

)

=

(/4) x (d12-d22) = (/4) x (

3.50

3.068

2.22984 In

Final temperature in deg. C =

90.0 deg. C

Rt2

8.145 x 10-4 x

- 20 )

55.0

x

8.33058E-06

Rt2

1 + 0.00403 x

55.0

2.22984

/Ft

x(

90.0

3.068

Inch

61

0.5

f

0.0636 x

r

f

r

F

Rt2

=

=

=

=

outer diameter / 2 =

3.50

/2 =

1.75

Inch

Frequency In Hz = 50 Hz

Direct current resistance at maximum operating temperature =

0.0636

1.75

1.23

F

5280 x Rt2

50

5280 x

8.33058E-06 / Ft

0.5

8.33058E-06

0.5

I

= Qc + Qr - Qs

Rt2 x f

0.5

31.977 +

18.9258

8.33058E-06 x

11.51

1.23

1964.56 Amps.

22/45

Short circuit forces maximum span calculation are as per IEEE 605

Bus Bar Selected

Bus Bar outer Diameter in Inches

Bus Bar Cross Section Moment of inertia in cm4

Bus Bar Section modulus in cm3

Bus Bar ultimate tensile strength in Kg/mm2

Modulus of Elasticity of Busbar in Kg/mm2

Bus bar Unit Self weight in Kgf/mtr

Maximum allowable stress in Kg/mm2

Clamping material unit weight in Kgf/mtr

(J)

(S)

(UT)

(E)

(Fc)

(Fa)

(Fd)

Short Circuit Fault Level in kA

Duration of the short-circuit current in seconds

(D)

(Isc)

Tk

Wind Speed In Mtr/sec

Allowable deflection in inches:

Tkr

(V)

3.00

Inches Al Tube

3.500

125.606

28.258

20.5

7030.67

3.884

20.5

7

Kg x 1 Nos. = 0.58

12.0 mtrs

4.25

40

1

1

55

1 time dia of tube

Unit force due to wind on conductor is given by

Fw = C Cd Kz Gf V2 I (Dia + 2xrI) in Lbf/Ft

C

Cd

Kz

Gf

V

=

=

=

=

=

=

Dia =

I

=

rI

=

Fw =

=

Drag coefficient for smooth tubular conductor =

1 (Table 1, IEEE 605)

Height & Exposure factor = 1.16

(Clause No. 9.2, for category D, IEEE 605)

Gust factor =

0.85 (Clause No. 9.3, for category C&D, IEEE 605)

Wind speed in Miles/hr

55 x ( 1/ 0.44704) =

123.03 Miles/hr

Outer Dia of Conductor in inches =

3.500 Inch

Importance factor = 1.15

(Clause No. 9.4, IEEE 605)

radial ice thickness in Inches =

0 Inch

2.132 x 10-4 x 1 x 1.16 x 0.85 x

123.03 x

123.03 x 1.15 x (3.5 + 2x0)

12.81

Lbf/Ft

=

12.81 x 1.488 = 19.05748 Kgf/mtr

Short Circuit Force is given by

Fsc =

C

Isc

D

=

=

=

=

Kf

Kf x C x x (Df x 2 x Isc)2

D

5.4 x 10-7

for English units

RMS short circuit current in A

40

kA

Phase to Phase Spacing of Busbars in Inch

=

4.25

Constant based on type of short circuit & conductor location =

(Table 2, for 3 phase short circuit on Y phase, IEEE 605)

Mounting structure flexibility factor =

1

(Figure 4, IEEE 605)

x 39.37

0.866

167.32

Inch

23/45

Df

Decrement factor

Ta

X

R

f

X

R

Ta

=

=

=

=

X

1

R

2xxf

System Reactance

System Resistance

System Frequency =

15

tf

Df

Fsc =

=

15

1+

2t

- f

Ta

1 exp Ta

t f

50 Hz

1

=

2 x x 50

Fault current duration

=

0.0477

1 sec.

1.02

1 x 5.4 x 10-7 x 0.866 x (

1.02

x 2 x

167.32

9.37

x 1.488 = 13.94

Kgf/mtr

)2

40000

9.37

Lbf/Ft

Fg

Fc + Fi + Fd

Fg

Fc

Fi

Fd

=

=

=

=

Conductor unit weight in kgf/mtr =

3.884

Ice unit weight in kgf/mtr

=

0

Clamping material unit weight I kgf/mtr =

0.583333

Fg

3.884 + 0 + 0.583333333333333

= 4.467

kgf/mtr

4.467

/ 1.488 =

3.00

Lbf/Ft

Total force on conductor in Horizontal configuration is given by

Ft

=

=

FW FSC

FG

( 19.0575 +

13.94

)2 +(

4.467

)2

33.30

Kgf/mtr

5.1 For continuous bus, the maximum allowable span length based on vertical deflection is (Ld)

Ld

1/4

C x (185 x E x J x Ya)

Fg

C

E

Ya

Fg

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

2

Modulus of Elasticity in Lbf/In2 =

7031 Kgf/mm

2

7031 x 1422.34 =

1E+07 Lbf/in

4

Cross sectional moment of inertia in In4

=

125.606 cm

4

125.606 x (1 / 41.623) =

3.02 In

Allowable Deflection as vertical dimension of tube = 1D =

1x

Total bus unit weight in kgf/mtr

=

4.467 Kgf/mtr

=

=

Ld

1.86 x (

Ld

185 x 10000000.038652

3.02

x

x3

3.002

508.33 / 39.37 =

12.91 Mtrs.

)1/4

12.91

3.000

4.467

3.00

=

3.00

x (1/1.488)

Lbf/Ft

Inch

508.33 In

mtrs.

24/45

Ls

C

Fa

=

=

=

=

Cx (

Ft

=

=

(28/3) x Fa x S )

(Equation No. 29c, IEEE 605)

Ft

3.46 for English units

Maximum allowable stress in Lbf/In2

2

2

20.5 Kg/mm =

20.5 x 1422.33 =

29157.8 Lbf/In

3

Section modulus in In

3

3

For

3.0

Inch Al Tube, S =

28.258 cm =

28.258 / 16.3871 =

1.72 In

Total Force in Lbf/Ft

33.30 Kgf/mtr =

33.30 / 1.488 =

22.38 Lbf/ft

Ls

3.46 x

501.0

(28/3) x

29157.8 x

22.38

12.73 Mtrs.

/ 39.37 =

1.72

)=

501.0

Inch

6 Conclusion

As per IEEE 605, page number 25, Clause No. 11.3, the maximum allowable span is the lower of the spans

as calculated for Ld and Ls.

The maximum allowable bus span is

12.73 Mtrs. for

3.00

Inches Aluminium tube.

7.1 Natural Frequency of Conductor Span (fb)

fb

x k2

C x L2

C

L

E

m

k

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

Span length in Feet =

12.73 Mtrs. =

12.73 / 0.305 = 41.72 Feet

2

Modulus of Elasticity in Lbf/In2 =

7031 Kgf/mm

2

7031 x 1422.34 =

1E+07 Lbf/In

4

Cross sectional moment of inertia in In4

=

125.606 cm

4

125.606 x (1 / 41.623) =

3.02 In

Mass per unit length = Fc =

3.884 Kgf/mtr =

3.884 / 1.488 =

1.51 for two fixed ends

fb

2

x ( 1.51 )

24 x (

41.72

E xJ )

m

(

)2

1E+07

2.61

3.02

2x

)=

0.58

0.58

2.61

Lbf/Ft

Hz

1.17

Hz

fa

CxV

d

C

V

d

=

=

=

=

Wind speed in Miles/hr

55 x ( 1/ 0.44704) =

123.03 Miles/hr

Conductor diameter in inches =

3

Inches =

fa

3.26

x

7.62

123.03

52.6

x 2.54 =

7.62

cm

Hz

As per IEEE 605, page number 10, clause number 7.2.2, if twice the calculated natural frequency of the

bus span is greater than the Aeolian force frequency, then the bus span should be changed or bus should

be damped.

Since, twice the calculated natural frequency of the bus span is

1.17 Hz, which is less than the

Aeolian force frequency of

52.6 Hz, the selected bus span of

12.73 meters is safe from

Aeolian vibrations.

25/45

Effective Bus Span Length in Mtrs

(Le)

11.5 +

Height of Centre Line of Bus over Insulator Height in mm

(Hi)

(Hf)

=

=

(Di) =

11.5

2300

130

130

5.12

295

11.5

2

Mtrs.

/ 25.4

Inch

Fwb =

Fw x Le

Fw

Le

Effective Bus Span Length in Feet

=

=

Fwb =

12.81

37.7

12.81 Lbf/Ft

=

11.5

x (39.37/12) =

37.7

Feet

483.22 Lbf

Fsb =

Fsc x Le

Fsc =

Le =

Effective Bus Span Length in Feet

=

Fsb =

9.37

37.7

9.37

11.5

Lbf/Ft

x (39.37/12) =

37.7

Feet

353.55 Lbf

Fwi =

C x Cd x Kz x Gf x V2 x (Di + 2rI) x Hi

C

Cd

Kz

Gf

V

Formula as per IEEE 605, 1987

Drag coefficient = 1 (Table 1, IEEE 605)

Height & Exposure factor =

1.16 (Clause No. 9.2, for category D, IEEE 605)

Gust Factor =

0.85 (Clause No. 9.3, for category C&D, IEEE 605)

Wind speed in Miles/hr

55 x ( 1/ 0.44704) =

123.03 Miles/hr

Effective Dia of Insulator in Inch =

295

=

295

/ 25.4 =

11.61 Inch

Height of insulator in Feet =

2300 / (0.305 x 1000) =

7.54

Feet

Radial ice thickness in Inch =

0 Inch

Di

Hi

rI

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

Fwi =

Fwi =

0.00001776 x

1307151

123.03 ) x(

11.61

=

23.215 Lbf

+ 2x0 ) x

7.54

Fgb =

Fg x Le

Fg

Le

Effective Bus Span Length in feet

=

=

Fgb =

3.00

37.7

3.00

=

Lbf/Ft

11.5

x (39.37/12) =

37.7

Feet

113.27 Lbf

26/45

(Equation No. 35, IEEE 605)

Fis

K1 x

K1

K2

=

=

1

Overload factor applied to short-circuit current forces

1x

Fwi +

2

23.22

2

(

+(

( Hi + Hf ) x Fwb

Hi

90.55

90.55

5.12

90.55

K2 x

)x

( Hi + Hf ) x Fsb

Hi

483.22

+

5.12 ) x

353.55

=

90.55

Hence, Insulators with 4kN cantilever strength is selected.

1

)

895.668 Lbf

1x

=

=

895.668 x 4.44822

3984.13 Newton

27/45

CLIENT:-

Client:

Project:-

220/66/11kV Electrical Distribution.

Date

Prep.

Chkd.

Rev

Remarks

Date

Name

15.04.2009

SGP

SO

Siemens Ltd

KG Office

Description:

Amapacity Calculation of 4" IPS AL Tube.

(Schedule 40)

Drawing No.:

G71000-X0009-ED07

28/45

A. A rigid bus is supported on bus post insulators in an out-door substation. These bus post insulators are

subjected to all types of stresses due to electrical and mechanical forces acting on bus bar.

The principal forces on the bus post insulators supporting a rigid conductor are as follows:

a. Short circuit force on bus conductor

b. Wind force on the bus conductor

c. Wind force on the bus post insulator

d. Weight of the bus conductor span supported by the bus post insulators

The resultant of these forces, correlated to the type of 'end Connection' of the rigid conductor at the bus

post insulator terminal, gives the values of the net Electromagnetic Force on the bus post insulator. The

values of forces obtained herewith forms valuable input for the design of bus post insulator support structure

and its foundation design.

In this report along with the force on bus post insulators, the maximum permissible unsupported span length

of the rigid bus conductor connecting the bus post insulators is also determined. The maximum permissible

span is calculated within the limits of 'Vertical Deflection' and permissible 'Fiber Stress' corresponding to the

type of 'End Connection' to the supporting bus post insulator terminals at each end of the span. The

calculation is performed on the method stipulated by IEEE 605 and the minimum of the span length obtained

from the calculation is conservatively considered as the maximum allowable unsupported span for all

influencing conditions.

29/45

Bus bar continuous rating required

1250

Amps.

3050

Amps.

As per INDAL handbook current rating (nominal for outdoor) are as below:IPS Aluminum Tube

Schedule 40 4.00

Inches

As per INDAL handbook for the maximum operating temperature of the bus to 75 Deg. C, the derating

factor to be adopted is 0.88; hence the derated current rating (nominal for outdoor) are as below:4

Schedule 40

0.88 x

3050

2684

Amps.

From the above it is summrised that, for the required current carrying capacity of 1250 Amps.,

4

Inches IPS Al Tube Schedule 40 is sufficient.

3 Thermal Effects on IPS Aluminium Tube as per IEEE 605

Bus Bar Selected

Ambient temperature in deg. C

Final temperature in deg. C

4.00

45.0

95.0

(T2)

(T1)

Inch

From Stefan-Boltzman law,

Qr

A

T1

T2

E

=

=

=

=

Surface area = 12 x d x =

Temperature of the bar, oK

Ambient temperature, oK

Emissivity factor =

0.6

Qr

12 x x

4.50

=

=

45.0

+ 273 =

=

95.0

+ 273 =

368.0

318.0

)x

2

169.65 In /Ft

0

318.0 K

0

368.0 K

169.65

30.4744

Watts/Ft

Heat is dissipated from a tubular bus bar by forced convection

Heat transfer is considered at wind speed 2 fps and 1 atmospheric pressure.

Qc

A

d

=

=

=

=

Qc

0.010 x x A

(Clause No. 3.2.2, IEEE 605)

d0.4

2

Surface area = 12 x d x = 12 x x

4.50

=

169.65 In /Ft

outside diameter of bus bar in inch =

4.50 Inch

Temperature difference between conductor surface & ambient air in deg C = T1 - T2 =

95.0

45.0

=

50.0 deg. C

0.010 x

4.500

50.0

)0.4

169.65

46.476

Watts/Ft

Qs

h x s x d x 12

h

s

=

=

0.5

intensity of solar radiation in Watts/Inch2 =

0.5479

Assumed - 849.27 Watts/Mtr.2

outside diameter of bus bar in inch =

4.50 Inch

Qs

14.79

Watts/In2

Watts/Ft

30/45

Rt2

8.145 x 10-4 x

C' x A2

61

Rt2

C'

A2

=

=

=

Conductivity as % IACS =

55.0

Cross sectional area in In2

d1

t

d2

=

=

=

A2

T1

=

=

4.50 Inch

Thickness of tube =

0.237 Inch

inside diameter of bus bar in inch = d1 - 2t =

4.50

- 2 x 0.237

2

2

2

)

=

(/4) x (d12-d22) = (/4) x (

4.50

4.026

3.17415 In

Final temperature in deg. C =

95.0 deg. C

Rt2

8.145 x 10-4 x

- 20 )

55.0

x

5.93699E-06

Rt2

1 + 0.00403 x

55.0

3.17415

/Ft

x(

95.0

4.026

Inch

61

0.5

f

0.0636 x

r

f

r

F

Rt2

=

=

=

=

outer diameter / 2 =

4.50

/2 =

2.25

Inch

Frequency In Hz = 50 Hz

Direct current resistance at maximum operating temperature =

0.0636

2.25

1.13

F

5280 x Rt2

50

5280 x

5.93699E-06 / Ft

0.5

5.93699E-06

0.5

I

= Qc + Qr - Qs

Rt2 x f

0.5

46.476 +

30.4744

5.93699E-06 x

14.79

1.13

3045.32 Amps.

31/45

Bus Bar Selected

Bus Bar outer Diameter in Inches

Bus Bar Cross Section Moment of inertia in cm4

Bus Bar Section modulus in cm3

Bus Bar ultimate tensile strength in Kg/mm2

Modulus of Elasticity of Busbar in Kg/mm2

Bus bar Unit Self weight in Kgf/mtr

Maximum allowable stress in Kg/mm2

Clamping material unit weight in Kgf/mtr

(J)

(S)

(UT)

(E)

(Fc)

(Fa)

(Fd)

Short Circuit Fault Level in kA

Duration of the short-circuit current in seconds

(D)

(Isc)

Tk

Wind Speed In Mtr/sec

Allowable deflection in inches:

Tkr

(V)

4.00

Inches Al Tube

4.500

301.039

52.675

20.5

7030.67

5.529

20.5

7

Kg x 1 Nos. = 0.58

12.0 mtrs

3

40

3

3

55

1 time dia of tube

Unit force due to wind on conductor is given by

Fw = C Cd Kz Gf V2 I (Dia + 2xrI) in Lbf/Ft

C

Cd

Kz

Gf

V

=

=

=

=

=

=

Dia =

I

=

rI

=

Fw =

=

Drag coefficient for smooth tubular conductor =

1 (Table 1, IEEE 605)

Height & Exposure factor = 1.16

(Clause No. 9.2, for category D, IEEE 605)

Gust factor =

0.85 (Clause No. 9.3, for category C&D, IEEE 605)

Wind speed in Miles/hr

55 x ( 1/ 0.44704) =

123.03 Miles/hr

Outer Dia of Conductor in inches =

4.500 Inch

Importance factor = 1.15

(Clause No. 9.4, IEEE 605)

radial ice thickness in Inches =

0 Inch

2.132 x 10-4 x 1 x 1.16 x 0.85 x

123.03 x

123.03 x 1.15 x (4.5 + 2x0)

16.47

Lbf/Ft

=

16.47 x 1.488 = 24.50248 Kgf/mtr

Short Circuit Force is given by

Fsc =

C

Isc

D

=

=

=

=

Kf

Kf x C x x (Df x 2 x Isc)2

D

5.4 x 10-7

for English units

RMS short circuit current in A

40

kA

Phase to Phase Spacing of Busbars in Inch

=

3

Constant based on type of short circuit & conductor location =

(Table 2, for 3 phase short circuit on Y phase, IEEE 605)

Mounting structure flexibility factor =

1

(Figure 4, IEEE 605)

x 39.37

0.866

118.11

Inch

32/45

Df

Decrement factor

Ta

X

R

f

X

R

Ta

=

=

=

=

X

1

R

2xxf

System Reactance

System Resistance

System Frequency =

15

tf

Df

Fsc =

=

15

2t

- f

Ta

1+

1 exp Ta

t f

50 Hz

1

=

2 x x 50

Fault current duration

=

0.0477

3 sec.

1.01

1 x 5.4 x 10-7 x 0.866 x (

1.01

x 2 x

118.11

12.87 x 1.488 = 19.15

Kgf/mtr

)2

40000

12.87

Lbf/Ft

Fg

Fc + Fi + Fd

Fg

Fc

Fi

Fd

=

=

=

=

Conductor unit weight in kgf/mtr =

5.529

Ice unit weight in kgf/mtr

=

0

Clamping material unit weight I kgf/mtr =

0.583333

Fg

5.529 + 0 + 0.583333333333333

= 6.112

kgf/mtr

6.112

/ 1.488 =

4.11

Lbf/Ft

Total force on conductor in Horizontal configuration is given by

Ft

=

=

FW FSC

FG

( 24.5025 +

19.15

)2 +(

6.112

)2

44.08

Kgf/mtr

5.1 For continuous bus, the maximum allowable span length based on vertical deflection is (Ld)

Ld

1/4

C x (185 x E x J x Ya)

Fg

C

E

Ya

Fg

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

2

Modulus of Elasticity in Lbf/In2 =

7031 Kgf/mm

2

7031 x 1422.34 =

1E+07 Lbf/in

4

Cross sectional moment of inertia in In4

=

301.039 cm

4

301.039 x (1 / 41.623) =

7.23 In

Allowable Deflection as vertical dimension of tube = 1D =

1x

Total bus unit weight in kgf/mtr

=

6.112 Kgf/mtr

=

=

Ld

1.86 x (

Ld

185 x 10000000.038652

7.23

x

x4

4.108

628.41 / 39.37 =

15.96 Mtrs.

)1/4

15.96

4.000

6.112

4.11

=

4.00

x (1/1.488)

Lbf/Ft

Inch

628.41 In

mtrs.

33/45

Ls

C

Fa

=

=

=

=

Cx (

Ft

=

=

(28/3) x Fa x S )

(Equation No. 29c, IEEE 605)

Ft

3.46 for English units

Maximum allowable stress in Lbf/In2

2

2

20.5 Kg/mm =

20.5 x 1422.33 =

29157.8 Lbf/In

3

Section modulus in In

3

3

For

4.0

Inch Al Tube, S =

52.675 cm =

52.675 / 16.3871 =

3.21 In

Total Force in Lbf/Ft

44.08 Kgf/mtr =

44.08 / 1.488 =

29.62 Lbf/ft

Ls

3.46 x

594.6

(28/3) x

29157.8 x

29.62

15.10 Mtrs.

/ 39.37 =

3.21

)=

594.6

Inch

6 Conclusion

As per IEEE 605, page number 25, Clause No. 11.3, the maximum allowable span is the lower of the spans

as calculated for Ld and Ls.

The maximum allowable bus span is

15.10 Mtrs. for

4.00

Inches Aluminium tube.

7.1 Natural Frequency of Conductor Span (fb)

fb

x k2

C x L2

C

L

E

m

k

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

Span length in Feet =

15.10 Mtrs. =

15.10 / 0.305 = 49.51 Feet

2

Modulus of Elasticity in Lbf/In2 =

7031 Kgf/mm

2

7031 x 1422.34 =

1E+07 Lbf/In

4

Cross sectional moment of inertia in In4

=

301.039 cm

4

301.039 x (1 / 41.623) =

7.23 In

Mass per unit length = Fc =

5.529 Kgf/mtr =

5.529 / 1.488 =

1.51 for two fixed ends

fb

2

x ( 1.51 )

24 x (

49.51

E xJ )

m

(

)2

1E+07

3.72

7.23

2x

)=

0.54

0.54

3.72

Lbf/Ft

Hz

1.07

Hz

fa

CxV

d

C

V

d

=

=

=

=

Wind speed in Miles/hr

55 x ( 1/ 0.44704) =

123.03 Miles/hr

Conductor diameter in inches =

4

Inches =

fa

3.26

x

10.16

123.03

39.5

x 2.54 =

10.16

cm

Hz

As per IEEE 605, page number 10, clause number 7.2.2, if twice the calculated natural frequency of the

bus span is greater than the Aeolian force frequency, then the bus span should be changed or bus should

be damped.

Since, twice the calculated natural frequency of the bus span is

1.07 Hz, which is less than the

Aeolian force frequency of

39.5 Hz, the selected bus span of

15.10 meters is safe from

Aeolian vibrations.

34/45

Effective Bus Span Length in Mtrs

(Le)

12 +

Height of Centre Line of Bus over Insulator Height in mm

(Hi)

(Hf)

=

=

(Di) =

12

1472

172

172

6.77

182

12

2

Mtrs.

/ 25.4

Inch

Fwb =

Fw x Le

Fw

Le

Effective Bus Span Length in Feet

=

=

Fwb =

16.47

39.4

16.47 Lbf/Ft

=

12

x (39.37/12) =

39.4

Feet

648.29 Lbf

Fsb =

Fsc x Le

Fsc =

Le =

Effective Bus Span Length in Feet

=

Fsb =

12.87

39.4

12.87

12

Lbf/Ft

x (39.37/12) =

39.4

Feet

506.75 Lbf

Fwi =

C x Cd x Kz x Gf x V2 x (Di + 2rI) x Hi

C

Cd

Kz

Gf

V

Formula as per IEEE 605, 1987

Drag coefficient = 1 (Table 1, IEEE 605)

Height & Exposure factor =

1.16 (Clause No. 9.2, for category D, IEEE 605)

Gust Factor =

0.85 (Clause No. 9.3, for category C&D, IEEE 605)

Wind speed in Miles/hr

55 x ( 1/ 0.44704) =

123.03 Miles/hr

Effective Dia of Insulator in Inch =

182

=

182

/ 25.4 =

7.17 Inch

Height of insulator in Feet =

1472 / (0.305 x 1000) =

4.83

Feet

Radial ice thickness in Inch =

0 Inch

Di

Hi

rI

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

Fwi =

Fwi =

0.00001776 x

516125

123.03 ) x(

7.17

=

9.16639 Lbf

+ 2x0 ) x

4.83

Fgb =

Fg x Le

Fg

Le

Effective Bus Span Length in feet

=

=

Fgb =

4.11

39.4

4.11

=

Lbf/Ft

12

x (39.37/12) =

39.4

Feet

161.72 Lbf

35/45

(Equation No. 35, IEEE 605)

Fis

K1 x

K1

K2

=

=

1

Overload factor applied to short-circuit current forces

1x

Fwi +

2

9.17

2

(

+(

( Hi + Hf ) x Fwb

Hi

57.95

57.95

6.77

57.95

K2 x

)x

( Hi + Hf ) x Fsb

Hi

648.29

+

6.77 ) x

506.75

=

57.95

Hence, Insulators with 4kN cantilever strength is selected.

1

)

1294.6 Lbf

1x

=

=

1294.6 x 4.44822

5758.66 Newton

36/45

CLIENT:-

Client:

Project:-

Date

Prep.

Chkd.

Rev

Remarks

Date

Name

15.04.2009

SGP

SO

Siemens Ltd

KG Office

Description:

Amapacity Calculation of 4.5" IPS AL Tube.

(Schedule 40)

Drawing No.:

G71000-X0009-ED07

37/45

A. A rigid bus is supported on bus post insulators in an out-door substation. These bus post insulators are

subjected to all types of stresses due to electrical and mechanical forces acting on bus bar.

The principal forces on the bus post insulators supporting a rigid conductor are as follows:

a. Short circuit force on bus conductor

b. Wind force on the bus conductor

c. Wind force on the bus post insulator

d. Weight of the bus conductor span supported by the bus post insulators

The resultant of these forces, correlated to the type of 'end Connection' of the rigid conductor at the bus

post insulator terminal, gives the values of the net Electromagnetic Force on the bus post insulator. The

values of forces obtained herewith forms valuable input for the design of bus post insulator support structure

and its foundation design.

In this report along with the force on bus post insulators, the maximum permissible unsupported span length

of the rigid bus conductor connecting the bus post insulators is also determined. The maximum permissible

span is calculated within the limits of 'Vertical Deflection' and permissible 'Fiber Stress' corresponding to the

type of 'End Connection' to the supporting bus post insulator terminals at each end of the span. The

calculation is performed on the method stipulated by IEEE 605 and the minimum of the span length obtained

from the calculation is conservatively considered as the maximum allowable unsupported span for all

influencing conditions.

38/45

Bus bar continuous rating required

1250

Amps.

3420

Amps.

As per INDAL handbook current rating (nominal for outdoor) are as below:IPS Aluminum Tube

Schedule 40 4.50

Inches

As per INDAL handbook for the maximum operating temperature of the bus to 75 Deg. C, the derating

factor to be adopted is 0.88; hence the derated current rating (nominal for outdoor) are as below:4.5 Inches IPS Al Tube -

Schedule 40

0.88 x

3420

3010

Amps.

From the above it is summrised that, for the required current carrying capacity of 1250 Amps.,

4.5 Inches IPS Al Tube Schedule 40 is sufficient.

3 Thermal Effects on IPS Aluminium Tube as per IEEE 605

Bus Bar Selected

Ambient temperature in deg. C

Final temperature in deg. C

4.50

50.0

90.0

(T2)

(T1)

Inch

From Stefan-Boltzman law,

Qr

A

T1

T2

E

=

=

=

=

Surface area = 12 x d x =

Temperature of the bar, oK

Ambient temperature, oK

Emissivity factor =

0.6

Qr

12 x x

5.00

=

=

50.0

+ 273 =

=

90.0

+ 273 =

363.0

323.0

)x

2

188.50 In /Ft

0

323.0 K

0

363.0 K

188.50

27.0368

Watts/Ft

Heat is dissipated from a tubular bus bar by forced convection

Heat transfer is considered at wind speed 2 fps and 1 atmospheric pressure.

Qc

A

d

=

=

=

=

Qc

0.010 x x A

(Clause No. 3.2.2, IEEE 605)

d0.4

2

Surface area = 12 x d x = 12 x x

5.00

=

188.50 In /Ft

outside diameter of bus bar in inch =

5.00 Inch

Temperature difference between conductor surface & ambient air in deg C = T1 - T2 =

90.0

50.0

=

40.0 deg. C

0.010 x

5.000

40.0

)0.4

188.50

39.607

Watts/Ft

Qs

h x s x d x 12

h

s

=

=

0.5

intensity of solar radiation in Watts/Inch2 =

0.5479

Assumed - 849.27 Watts/Mtr.2

outside diameter of bus bar in inch =

5.00 Inch

Qs

0.5 x 0.5479 x 5 x 12

16.44

Watts/In2

Watts/Ft

39/45

Rt2

8.145 x 10-4 x

C' x A2

61

Rt2

C'

A2

=

=

=

Conductivity as % IACS =

55.0

Cross sectional area in In2

d1

t

d2

=

=

=

A2

T1

=

=

5.00 Inch

Thickness of tube =

0.247 Inch

inside diameter of bus bar in inch = d1 - 2t =

5.00

- 2 x 0.247

2

2

2

)

=

(/4) x (d12-d22) = (/4) x (

5.00

4.506

3.68608 In

Final temperature in deg. C =

90.0 deg. C

Rt2

8.145 x 10-4 x

- 20 )

55.0

x

5.03945E-06

Rt2

1 + 0.00403 x

55.0

3.68608

/Ft

x(

90.0

4.506

Inch

61

0.5

f

0.0636 x

r

f

r

F

Rt2

=

=

=

=

outer diameter / 2 =

5.00

/2 =

2.5

Inch

Frequency In Hz = 50 Hz

Direct current resistance at maximum operating temperature =

0.0636

2.5

1.10

F

5280 x Rt2

50

5280 x

5.03945E-06 / Ft

0.5

5.03945E-06

0.5

I

= Qc + Qr - Qs

Rt2 x f

0.5

39.607 +

27.0368

5.03945E-06 x

16.44

1.10

3005.68 Amps.

40/45

Bus Bar Selected

Bus Bar outer Diameter in Inches

Bus Bar Cross Section Moment of inertia in cm4

Bus Bar Section modulus in cm3

Bus Bar ultimate tensile strength in Kg/mm2

Modulus of Elasticity of Busbar in Kg/mm2

Bus bar Unit Self weight in Kgf/mtr

Maximum allowable stress in Kg/mm2

Clamping material unit weight in Kgf/mtr

(J)

(S)

(UT)

(E)

(Fc)

(Fa)

(Fd)

Short Circuit Fault Level in kA

Duration of the short-circuit current in seconds

(D)

(Isc)

Tk

Wind Speed In Mtr/sec

Allowable deflection in inches:

Tkr

(V)

4.50

Inches Al Tube

5.000

434.683

68.454

20.5

7030.67

6.423

20.5

7

Kg x 2 Nos. = 0.85

16.5 mtrs

4.25

40

1

1

55

1 time dia of tube

Unit force due to wind on conductor is given by

Fw = C Cd Kz Gf V2 I (Dia + 2xrI) in Lbf/Ft

C

Cd

Kz

Gf

V

=

=

=

=

=

=

Dia =

I

=

rI

=

Fw =

=

Drag coefficient for smooth tubular conductor =

1 (Table 1, IEEE 605)

Height & Exposure factor = 1.16

(Clause No. 9.2, for category D, IEEE 605)

Gust factor =

0.85 (Clause No. 9.3, for category C&D, IEEE 605)

Wind speed in Miles/hr

55 x ( 1/ 0.44704) =

123.03 Miles/hr

Outer Dia of Conductor in inches =

5.000 Inch

Importance factor = 1.15

(Clause No. 9.4, IEEE 605)

radial ice thickness in Inches =

0 Inch

2.132 x 10-4 x 1 x 1.16 x 0.85 x

123.03 x

123.03 x 1.15 x (5 + 2x0)

18.30

Lbf/Ft

=

18.30 x 1.488 = 27.22498 Kgf/mtr

Short Circuit Force is given by

Fsc =

C

Isc

D

=

=

=

=

Kf

Kf x C x x (Df x 2 x Isc)2

D

5.4 x 10-7

for English units

RMS short circuit current in A

40

kA

Phase to Phase Spacing of Busbars in Inch

=

4.25

Constant based on type of short circuit & conductor location =

(Table 2, for 3 phase short circuit on Y phase, IEEE 605)

Mounting structure flexibility factor =

1

(Figure 4, IEEE 605)

x 39.37

0.866

167.32

Inch

41/45

Df

Decrement factor

Ta

X

R

f

X

R

Ta

=

=

=

=

X

1

R

2xxf

System Reactance

System Resistance

System Frequency =

15

tf

Df

Fsc =

=

15

2t

- f

Ta

1+

1 exp Ta

t f

50 Hz

1

=

2 x x 50

Fault current duration

=

0.0477

1 sec.

1.02

1 x 5.4 x 10-7 x 0.866 x (

1.02

x 2 x

167.32

9.37

x 1.488 = 13.94

Kgf/mtr

)2

40000

9.37

Lbf/Ft

Fg

Fc + Fi + Fd

Fg

Fc

Fi

Fd

=

=

=

=

Conductor unit weight in kgf/mtr =

6.423

Ice unit weight in kgf/mtr

=

0

Clamping material unit weight I kgf/mtr =

0.848485

Fg

6.423 + 0 + 0.848484848484849

= 7.271

kgf/mtr

7.271

/ 1.488 =

4.89

Lbf/Ft

Total force on conductor in Horizontal configuration is given by

Ft

=

=

FW FSC

FG

( 27.225

13.94

)2 +(

7.271

)2

41.81

Kgf/mtr

5.1 For continuous bus, the maximum allowable span length based on vertical deflection is (Ld)

Ld

1/4

C x (185 x E x J x Ya)

Fg

C

E

Ya

Fg

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

2

Modulus of Elasticity in Lbf/In2 =

7031 Kgf/mm

2

7031 x 1422.34 =

1E+07 Lbf/in

4

Cross sectional moment of inertia in In4

=

434.683 cm

4

434.683 x (1 / 41.623) =

10.44 In

Allowable Deflection as vertical dimension of tube = 1D =

1x

Total bus unit weight in kgf/mtr

=

7.271 Kgf/mtr

=

=

Ld

1.86 x (

Ld

185 x 10000000.038652

10.44

x

x 4.5

4.887

679.30 / 39.37 =

17.25 Mtrs.

)1/4

17.25

4.500

7.271

4.89

=

4.50

x (1/1.488)

Lbf/Ft

Inch

679.30 In

mtrs.

42/45

Ls

C

Fa

=

=

=

=

Cx (

Ft

=

=

(28/3) x Fa x S )

(Equation No. 29c, IEEE 605)

Ft

3.46 for English units

Maximum allowable stress in Lbf/In2

2

2

20.5 Kg/mm =

20.5 x 1422.33 =

29157.8 Lbf/In

3

Section modulus in In

3

3

For

4.5

Inch Al Tube, S =

68.454 cm =

68.454 / 16.3871 =

4.18 In

Total Force in Lbf/Ft

41.81 Kgf/mtr =

41.81 / 1.488 =

28.10 Lbf/ft

Ls

3.46 x

696.0

(28/3) x

29157.8 x

28.10

17.68 Mtrs.

/ 39.37 =

4.18

)=

696.0

Inch

6 Conclusion

As per IEEE 605, page number 25, Clause No. 11.3, the maximum allowable span is the lower of the spans

as calculated for Ld and Ls.

The maximum allowable bus span is

17.25 Mtrs. for

4.50

Inches Aluminium tube.

7.1 Natural Frequency of Conductor Span (fb)

fb

x k2

C x L2

C

L

E

m

k

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

Span length in Feet =

17.25 Mtrs. =

17.25 / 0.305 = 56.57 Feet

2

Modulus of Elasticity in Lbf/In2 =

7031 Kgf/mm

2

7031 x 1422.34 =

1E+07 Lbf/In

4

Cross sectional moment of inertia in In4

=

434.683 cm

4

434.683 x (1 / 41.623) =

10.44 In

Mass per unit length = Fc =

6.423 Kgf/mtr =

6.423 / 1.488 =

1.51 for two fixed ends

fb

2

x ( 1.51 )

24 x (

56.57

E xJ )

m

(

)2

1E+07

4.32

10.44

2x

)=

0.46

0.46

4.32

Lbf/Ft

Hz

0.92

Hz

fa

CxV

d

C

V

d

=

=

=

=

Wind speed in Miles/hr

55 x ( 1/ 0.44704) =

123.03 Miles/hr

Conductor diameter in inches =

4.5

Inches =

fa

3.26

x

11.43

123.03

35.1

4.5

x 2.54 =

11.43

cm

Hz

As per IEEE 605, page number 10, clause number 7.2.2, if twice the calculated natural frequency of the

bus span is greater than the Aeolian force frequency, then the bus span should be changed or bus should

be damped.

Since, twice the calculated natural frequency of the bus span is

0.92 Hz, which is less than the

Aeolian force frequency of

35.1 Hz, the selected bus span of

17.25 meters is safe from

Aeolian vibrations.

43/45

Effective Bus Span Length in Mtrs

(Le)

16.5 +

Height of Centre Line of Bus over Insulator Height in mm

(Hi)

(Hf)

=

=

(Di) =

16.5

2300

130

130

5.12

295

16.5

2

Mtrs.

/ 25.4

Inch

Fwb =

Fw x Le

Fw

Le

Effective Bus Span Length in Feet

=

=

Fwb =

18.30

54.1

18.30 Lbf/Ft

=

16.5

x (39.37/12) =

54.1

Feet

990.45 Lbf

Fsb =

Fsc x Le

Fsc =

Le =

Effective Bus Span Length in Feet

=

Fsb =

9.37

54.1

9.37

16.5

Lbf/Ft

x (39.37/12) =

54.1

Feet

507.26 Lbf

Fwi =

C x Cd x Kz x Gf x V2 x (Di + 2rI) x Hi

C

Cd

Kz

Gf

V

Formula as per IEEE 605, 1987

Drag coefficient = 1 (Table 1, IEEE 605)

Height & Exposure factor =

1.16 (Clause No. 9.2, for category D, IEEE 605)

Gust Factor =

0.85 (Clause No. 9.3, for category C&D, IEEE 605)

Wind speed in Miles/hr

55 x ( 1/ 0.44704) =

123.03 Miles/hr

Effective Dia of Insulator in Inch =

295

=

295

/ 25.4 =

11.61 Inch

Height of insulator in Feet =

2300 / (0.305 x 1000) =

7.54

Feet

Radial ice thickness in Inch =

0 Inch

Di

Hi

rI

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

Fwi =

Fwi =

0.00001776 x

1307151

123.03 ) x(

11.61

=

23.215 Lbf

+ 2x0 ) x

7.54

Fgb =

Fg x Le

Fg

Le

Effective Bus Span Length in feet

=

=

Fgb =

4.89

54.1

4.89

=

Lbf/Ft

16.5

x (39.37/12) =

54.1

Feet

264.54 Lbf

44/45

(Equation No. 35, IEEE 605)

Fis

K1 x

K1

K2

=

=

1

Overload factor applied to short-circuit current forces

1x

Fwi +

2

23.22

2

(

+(

( Hi + Hf ) x Fwb

Hi

90.55

5.12

90.55

90.55

K2 x

)x

( Hi + Hf ) x Fsb

Hi

990.45

+

5.12 ) x

507.26

=

90.55

Hence, Insulators with 8kN cantilever strength is selected.

1

)

1593.97 Lbf

1x

=

=

1593.97 x 4.44822

7090.34 Newton

45/45

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