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Latin 2

Semester Review: Lessons 29-40


Nomen mihi est _________________________
I. Nouns
A. 3rd Declension:
1. What are the 2 major categories of 3rd Declension nouns?
a. ____________________ b.____________________
2. Endings for regular 3rd Declension M/F nouns:
Singular
Plural
Nominative
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative
3. What are the NEUTER consonant-stem endings? Place an asterisk by the ones that differ from the M/F.
Singular
Plural
Nominative
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative
4. Third Declension i-stem nouns:
a. For M/F i-stem nouns, ONLY the Genitive Plural differs from the non i-stem endings, having
the ending -ium instead of just -um. Decline the i-stem feminine noun urbs, urbis
Singular

Plural

Nominative
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative
5. Fourth declension nouns: All nouns whose genitive singular ends in s belong to the 4th declension. Nouns
of the 4th declension can be masculine (lacus, lacs lake), feminine (manus, mans hand) or neuter (gen,
gens knee). Neuter nouns are recognizable by the nominative singular in , and are uncommon. Feminine 4th
declension nouns are also uncommon.
Decline hand
Singular
Plural
Nominative
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative
Decline knee
Singular
Nominative
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative

Plural

II. Case Constructions:


1. Ablative of Manner: In English, the manner of an action is expressed by an adverb or a phrase which
answers the question how? it is often translated with + an abstract noun. In Latin, manner is often expressed
by cum + ablative (often an abstract noun). Note that if the noun is modified by an adjective, the cum is often
omitted in Latin, and when used, often comes between the adjective and noun, e.g., magn cum laude, with
great praise, which could also correctly be written simply as magn laude. Remember if the noun is NOT
modified by an adjective, cum must be used, as in cum cur with care.
* * Know the difference between the ablatives of Manner, Means, and Accompaniment.
2. Ablative of Respect. The Ablative of Respect (also known in many grammars as the Ablative of
Specification) expresses the respect in which the meaning of an adjective, noun, or verb is true. It can be said to
make something more specific (hence, Specification.)how is someone fasterin intelligence or on foot? This
ablative would answer that question. In English, the construction generally is translated in, but also by the
phrase as to. In Latin, the ablative of respect is used WITHOUT a preposition.
Examples: Not all people are equal in speed: Non omnes celeritate pares sunt.
But all people are equal by right: Sed omnes iure pares sunt.
3. Ablative of Time When: Place where in physical space is an ablative expression, so also place when
in time. In English, time may be expressed with our without a preposition, e.g., before Sunday, on Friday, in
winter, tonight, this morning. In Latin, time when is pxpressed by the ablative case WITHOUT any preposition;
this is the ablative of time when, and this construction indicates a specific point in time. The soldiers fought at
night Milites nocte pugnaverunt.
4. Ablative of Time Within Which: To express the time range in which something happens, Latin
again uses the Ablative Case WITHOUT a preposition. This is translated in English as within or within the
period of. The distinction between this and the ablative of time when is sometimes very narrow. Within the
last three years tribus proximis annis is a clear example; te tribus diebus videbimus could be translated either as
in three days we will see you (time when) or within three days we will see you (within which). Many Latin
grammars consider these two aspects of the same ablative (e.g., Allen and Greenough). Remember that duration
of time is expressed by the Accusative (see next).
5. Accusative of Duration (Extent) of Time. To express how long an action will take, the
accusative case is used without a preposition. In English this is generally translated as for. He ruled for ten
years decem annos regnavit. This construction is closely related to the accusative of extent of space, see next.
6. Accusative of Extent of Space. To express how far with space, rather than time, Latin also uses
the accusative case, again WITHOUT a preposition. They walked for ten miles ambulaverunt decem milia
passuum. The mountain is one hundred feet tall Mons centum pedes altus est (literally, the mountain is tall for
100 feet).
7. Ablative Absolute: This is a phrase of usually two or more words in the ablative case, and can have a
temporal, causal, or concessive force (when, since, or although), and if as it can substitute for part of a
conditional sentence. Ablative absolutes consist of two elements, a subject, and a predicate. Most commonly it
is along the lines of hoc facto this having been done or since this was done or although this was done,
where hoc is the subject, and the participle facto is the predicate. By definition the construction is absolute
meaning that it is not grammatically related to or dependent upon any other words in the sentence, though in
terms of sense it often is.
Officio facto, dominus discessit When the duty was done the master departed.
Caesare duce, milites felices erant Since Caesar was general the soldiers were happy.
Viro inimico feminae non timuerunt. Although the man was unfriendly the women were not frightened.

III Pronouns
A. The relative pronoun introduces a clause in English with who which or that. The key aspect
of a relative pronoun is that it refers back to an antecedent in an earlier clause, but functions in its own clause
it agrees with its antecedent in both gender and number, but its case is determined by its own use in its own
clause. In the sentence, I saw man who was the general of the Romans man is the antecedent, it is the
direct object of I saw but the relative pronoun who is the subject of its own clause, in Latin:
virum vidi qui dux Romanorum erat the relative pronoun qui is masculine and singular because of its antecedent
virum but its case is nominative (not accusative) because it is the subject of its own clause, the subject of erat.
Remember the rule: A relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in gender and number, but its case is
determined by its own use in its clause.
Decline the relative pronoun qui, quae, quod and write the translations in the same boxes
Singular
Nominative
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative

Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

Plural
Nominative
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative

Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

Note: In English we translate qui, quae, quod variously as who which or that. But who must be used
only for people, which only for things, and that can be used for people or things.
Examples:

puella cui librum dedi soror mea est. The girl to whom gave the book is my sister.
quem audis meus frater est. The one whom you hear is my brother. [note here a common use in
Latin where the relative pronoun can come before its antecedent].
B. The interrogative pronoun is similar to the relative pronoun but (1) has no antecedent and (2) asks a
question. In English we translate these as who for people and what for things.
Decline the interrogative pronoun quis, quid and write the translations in the same boxes
Singular
Nominative
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative

Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

Plural
Nominative
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative

Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

Note that in English the forms are the same for the singular and plural.

C. The interrogative adjective is in its Latin forms identical to the relative pronoun, but (1) they have
no antecedent and (2) they introduce a question. Note that in the plural, in Latin, you cannot distinguish the
relative pronoun from the interrogative pronoun or from the interrogative adjectivethey all appear identical,
they can only be distinguished in how they are used. Many of the singular forms such as cui not only can be any
gender (M, F, or N) but could be a form of any of the three pronoun types.

Videsne viros qui me vocant?

Do you see the men who are calling me? [ qui = Relative pronoun]

Qui me vocant?

Who (pl) are calling me?

Qui homines me vocat?

What men are calling me?

[ qui = Interrogative pronoun]


[ qui = Interrogative adjective]

IV. Third declension adjectives. Third declension adjectives decline in general like the i-stem versions of
third declension nouns, with ium in the genitive plurals, and ia for the neuter nom/acc pl, with the addition that
usually they have i also in the ablative singular (except when used substantively, in which case the normal e is
often retained). The accusative plural for (-is) is also found often instead of (-es).
These have been classified by grammarians into three types, one-ending, two-ending and three-ending; this refers
to the number of different nominative singular forms the adjective has. Hence:
Three ending:
singular

plural

celer, celeris, celere


M
Nominative
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative
Nominative
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative

Two ending: fortis, forte


M
singular

plural

Nominative
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative
Nominative
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative

Single-ending: potens [note, single-ending adjectives are often listed in dictionaries such that they look like
nounspotens will usually appear as: potens, potentis (adj). The dictionary will list the genitive singular, so
that you know the stem, but indicate that it is an adjective.
M
singular

plural

Nominative
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative
Nominative
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative

Remember that all adjectives agree with the nouns they modify in ___________, _______________, and in
______________.
IV. Participles: Thus far we have learned the Perfect Passive Participle, which is the 4th principal part of a
regular verb, and can be translated as having been __________. Participles can be used as adjectives or
substantive nouns, but will always retain a verbal aspect. Sometimes they can be translated as a relative clause.
One of the most common uses of the perfect passive participle is in the ablative absolute construction. Review
Lesson 35 (p.250 ff.) in your textbook.
V. The irregular verb Possum.
1. This verb is a compound of potis + sum and means to be able.
2. The forms of possum are often followed by the complementary infinitive, just as in English, where we
say, e.g., I am able to read Latin verba Latina legere possum.
3. The forms of possum in the present are irregular, just as are the forms of sum, and can simply be
memorized. However, if you already know sum, you can work out what the form is in the present by this rule: the
form in the present will be pot + sum, except that t changes to s before s.
pot + sum = possum
pot + sumus = possumus
pot + es = potes
pot + estis = potestis
pot + est = potest
pot + sun = possunt
The forms of sum in the imperfect and future do not start with s so present no problem:
pot + eram = poteram , etc, for all forms.
The tenses of the perfect system are regular, and follow the same rule as for any regular verbadd the appropriate
endings to the third principal part of possum which is _____________