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The vision and sense of space in Architecture, Music and

literature

Jana Arabzadeh1

Abstract
People have always been living between many spaces and their beings are related to the being of these
spaces. Some times these spaces are human made or the virtual and imaginary spaces that comes
from, the dream of men of Utopia and the lost paradise. We give a character to a space and place by
living in it, and the reason of creating is passing through these images. If man stops searching for the
Utopia, then the source of his believes shall die, and Art is the motive which creates such spaces that
are not dreams but the mere realities. Human knowledge of these realities is because of transmission
of creative minds through manyplies of his eternity memories.
What I have tried to explain within this research is the transmission of mind through million virtual
spaces of literature and music, and the appearance of these virtual spaces in realities which are the
mere facts that makes real or virtual Architecture. There is a great relation between Architecture and
Music, that if the buildings made of great theories and concept, a person stands before it can hear the
melody of it (Architectural Music), or by hearing a piece of music, a person could walk through a
virtual space with unbelievable beauty (Musical Architecture). The space relation between
Architecture and literature is the transmission between million words and phrases and making a sense
of knowledge and feeling for the reader whom can feel himself in a specific time, period and place of
that piece. Also the main aim of the relation between Music and literature is to reach to a virtual
space, because it is a transmission between dream to a dream which are made of human wishes and
identicalness. At the end the result of the triple relation of Architecture, Music and literature is
reaching to a trinity and making another virtual space such as Azan or Opera.

Introduction
Lonliness and separation from the world are the virtues of human existence and since man cannot
stand this lonliness, he has no choice but try to find relations and reaching to a unity(1). Only by
working and understanding, a man can have a relation with the world. Man produces things during
the process of creation he examins his powers on the flesh of things. Erich From said: " human feels
the world, and this kind of mentally and sensitive understanding is because of the power of wisdom
and love. The power of wisdom gives the strength to a person to have an influence from out side to
the inside and reach to his aim, meanwhile the power of love to remove the wall of separation
between himself and the others and understand them(2). Movement creation and searching are the first
steps of human in proving his mental believes in Moral theologies, Geometrical shapes, Elegant
volumes, Art and .(3)
As we see there are phrases that has a definite meaning and it is possible to use these phrases. We
reach to million theories, and believes and reaching to all these volume of meanings lead us to
another place with different feeling which we can call it "the sense of space"

- M.A. Architecture from Azad University, olum & tahghighat branch / Iran-Tehran /
e-mail: J.arabzadeh@yahoo.com

1- What is the space?


Human rises on the space and after standing in a space creates another space so his being is related to
the being of the space. A real space is the cause of his mentality and dreams which creates the virtual
space of mind but what is the space? From human point of view "space" is a place where many
happening are in it. It usually has the same senses and feelings as human belief and it is also a
different thing from what happens within the ancient stories or archetypes.
An element which can be explained by the movement of time and place. Ebne Sina says: "any thing
which is not a heavenly sphere is in skies and any anything which is in
the time is a solid because as other solids even the sky itself is in the
time"
Therefore time and place are the tenors of space and vice versa. and
any time which we talk about a space it reminds us of an area no
matter how big or small it was which we have spend moments in it.
Mola Sadra says: "The virtue of movement has not got any continuity
and is different with the meaning of time on the other hand the being
of each is the same as the other. Time is the mentally appearing of
movement and in the out side except the movement nothing will be
Figure 1- space and people
found and the prosody of time to movement is as the prosody of
gender to season."
Therefore the two categories of time and place can not be understand without each other and we can
call space the sensitive angle of place. (4) (Figure 1)
1-1 Sense and character of space
Space is an unshape existent which it's figurative existence give an
identity to it. When human begin to imagine the space will imagine
a character which shall be the character of space, therefore space
shall exist with or without us.
Human have the power to understand space with its different
meaning , only by what they feel about it. So their perception of the
space shall be limited to their sensible perception of it.
But when we have a deepest look to the space and try to define it
with the two categories of objective and subjective that kind of
sense and dream are the craterous of the virtual spaces which are the
result of our believes and the mental utopia with the objective shape
so the result of human understanding of the real spaces derives from
his personal experiences and also to his psychic and physical
conditions within his cognition of his environment. (Figure 2)

Figure 2- sense of an
imaginative space

1-2 Virtual space + the being of virtual space in a real space


Human mind have been designed in a way that by hearing any single world unconsciously begin to
create and design a virtual space for it, even before he wishes to know the literarely and official
meaning of it.
All the words and phrases in spite of their alphabetical language have a geometric and also physical
language that before creating their real space, make the virtual space. When human begin to combine
Art with his mind and creativity he begins to grow ideals so he dramatize any single little thing and
blows an alive spirit into it, and this tiny new born is the result of human believes and dreams and
such a creativity shall be the cause of human growth and exalted. (5)
The nature of Eutopia itself is saturated from the same source that virtual spaces have been saturated
only today have been called as dreams. They are the lands of human desire that in case it changes
into reality and there was not any boundary and limits between it and the land of virtuality, it would
have been the manifestation of dreams and desires in the world, but today the real spaces are the
reflection of those virtual space with the most ugly and unformal shape, and it is all because of one
thing "the beauty of human dreams" which have been destroyed for a long time be cause people no
longer can think bright and beautiful. They think and do ugly, so the world has changed into ugliness.

2- Space in Architecture, literature and music


Perception and sentiment are the highest matters in creating a virtual space. Having a deep look to the
art and literature we shall understand that the poet and the artists have been incarnated in a very clever
way these unknown spaces in his art piece are his believes of a real space which he desires to reach
them. His dreams have been imagined in his, art world, no matter how bitter or how sweet they are,
they show the realities which have been conformed on the virtual space in a way that when a person
look at it he does not feel any limitation and boundaries between them.
According to the all I have explained now I try to consider the spaces of Architecture literature and
music. Sometimes these spaces are the same as the real spaces and some times they are the desired
image of the real architectural space that creates the virtual space of the artist.

space

Literature and
music

Architecture and
literature

Architecture and
music

3- Architecture and Music


No one has a complete knowledge about the primitive music. The primitive man discovered rhythm
by their physical movement and their melody by the changes in the pitch of their voices(6). The
primitive men with music is the kind of relation with the whole sounds that they have heard such as
the sound of thunder water, birds twittering and even the sound of stones when they meet or the
instinctive sound of creatures. During the historical movements singing was the most usual way of
creating music. (7)
The meaning of Architecture today is that at the same time, which it is measuring and limiting the
space it also tries to reach through a large space that people shall move inside and around it, and
meanwhile music is a feeling of a mechanical rhythm in the space. When such a feeling awakes a
motional motive in human it will have an influence on human sole and on his sensitive hidden space
inside him which will prevent him against the noise waves on
Human body. The sufies dance which derivers from spiritual believes stage making that its natural
secret and essential charactoer relates to the musical motions. (8)
Human feelings have been carnated as musical spaces which have magical mould. Now if we
remember the spaces of the churches, monasteries, during the first period of classical music, which
were the dedicated music of gods, we shall reach to a point that the spaces and the volumes that had
been built, are nothing but a scene of a moment that mans eyes are open to see his beloved. Adored
one , that has been imagined in the piece of music. So the sence of spirituality and sacredness in such
a spaces are because of the tenderness of human virtual feelings within the musical piece; that creates
such an extrodinary spaces in reality.
If we try to hear music with our sprit and our heart, then we are able to feel the hidden space of it.
This space is all what we call the virtual space and it is filled with our secrets. Our life is filled with
all these senses, so the space that we live in it is filled with these senses too. That is why we can say
that even human life itself, is a piece of music and the manifest of his senses is very touchable in the

real. Spaces around him. So if we begins to think like this, we shall be able to see and use the musical
tythem first in our view to our life, and the in the spaces around us and at last in the architecture.
When we get to know music, we are able to make a relation between, anything that we hear at any
time, a moment before of even in the following moments, with the things in the environment around
us, such as buildings, people, communications and , and feel a desiered sense, or a sadness , or
even a noticeable influence in ourself. When human get to have a deep hearing, then when they stand
before a building they are able to hear the melody that comes from its construction, shape, style or
even spirit, and at that time they feel that the building itself is playing a piece of music which has
been manifested in the viewers mind. (9)
As the composers are different according to their interests, the architects are different too. But since
abything in this world is in relation with everything, we can find architects and composers with the
same feeling and interests that are saying same things, that follow same rhythms in their designs. We
can find building that reminds us of a specific classical or even modern or music. We can see
volums with such an extraordinary fractures and oppositions that are the same as accords of a
symphonie, partitas and concertos, also we can find peacefull buildings that remind us of pleasant and
calm melodies. Therefore we can express that the creation source of architecture and music derivers
from the same place and a unique thoughts are beyond their creation.
Now I will explain the spaces of architecture and music in the following two categories.
Space in music

Music of Architecture

Architecture of Music

Sound of Building
Virtual space inside a
piece of music

Song

Architeacture
of an
instrument

Music

Literature + Music + Virtual Architecture


3-1 Architecture of Music
Architecture of music is the same as designing musical spaces. Sometimes these spaces are as
designing musical instruments that along playing them, the mentally virtual spaces shall be created,
and sometimes it is the same as the virtual space of the piece of music itself. When we add words and
literature to it, it changes into songs, and this trinity contains a total virtual space of literature, music
and architecture.
3-1-1 Architecture of an Instrument
"Lifeless wood lifeless cord, lifeless skin
where does this desired friendly tune come from" (Molana) (10)

As I have explained before the creative source of this architecture is


designing musical instruments. Which means giving spirit to the
lumbers. pieces of wood and metal and other factors in order to be
able to make sound and at the end reaching to volume that while
playing it, takes us to a transcaucasia world. (Figure 3)
Human discovered that he is surrounded with things which make
different sounds. He understood that while extending his bow, after
releasing the arrow the strings begin to tremble, and makes a desired
sound. Also the empty trunk was important in making tingling tunes.
These simple elements made the idea of creating musical instruments.
Therefore strings are used as a cord of musical instruments and by
using different cords with different thickness, human made Tar,

Figure 3- Architecture of an
Instrument

Setar, Kamanche , and violin also the shepherds horn that was
made of animal horn was the base of creating whistle Instrument
and the empty trunk was the concept of making Tonback(drum) (11).
As time passes and technology enters to human life, human found
new types of musical instruments and lately they create electronic
music by using electronic instruments and they were the cause of a
new line of science physics which lead us to radio electric.
(Figure 4)

Figure 4- relation between


human and Instrument

3-1-2 Virtual Spaces inside a piece of music


Senses are the manifest of human inner tunes, or an understanding from the environment which makes
music and music is nothing but a virtual space that derivers from human feelings. The concept and the
main reason which makes the virtual spaces in music are senses. Senses creates art. The artists vision
of real spaces or even the realities of the environmental characters make the pieces. So the pieces are
the result of environmental understandings and also in an apposite view, the result of human hearing
and his understanding of it is creating a mentally virtual space, which here his understandings are
combined with his spirit and creates this virtual space. This means that the artist creates virtual space
by using the real space and the auditor creates the real space by using the virtual space.
Music with the help of what we can call human images or human faces , pictures the inner life of
man. Music is not only the sounds that come after one another but it is the succession of sound which
make a unity and these units are human spirit and feelings which makes the mental reactions in
people. (12)
One of the most important of artists and philosophers is Bach, which have reflected life (the real
space) in his pieces (the virtual space).
The inner feelings of music are the explanation of life in a way which is in the society and since the
eternal senses are the virtual spaces of music, therefore the inner tune of man is the same as music.
3-2 Music of Architecture (the tune of a building)
Music of architecture is the sounds that come from the building or even its different components such
as columns, stairs, roofs, or the other constructional elements and and make a totally different
feelings in human. When man look at the building's plan they can not feel the secrets of its architect
and always as hallow of uncertainty shall be with them, It is the same as the time human hear a piece
of music and as much as he tries to enter and understand its secrets, no matter how professional he is,
he shall not be able to get to know its secrets. This is the similar point of music and architecture .
In the classification of arts, architecture is a kind of art which at the same time can be beautiful and
also useful and according to this Point Gothe said: "Architecture means the solid music".

- Iranian musical instrument. (Instrument- a- corde)

Figure 5- tune of a As
I
building

said before each building has a tune and we find any piece of music in a real space. One of the most
incredible classical pieces is the last Movement of second partita of Buch named as "ciaccone" .
Because of its unexplainable perfection and details it is Possible to compare it with a Gothic
Cathedral (13) Because of too many extraordinary feeling in this piece such as sense of beauty,
frightening, grief,.. a deep imagination begin to grow in the listeners mind and the vision of its
virtual space shall be as a space filled with unpleasantness and grief which is a wasteland where man
can think about himself, so here the waste land itself is the virtual space. The acsan in the ciaccone.
Piece from the MI cord to the Sol cord are the same as the fractures of a monument . (Figure 5)
Since Bach was one of the leaders of modern movement in classical music , therefore his pieces are as
a media in creating new worlds. Those real spaces (monuments) have four sections ,also we have to
play accords of this piece in all 4 cords which remind us of the strong and heavy constructional
factors of a monument and finally the highest point in this piece are as the bells of a cathedral which
cries to say: see me, I live ,I shall create, and I shall build a world which is beyond human desires
and imagination. (14)
The creation of architecture drives from the artistic imagination and mentally images of artist which
find its way by the help of the principles equivocalness in to the building and lead itself to the limits
of examination and wresting, where music have a high and great place. (15)
Therefore the result is : no matter how we look and understand . these matters, there is always a great
relation between architecture and music and even we can claim that these two are one.
3-3-similar points of Architecture and music
-the same real and virtual spaces both in architecture and music
-vulgar music = native architecture
-religious music = religious architecture
-classical and permanent music = classical and ancient architecture
-Imitation and similarity both in architecture and music
-tallness and high in architecture = acsan and ascendant in music
-establishing rhythm on the elevation of a building = rhythm and time in music

-sense in the architecture = sense in music


-mathematics in architecture = mathematics in theory of music
-acoustic both in architecture and music
-repetition of motives in a building = repetition of motives in music
-symmetry both in architecture and music
-harmony in architecture = harmony in music
-the important of psychology both in architecture and music
-participating natural phenomenon both in architecture and music(16)

4- Architecture and literature


When we want to define literature ,there will be many methods in describing it. Also there are million
theories about the meaning of literature and its literary spaces and these were the cause of formatting
different societies with different believes. But the only similar point between the occeon of all these
theories was spaces which are the literary virtual spaces.
In the Webster dictionary a collection of the whole written relics in unique language in one country is
called literature. Therefore literature is all about poetry and prose
pieces which contains the most meaningful and sensitive power
of expressing. (17)
Literary spaces derives from history and archetypes used to be in
a reality but as time passed it change into stories and imagination
of people and built literary virtual spaces. Therefore the
architectural skeleton of literary spaces is carried from virtual
spaces which have been derive from real spaces and real
architecture, which once used to be formed ,or is going to be
formed. So we can get the result that these spaces are not
Figure 6- sense of literature in space
imagination, but there is a deep meaning hidden inside them,
which is the collective conscious or what we call preexistent
memory. (18) (Figure 6)
The poet purpose is not to transfer a mentally picture but is, inspiring kind of sensual condition. The
poet is filled will desirable enjoyment of brightness vision of morning ,when he see it and he wants to
share this feeling with his auditor. For reading to this aim he does not have to picture all the details of
that landscape in his auditors mind, few touches is enough to bright up his mind and wake an
extraordinary condition in his memory to see and feel nothing but what the poet explained and now
only important matter is his sensual condition which is passing through his mind. The poet seeks for
unanimity that is why he wishes to make the same enjoyment in the others spirit. (19)
The important matter in the literary spaces are sensible and spiritual perceptions. The literary spaces
picture a real space in the eyes of auditor and then by making spiritual perception which drives from
sensible perception, he shall be able to enter the virtual literary space. From the point of view of
Martin Heidegger, poetry has the highest and most important position between the categories of art.
He believes that although purpose of poetry is unique between all the other art but also there are
similarities in them. He said: "the definite meaning of poetry has the distinguished position between
all the other art, because the nature of any type of art is kind of a poetry." (20)
Now we shall reach to this two categories after what I explained about comparing the virtual spaces of
architecture and literature on each. (Figure 7)
Literary space

character of space , which is the result of


spiritual perception that analyses mind in
order to create a space

A virtual space which is the virtual images


of real spaces in the format words

To be able to explain these two factors, I shall use literature


comparisons.
Figure 7- virtual space of literature

4-1-Virtual space, A vision of real space


Some times we use real spaces with its original names in the place of literary spaces, although it
seems that the space is a real space, but in the meaning of it will tell us a story
about a virtual space. Here I shall explain some examples.
1.Now Hafez house is a royal court
As the heart ravisher departed, beloved one arrived (Hafez) (21)
-Royal court: Is a sign of dignity in a holy, spiritual architecture
-The virtual space of house: The inner dignity of Hafez and the divine favour to
Hafez, It is also sign of Darvishs1 virtual space of heart -So if we bring
Figure 8- Hafez Royal court
the two real and virtual spaces next to each other, we can define such a
firm structure with a trustful space of architecture(Figure 8)
2.Heaven but the vision of fulfilled desire,
And Hell the shadow of a soul on fire,
Cast on the darkness in to which ourselves,
So late emerged from, shall so soon expire, (Khayyam) (22)
-Heaven: Greenness, Silence, Relaxing moments remind us of spaces in Heaven
-Hell: Remind us of warm colours, A space filled with fire, The grief and
madness inside us makes a fire that remind us of spaces in Hell(Figure 9)
Figure 9- conformation of
3.Cutting me from cane-brake
virtual and real space of Heaven
Men and woman moaned of my cry (Molana) (23)
and Hell
-Cane-brake: Both real and virtual spaces are conformed on each other, A
Painting
by the author
vision of cane brake is pictured in human mind
-The sense that feels from this space is a grief moment of separation from
the Heaven and God(Figure 10)
4.In a moonlit night, passing from that alley with out you,
With all my heart, stared and searched you, (Fereydon Moshiri) (24)
-Alley: sign of an amorously virtual space, Also alley in reality is a real
space but in virtuality is sign of remembrance of his love(Figure 11)
5.To be, or not to be, that is the question:
Figure 10- men and cane - brake
Whether tis nobler in the mind to suffer
The sling and arrows of outrageous fortune
Or to take arms against a sea of troubles
And by opposing end them. To die: to sleep;
No more; and by a sleep to say we end (Hamlet, William Shakespeare) (25)
-To be: Being is a sign of reality so it is talking about living in a real space
-Sea of troubles: A vision of a virtual space, It is a grief moment which is
conformed on a real space

Figure 11- real and virtual alley

4-2-Character of a virtual space in Literature


This type of virtual space is the result of poets soul that has filled to reality,
the land of Architecture. Here I shall explain some examples.
1.The empyrean does not have any alter except love,
The world does not have water with out land of love ,
Be the slave of love, this is the main thought,
This is the profession of all genostics, (Nezami) (26)
-A kind of space of empyrean and world, which any person can find and feel
love and can picture it in his mind.
Figure 12- empyrean love space
-Beauty is found in this space, but the scale of finding beauty
and feeling and reaching to love, depends on person. (Figure 12)
1

- Darvish: An indigentman

2.Frenzied, annoyed heart, ruffianly me,


Flagrant lover in your town,
If there is any body madder than mad folk,
Dearest, I am, sweared to God I am, I am, (Simin Behbahani) (27)
-Character of the virtual space of city: Vision of an imaginary square or alley or any place which is
alive, Looking and laughing to a person. (Figure 13)
3.If thee come to my track,
Figure 13- mad in a mad society
Come slow and gentle,
For the sake of not to crack,
My tiny porcelain of my lonliness, (Sohrab Sepehri) (28)
-Character of virtual space: A glass city which makes the virtual space of
the poets imagination, and it shall be broken by furiousness of time.
(Figure 14)
4.Yet each man kills the things he loves,
By each let this be heard,
Some do it with a bitter look,
Some with a flattering word,
The coward does it with a kiss,
The brave man with a sword,
Figure 14- track of lonliness
And some when they are old,
Some strangle with the hands of lust,
Some with the hands of gold,
The kindest use a knife, because the dead so soon grow cold,
(Oscar Wilde) (29)

-Character of virtual space: A grief virtual space which has the factor
of time, Beginning of modernity which darkness grows in to
spirituality and took away all desires. (Figure 15)
4-3 similar points of architecture and literature

Figure 15- death

- Real space in architecture = Virtual space in literature


-Harmony, both in architecture and literature
-Geometry and proportion in architecture = Geometry in literature
-Symmetry, both in architecture and literature
-Objectivity in architecture = Subjectivity in literature
-Sense, both in architecture and literature
-Inspiration of nature, both in architecture and literature

5- The virtual space of music and architecture


As I explained space in literature and music is totally a virtual space. It is a space which is the picture
of imagination and subjectivity. Sometimes these mentally subjective matters are the result of
carnateing the objectivity in the virtual space and sometimes the subjectivity is the final desires of
human from objectivity and reality. And according to human believes the greatest structional position
of virtual spaces set place in these two art. Now by combining these two art, in the shape of "Music of
the poetry" which means having rhythm and weight, that makes poetry, musical and make a
difference between poetry and prose, or even in the shape of " Poetry of music", that is a pure music
acompanied by words, that makes song, the virtual space shall be created.
After hearing a song or a poem, the pleasant desired feeling, that we feel, is because of a pictured
vision of the meaning of it in our mind, also because of the type of words and special kind of
combaining them in that poem. (30) Music creates imagined sounds from the environment, which are
imitation of birds twittering, sound of walking and., but these are only the external views of music.
The difference between music and other art is the method of its declaration, which it will be able to
picture the reactions of human to the environment or his inner life. (31) The poems of any poet is a
representation of his soal and spirituality. Also the description in the poet pieces are different from the

other. (32) When music and poem accompany each other, they make song and the participation of these
two type of virtual spaces creates a third condition, which is the highest point of human feelings, the
kind of inner feeling of a song is different according to its poet or song writer or but the virtual
space, which is the space of a song is the nearest to exactness and real space. (33)

6-The trinity of real and virtual spaces


The result of all I have said till now, is that, the exactness and the spirituality, the objectivity and the
subjectivity, the concept and the context of all the spaces conforms on one other. By conforming the
two virtual spaces of music and literature on the real space of architecture, we shall lead to a trinity
that proves, the nature of all these three type of art is in a relation with each other and are in a position
of conformation so the relation of these three revealed a unity which is the result of human desires and
the exact sample of it can be seen in architecture.
architecture

space

music
The best example of this trinity can be seen in Azan and also in the opera.

literature

6-1 Azan
Azan is a call for prayers to do their religious duties. The muezzin is
responsible for calling the faithful to worship in the mosque while doing his
duty for calling, his hands cupping his mouth. The call consists of seven very
specific phrases:
-Aallau Akbar, Allahu Akbar: " God is most great, God is most great"
-Ash-hadu anna Muhammad rasul Allah:" I testify that Mohammad is the
prophet of God "(twice);
-Hayaala as-salat, hayaala as salat: "Come to prayer" (twice);
-Hayaala al-falah , hayaala al-falah: "Come to salvation or deliverance"
(twice);
-Allahu Akbar:"God is most great" (twice);
Figure 16- Azan, calling
-La ilaha ilal-Lah:" There is not god but God";(34) (Figure 16)
by Moazen
The highest symbol of this trinity can be seen in Azan a spiritual an heavenly
music that along its musical and literary virtual spaces, has buit a virtual
volume of architecture which the exact sample of it can be seen in the real spaces of mosque or any
religious place. Now if in a morning we see the minirats of a mosque or any spiritual architectural
element, although we have not heard Azan yet, a tune begins to whistle in our inner spaces that is the
virtual sound of Azan in human mind.

6-2 Opera
Musical drama made up of vocal pieces with orchestral accompaniment, overtures, and interludes.
Opera was invented at the end of the 16th century in an attempt by the Camerata1 to imitate ancient
Greek drama, which was known to have largely sung or chanted.(35). Like a play, opera is a story acted
out onstage. But in an opera the performers usually dont speak at all. Their songs dont happen

- Camerata: an academy of Florentine poets, musicians, and scholars

10

between conversations, but rather their songs are the conversations. The music an orchestra plays for
an opera is as important to the overall effect as the singing.(36)
In the opera same as azan we have a trinity of all
three spaces. The virtual spaces of music and
literature is between the literary songs of singers
and the musicians. They try to explore all these
spaces within their acts, therefore an imaginary
virtual space shall be pictured in the audiences
mind, mean while the real space it self is the
architecture of the stage and also the opera building
with its specific architectural details, built only for
a special reason and that is to make the heavenly
senses in human alive so they can be relived only
for few hours from this world. So we get the result
that at the same time the two virtual spaces of
literature and music and the real space of
Figure 17- scene of an Opera
architecture is conformed on one another and make
a trinity. (Figure 17)

11

Bibliography
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2-Fromm(1981), p.112
3-Russel(1978), p.246
4-Falamaki(2002), p.4
5-Arabzadeh(2007), p.40-41
6-Harman(1988), p.9
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9-Arabzadeh(2007), p.27-28
10-Molana(2001), p.564
11-Kolosova(1982), p.9-10
12-Finkeleshtin(1983), p12
13-Brockway and weinstock(1972), p.150
14-Arabzadeh(2007), p.182-183
15-Falamaki(2008), p.12
16-Falamaki(2008), p.89
17-Ghezelayagh(2006), p.43
18-Arabzadeh(2007), p.35
19-Natel khanlari(1998), p152-153
20-Noghrekar(2008), p.272
21-Hafez(N.d.),p116
22-Khayyam(2008), p.98
23-Molana(2001), p.22
24-Moshiri(1997), p.145
25-Shakespeare(1992), p.53
26-Nezami(N.d.), p.35
27-Behbahani(1962), p.61
28-Sepehri(2004), p.85
29-Early modern Literature(1998), p.105
30-Natel khanlari(1998), p.182
31-Finkeleshtin(1983), p.9
32-Shafiei kadkani(2007), p.91
33-Arabzadeh(2007), p.90
34-Chebel(1997), p.80
35-Britannica(2006), p.1411
36-Britannica!2006), p.275

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